Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 2

Alina Kravchenko

Emotion vs. Reason

Is emotion or reason more useful for making decisions?

Is emotion or reason more useful for making decisions? René Descartes (1596 – 1650) • Things

René Descartes (1596 – 1650)

• Things can feel real when they are not; we need to reason to know the truth

I can doubt that I have a body (assuming that minds can exist without bodies)

• There’s no doubt that I have a mind (as I am thinking about this right now)

• Therefore, I can be certain that I exist (at least as a thinking thing)

° Descartes wants to only trust what he can reason

thing) ° Descartes wants to only trust what he can reason “Cogito ergo sum” “I am

“Cogito ergo sum” “I am thinking, therefore I am”

Dualist – body and mind are separate

• ‘Passions’ (emotion) interfere with rationality

Antonio Damasio (1944 – present)

• Prominent neuroscientist who mainly studies emotion and consciousness

• Saw patients with frontal lobe damage who cannot feel emotions as they did before

• The mind and the body are not separate

• Lack of emotions has horrible effects on patients’ decision-making

• Emotions are integral to reasoning for real-life decisions

° Emotions summarise a large amount of information

° Conscious reasoning cannot process tons of information at once

Jennifer Talarico and David Rubin

• Psychologists mainly studying long-term memory

Flashbulb memories – long-term memories of unusual and emotional events

• Accuracy of flashbulb and mundane/everyday memories degrade at the same rate

• One’s confidence in flashbulb memories stays constant while accuracy degrades

• However, confidence in everyday memories degrades with time

• Relying solely on emotion to determine the accuracy of its source is ineffective

to determine the accuracy of its source is ineffective Unreasonable assumption that tattoos cannot be false
to determine the accuracy of its source is ineffective Unreasonable assumption that tattoos cannot be false

Unreasonable assumption that tattoos cannot be false

ineffective Unreasonable assumption that tattoos cannot be false | Example of a false flashbulb memory (vivid,

|

Example of a false flashbulb memory (vivid, emotional)

ineffective Unreasonable assumption that tattoos cannot be false | Example of a false flashbulb memory (vivid,

What makes life worth living – emotion, reason, or a combination?

Jeremy Bentham (1748 – 1832)

• The best life is that which has the most pleasures

• Happiness is the ultimate good

• Emotions such as happiness give purpose to living

Hedonist – pleasure and pain are measures of quality of life

– pleasure and pain are measures of quality of life Should society be built on a

Should society be built on a system justified by emotion or reason?

Thomas Hobbes (1588 – 1679)

• Human judgement is unreliable, needs to be informed by science

• Judgements are distorted by emotions

• People have different emotions; what is good to one, may not be good to another

• Authorities’ rules should apply equally to everyone, not favouring anyone

° However, rulers should be rationally chosen to rule fairly

However, rulers should be rationally chosen to rule fairly Which movie made you most afraid or

Which movie made you most afraid or sad, and why do we watch such movies?

Aristotle (384 – 322 B.C.)

• A tragedy is a work that elicits pity or fear

• Tragic catharsis – purging of bottled-up feelings

• We can purge fear or sadness from our everyday lives

° Leaves us feeling cleansed and relieved

• Can purge the desire to feel afraid or thrilled

° Potentially addictive cycle of recurring desire

thrilled ° Potentially addictive cycle of recurring desire If you could get rid of an emotion,

If you could get rid of an emotion, would you? If so, which one?

Benedict de Spinoza (1632-1677)

• “Nature” and “God” are the same thing

• The highest virtue (goal of life) is to understand nature/God through reason

• Bad reasoning causes the mind to be driven by ‘passions’ (emotion)

• Passions are unreliable paths to truth

• Reasoning + emotions = incomplete virtue; need 100% reason for perfect virtue

Passions are unreliable paths to truth • Reasoning + emotions = incomplete virtue; need 100% reason

Оценить