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10.1190/1.1500393

In honor of the new millennium (Y2K), the SEG Research Committee is inviting a series of review articles and tutorials that

summarize the state-of-the-art in various areas of exploration geophysics. Further invited contributions will appear during

the next year or twoSven Treitel, Chairman, SEG Research Subcommittee on Y2K Tutorials and Review Articles.

Seismic modeling

ABSTRACT tations of the wavefield in terms of waves, originating from

point sources. These methods are based on Huygens princi-

Seismic modeling is one of the cornerstones of geo-

ple, formulated by Huygens in 1690 in a rather heuristic way

physical data processing. We give an overview of the

(see Figure 1). When examining Huygens work closer, we can

most common modeling methods in use today: direct

see that he states that the wavefield can, in some cases, be con-

methods, integral-equation methods, and asymptotic

sidered as a superposition of wavefields due to volume point

methods. We also discuss numerical implementation as-

sources and, in other cases, as a superposition of waves due to

pects and present a few representative modeling exam-

point sources located on a boundary. Both forms of Huygens

ples for the different methods.

principle are still in use today and we have both volume inte-

gral equations and boundary integral equations, each with their

own applications. We briefly review both methods. These meth-

INTRODUCTION

ods are somewhat more restrictive in their application than the

above direct methods. However, for specific geometries, such

Seismic numerical modeling is a technique for simulating as bounded objects in a homogeneous embedding, boreholes,

wave propagation in the earth. The objective is to predict the or geometries containing many small-scale cracks or inclusions,

seismogram that a set of sensors would record, given an as- integral-equation methods have shown to be very efficient and

sumed structure of the subsurface. This technique is a valuable to give accurate solutions. Due to their somewhat more ana-

tool for seismic interpretation and an essential part of seismic lytic character, they have also been useful in the derivation of

inversion algorithms. Another important application of seismic imaging methods based on the Born approximation. [For ex-

modeling is the evaluation and design of seismic surveys. There ample, see Cohen et al. (1986) and Bleistein et al. (2001) for a

are many approaches to seismic modeling. We classify them description of Born inversion methods.]

into three main categories: direct methods, integral-equation Asymptotic methods or ray-tracing methods are very fre-

methods, and ray-tracing methods. quently used in seismic modeling and imaging. These methods

To solve the wave equation by direct methods, the geological are approximative, since they do not take the complete wave-

model is approximated by a numerical mesh, that is, the model field into account. On the other hand, they are perhaps the

is discretized in a finite numbers of points. These techniques most efficient of the methods discussed in this review. Espe-

are also called grid methods and full-wave equation methods, cially for large, three-dimensional models the speedup in com-

the latter since the solution implicitly gives the full wavefield. puter time can be significant. In these methods, the wavefield

Direct methods do not have restrictions on the material vari- is considered as an ensemble of certain events, each arriving at

ablity and can be very accurate when a sufficiently fine grid is a certain time (traveltime) and having a certain amplitude. We

used. Furthermore, the technique can handle the implementa- discuss some of these methods, as well as some of their proper-

tion of different rheologies and is well suited for the generation ties. Asymptotic methods, due to their efficiency, have played

of snapshots which can be an important aid in the interpreta- a very important role in seismic imaging based on the Born ap-

tion of the results. A disadvantage of these general methods, proximation for heterogeneous reference velocity models. An-

however, is that they can be more expensive than analytical other important application of these methods is the modeling

and ray methods in terms of computer time. and identification of specific events on seismic records.

Manuscript received by the Editor January 16, 2001; revised manuscript received January 22, 2002.

OGS, Borgo Grotta Gigante 42c, 34010 Sgonico, Trieste, Italy. E-mail: jcarcione@ogs.trieste.it.

Delft University of Technology, Department of Applied Analysis, Mekelweg 4, 2628 CD Delft, The Netherlands. E-mail: g.c.herman@

math.tudelft.nl.

Shell Research SIEP, Post Office Box 60, 2280 AB Rijswijk, The Netherlands.

c 2002 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.

1304

Seismic Modeling 1305

In this overview, we discuss the above methods in some de- Pressure formulation

tail and give the appropriate references. In order not to get lost

in tedious notations, we discuss only the acoustic formulation The pressure formulation for heterogeneous media can be

written as (Aki and Richards, 1980, 775)

so we can concentrate on the differences between methods.

All methods discussed here have been generalized to the elas- 2 p 1

L p + f = 2 ,

2

L = c

2 2

, (1)

tic case and, where appropriate, references are given. We also t

present a few examples illustrating the applicability of the dif-

where is the gradient operator, p is the pressure, c is the

ferent methods. Since the applicability regions of the methods

compressional-wave velocity, is the density, and f is the body

are rather different and, largely, nonoverlapping, the models

force. This is a second-order partial differential equation in the

are different but typical for each technique. Hopefully, they

time variable.

will provide the reader with some idea of the types of problems

or geometries to which a particular modeling method is best Velocity-stress formulation

suited. The modeling methods discussed here have in common

that they are applicable to various two- and three-dimensional Instead of using the wave equation, wave propagation can also

geometries. This implies that we do not discuss methods espe- be formulated in terms of a system of first-order differential

cially suited for plane-layered media, despite the fact that these equations in the time and space variables. Consider, for in-

methods are certainly at least as important and often used as the stance, propagation of S H -waves. This is a two-dimensional

ones we discuss here. For an excellent overview of these plane- phenomenon, with the particle velocity, say v2 , perpendicular

wave summation (or slowness) methods, see Ursin (1983). to the plane of propagation. Newtons second law and Hookes

law yield the velocity-stress formulation of the S H -wave

equation (Aki and Richards, 1980, 780):

DIRECT METHODS v

= Hv + F, (2)

We consider finite-difference (FD), pseudospectral (PS), and t

finite-element (FE) methods. These methods require the dis- where

cretization of the space and time variables. Let us denote v = [v2 , 32 , 12 ]> , F = [ f, 0, 0]> , (3)

them by (x, t) = ( j d x, n dt), where d x and dt are the grid spac-

ing and time step, respectively. We first introduce the appro- v v

Hv = A +B , (4)

priate mathematical formulations of the equation of motion, x1 x3

and then consider the main aspects of the modeling as fol-

lows: (1) time integration, (2) calculation of spatial derivatives, 0 0 1 0 1 0

(3) source implementation, (4) boundary conditions, and (5) A=0 0 0 , B = 0 0 , (5)

absorbing boundaries. All these aspects are discussed by using 0 0 0 0 0

the acoustic- and S H -wave equations.

and denotes stress and is the shear modulus.

The solution to equation (2) subject to the initial condition

Mathematical formulations

v(0) = v0 is formally given by

Z t

For simplicity, we consider the acoustic- and S H -wave

equations which describe propagation of compressional and

v(t) = exp(tH)v0 + exp( H) F(t ) d, (6)

0

pure shear waves, respectively. where exp(tH) is called the evolution operator, because ap-

plication of this operator to the initial condition vector (or to

the source vector) yields the solution at time t. We refer to H

as the propagation matrix. The S H and acoustic differential

equations are hyperbolic (Jain, 1984, 251; Smith, 1985, 4) be-

cause the field has a finite velocity.

Variational formulation

The most standard finite-element method uses the wave

equation (1) as a starting point. We consider a volume V

bounded by a surface S. The surface S is divided into S p , where

pressure boundary conditions are defined, and Sd p , the part on

which normal accelerations (or pressure fluxes) are given. As-

sume a small pressure variation p which is consistent with the

boundary conditions. If we multiply equation (1) by p, inte-

grate over the volume V and by parts (using the divergence

theorem), we obtain

Z Z Z

1 p 2 p f p

FIG. 1. Illustration by Huygens of Huygens principle, stating, p p d V = d V + dV

in French, that each element of a light source, like the Sun, a V V c 2 t 2

V c 2

Z

candle or a glowing charcoal, causes waves, with the element p

as centre [taken from the 1690 Traite de la lumiere (Huygens, + n p d S, (7)

1990)]. Sdp

1306 Carcione et al.

where n is the normal to the surface S. This variational for- The situation is critical for porous media, where the eigen-

mulation derived from the wave equation is equivalent to a value corresponding to the slow compressional wave at seismic

Galerkin procedure (Zienkiewicz, 1977, 70; Hughes, 1987, 7). frequencies (a quasi-static mode) has a very large negative part,

which is related to the location of Biot relaxation peaks, usu-

Time integration ally beyond the sonic band for pore fluids like water and oil

(Carcione and Quiroga-Goode, 1996). When the modulus of

The numerical solution of the wave equation requires the dis- the eigenvalues is very large compared to the inverse of the

cretization of the time variable by using finite differences (an maximum propagation time, the differential equation is said to

exception to this is formed by the spectral methods; see below). be stiff (Jain, 1984, 72; Smith, 1985, 198). Due to the presence

The basic idea underlying FD methods is to replace the partial of the quasi-static slow wave, the low-frequency Biot differ-

derivatives by approximations based on Taylor series expan- ential equations are hyperbolic/parabolic. Although the best

sions of functions near the point of interest. Forward and back- algorithm would be an implicit method, the problem can still

ward difference approximations of the time derivatives (Smith, be solved with explicit methods (see below).

1985, 7) lead to explicit and implicit FD schemes, respectively. Time and space discretization of the wave equation with

Explicit means that the wavefield at present time is computed an explicit scheme (forward time difference only) leads to

from the wavefield at past times. On the other hand, in implicit an equation of the form vn+1 = Gvn , where G is called the

methods, the present values depend on past and future values. amplification matrix. The von Neumann condition for stabil-

Unlike explicit methods, implicit methods are unconditionally ity requires max |g j | 1, where g j are the eigenvalues of G

stable but lead to a great amount of computation arising from (Jain, 1984, 418). It can be shown that this condition does not

the need to carry out large matrix inversions. In general, the hold for all dt when explicit schemes are used, and that im-

differential formulation of the wave equation is solved with ex- plicit schemes do not have any restriction. For instance, ex-

plicit algorithms, since the time step is determined by accuracy plicit fourth-order Taylor and Runge-Kutta methods require

criteria rather than by stability criteria (Emerman et al., 1982). dt| max| < 2.78 (Jain, 1984, 71), implying very small time steps

for very large eigenvalues. Implicit methods are A-stable (Jain,

Eigenvalues and stability 1984, 118), meaning that the domain of convergence is the left

open-half -plane.

Wave equations used in seismic exploration and seismology

can be expressed as v = Hv, where H is the propagation matrix

containing the material properties and spatial derivatives (the

Classical finite differences

dot denotes time differentiation) [e.g., equation (2)]. We now

address the stability aspects of finite-difference schemes and Evaluating the second time derivative in equation (1) at

therefore consider the eigenvalue problem of wave propaga- (n + 1) dt and (n 1) dt by a Taylor expansion, and summing

tion. Assume constant material properties and a plane-wave both expressions, yields

kernel of the form exp(ik x it), where k is the wavenum- " #

ber vector, x is the position vector, and is the angular 2 pn 1 XL

dt

2` 2` n

p

= 2 p n+1 + p n1 2 p n 2 .

frequency (which can be complex valued in the case of attenu- t 2 dt `=2

(2`)! t 2`

ation). Substitution of the plane-wave kernel into the wave

equation yields an eigenvalue equation for the eigenvalues (8)

= i. For the acoustic- and S H -wave equations, these eigen- The wave equation (1) provides the higher order time deriva-

values lie on the imaginary axis of the -plane. For instance, in tives, using the following recursion relation:

1-D space, the eigenvalues corresponding to equations (1) and 2` p n 2

2`2 n

p 2`2 f n

(2) are = ikc, where c is either the compressional- or the = L + . (9)

t 2` t 2`2 t 2`2

shear-wave velocity. There are other equations of interest in

seismic modeling in which eigenvalues might lie in the left-hand This algorithm, where high-order time derivatives are re-

-plane. Some of these are discussed below. placed by spatial derivatives, is often referred to as the Lax-

Consider an anelastic medium described by a viscoelastic Wendroff scheme (Jain, 1984, 415; Smith, 1985, 181; Dablain,

stress-strain relation. Wave attenuation is governed by mate- 1986; Blanch and Robertsson, 1997). A Taylor expansion of the

rial relaxation times, which quantify the response time of the evolution operator exp(dtH) is equivalent to a Lax-Wendroff-

medium to a perturbation (lossless solid materials respond in- scheme.

stantaneously, i.e., the relaxation time is zero). For a viscoelas- The dispersion relation connects the frequency with the

tic medium with moderate attenuation, the eigenvalues have a wavenumber and allows the calculation of the phase velocity

small negative real part causing the waves to be attenuated. In corresponding to each Fourier component. Time discretization

addition, when solving the equations in the time domain, there implies an approximation of the dispersion relation, which in

are eigenvalues with a large negative part and close to the the continuous case is = ck, with the angular frequency. As-

real axis that are approximately given by the reciprocal of suming constant material properties and a 1-D wave solution

the relaxation times corresponding to each attenuation mech- of the form exp(ikx i n dt), where k is the wavenumber and

anism. Then, the domain of the eigenvalues has a T shape is the FD angular frequency, yields the following dispersion

(see Tal-Ezer et al., 1990). If the central frequency of these relation:

v

relaxation peaks is close to the source frequency band,

u

or equivalently, if the related eigenvalues are close to the 2 dt u XL

(ck dt)2`2

imaginary axis of the -plane, an explicit scheme performs very sin = ck t1 2 (1)` . (10)

dt 2 `=2

(2`)!

efficiently.

Seismic Modeling 1307

The FD approximation to the phase velocity is c = /k. Us- (1986) use a fourth-order accurate predictor-corrector scheme

ing equation (10) with second-order accuracy [neglect O(dt 2 ) and the splitting algorithm vn+2 = Lx1 Lx3 Lx3 Lx1 vn , where each

terms], the FD phase velocity is operator advances the solution by a half time step. The max-

c imum allowed time step is larger than for unsplit schemes,

c = , = f dt, (11) because the stability properties are determined by the 1-D

|sinc()|

schemes. Splitting is also useful when the system of dif-

where = 2 f and sinc() = sin( )/( ). Equation (11) in- ferential equations is stiff. For instance, Biots poroelastic

dicates that the FD velocity is greater than the true phase ve- equations can be partitioned into a stiff part and a nons-

locity. Since should be a real quantity, thus avoiding expo- tiff part, so that the evolution operator can be expressed as

nentially growing solutions, the value of the sine function in exp(Hr + Hs )t, where r indicates the regular matrix and s

equation (10) must be between 1 and 1. This constitutes the the stiff matrix. The product formulas exp(Hr t) exp(Hs t) and

stability criterion. For instance, for second-order time integra- exp( 12 Hs t) exp(Hr t) exp( 12 Hs t) are first- and second-order ac-

tion this means ck dt/2 1. The maximum phase velocity, cmax , curate, respectively. The stiff part can be solved analytically and

and the maximum wavenumber (i.e. the Nyquist wavenumber, the nonstiff part with an standard explicit method (Carcione

/d xmin ) must be considered. Then, the condition is and Quiroga-Goode, 1996). Strangs scheme can be shown to

d xmin 2 be equivalent to the splitting of the evolution operator for

dt s , s= . (12) solving the poroelastic equations.

cmax

A rigorous demonstration, based on the amplification factor,

is given by Smith (1985,70; see also Celia and Gray, 1992, 232). Predictor-corrector schemes

In n-D space, s = 2/( n) and, for a fourth-order approxima- Predictor-corrector schemes of different order find wide ap-

tion (L = 2) in 1-D space, s = 2 3/. Equation (12) indicates plication in seismic modeling (Mufti, 1985; Bayliss et al., 1986;

that stability is governed by the minimum grid spacing and the Vafidis et al., 1992; Dai et al., 1995). Consider equation (2) and

higher velocities. the first-order approximation

Let us now consider the presence of attenuation. Time-

domain modeling in lossy media can be described by vis- vn+1 = vn + dt Hvn , (15)

coelastic stress-strain relations. This requires the use of the so-

called memory variables, one for each relaxation mechanism known as the forward Euler scheme. This solution is given

(Carcione et al., 1988). The introduction of additional differ- by the intersection point between the tangent of v at t = n dt

ential equations for these field variables avoids the numerical and the line t = (n + 1) dt. A second-order approximation can

computation of the viscoelastic convolution integrals. The dif- be obtained by averaging this tangent with the predicted one.

ferential equation for a memory variable e has the form Then, the corrector is

e dt

= a be, b > 0, (13) vn+1 = vn + (Hvn + Hvn+1 ). (16)

t 2

where is a field variable (e.g., the dilatation) and a and b are This algorithm is the most simple predictor-corrector scheme

material properties (b is approximately the central frequency (Celia and Gray, 1992, 64). A predictor-corrector MacCormack

of the relaxation peak). Equation (13) can be discretized by scheme, second-order in time and fourth-order in space, is used

using the central differences operator for the time deriva- by Vafidis et al. (1992) to solve the elastodynamic equations.

tive [dt(e/t)n = en+1 en1 ] and mean value operator for the

memory variable (2en = en+1 + en1 ). These approximations are

used in the Crank-Nicolson scheme (Smith, 1985, 19). This ap- Spectral methods

proach leads to an explicit algorithm

As mentioned before, a Taylor expansion of the evolution

2 dta n 2 b dt n1/2 operator exp(dtH) is equivalent to a Lax-Wendroff-scheme.

e n+1/2

= + e (14)

2 + b dt 2 + b dt When the number of terms in equation (8) is increased, a larger

time step can be used while retaining high accuracy. Taylor ex-

(Emmerich and Korn, 1987). This method is robust in terms pansions and Runge-Kutta methods, however, are not the best

of stability, because the coefficient of en1/2 , related to the vis- in terms of accuracy. The evolution operator in equation (6)

coelastic eigenvalue of the amplification matrix, is less than 1 can be expanded in terms of Chebyshev polynomials as

for any value of the time step dt. The same method performs

X

M

equally well for wave propagation in porous media (Carcione H

v(t) = Ck Jk (t R)Q k v0 , (17)

and Quiroga-Goode, 1996). R

k=0

Splitting methods

order k, and Q k are modified Chebyshev polynomials. R should

Time integration can also be performed with the method of be chosen larger than the absolute value of the eigenvalues of

dimensional splitting, also called Strangs scheme (Jain, 1984, H (Tal-Ezer et al., 1987). This technique allows the calcula-

444; Mufti, 1985; Bayliss et al., 1986; Vafidis et al., 1992). Con- tion of the wavefield with large time steps. Chebyshev expan-

sider equation (2) and denote a derivative with respect to a vari- sions are optimal since they require the minimum number of

able by the subscript , . The 1-D equations v,t = Av,x1 and terms. The most time-consuming part of a modeling algorithm

v,t = Bv,x3 are solved by means of one-dimensional difference is the evaluation of the terms L 2 p in equation (1) or Hv in

operators Lx1 and Lx3 , respectively. For instance, Bayliss et al. equation (2) due to the computation of the spatial derivatives.

1308 Carcione et al.

A Taylor-expansion algorithm needs N = tmax /dt of such evalu- Calculation of spatial derivatives

ations to compute the solution at time tmax . On the other hand,

the number of evaluations using equation (17) is equal to the The name of a particular modeling method is usually derived

number of terms in the Chebyshev expansion. Numerical tests from the algorithm for computing the spatial derivatives. The

indicate that M is comparable to N for second-order finite dif- following sections briefly review these algorithms.

ferencing, but the error of the Chebyshev operator is prac-

tically negligible for single-precision programming (Tal-Ezer Finite differences

et al., 1987). This means that there is no numerical dispersion

due to the time integration. FD methods use either homogeneous or heterogeneous for-

When the wave equation is used, which is second order in mulations to solve the equation of motion. In the first case,

time [see equation (1)], the rapid-expansion method (REM the motion in each homogeneous region is described by the

method) is twice as efficient since the expansion then contains equation of motion with constant acoustic parameters. For this

only even-order Chebyshev functions (Kosloff et al., 1989). A method, boundary conditions across all interfaces must be sat-

similar algorithm for the viscoelastic wave equation is devel- isfied explicitly. The heterogeneous formulation incorporates

oped by Tal-Ezer et al. (1990). These methods are said to have the boundary conditions implicitly by constructing FD repre-

spectral accuracy, in the sense that the error of the approx- sentations using the equation of motion for heterogeneous me-

imation tends exponentially to zero when the degree of the dia. The homogeneous formulation is of limited use because

approximating polynomial increases. it can only be used efficiently for simple, piecewise homo-

geneous geometries. The heterogeneous formulation, on the

other hand, makes it possible to assign different acoustic prop-

Algorithms for finite-element methods erties to every grid point, providing the flexibility to simulate

a variety of complex subsurface models (e.g., random media

In the FE method, which can be derived from the variational or velocity gradients). Heterogeneous formulations generally

formulation (7), the field variables are evaluated by interpola- make use of staggered grids to obtain stable schemes for large

tion from nodal (grid) values. For a second-order isoparametric variations of Poissons ratio (Virieux, 1986). In staggered grids,

method (Zienkiewicz, 1977, 178; Hughes, 1987, 118), the inter- groups of field variables and material properties are defined on

polation can be written as different meshes separated by half the grid spacing (Fornberg,

1996, 91). The newly computed variables are centered between

p(xi ) = > P, (18)

the old variables. Staggering effectively halves the grid spacing,

where P is a column vector of the values p(xi ) at the nodes, increasing the accuracy of the approximation.

and > is a row vector of spatial interpolation functions, also Seismic modeling in heterogeneous media requires the cal-

referred to as shape and basis functions. The approximation to culation of first derivatives. Consider the following approxi-

equation (7) is obtained by considering variations p according mation with an even number of points, suitable for staggered

to the interpolation (18). Since p = > P, and P is arbitrary, grids:

the result is a set of ordinary differential equations at the nodal

p0

pressures P (Zienkiewicz, 1977, 531; Hughes, 1987, 506): = w0 ( p 1 p 1 ) + + w` ( p`+ 1 p` 1 ), (20)

x 2 2 2 2

2P

KP + M + S = 0, (19) with ` weighting coefficients w` . The antisymmetric form guar-

t 2

antees that the derivative is zero for even powers of x. Let us

where K is the stiffness matrix, M is the mass matrix, and S is the test the spatial derivative approximation for p = x and p = x 3 .

generalized source matrix. These matrices contain volume in- Requiring that equation (20) be accurate for all polynomials

tegrals that are evaluated numerically (see also the The finite- up to order 2 yields the approximation ( p 1 p 1 )/d x, while

element method section). The matrix M is often replaced by for fourth accuracy [the leading error 2 term 2 is O(d x 4 )]

a diagonal lumped mass matrix M such that each entry equals the weights are obtained from w0 + 3w1 = 1/d x and w0 +

the sum of all entries in the same row of M (Zienkiewicz, 1977, 27w1 = 0, giving w0 = 9/(8 d x), and w1 = 1/(24 d x) (Fornberg,

535). In this way, the solution can be obtained with an explicit 1996, 91). To obtain the value of the derivative at x = jd x, sub-

time-integration method, such as the central difference method stitute subscript 0 with j, ` + 12 with j + ` + 12 and ` 12 with

(Seron et al., 1990). This technique can be used with low- j ` 12 . Fornberg (1996, 15) provides an algorithm for com-

order interpolation functions, for which the error introduced by puting the weights of first and second spatial derivatives for

the algorithm is relatively low. When high-order polynomials the general case, i.e., approximations which need not be evalu-

(including Chebyshev polynomials) are used as interpolation ated at a gridpoint such as centered and one-sided derivatives.

functions, the system of equations (19) is generally solved with He also shows that the FD coefficients w` in equation (20)

implicit algorithms. In this case, the most popular algorithm are equivalent to those of the Fourier PS method when ` ap-

is the Newmark method (Hughes, 1987, 490; Padovani et al., proaches the number of grid points (Fornberg, 1996, 34).

1994; Seron et al., 1996). Let us now study the accuracy of the approximation

Finally, numerical modeling can be performed in the fre- by considering the dispersion relation. Assuming constant

quency domain. The method is very accurate but generally material properties and a 1-D wave solution of the form

expensive when using differential formulations, because it in- exp(i k j d x it), the second-order approximation gives the

volves the solution of many Helmholtz equations (Jo et al., following FD dispersion relation and phase velocity:

1996). It is used more in FE algorithms (Marfurt, 1984; Santos

et al., 1988; Kelly and Marfurt, 1990). 2 = c2 k 2 sinc2 (), c = c|sinc()|, (21)

Seismic Modeling 1309

where = K d x, with k = 2 K [equation (21) can be derived where k is the discrete wavenumber. The transform f to the

in the same manner as equation (11)]. The spatial dispersion wavenumber domain and the transform back to the space do-

acts in the opposite sense of temporal dispersion [see equa- main are calculated by the fast Fourier transform (FFT). The

tion (11)]. Thus, the FD velocity is smaller than the true phase derivatives of two real functionstwo adjacent grid lines of

velocity. the computational meshcan be computed by two complex

Staggered grids improve accuracy and stability, and elim- (direct and inverse) FFTs. The two functions are put into the

inate noncausal artifacts (Virieux, 1986; Levander, 1988; real and imaginary parts, the FFT is performed, the result is

Ozdenvar and McMechan, 1997; Carcione and Helle, 1999). multiplied by ik, and the inverse FFT gives the derivatives in

Staggered grid operators are more accurate than centered dif- the real and imaginary parts. Staggered operators that evaluate

ferences operators in the vicinity of the Nyquist wavenumber first derivatives between grid points are given by

(e.g., Kneib and Kerner, 1993). The velocity-stress formulation

in staggered grids constitutes a flexible modeling technique Xx )

k(N

Dx = ik exp(ik d x/2)(k) exp(ikx), (23)

because it allows one to freely impose boundary conditions

k=0

(see the Boundary conditions section) and is able to directly

yield all the field variables (Karrenbach, 1998). where k(N x ) = /d x is the Nyquist wavenumber. The standard

However, there is a disadvantage in using staggered grids differential operator is given by the same expression, without

for anisotropic media of symmetry lower than orthorhombic. the phase shift term exp(ik dx/2). The standard operator re-

Staggering implies that the off-diagonal stress and strain com- quires the use of odd-based FFTs (i.e., N x should be an odd

ponents are not defined at the same location. When evaluat- number). This is because even transforms have a Nyquist com-

ing the stress-strain relation, it is necessary to sum over a lin- ponent which does not possess the Hermitian property of the

ear combination of the elasticity constants (c I J , I, J = 1, . . . 6) derivative (Kosloff and Kessler, 1989). When (x) is real, (k)

multiplied by the strain components. Hence, some terms of is Hermitian (i.e., its real part is even and its imaginary part

the stress components have to be interpolated to the locations is odd). If N x is odd, the discrete form of k is an odd function,

where the diagonal components are defined (Mora, 1989). therefore ik (k) is also Hermitian and the derivative is real. On

A physical criterion to improve accuracy is to compute the the other hand, the first derivative computed with the staggered

weights w` in equation (20) by minimizing the relative error in differential operator is evaluated between grid points and uses

the components of the group velocity cg = /k (the velocity even-based Fourier transforms. The approximation (23) is ac-

of a wave packet). This procedure, combined with grid stagger- curate up to the Nyquist wavenumber. If the source spectrum

ing and a convolutional scheme, yields an optimal differential is negligible beyond the Nyquist wavenumber, we can consider

operator for wave equations (Holberg, 1987). The method is that there is no significant numerical dispersion due to the spa-

problem dependent because it depends on the type of wave tial discretization. Hence, the dispersion relation is given by

equation. Igel et al. (1995) obtained high accuracy with opera- equation (10), which for a second-order time integration can

tors of small length (eight points) in the anisotropic case. The be written as

treatment of the P-SV case and more details about the finite

2 ck dt

difference approximation are in Levander (1989). = sin1 . (24)

dt 2

The modeling can be made more efficient by using hybrid

techniques, for instance, combining finite differences with fa- Because k should be real to avoid exponentially growing solu-

ster algorithms such as ray-tracing methods (Robertsson et al., tions, the argument of the inverse sine must be less than one.

1996), integral-equation methods (Stead and Helmberger, This implies the stability condition kmax c dt/2 1, which leads

1988), and reflectivity methods (Emmerich, 1989). In this way, to c dt/d x 2/ , since kmax = /d x ( is called the Courant

modeling of the full wavefield can be restricted to the target number). Generally, a criterion < 0.2 is used to choose the

(e.g., the reservoir), and propagation in the rest of the model time step (Kosloff and Baysal, 1982). The Fourier method has

(e.g., the overburden) can be simulated with faster methods. periodic properties. In terms of wave propagation this means

that a wave impinging on the left boundary of the grid will

return from the right boundary (the numerical artifact called

Pseudospectral methods

wraparound).

The pseudospectral methods used in forward modeling of The Chebyshev method is mainly used in the velocity-stress

seismic waves are mainly based on the Fourier and Chebyshev formulation to model free surface, rigid, and nonreflecting

differential operators. Gazdag (1981) first and Kosloff and boundary conditions at the boundaries of the mesh. Chebyshev

coworkers later applied the technique to seismic exploration transforms are generally computed with the FFT, with a length

problems (e.g., Kosloff and Baysal, 1982; Reshef et al., twice of that used by the Fourier method (Gottlieb and Orszag,

1988). Mikhailenko (1985) combined transforms methods (e.g., 1977, 117). Since the sampling points are very dense at the

Bessel transforms) with FD and analytical techniques. edges of the mesh, the Chebyshev method requires a 1-D

The sampling points of the Fourier method are x j = j stretching transformation to avoid very small time steps [see

d x = j xmax /(N x 1) ( j = 0, . . . , N x 1), where xmax is the equation (12)]. Because the grid cells are rectangular, mapping

maximum distance and N x is the number of grid points. For transformations are also used for modeling curved interfaces to

a given function f (x), with Fourier transform f (k), first and obtain an optimal distribution of grid points (Fornberg, 1988;

second derivatives are computed as Carcione, 1994a) and model surface topography (Tessmer and

Kosloff, 1994).

ff g2f

The Fourier and Chebyshev methods are accurate up to

= ik f , = k 2 f , (22)

x x2 the maximum wavenumber of the mesh that corresponds to

1310 Carcione et al.

a spatial wavelength of two grid points (at maximum grid spac- space is based on high-order orthogonal polynomials having

ing for the Chebyshev operator). This fact makes these meth- spectral accuracy (i.e., the rate of convergence is exponential

ods very efficient in terms of computer storage (mainly in 3-D with respect to the polynomial order). Consider, for instance,

space) and makes the Chebyshev technique highly accurate for the 2-D case and the acoustic wave equation. The physical do-

simulating Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions, such main is decomposed into nonoverlappring quadrilateral ele-

as stress-free and rigid conditions (Carcione, 1994a, b) (see the ments. In each element, the pressure field p(z 1 , z 2 ), defined on

Boundary conditions section). the square interval [1, 1] [1, 1] in the reference system Z ,

is approximated by the product

N X

N

p(z 1 , z 2 ) = Pi j i (z 1 ) j (z 2 ). (27)

The FE method has two advantages over FD and PS meth- i=0 j=0

ods, namely, its flexibility in handling boundary conditions and

irregular interfaces. On the basis of equation (18), consider In this expansion, Pi j are the nodal pressures and i are

the 1-D case, with uniform grid spacing d x, and an element Lagrangian interpolants that satisfy the relation i (k ) = ik

whose coordinates are X 1 and X 2 (X 2 X 1 = d x) and whose within the interval [1, 1] and vanish outside (ik denotes the

nodal pressures are P1 and P2 . This element is mapped into Kronecker delta and k stands for z 1 and z 2 ). The Lagrangian

the interval [1, 1] in a simplified coordinate system (the ref- interpolants are given by

erence Z -system). Denote the physical variable by x and the

2 XN

1

new variable by z. The linear interpolation functions are j ( ) = Tn ( j )Tn ( ), (28)

N n=0 c j cn

1 1

1 = (1 z), 2 = (1 + z). (25)

2 2 where Tn are Chebyshev polynomials, j are the Gauss-Lobatto

quadrature points, and c0 = c N = 0, cn = 1 for 1 n N . The

If the field variable and the independent (physical) variable

Chebyshev functions are also used for the mapping transfor-

are computed by using the same interpolation functions, one

mation between the physical world X and the local system Z .

has the so-called isoparametric approach (Hughes, 1987, 20).

Seriani et al. (1992) used Chebyshev polynomials from eighth

That is,

order to fifteenth order. This allows up to three points per

p = 1 P1 + 2 P1 , x = 1 X 1 + 2 X 1 . (26) minimum wavelength without generating parasitic or spurious

modes, and computational efficiency is improved by about one

Assembling the contributions of all the elements of the order of magnitude compared to low-order FE. If the mesh-

stiffness matrix results in a centered second-order differencing ing of a geological structure is as regular as possible (i.e., with a

operator if the density is constant. When the density is reasonable aspect ratio for the elements), the matrices are well

variable, the stiffness matrix is equivalent to a staggered FD conditioned and an iterative method such as the conjugate gra-

operator (Kosloff and Kessler, 1989). dient uses less than eight iterations to solve the implicit system

FE methods have been used to solve problems in seismol- of equations.

ogy, in particular, propagation of Love and Rayleigh waves in

the presence of surface topography (Lysmer and Drake, 1972; Source implementation

Schlue, 1979). FE applications for seismic exploration require,

in principle, more memory and computer time than the study of The basic seismic sources are a directional force, a pressure

surface waves (as used in modeling soil-structure interaction). source, and a shear source, simulating, for instance, a vertical

In fact, the problem of propagation of seismic waves from the vibrator, an explosion, or a shear vibrator. Complex sources,

surface to the target (the reservoir) involves the storage of such as earthquakes sources, can be represented by a set of

large matrices and much computer time. During the 1970s and directional forces [e.g., a double couple (Aki and Richards,

1980s, the effort was in rendering efficient existing low-order 1980, 82)].

FE techniques rather than proposing new algorithms. More- Consider an elastic formulation of the wave equation, that

over, it turns out that besides the physical propagation modes, is, P- and S-wave propagation (Kosloff et al., 1984). A direc-

there are parasitic modes when high-order FE methods are tional force vector has components f i = a(xi )h(t)im , where a is

used (Kelly and Marfurt, 1990). These parasitic modes are non- a spatial function (usually a Gaussian), h(t) is the time history,

physical solutions of the discrete dispersion relation obtained denotes the Kronecker delta function, and m is the source

from the von Neumann stability analysis. For instance, for a direction. A pressure source can be obtained from a potential

2-D cubic element grid, there are ten modes of propagation: of the form = a(xi )h(t) as f i = / xi . A shear source is of

two corresponding to the P- and SV -waves, and eight parasitic the form f = A, where A is a vector potential. In 2-D space,

modes of propagation. A = (0, A) with A = a(xi )h(t). In velocity-stress formulations,

This was the state of the art at the end of the 1980s. In the the source can be introduced as described above or in the con-

1990s. Seron et al. (1990, 1996) further developed the compu- stitutive equations (stress-strain relations) such that a pressure

tational aspects of low-order FE to make them more efficient source implies 11 = 22 = 33 initially at the source location,

for seismic exploration problems. and shear sources result from a stress tensor with zero trace

High-order FE methods became more efficient with the ad- (e.g., Bayliss et al., 1986).

vent of the spectral element method (SPEM) (Seriani et al., Introducing the source in a homogeneous region by imposing

1992; Padovani et al., 1994; Priolo et al., 1994; Komatitsch and the values of the analytical solution should handle the singular-

Vilotte, 1998). In this method, the approximation functional ity at the source point. Many FD techniques (Kelly et al., 1976;

Seismic Modeling 1311

Virieux, 1986) are based on the approach of Alterman and (see below) is effective for large variations of Poissons ratio

Karal (1968). The numerical difficulties present in the vicin- (Virieux, 1986).

ity of the source point are solved by subtracting the field due The traction-free condition at the surface of the earth can

to the source from the total field due to reflection, refraction, be obtained by including a wide zone on the upper part of the

and diffractions in a region surrounding the source point. This mesh containing zero values of the stiffnesses [the so-called

procedure inserts the source on the boundary of a rectangular zero-padding technique (Kosloff et al., 1984)]. Whereas for

region. The direct source field is computed analytically. This small angles of incidence this approximation yields acceptable

method has been recently used by Robertsson and Chapman results, for larger angles of incidence it introduces numerical

(2000) to inject a numerical wavefield into a FD mesh. Their errors. Free surface and solid-solid boundary conditions can

approach allows for efficient computation of many common- be implemented in numerical modeling with nonperiodic PS

shot experiments after alterations of the seismic model in a operators by using a boundary treatment based on character-

subarea containing the target (e.g., the reservoir). istics variables (Kosloff et al., 1990; Kessler and Kosloff, 1991;

When solving the velocity-stress formulation with pseu- Carcione, 1991; Tessmer et al., 1992; Igel, 1999). This method

dospectral (PS) algorithms and high-order FD methods is proposed by Bayliss et al. (1986) to model free-surface and

(Bayliss et al., 1986), the source can be implemented in one grid nonreflecting boundary conditions. The method can be summa-

point in view of the accuracy of the differential operators. Nu- rized as follows (Tessmer et al., 1992; Carcione, 1994b). Con-

merically (in 1-D space and uniform grid spacing), the strength sider the algorithm for the S H -wave equation (2). Most explicit

of a discrete delta function in the spatial domain is 1/d x, where time integration schemes compute the operation Hv (v)old ,

d x is the grid size. Since each spatial sample is represented by where H is defined in equation (2). The vector (v)old is then

a sinc function with argument x/d x (the spatial integration of updated to give a new vector (v)new that takes the boundary

this function is precisely d x), the introduction of the discrete conditions into account. Consider the boundary x3 = 0 (e.g., the

delta will alias the wavenumbers beyond the Nyquist (/d x) to surface) and that the incident wave is incident on this boundary

the lower wavenumbers. However, if the source time-function fromthe half-space x3 > 0. Compute the eigenvalues of matrix

h(t) is band limited with cut-off frequency f max , the wavenum- B: / = c and 0. Compute the right eigenvectors of ma-

bers greater than kmax = 2 f max /c will be filtered. Moreover, trix B, such that they are the columns of a matrix R, where

since the wave equation is linear, seismograms with different B = RR1 , with the diagonal matrix of the eigenvalues. If

time histories can be implemented by convolving h(t) with only we define the characteristics vector as c = R1 v, and consider

one simulation obtained with (t) as a source (a discrete delta equation (2) corresponding to the modes traveling along the

with strength 1/dt). x3 -direction,

The computation of synthetic seismograms for simulating

c c

zero-offset (stacked) seismic sections requires the use of the = , (29)

exploding-reflector concept (Loewenthal et al., 1976) and the t x3

so-called nonreflecting wave equation (Baysal et al., 1984). A the incoming and outgoing waves are decoupled. Two of the

source proportional to the reflection coefficients is placed on characteristic variables, components of vector c are v2 + 32 /Z

the interfaces and is initiated at time zero. All the velocities and v2 32 /Z , with Z = c. The first variable is the incoming

must be halved in order to get the correct arrival times. The wave and the second variable is the outgoing wave. Equating

nonreflecting condition implies a constant impedance model to the new and old outgoing characteristic and assuming stress-

avoid multiple reflections, which are, in principle, absent from free boundary conditions (32 = 0), the update of the free- sur-

stacked sections and constitute unwanted artifacts in migration face grid points is

processes.

new old

v 1 0 Z 1 v

Boundary conditions

12 = 0 1 0 12 . (30)

Free-surface and interface boundary conditions are the most 32 0 0 0 32

important in seismic exploration and seismology. Although

in FE methods the implementation of traction-free bound- It can be shown that this application of the method of char-

ary conditions is natural (simply do not impose any constraint acteristics is equivalent to a paraxial approximation (Clayton

at the surface nodes), FD and PS methods require a special and Engquist, 1977) in one spatial dimension.

boundary treatment. However, some restrictions arise in FE Robertsson (1996) presents a FD method which does not

and FD modeling when large values of the Poissons ratio (or rely on mapping transformations and therefore can handle ar-

V P /VS ratio) occur at a free surface. bitrary topography, although with a staircase shape. The free-

Consider first the free-surface boundary condition. The clas- surface condition is based on the method of images introduced

sical algorithm used in FD methods (e.g., Kelly et al., 1976) by Levander (1988). This method is accurate and stable for high

is to include a fictitious line of grid points above the sur- values of the Poisson ratio. An efficient solution to the stair-

face, and use one-sided differences to approximate normal case problem is given by Moczo et al. (1997), who propose a

derivatives and centered differences to approximate tangen- hybrid scheme based on the discrete-wavenumber, FD, and FE

tial derivatives. This simple low-order scheme has an upper methods. These modeling algorithms include attenuation based

limit of V P /VS 0.35, where V P and VS are the P-wave and on memory-variable equations (Emmerich and Korn, 1987;

S-wave velocities. Moreover, the method is inaccurate due to Carcione et al., 1988; Carcione, 1994b; Robertsson et al., 1994).

the use of one-sided differences. The use of a staggered differ- Interface boundary conditions are satisfied explicitly in ho-

ential operator and radiation conditions of the paraxial type mogeneous modeling (Kelly et al., 1976). At the interface

1312 Carcione et al.

between a solid and a fluid, the normal particle velocity (or dis- absorbing strips, such that the reflection coefficient at the

placement, depending on the formulation) and normal stress strip/model boundary is zero, and there is a free parameter to

components are continuous when crossing the interface; in a attenuate the wavefield. The improvement implies a reduction

solid/solid boundary, both horizontal and vertical particle ve- of nearly 75% in the strip thickness compared to the classical

locity components and normal stresses are continuous. How- method.

ever, heterogeneous modeling is preferred when the interfaces The sponge method can be implemented in FE modeling by

have arbitrary shape. In this case, spurious diffractions arise including a damping matrix C in equation (19):

from an inappropriate modeling of curved and dipping inter- P 2P

faces (the so-called staircase effect). Irregular interfaces and KP + C + M 2 + S = 0, (32)

variable grid spacing are easily handled by FE methods, since, t t

in principle, grid cells can have any arbitrary shape. When with C = M + K, where and are the damping parameters

using FD and PS algorithms, an averaging method can be (e.g., Sarma et al., 1998).

used to reduce spurious diffractions arising from the stair- For approximations based on the one-way wave equation

case effect. Muir et al. (1992) used effective media theory (paraxial) concept, consider the acoustic wave equation on the

based on Backus averaging to find the elastic constants at the domain x 0. At the boundary x = 0, the absorbing boundary

four grid points of the cell. The modeling then requires an condition has the general form

( )

anisotropic stress-strain relation. Zeng and West (1996) obtain J

Y

satisfactory results with a spatially weighted averaging of the (cos j ) c p = 0, (33)

model properties (slowness averaging, mainly), and Zhang and j=1

t x

LeVeque (1997) present a method based on the modification where | j | < /2 for all j (Higdon, 1991). Equation (33) pro-

of the FD scheme in the vicinity of an interface to satisfy the vides a general representation of absorbing boundary condi-

boundary conditions. Similarly, algorithms based on rectangu- tions (Keys, 1985; Randall, 1988). The reason for the success

lar cells of varying size allow the reduction of staircase diffrac- of equation (33) is the following. Suppose that a plane wave

tions and the number of grid points (Moczo, 1989; Oprsal and is hitting the boundary at an angle and a velocity c. In 2-D

Zahradnik, 1999). When the grid points are not chosen in a space, such a wave can be written as p(x1 cos + x3 sin + ct).

geometrically regular way, combinations of 1-D Taylor series When an operator of the form (cos ),t c,x1 is applied to

cannot be used, and 2-D Taylor series must be applied (Celia this plane wave, the result is zero. The angles j are chosen to

and Gray, 1992, 93). take advantage of a priori information about directions from

which waves are expected to reach the boundary.

Absorbing boundaries Consider now the approach based on characteristic variables

The boundaries of the numerical mesh may produce non- (discussed in the Boundary conditions section) and apply it

physical artifacts which disturb the physical events. These arti- to the S H -wave equation (2) in the plane x3 = 0. The outgo-

facts are reflections from the boundaries or wraparound as in ing characteristic variable is v2 32 /Z . This mode is left un-

the case of the Fourier method. The two main techniques used changed (new = old), while the incoming variable v2 + 32 /Z is

in seismic exploration and seismology to avoid these artifacts set to zero (new = 0). Then, the update of the boundary grid

are the sponge method and the method based on the paraxial points is

new old

approximation. v 1 0 Z 1 v

The classical sponge method uses a viscous boundary or a 1

strip along the boundaries of the numerical mesh, where the 12 = 0 2 0 12 . (34)

2

field is attenuated (Cerjan et al., 1985; Kosloff and Kosloff, 32 Z 0 1 32

1986). When we consider the pressure formulation, equa-

These equations are exact in one dimension (i.e., for waves

tion (1) can be written as a system of coupled equations and

incident at right angles). Approximations for the 2-D case are

modified as

provided by Clayton and Engquist (1977).

p 1 p 0

= + , (31) Example

t q L 2 q f

where is an absorbing parameter. The solution to this equa- Modeling synthetic seismograms may have different pur-

tion is a wave traveling without dispersion but whose ampli- poses, for example, to design a seismic experiment (Ozdenvar

tude decreases with distance at a frequency-independent rate. et al., 1996), to provide for structural interpretation (Fagin,

A traveling pulse will thus diminish in amplitude without a 1992), or to perform a sensitivity analysis related to the de-

change of shape. In the frequency domain, this implies that tectability of a petrophysical variable, such as porosity, fluid

the stiffness is divided by the factor i + , whereas the den- type, fluid saturation, etc. Modeling algorithms can also be part

sity is multiplied with the same factor. Therefore, the acoustic of inversion and migration algorithms.

impedance remains real valued. This can be adjusted in such

Model and modeling design

a way that the reflection coefficient is zero at the onset of the

absorbing strip. An improved version of the sponge method is Designing a model requires the joint collaboration of geolo-

the perfectly matched-layer method or PML method used in gists, geophysicists, and log analysts when there is well infor-

electromagnetism (Berenger, 1994) and interpreted by Chew mation of the study area. The geological modeling procedure

and Liu (1996) as a coordinate stretching. It is based on a generally involves the generation of a seismic-coherence vol-

(nonphysical) modification of the wave equation inside the ume to define the main reservoir units and the incorporation of

Seismic Modeling 1313

fault data of the study area. Seismic data require the standard quality factors of medium 7 simulate a sandstone subjected

processing sequence and prestack depth migration supported to an excess pore pressure. All the media have a Poisson ratio

by proper inversion algorithms when possible. A further im- equal to 0.2, except medium 7 which has a Poisson ratio of 0.3,

provement is achieved by including well-logging (sonic- and corresponding to an overpressure condition. The 2-D modeling

density-log) information. Since the logs have a high degree algorithm (Carcione, 1992) is based on a fourth-order Runge-

of detail, averaging methods are used to obtain the velocity Kutta time-integration scheme and the Fourier and Chebyshev

and density field at the levels of seismic resolution. methods to compute the spatial derivatives along the horizon-

In planning the modeling with direct methods, the following tal and vertical directions, respectively. This allows the mod-

steps should be followed. eling of free-surface boundary conditions. Since the mesh is

coarse (two points per minimum wavelength), Zeng and Wests

1) From the maximum source frequency and minimum ve- (1996) averaging method is applied to the slownesses to avoid

locity, find the constraint on the grid spacing: diffractions due to the staircase effect (the density and the

cmin relaxation times are arithmetically averaged). The mesh has

dx . (35) 135 129 points, with a horizontal grid spacing of 20 m and

2 f max

a vertical dimension of 2181 m with a maximum vertical grid

This implies that the spacing should not exceed half the spacing of 20 m. Stress-free and nonreflecting boundary condi-

smallest wavelength in order to avoid aliasing. The actual tions of the type of equations (30) and (34) are applied at the

grid spacing depends on the scheme chosen. For instance, top and bottom boundaries, respectively. In addition, absorb-

an FD scheme which is second-order in time and fourth- ing boundaries of the type of equation (31) with a length of 18

order in space would require 58 grid points per minimum grid points are implemented at the sides and bottom bound-

wavelength. ary. The source is a vertical force (a Ricker wavelet) applied

2) Find the number of grid points from the size of the model. at 30-m depth with a maximum frequency of 40 Hz. The wave-

3) Allocate additional grid points for each absorbing strip field is computed by using a time step of 1 ms with a maximum

at the sides, top, and bottom of the model. For instance, time of 1 s (the total wall-clock time is 120 s for an Origin 2000

the standard sponge method requires four wavelengths, computer with four CPUs).

where the wavelength is given by = 2cmax / f d and f d is The seismogram recorded at the surface is shown in

the dominant frequency of the seismic signal. Figure 3, where the main event is the Rayleigh wave (ground

4) Choose the time step according to the stability condi- roll) traveling with wave velocities between the shear veloc-

tion (12) and accuracy criteria. Moreover, when possi- ities of media 1 and 2, approximately. The reflection event

ble, the modeling algorithm used requires testing against corresponding to the anticlinal structure can be clearly seen

known analytical solutions to verify its correctness. between 0.6 and 0.8 s.

5) Define the source-receiver configuration.

Simulation

As a first step in discussing integral-equation methods, let us

The 2-D model we consider is shown in Figure 2 with the consider Huygens formulation illustrated in Figure 1. Huygens

properties indicated in Table 1. The low velocities and low states that the wavefield originating from the flame can be con-

sidered as a superposition of waves due to point sources located

in the flame. We can also formulate this in a somewhat more

mathematical way. Consider the scalar wave equation for a ho-

mogeneous medium (i.e., with constant density and constant

speed of sound c = c0 ),

!

1 2

2 2 p = q, (36)

c0 t

Figure 2.

1 2.6 1.6 80 60 2.1

2 3.2 1.96 100 78 2.3

3 3.7 2.26 110 85 2.3

4 4 2.45 115 90 2.4

5 4.3 2.63 120 92 2.5

6 4.5 2.75 125 95 2.6

7 3.2 1.7 30 25 2.3

8 4.6 2.82 150 115 2.6

9 4.8 2.94 160 120 2.7

FIG. 2. Geological model. See Table 1 for material properties. 10 5.4 3.3 220 170 2.8

1314 Carcione et al.

which follows from equation (1) with q = c02 f . The inte- c(x) embedded in a surrounding medium with constant sound

gral representation for this scalar wave equation is given by speed c0 . Both scattering object and embedding medium have

(Courant and Hilbert, 1937, 403) the same (constant) density 0 . The wave equation then reads,

Z

p(x, t) = G(x, xs , t t 0 ) q(xs , t 0 ) dxs dt 0 , (37) 1 2

2 2 p = q, (40)

c t

where x is the position vector. Since the velocity is constant,

with c = c0 outside V . This can be rewritten in the following

the Greens function G is given by

contrast formulation:

(t |x xs |/c0 ) ! !

G(x, xs , t) = . (38) 1 2 1 1 2 p

4|x xs | 2 2 p = q 2 2 . (41)

c0 t c0 c t 2

The Greens function is the mediums response to a point

source, and satisfies the wave equation (36) for a point source The wave equation we obtain in this way is very similar to

given by q = (x xs )(t). If we substitute equation (38) into equation (36), the only difference being an additional source

equation (37), we obtain the integral representation term due to the presence of the object. Therefore, we can write

Z

q(xs , t |x xs |/c0 ) the integral representation, analogous to equation (39), in the

p(x, t) = dxs , (39) form

D 4|x xs |

where D is the region in space where the source term q is p = p inc + p sc , (42)

present. Equation (39) is the mathematical formulation of

Huygens principle illustrated in Figure 1. The integration is a where the incident field p inc , which would have been present

summation over volumetric wave field densities, q/4 |x xs |. due to the source q in the absence of the object, is given by the

Each element of that distribution resides at a source point xs right-hand side of equation (39) and the scattered field is given

at time t and arrives at the point x at the retarded time t by

|x xs |/c0 . The volumetric wave field density is given by the Z !

initial source distribution, q, weighted by the so-called 3-D 1 1 2 p(x0 , t R/c0 ) 0

p (x, t) =

sc

dx ,

spreading factor 4|x xs |. In order to derive the wave equa- V c02 c(x0 )2 t 2 4 R

tion and its corresponding integral representation above, one

needs integral and differential calculus which was not yet de- (43)

veloped at the time of Huygens. with R = |x x0 | the distance between observation point x and

integration point x0 . With the aid of equations (42)(43), the

Domain integral-equation method field outside the object V can be represented in terms of the

sources q and the field values inside the object. In order to

Apart from radiation from sources, as illustrated by equa- determine the field values inside the object, we can take x inside

tion (39), domain-integral representations can also be used V in equation (42), substitute p sc of equation (43), and obtain

to formulate and solve scattering problems. Consider, for in- an integro-differential equation for the unknown field p inside

stance, the case of a scattering object V with a sound speed the object V . So far, the acoustic case has been presented here

for the sake of simplicity. The elastic case has been discussed

by Pao and Varatharajulu (1976). For an overview of different

methods for acoustic, electromagnetic, and elastic fields, see

De Hoop (1995).

In the above, a homogeneous embedding medium was con-

sidered. This method is also applicable to heterogeneous em-

bedding media, provided the Greens function (the wavefield

due to a point source) can be determined. This is the case for

layered media using plane-wave summation techniques (Ursin,

1983).

For special geometries, the volume integral equation ob-

tained here can be solved with the aid of separation techniques.

In general, however, these methods are not applicable and the

equation has to be solved numerically. This can be done with

the method of moments (Harrington, 1968). The first step in

applying this method is discretization of the unknown function

with the aid of expansion functions, followed by a weighting of

the integral equation using appropriate weighting functions. To

illustrate this procedure, we apply it to the integral-equation

formulation given by equations (42)(43). First, we subdivide

the volume V of the scatterer into smaller volumes V m with

centers xm (m = 1, . . . M) and assume that the pressure is con-

FIG. 3. Seismogram of the vertical particle velocity. stant in each subvolume. If we then enforce the equality sign at

Seismic Modeling 1315

the center points at times t j , we obtain the following relation: and boundary condition

!

M Z

X

1 1 p(x, t) = 0 (x S). (46)

p xn , t j = p inc xn , t j +

Vm

2

c0 c(x0 )2

m=1

As in the previous section, the pressure in D can now be de-

t2 p x0 , t j R n c0

dx0 , (44) composed into two contributions,

4 R n

with n = 1, 2, . . . M and R n the distance between xn and x0 . If p = p inc + p sc , (47)

we express the time derivative under the integral in backward

time differences, we obtain an explicit time-stepping algorithm where the incident field, p inc , is again given by the right-hand

where new values in each point can be computed from previ- side of equation (39), and the scattered field, accounting for the

ously computed values. In this way, no matrix inversion is re- presence of the object, is given by the integral representation

quired. A disadvantage of this method, however, is that one Z

has to be aware of potential instabilities and that previously n 0 p(x0 , t R/c0 ) 0

p sc (x, t) = dx , (48)

computed values in all points have to be stored. If the object S 4 R

is large compared to the pulse width of the field, this approach

becomes impractical. An alternative is to formulate the prob- where n is the outward pointing normal vector on S. This can

lem in the frequency domain and solve the resulting system of be derived by applying the boundary condition (46) to the inte-

equations separately for each frequency. This circumvents the gral representation for the scalar wave equation in a bounded

storage and stability problems but can still be inefficient if the domain (see, for instance, Bennett and Mieras, 1981). The inte-

object is large compared to the wavelength due to the fact that gration over S is in fact a summation of point-source wavefields

the system matrix is full (in contrast to FD methods). There- located on S and is therefore a mathematical representation of

fore, this type of volume integral-equations is especially suited the same idea illustrated in Figure 4. With the aid of equa-

to the case of objects of modest size. tions (47)(48), the field ouside the object can be represented

in terms of sources q and certain field values at the boundary

of the object. In order to determine these field values, we can

Boundary integral-equation methods

let the point of observation approach the object and enforce

In Figure 4, Huygens principle is illustrated in a different the boundary condition (46). In this way, we obtain the integral

form. Each point on a wavefront can be considered as the equation

source of waves propagating away from that point. In order to Z

n 0 p(x0 , t R/c0 ) 0

obtain a mathematical formulation corresponding to the situa- p inc (x, t) = dx (x S).

tion of Figure 4, we again consider the wave equation, but this S 4 R

time in a domain D containing a bounded object with bound- (49)

ary S (D is the region outside S). On S, we prescribe an explicit From this equation, the field quantity n 0 p on S can be de-

boundary condition, for example a pressure-release boundary termined. In general, this integral equation has to be solved

condition. We then have the following relations: numerically using methods similar to those discussed for the

! case of the volume-integral equation. In the discretization pro-

1 2

2 2 p(x, t) = q(x, t), (x D), (45) cedure, proper care has to be taken of the singularity of the

c0 t Greens function at x = x0 . Here, we have only discussed a scalar

example for the pressure-release boundary condition. The elas-

tic formulation for the above problem is given by Tan (1976).

Scattering of elastic waves by cracks or cavities has also been

discussed by Bouchon (1987) and, more recently, elastic scat-

tering by hydrofractures was discussed by Pointer et al. (1998).

The application of integral-equation techniques for studying

wave propagation in media with a number of cracks was dis-

cussed by Liu et al. (1997), whereas wave propagation in media

containing large numbers (several thousands) of small cracks

was studied by Muijres et al. (1998). In particular, the case of

many small cracks can be solved very efficiently with the aid

of boundary-integral equations since each crack is represented

by only one unknown coefficient which represents the jump in

normal velocity.

Boundary-integral equations are also very well suited to ac-

curately model geometries with either explicit boundary con-

ditions or discontinuities in properties. For instance, scattering

of elastic waves by a rough interface between two solids was

discussed by Fokkema (1980). The geometry of irregular bore-

FIG. 4. Illustration of Huygens principle showing that each

point on a wavefront acts as secondary source for spherical holes was considered by Bouchon and Schmidt (1989), and

waves [taken from the 1690 Traite de la lumiere (Huygens, the radiation of seismic sources in boreholes in layered and

1990)]. anisotropic media was discussed by Dong et al. (1995).

1316 Carcione et al.

Integral-equation modeling example attractive alternative. Before we discuss the asymptotic meth-

ods, we first return to equation (38), the Greens function

In order to investigate the effect of small-scale scattering ob- for a homogeneous medium. Clearly, this function describes

jects like cracks or inclusions, integral equations can be useful. a spherical wavefront which propagates at speed c0 . An initial

If the cracks are small with respect to the dominant seismic disturbance of the medium at t = 0 and x = xs is spreading in

wave length, each crack only adds one unknown to the prob- space as time proceeds; at time t, it has arrived at the sphere

lem, which implies that large number of cracks can be modeled. |x xs | = c0 t. The function

In Figure 5, 4000 cracks are randomly positioned in a homoge-

neous embedding medium with sound velocity c0 = 3000 m/s. (x, xs ) = |x xs |/c0 (50)

After choosing the wave form of the incident pressure field (in

the frequency domain) and solving the relevant integral equa- measures the time needed for the disturbance to travel from

tion numerically for each frequency, the resulting total trans- the source location xs to the point x. It is called the travel-

mitted field at the receiver is shown in Figure 6 in comparison time function. The amplitude of the disturbance is given by the

with the incident field. This method is described in more detail function

in Muijres et al. (1998). 1

A(x, xs ) = . (51)

4 |x xs |

ASYMPTOTIC (RAY-TRACING) METHODS

With these two definitions, we can rewrite the Greens function

The integral representations discussed in the previous sec- for a constant velocity medium as

tion are especially useful if the medium is homogeneous. In the

case of heterogeneous media, the computation of the Greens G(x, xs , t) = A(x, xs )(t (x, xs )). (52)

function is tedious. In that case, asymptotic methods can be an

In what follows, we work with the temporal Fourier transform

of the Greens function, which is denoted by G(x, xs , ). For

the constant velocity case, it is of the form

In general, the velocity of course varies with position x. In

geophysical applications, this is predominantly caused by tran-

sitions from one geological formation to another, but there are

also other causes, such as varying geopressure or fluid con-

tent of the rocks. From physical intuition, one would expect

that the solution of the wave equation (36) still behaves like

a propagating wavefront in this case. This can be made more

precise mathematically by studying the high frequency behav-

ior of G(x, xs , ). It can be shown that in the limit

(hence the name asymptotic) G(x, xs , ) is still of the form

of equation (53), where (x, xs ) and A(x, xs ) are general trav-

eltime and amplitude functions. The wavefront is no longer

FIG. 5. Model consisting of 4000 cracks having a width of 1 m spherical in the heterogeneous case, and the traveltime and

each. The speed of sound in the embedding medium is 3000 m/s. amplitude functions are no longer given by the simple explicit

The receiver location is indicated with o; the incident wave is

a plane pressure wave propagating downwards. relations (50) and (51) above.

We illustrate the use of asymptotic methods by constructing

the high-frequency behavior of the Greens function G(x, xs , )

away from the location of the source (i.e., for x 6= xs ). We start

by substituting the expression (53) into the Fourier transform

of the wave equation. This equation is given by

(i)2

G(x, xs , ) = 0 (54)

c(x)2

and is known as the Helmholtz equation. The result is

+ i[2 A + A1] + 1A)ei = 0. (55)

FIG. 6. Normalized incident pressure field recorded by the re- Dividing out the factor ei , we obtain a polynomial in i,

ceiver in the absence of cracks and transmitted total field ac- which is equated to zero. Since this equation has to hold for all

counting for the presence of the cracks. , all the coefficients of the polynomial have to be zero.

Seismic Modeling 1317

From the coefficient of (i)2 , we find that the traveltime than any algebraic power of and can therefore not be repre-

function has to satisfy the so-called eikonal equation sented by a power series.

If w() is a smooth taper function satisfying, e.g.,

()2 = c2 (x). (56)

0 if || 0

Similarly, from the coefficient of i we find w() = (61)

1 if || 20 ,

2 A + A1 = 0. (57)

we can write

This equation is called the transport equation for the amplitude

Z

1

function. These two equations, when supplemented with suit- G(x, xs , t) w()G(x, xs , )eit d, (62)

2

able initial conditions, determine the traveltime and amplitude

function uniquely. For a constant velocity, this leads to an am- where the sign means that we have neglected a smooth func-

plitude given by equation (51) for which 1A = 0. For spatially tion. The taper function effectively acts as a high-pass filter.

varying velocity, 1A 6= 0, which implies that the coefficient of We can now substitute the series (58) in the right-hand side of

(i)0 in equation (55) is not equal to zero. Therefore, one is this relation. The term with k = 0 transforms into A0 w(t )

forced to replace the simple solution (53) by a power series in [which equals A0 (w )(t), a high-pass version of a propa-

(i)1 , i.e., gating wavefront]. Similarly, the term with k = 1 transforms

X into A1 (w H )(t), where H is the Heaviside step function,

G(x, xs , ) = (i)k Ak (x, xs )ei(x,xs ) . (58) given by

k0

0 if t < a

To determine the equations for the higher order amplitudes Ha (t) = (63)

1 if t a.

Ak+1 (k 0), one substitutes this expression in the Helmholtz

equation and equates the coefficients of all powers of to zero. This is again a propagating wavefront. The Heaviside function

Besides the eikonal equation (56) for (x, xs ) and the transport is discontinuous at the wavefront (x, xs ) = t, but the discon-

equation (57) for A0 (x, xs ), one finds for k 0 the following tinuity of the Heaviside function is of course less severe than

higher order transport equations: the singularity of the delta function. Similarly, the higher order

terms, which can be obtained by repeatedly integrating with

2 Ak+1 + Ak+1 1 = 1Ak . (59)

respect to t, become less and less singular.

This shows that a solution of the wave equation of the form (58) Usually, one breaks off the solution after the first term. From

can be constructed by first solving the eikonal equation for the above, it is clear that this means that one only considers the

(x, xs ), subsequently the transport equation for A0 (x, xs ), and most singular part of the solution. Moreover, for the constant

then solving the higher order transport equations recursively velocity case, the first term coincides with the full solution.

for Ak+1 (x, xs ) (k 0).

So we are naturally led to an infinite power series (58) in 1/, Constructing the asymptotic solution

which converges for || 0 0. If 0 = 0, it converges for all

frequencies; if 0 = , the series is meaningless. If the series Before discussing numerical methods, we first explain how

converges uniformly in x for a given frequency, it is a solution to construct a solution from a theoretical point of view by the

of the Helmholtz equation for that frequency. The fact that method of characteristics. Numerical methods for solving the

the series (58) in general diverges for small frequencies means eikonal and transport equations rely heavily on this theoretical

that we have only constructed the solution of the Helmholtz concept.

equation for large frequencies. Therefore, ones speaks of an

asymptotic solution of the Helmholtz equation. Method of characteristics: seismic rays

Let us try to assess the consequence of knowing only a high-

frequency solution for the time-domain solution. To this end, The method of characteristics is in fact a general solution

we take the inverse Fourier transform of G(x, xs , ), which can method for first-order partial differential equations, of which

be written as the eikonal equation is an example [see, e.g., Courant and

Z 0 Hilbert (1966) for a classical reference]. The general idea is

1

G(x, xs , t) = G(x, xs , )eit d to construct curves x( ) along which the partial differential

2 0 equation reduces to an ordinary differential equation.

Z

1 To explain this concept in the case of the eikonal equation,

+ G(x, xs , )eit d. (60) we again first consider the simplest case of a constant velocity.

2 ||>0

In that case the wavefronts (i.e., the surfaces of constant travel-

The first term is not known (at least not by the procedure out- time t) are spheres of radius ct centered at the source location

lined above) unless 0 happens to be zero. The only thing that xs [see equation (50)]. Moreover, choosing an arbitrary point x

can be said about it is that it must be a smooth function of on a wavefront = t, the line from xs to x is orthogonal to that

t, x and xs , since differentiation can be done under the integral wavefront and hence in the direction of the gradient (x, xs ).

for an integral over a finite interval. Equivalently, the second Therefore, this line can be parameterized as

term of equation (60) is representative for the singular (i.e.,

x xs

nonsmooth) behavior of the solution. The smooth part of the x( ) = xs + (x, xs ) = xs + , (64)

solution has a frequency dependence that must decay faster c |x xs |

1318 Carcione et al.

where we have scaled the parameter in such a way that If the source location is fixed, we write x = x(1 , 2 ; ) and

p = p(1 , 2 ; ) to denote the dependence on the take-off angles

dx 1 x xs

= = . (65) of the ray at xs .

d c |x xs | In fact, the solution curve x(1 , 2 ; ) defines a map

Differentiating the traveltime function (x, xs ) along this line (1 , 2 , ) 7 x(1 , 2 ; ) which can be seen as a coordinate

x( ), we obtain transformation provided, of course, that the Jacobian

d dx 1 (x, y, z)

= = ()2 = 2 , (66) J (1 , 2 , ) = (70)

d d c (1 , 2 , )

which is indeed an ordinary differential equation for the trav- does not vanish. Notice that for the constant velocity case, this

eltime. Given the line and this equation, the traveltime func- is just the transformation from spherical to rectangular coordi-

tion is easily retrieved. Integrating with respect to , one nates, and the Jacobian indeed does not vanish away from the

finds = /c2 . Moreover, from equation (64) one finds that source location.

= c|x xs |, and hence (x, xs ) = |x xs |/c. In order to construct a solution (x, xs ) of the eikonal equa-

In conclusion, we can say that, for the constant velocity case, tion, we supplement (just as in the constant velocity case) the

it is sufficient to have the family of lines originating from the equations (68) with the equation

source location (these are the characteristic curves in this case)

d 1

and the ordinary differential equation (66) along these lines to = 2, (0) = 0. (71)

solve for the traveltime function. d c

In the general case of a spatially varying velocity, we would Integrating this equation along a characteristic curve

also like to construct curves x( ) satisfying dx/d = . Un- x(1 , 2 ; ), one finds

fortunately, to construct these curves, one would have to know Z

d 0

the solution of the eikonal equation up front, whereas the (1 , 2 ; ) = . (72)

whole purpose of constructing characteristics is to find this so- 0 c2 (x(1 , 2 ; 0 ))

lution. To circumvent this problem, we differentiate once more If the Jacobian J introduced in equation (70) is indeed nonzero,

with respect to : this function can also be seen as a function of x:

d 2x d (x(1 , 2 ; ), xs ) = (1 , 2 ; ). (73)

2

=

d d

dx Notice that equation (68) is a system of Hamilton equations

= () for the Hamiltonian H , given by

d

= () H (x, p) = (p2 c2 (x))/2. (74)

= [() /2] 2

This system can be written as

= [c2 /2]. (67) dx H

= ,

Hence, we find a second-order equation for the curve x( ) d p

(75)

which does not depend on the solution . This second-order dp H

= .

equation is equivalent to the system of first-order equations d x

dx Let H (1 , 2 , ) = H (x(1 , 2 ; )). Then, because of these equa-

= p, tions, H is independent of :

d (68)

dp H dx H dp H

= [c2 /2]. = + = 0. (76)

d d x d p

The solution curves (x( ), p( )) of this system are called

bicharacteristic curves. They belong to the phase space Moreover, because of the initial conditions (69), H (1 , 2 , 0) =

{(x, p) | x, p R3 }. The curves x( ), which live in the configu- 0. Therefore, the Hamiltonian vanishes identically along the

ration space R3 , are called the characteristic curves or, briefly, bicharacteristics:

the characteristics of the eikonal equation. In seismology, they

are also referred to as (seismic) rays.

H (1 , 2 , ) = 0. (77)

The system (68) can be solved if we specify initial conditions From the definition of H , we see that this means noth-

x(0) and p(0). We choose ing else than that the length of the tangent vector

p(1 , 2 ; ) = dx(1 , 2 ; )/d is always 1/c(x). For this reason,

sin 1 cos 2

1 p is often called a slowness vector in geophysics.

x(0) = xs , p(0) = sin 1 sin 2 . (69) The only thing left to show is that the function (x, xs ) that

c(xs )

cos 1 we have constructed in this way does indeed satisfy the eikonal

equation. Since we have just shown that p2 = c2 , it is sufficient

Thus, all rays start at xs for = 0 and leave the source location to show that p = , just as in the constant velocity case. A

in the direction specified by the angles 1 and 2 . The solution proof of this relation can be found in Courant and Hilbert

curves depend smoothly on the initial conditions xs , 1 , and 2 . (1966).

Seismic Modeling 1319

Now let us turn our attention to the transport equation (57). In the previous section, we saw that the determinant

This equation can also be rewritten as an ordinary differential J (1 , 2 , ) defined in equation (70) plays an important role.

equation along the rays. The gradient of the traveltime func- If it is nonzero, the transformation (1 , 2 , ) 7 (x1 , x2 , x3 ) is

tion in a point x(1 , 2 ; ) is given by the momentum vector a coordinate transformation, which enables us to consider

p(1 , 2 ; ) which, according to Hamiltons equations (68), is the traveltime function in equation (72) and the amplitude

equal to the tangent vector dx/d . Therefore, the term A function A in equation (82) as functions of (x1 , x2 , x3 ) rather

represents the derivative d A/d of the amplitude along a ray. than of (1 , 2 , ). Moreover, J occurs explicitly in the expres-

(0) (0)

Hence, we can cast the transport equation into the form sion (82) for the amplitude. A point x0 (1 , 2 , (0) ), for which

(0) (0)

J (1 , 2 , ) vanishes, is called a caustic point. From equa-

(0)

1 dA 1

= 1. (78) tion (82), it is clear that we are in serious trouble here, since

A d 2 the amplitude A(x0 , xs ) would be infinite. Because of this, it is

In fact, there is a simpler form of the transport equation which impossible to find a solution of the simple form Aei for the

uses the identity Greens function at a caustic point.

Let us analyze from a geometrical point of view the vanish-

1 dJ ing of the determinant. To this end, we consider the collection

1 = . (79)

J d of all solutions of the ray equations {x(1 , 2 ; ), p(1 , 2 ; )}

This follows from the definition (70) of the determinant J and in phase space, the 6-D space spanned by all (x, p). Clearly,

Hamiltons equations (Cerveny et al., 1977; Cerveny, 1985, this collection is a smooth 3-D subset of phase space, which

1987). Using this identity, we find is parameterized by the take-off angles 1 , 2 and the flow pa-

rameter along the bicharacteristics. The tangent vectors in

d the direction of the 1 , 2 , and -coordinate axes are given

( J A) = 0. (80)

d by (x/1 , p/1 ), (x/2 , p/2 ), and (x/, p/ ), re-

spectively. Projecting these vectors to the 3-D physical space,

In other words, the quantity J A is equal to a constant C we get x/1 , x/2 , and x/ . The condition J = 0 means

along a ray. The constant C can be found by requiring that nothing else than that these vectors are dependent, i.e., that

the amplitude A approaches the constant velocity amplitude they span a space of dimension lower than three. This implies

A given by equation (51) for 0 [see, e.g., Bleistein (1984)]. that the space, spanned by these tangent vectors, has at least

The result is one direction which is purely vertical, i.e., in the p-direction.

s

As a consequence, the set of bicharacteristics may turn

1 sin 1

C= . (81) in phase space. This situation is illustrated in Figure 7. The

4 c(xs ) solid curve in this figure is a cartoon of the 3-D set of bichar-

acteristics in phase space. The point x0 is a caustic point; it is

So we get

right underneath a point (x0 , p0 ) where the set of bicharacter-

s

istics has a vertical tangent direction. The point x0 exemplifies

1 sin 1

A(x, xs ) = . (82) a point in configuration space where several rays intersect. No-

4 c(xs )J (1 , 2 ; ) tice that at the point of intersection the two rays have differ-

(1) (1)

ent directions given by the slowness vectors p(1 , 2 , (1) )

This result shows that the amplitude of the Greens function (2) (2) 0

and p(1 , 2 , ). Also, at such a point x there are two

(2)

can be calculated from the determinant of the matrix (1) (1) (2) (2)

distinct traveltimes (1 , 2 , (1) ) and (1 , 2 (2) ) de-

x x x 0

pending on whether the journey from xs to x is undertaken

Q= , , . (83)

1 2 along the first or the second ray. So once there are caustics, there

p p p

P= , , , (84)

1 2

we can derive from Hamiltons equations that the matrices Q

and P satisfy the system of ordinary differential equations

dQ dP

= P, = Q t (c2 /2). (85)

d d

Solving the Hamilton equations (68) together with the sys-

tem (85) is called dynamic ray tracing [see, e.g., Cerveny et al.

(1977) and Cerveny (1985, 1987) for a standard reference]. It

enables us to calculate the traveltimes and amplitudes neces-

sary for the computation of the asymptotic Greens function.

The elements of the matrices Q and P are used in many asymp- FIG. 7. Turning of the set of bicharacteristics in phase space. At

totic calculations, e.g., in true amplitude Kirchhoff migration the caustic point x0 , the set of bicharacteristics has a vertical

[see, e.g., Bleistein et al. (2001) for a recent reference]. tangent direction.

1320 Carcione et al.

are several rays in general, all with different slowness vectors To appreciate the difference with our earlier starting point

p(i) , passing through the same point in physical space. The trav- G = Aei , we try to apply the lemma of stationary phase to

eltime function (1 , 2 , ) becomes a multivalued function in the integral in the right-hand side of equation (86). The sta-

(i) (i)

x-coordinates: (i) (x) = (1 , 2 , (i) ). Because of this, and tionarity conditions are p (x, xs ; p) = 0, which can be seen as

because of the fact that the gradient vectors (i) jump dis- three equations from which we can try to solve for p(x, xs ). If

continuously from one branch of the traveltime function to the this works, we simply set

other, we cannot speak of a classical solution of the eikonal

equation anymore. Still, the different branches are important (x, xs ) = (x, xs ; p(x, xs )) (87)

for imaging in complex geologies [see, e.g., ten Kroode et al.

(1998) and Operto et al. (2000)]. and

Figure 8 illustrates the concept of caustics and multivalued

traveltime functions in the case of two spatial dimensions. The

q

figure shows a fan of rays originating from a common sur- A(x, xs ) = a(x, xs ; p(x, xs ))/ |det H ()|, (88)

face location (xs , 0). The velocity model is a smoothed ver-

sion of the well known Marmousi model (Versteeg and Grau, where the Hessian of is defined as the matrix of second order

1991). Also indicated are some wave fronts (i.e. surfaces of derivatives:

constant traveltime) perpendicular to the rays. Clearly, there

2

are regions in the model where several rays pass through the H () = . (89)

same subsurface location, giving rise to multivalued travel- pi p j

times. Also, the wavefronts, which are initially smooth curves,

develop singularities in these regions. It can be shown that Application of the lemma of stationary phase then gives a so-

these singularities, which manifest themselves as the sharp lution of the form Aei/2 ei , which differs only by a phase

edges of so-called cusps are precisely the caustics introduced factor ei/2 from our earlier starting point (see below for the

above. definition of the number ). However, according to the implicit

The solution of the wave equation near caustic points has function theorem, in order to solve p(x, xs ) from the station-

been carefully analyzed by Hormander (1971), Duistermaat arity conditions, we need to have that det H () 6= 0. It turns

(1974, 1995) and Maslov and Fedoriuk (1981) from a mathe- out that this condition is equivalent to the condition J 6= 0,

matical point of view, and by Chapman and Drummond (1982) which we have found above in our discussion of the method

from a more geophysical point of view. It turns out that in a of characteristics for the eikonal equation. In other words, it is

neighborhood of a caustic point one can find a solution of the not possible to apply the lemma of stationary phase in a caus-

form tic point. Fortunately, the integral representation (86) remains

3/2 Z valid in a caustic point.

i

G(x, xs , ) = dp a(x, xs ; p)ei(x,xs ;p) . Away from the caustic points, we can solve the stationarity

2 conditions for p but, as explained above, there will in general

(86)

be several solutions p(i) (x, xs ), one for each ray from xs to x.

Hence, we will find a solution of the form

X

N

(i) (i) (x,x )

G(x, xs , ) = A(i) (x, xs )ei 2 ei s , (90)

i=1

(i) = 3 sgn H x, xs ; p(i) 2 (91)

is called the KMAH index. The notation sgn H denotes the sig-

nature of the matrix H , i.e., the difference between the number

of positive and the number of negative eigenvalues of H . If a

ray passes through a caustic point x0 , the determinant of the

Hessian goes through zero, which means that one (or two)

eigenvalues of H () change sign. As a consequence, the sig-

nature of H () changes by an even number and the phase in

equation (90) changes by an integer multiple of /2.

Numerical methods

There are several classes of numerical methods for solv-

ing the eikonal and transport equation. We discuss two of them.

FIG. 8. A fan of rays in two dimensions starting from a surface

location and the associated wavefronts. The ray coverage is The first consists of methods which use ray tracing followed by

kept sufficiently high by filling in shadows with new rays (see interpolation to a rectangular grid. The second class comprises

the section on wavefront construction). FD methods.

Seismic Modeling 1321

In practical applications, one often wants to solve the fol- Instead of using a ray-tracing method, one can also solve

lowing problem. Suppose that xs = (xs , ys , 0) is the location of the eikonal and the transport equations directly by using FD

a seismic source at the surface of the earth, and we want to methods. The methods we describe here are the essentially

calculate the traveltime function (x, xs ) for all x on a regu- non-oscillatory (ENO) upwind FD methods. These methods

lar grid. One way of doing this is by shooting a fan of rays were introduced by Osher and Sethian (1988) for a general

starting from the source location xs , i.e., by solving the ray class of first-order partial differential equations. Further work

equations (68) with initial conditions (69) for a range of ini- on the eikonal equation was done by Vidale (1988, 1990), Van

(k) (`)

tial angles 1 = 1min + (k 1)11 , 2 = 2min + (` 1)12 (see Trier and Symes (1991), El-Majeed et al. (1997), Kim and Cook

Figure 8 for a 2-D example). (1999), and Qian and Symes (1999).

In fact, it is most convenient to parameterize the ray The advantage of FD methods (as opposed to ray-tracing

equations by time t instead of the flow parameter . Since methods) is that they calculate the traveltime field (x) directly

d/d = p2 = 1/c2 , the reparameterized equations become on a grid, so there is no need for interpolation. Also, no spe-

cial precautions have to be taken in shadow zones, unlike the

dx dp d

= c2 p, = c1 c, = 1. (92) wavefront construction method described above, which shoots

dt dt dt additional rays in these regions in order to keep an even ray

The equations are usually solved numerically by a Runge- coverage. Therefore, FD eikonal solvers are computationally

Kutta method. The result is a family of points xk`m = very efficient.

(k) (`)

x(1 ), x(2 ), m1t. For fixed indices k and `, these points are Multivaluedness is, however, not so easily incorporated into

on an individual ray characterized by the initial angles 1 , 2 .

(k) (`) an FD eikonal solver. In fact, most FD eikonal solvers calculate

For fixed index m, they form a discretization of a wavefront at the so-called viscosity solution, introduced in the mathematical

time t = m1t. literature by Crandall and Lions (1983). The idea is roughly

The half space z > 0 is then divided into prisms with ver- as follows. If one adds a viscosity term 1 to the eikonal

tices xk,`,m , xk+1,`,m , xk,`+1,m , xk,`,m+1 , xk+1,`,m+1 , and xk,`+1,m+1 . equation (56), there is a unique smooth (and, in particular,

If a point x is inside such a prism, one interpolates the trav- single-valued) solution . The viscosity solution is then the

eltime in x trilinearly from the known values at the vertices. limit, in a weak sense, lim0 . It turns out that the viscosity

This concept of shooting a fan of rays and then interpolating in solution coincides with the first arrival from the source to the

prisms is widely applied in practice. Obviously, the interpola- location x.

tion tends to become somewhat inaccurate if two neighboring The nature of this first-arrival or viscosity solution is il-

rays, which are initially close to each other, start to diverge lustrated in Figure 10, which shows the propagation of first-

strongly. This is partly a natural process as time increases (con- arrival wavefronts for the same model and shot as used for

sider, e.g., the constant velocity case where rays are radii from the calculation of rays and wavefronts in Figure 8. Comparing

a sphere centered at the source location); partly it may also be Figures 8 and 10, one sees that the cusps (corresponding to

caused by strong variations in the velocity. For example, high- the later arrivals) are missing from the wavefronts. Notice that

velocity regions tend to act as diverging lenses for a fan of rays. the first-arrival wavefronts in Figure 10 have points where their

In order to get accurate traveltimes for such situations, Vinje

et al. (1993) introduced the concept of wavefront construction.

The essence of this method is that, whenever the three points

xk,`,m , xk+1,`,m , and xk,`+1,m are too far apart, a new ray is started

on the wavefront t = m1t starting from a location between

these three points. In this way, one will get an even distribution

of the subsurface with rays. This method has been used in the

computation of the result shown in Figure 8.

Notice that this method is quite capable of calculating mul-

tivalued traveltime functions, because a given point x can be in

several prisms. Each of those yields an interpolated traveltime

at x.

Obviously, one need not restrict the interpolation to travel-

times. All other quantities computed during the ray tracing are

known at the vertices xk`m and can be interpolated in the same

way. In particular, one can calculate the amplitudes A(x, xs )

of the Greens function on a regular grid. Just as the travel-

time, the amplitude function will be multivalued at a point x,

if x lies in several prisms. In this way we can calculate, for ex-

ample, the asymptotic Greens function given in equation (90)

associated with the fan of rays in Figure 8 at the bottom of

the model (z = 2900 m). Obviously, the amplitudes blow up in

the neighborhood of caustics, where one should use the repre-

sentation (86). Taking this for granted, and convolving with a FIG. 9. Greens function (convolved with a 50-Hz Gabor

50-Hz Gabor wavelet, one obtains the result plotted in Figure 9. wavelet) for the fan of rays from Figure 8 evaluated at

Notice that most of the energy is in the later arrivals. z = 2900 m and at 25-m x intervals.

1322 Carcione et al.

gradient vector is discontinuous; these correspond to the self- For a first-order scheme, for example, one takes

intersections of the true wavefronts (Figure 8) and are called

shocks. x

= max|max(Dx , 0), min(Dx+ , 0)|, (96)

Let us briefly discuss the general structure of an upwind

FD method for the eikonal equation. First, one solves the z- and similarly for the y-derivative. These FD operators are such

component of the traveltime gradient from the eikonal equa- that only upwind (i.e., in the direction from which the rays

tion by choosing are coming) information is used to approximate the deriva-

s tive. To see this, we discern the four cases: (1) Dx > 0,

2 2

1 Dx+ > 0, (2) Dx < 0, Dx+ < 0, (3) Dx < 0, Dx+ > 0, and (4)

= . (93)

z c2 x y Dx > 0, Dx+ < 0.

Obviously, the choice of the positive root means that we are Case 1 corresponds to the situation where all rays intersect-

restricting ourselves to rays propagating downwards, which is ing a certain depth level z in an x-interval [x 1x, x + 1x]

not a serious limitation for many applications. Another conse- travel from left to right. The right-hand side of equation (96)

quence is that we have to take precautions in order to guarantee is then equal to Dx , which is indeed an upwind finite differ-

that the argument of the square root remains positive. The ar- ence. The second case corresponds to the situation where all

gument can become negative if the angle that a ray makes with rays in the interval [x 1x, x + 1x] travel from right to left,

the positive z-axis becomes too large. The remedy is to replace and again the difference operator (96) picks the upwind differ-

the argument by cos2 (max )/c2 ) if c1 (x2 + y2 ) > sin2 (max ). Ef- ence. In case 3, the right-hand side of equation (96) vanishes.

fectively, this amounts to accurate traveltime calculation inside This case corresponds to the situation where the rays passing

a cone || < max . through the interval [x 1x, x + 1x] at depth z change direc-

If we denote the right-hand side of equation (93) by tion: first they all move from left to right, then they move from

F(c, x , y ) and write ikj for the value of the traveltime on right to left. Presumably, x is then close to a point of rarefac-

the grid point (i1x, j1y, k1z), we can write tion, and the derivative x is indeed zero up to first order.

Finally, case 4 corresponds to the situation where there is a

ik+1

= ikj + 1z F cikj , (x )ikj , ( y )ikj (94) shock on the interval [x 1x, x + 1x] (see Figure 10 for an

j

illustration). In principle there are now two rays arriving in the

and solve for ik+1

recursively. If one wants higher order accu-

j point (x, y, z + 1z), so we could choose two different travel-

racy, one should, of course, use a higher order scheme for the

times. The choice maxmod (Dx , Dx+ , 0) to approximate the

z-integration.

derivative x turns out to select the shortest traveltime (see

The essence of the method is the specification of how to

Qian and Symes, 1999).

calculate the derivatives x and y in the right-hand side

For practical purposes, first-order schemes are very ineffi-

of equation (94) by finite differences. This is done by choos-

cient. Moreover, if one also wants to solve the transport equa-

ing an ingeneous combination of the standard first order FD

tion by finite differences, one needs to have higher order accu-

operators:

racy for the traveltimes. For this purpose, one can use the ENO

(x 1x, y, z) (x, y, z)

Dx (x, y, z) = , methods mentioned before. They differ from the first-order

1x (95)

method described above by a more complicated prescription

(x, y 1y, z) (x, y, z) of the difference operators than the one given in equation (96),

D

y (x, y, z) = . which is accurate up to higher order [see Osher and Sethian

1y

(1988) and Kim and Cook (1999)].

The fact that no later arrivals are calculated is a disadvan-

tage for some applications, such as multivalued imaging. Symes

(1996) and Benamou (1999) adapted the standard FD meth-

ods in such a way that they calculate multivalued arrival times

when these occur.

Interfaces

Until now, we have implicitly assumed that our velocity

model c(x) is smooth (i.e., that it does not contain jump discon-

tinuities). The theory of asymptotics is most easily explained

in such a medium. The asymptotic solutions in smooth me-

dia, and in particular the traveltime and amplitude functions

(x, xs ) and A(x, xs ), can be used in transmission tomography

and migration using a smooth background model (see, e.g.,

Cohen et al, 1986).

Most geological subsurface models, however, contain dis-

continuities. After all, this is the reason that we can probe

the subsurface by surface seismic techniques in the first place.

Asymptotic techniques are easily extended to models with in-

FIG. 10. Propagation of first-arrival wavefronts for the same terfaces of discontinuities. Assuming that the interface divides

shot and model as used in Figure 8. the subsurface into two regions, each with its own smooth

Seismic Modeling 1323

velocity function, say c1 (x) and c2 (x), we write previous techniques as regards accuracy and stability. How-

ever, FE methods may prove to be unstable for large variations

G(x, xs , ) = Ain (x, xs )eiin (x,xs ) of the Poissons ratio. FE methods are best suited for engineer-

ing problems, where interfaces are well defined (in contrast

+ Ar e f ` (x, xs )eir e f ` (x,xs ) (97)

with geological interfaces). Accurate modeling of topography

on one side of the interface and or interfaces often requires the use of nonstructured grids. Es-

pecially in three dimensions, this is one of the main disadvan-

G(x, xs , ) = Ar e f r (x, xs )eir e f r (x,xs ) (98) tages of FE methods because of the geometrical problems to be

solved when constructing the model. FE methods, however, are

on the other side. Here, in and r e f ` satisfy the eikonal equa- to be preferred for seismic problems involving the propagation

tion for the velocity function c1 (x), while r e f r is a solution of of surface waves in situations of complex topography.

the eikonal equation for the velocity function c2 (x). The physi- Integral-equation methods are based on integral representa-

cal interpretation of the above is that one has an incoming and tions of the wavefield. These representations contain a Greens

a reflected wave on one side of the interface and a refracted function that accounts for wave propagation in the embed-

wave on the other side. ding medium. For specific geometries (such as boreholes or

To proceed, one requires continuity of the solution G and other boundaries, media containing cracks, and inclusions of

its normal derivative n G at the interface of discontinu- bounded extent), these methods can be relatively efficient as

ity. These two conditions lead to Snells reflection/refraction compared to direct methods. The reason for this efficiency is

laws for the rays. Integrating along reflected/refracted rays that the number of unknown functions to be determined is con-

will provide us with reflected/refracted traveltimes r e f ` and fined to a bounded region. The price to pay for this reduction

r e f r . Moreover, they enable us to express the amplitudes in unknowns is the fact that the system matrix is full, whereas

Ar e f ` (x, xs ) and Ar e f r (x, xs ) at the interface in terms of the direct methods usually have sparse system matrices that can be

amplitude Ain (x, xs ). Integrating the transport equation along solved in an efficient way. Since integral-equation methods can

reflected/refracted rays will provide us with the amplitudes explicitly account for the boundary conditions at crack bound-

Ar e f ` (x, xs ) and Ar e f r (x, xs ) away from the interface.The de- aries or borehole walls, these methods can provide accurate

tails of the calculation can be found e.g in Cerveny et al. (1977) results for those specific geometries including irregular bore-

and Cerveny (1985, 1987), or Bleistein (1984). holes or boundaries, media containing cracks, and inclusions

CONCLUSIONS

of bounded extent. Also, for deriving analytical imaging meth-

ods, integral-equation techniques are very well suited, and are

The direct methods discussed in this review (finite differ- often used together with asymptotic methods.

ences, pseudospectral methods, and finite-element methods) Asymptotic methods aim at the calculation of approximate

do not have restrictions on the type of constitutive equation, solutions for the wave equation that are valid for high frequen-

boundary conditions, and source-type, and allow general ma- cies. Asymptotic methods calculate the solution up to a smooth

terial variability. For instance, the numerical solution of wave error. In fact, they calculate only the most singular part of the

propagation in an anisotropic poro-viscoelastic medium (ap- solution, which is characterized by a traveltime function and

propriate for reservoir environments) is not particularly diffi- an amplitude function. The traveltime function is a solution of

cult in comparison with simple cases, such as the acoustic wave the eikonal equation; the amplitude function is a solution of the

equation describing the propagation of dilatational waves. transport equation. These equations can be solved in several

Many of the complex constitutive equations handled by di- ways. Wavefront construction and ENO upwind FD schemes

rect methods cannot be solved by integral-equation or asymp- are two of the most important ones. Both methods are very

totic methods without simplifying assumptions. However, di- efficient in terms of CPU usage.

rect methods for solving these equations are certainly more Due to their computational efficiency, asymptotic methods

expensive in terms of computer time and storage requirements. are widely applied in the generation of synthetic seismograms

Finite differences are simple to program and are efficient and the solution of inverse problems such as traveltime tomog-

when compared to alternative methods in cases where the ac- raphy and migration.

curacy requirements are fairly mild. In this sense, a good choice

can be an FD algorithm which is second order in time and ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

fourth order in space. Pseudospectral methods can be more

expensive in some cases, but guarantee high accuracy and rela- First of all, the authors acknowledge the support and com-

tively lower background noise when staggered differential op- ments from Sven Treitel and the critical but very important

erators are used. These operators are also suitable when large reviews of Norm Bleistein and Johann Robertsson. Figures 1

variations of Poissons ratio are present in the model (e.g., and 4 were taken from Huygens famous Traite de la lumiere,

a fluid-solid interface). In three dimensions, pseudospectral which was reprinted in 1990 (together with the original French

methods require a minimum of grid points and can be the best version). We gratefully acknowledge Epsilon, Utrecht, for giv-

choice when limited computer storage is available. However, ing us permission to use these illustrations.

if a dense grid is required for physical reasons (e.g., fine layer-

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