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O&M Handbook for Ericsson RAN

Released by BSNL
O&M Handbook for CMTS Networks
on
Ericsson Technologies

(BSNL Internal Circulation Only)

1st Edition (May 2016)


Message

Anupam Shrivastava
Chairman and Managing Director
BSNL Board

I am happy to note that Consumer Mobility vertical has taken an initiative to provide a
comprehensive, OEM technology wise, Operations & Maintenance Handbook for routine
operation and maintenance. In this series, this handbook on Ericsson will be extremely beneficial
for use by our Technicians and Engineers in 17 Circles of North and East Zones.

I feel that such a Ready compilation of day to day O & M activities, being followed in the 17 circles,
at one place will go a long way in helping our field units to learn from good practices being followed
in other circles.

I congratulate Director (CM) Shri R. K. Mittal and his team for this great initiative and efforts. I am
looking forward for release of such O&M Handbooks for other technologies.

07.05.2016 (Anupam Shrivastava)


Message

R. K. Mittal
Director (CM)
BSNL Board

I am very glad to see that the Handbook on CMTS Operation and Maintenance for Ericsson
technology has been made first time in BSNL. Availability of this comprehensive Handbook with
the field engineers and technicians for carrying out day to day operation and maintenance
activities is of paramount importance.

I am sure that this Handbook will help and encourage operation and maintenance personals for
constant monitoring and taking immediate remedial actions through OMC-R & OMC-S for
improving QoS parameters. This Handbook will help to solve problems related to: handover
issues; call drop issues; SDCCH/TCH congestion; SDCCH/TCH blocking; VSWR issues; call setup
success rate; etc.

Basic guidelines also on conducting Drive Test, Optimisation, etc has been provided for field
personal who will immediately be able to start drive testing and RF optimisation activities. This
Handbook is only the beginning and suggestions for improvement may be sent by email to
srgmnwocm_co@bsnl.co.in

I thank Dr Biswajit Paul SrGM/CM Orissa Circle and other officers of East Zone Circles for their
hard work and sincere efforts to bring out this much desired Handbook. I also thank Shri Shyam
Narain, Dr S K Samanta, Shri Kishore Bhagtani, and other officers of BSNL CO for their valuable
contribution.

07.05.2016 (R. K. Mittal)


Preface
A comprehensive handbook for O&M activities to be undertaken by the field engineers and
technicians is one of the most critical pieces of document and is required in hand for smooth
maintenance as well as speedy resolution of various issues. There has always been a need of one
comprehensive book for resolving most of the day to day issues faced by network engineers and
technicians in the field.

This handbook is a result of an idea initiated by Shri R K Mittal, DIR (CM) BSNL Board and
translated by teams of experienced officers of various levels both at BSNL Corporate Office and in
the Circles. The final version is compiled by Dr S K Samanta AddlGM (NWO-CM) and Shri Kishore
Bhagtani DGM (NWO-CM) BSNL Corporate Office under the guidance of SrGM (NWO-CM) BSNL
CO and Dir (CM) BSNL Board.

This Handbook will not only help the existing officers, engineers and technicians in SSAs and
circle offices, but will be very much useful to those new personnel, who will be posted for day to
day operation and maintenance activities for CMTS networks of Ericsson Technologies in the
coming days.
Acknowledgements
Following officers of East Zone actively contributed for the preparation of this handbook under the
guidance of Dr Biswajit Paul, Sr GM (NWO-CM) Orissa Circle

Orissa Circle
Gurudas Meher, GM CM, BSNL Odisha (Contact 94371-77700, gmeher_its@yahoo.co.in )
BC Panda, DGM Core NW, BSNL Odisha (Contact 94370-82555, bcpanda7@gmail.com)
PK Sahoo, SDE MSC Cuttack, BSNL Odisha (Contact 94370-55400, pksahoo@bsnl.co.in )
Prabir Sahoo, SDE RF, Rourkela, BSNL Odisha (Contact 94370-14200, mr.prabir@gmail.com)

Calcutta Telecom District


Debjit Saha, DE RF, BSNL Kolkata (Contact 94330-00419, debjitsaha1@gmail.com )

Assam Circle
Raju Sutradhar, JTO CMTS, BSNL Assam (Contact 94350-25262, raju.aec3@gmail.com )

M/s Ericsson
Ramesh Chandra Dimri of M/s EIL has provided valuable suggestions for simple explanation on
the technical issues.
INDEX
Page
Sl. No Topic No
1. Introduction 9
2. BTS 12
2.1. BTS Function and Block Diagram 12
2.2. BTS Preventive Maintenance 14
2.2.1. General Inspection of BTS 14
2.2.2. Monthly Routines 16
2.2.3. Quarterly Routines 16

2.2.4. Half-yearly Routines 17


2.2.5. Annually Routines 17
2.2.6. Logs and Records 17
2.3. BTS Fault Monitoring, Alert and Rectification Mechanism 17
2.3.1. Fault Monitoring 17
2.3.2. Fault Alert Mechanism 18
2.3.3. Fault Rectification Mechanism 18
2.4. BTS Health checkup & Routine Maintenance 18
2.4.1. Winfiol 18
2.4.2. Health Ckeckup & Maintenance 23

2.4.3. OMT Software 32


3. QoS of Radio Network 2G 33
3.1. Report Analysis 33
3.2. Improvement of 2G Data Services 37
3.3. Case Study 39
4. BSC 46
4.1. BSC Function 46
4.2. BSC Hardware 47
4.3. BSC Preventive Maintenance 50
4.4. BSC Fault Monitoring, Alert and Rectification Mechanism 51
4.5. BSC Health Checkup & Routine Maintenance 52
4.5.1. Daily Health Checkup 52
4.5.2. Weekly O&M Routine 70
4.5.3. Monthly O&M Routine 72
5. 3G Radio Network 76
5.1. Node B Hardware Description 76
5.2. Node B Preventive Maintenance 86
5.2.1. General Inspection of Node-B 86
5.2.2. Monthly Routine 87
5.2.3. Quarterly Routine 87

5.2.4. Half Yearly Routine 88


5.2.5. Annual Routine 88
5.2.6. Log & Records 89
5.3. Node B Fault Monitoring, Alert & Rectification Mechanism 89
5.4. Node B Health checkup & Routine Maintenance 90
6. RNC 96
6.1. RNC Function 96
6.2. RNC Hardware 102
6.3. RNC Health Checkup & Routine Maintenance 106
6.4. Alarm & Analysis 119

7. QoS of Radio Network 3G 128


8. Drive Test 140
8.1. Purpose of Drive Test 140
8.2. When to Undertake Drive Test 140
8.3. Where to Undertake Drive Test 140
8.4. Route Plan 141
8.5. Drive Test Tools 141
8.6. Data Measurements 142
8.7. Log File & Export 145
9. Management Reports 155
9.1. On Daily Basis 155
9.2. On Monthly Basis 155
9.3. Sample Management Report 156
10. BTS Inspection 158
11. Radio Network Optimization 162
Event based Recording for Efficient Optimisation of 3G
12. RAN 179
13. Minilink Operation & Maintenance 184
13.1. Minilink Hardware 184
13.2. MSM Program 188
13.3. Fault Management 189
14. MPBN Monitoring 196
14.1. Port Status 196
14.2. Error Counter Check & Reset 196
14.3. Temperature measurement in MPBN Router & Switch 197
15. Frequently Asked Questions 200
16. Exchange Data Backup Procedure 207
17. Daily Health Check Tracker 208
1. Introduction
A mobile network consists of: a) a access part - Base Station Subsystem (BSS); and b) a
core part - Network Subsystem (NSS). BSS Networks consists of: Base Transceiver Stations
(BTS) and Base Station Controller (BSC). NSS Networks consists of: Mobile Switching
Centre (MSC), Home Location Register (HLR), Visitor Location Register (VLR), IN and
Billing & Customer Care Systems (B&CCS).

HLR/AuC/EIR
IN/Billing SMSC/MMSC

MS
Other Networks
BSC
BTS MSC (PSTN, Mobile &
Data Networks)
GMSC
BSC VLR
Packet Handling
BTS BTS Nodes
PCU Router
Internet
MS BSC
SGSN GGSN

1.1. BSS Networks


The main components of BSS networks consists of two parts: i) Radio - BTS, BTS-BSC
links, BSC and ii) Infra - Tower, Diesel Generator (DG), Air Conditioners (AC) or Free
Cooling System (FCS), -48 Volt Battery and Power Plant. BTS to BSC links are either
provided through OFC networks (i.e. CPE, ADM. MADM, etc) or through Digital
Microwave (i.e. Mini Link).

Schematic Diagram of a BSS

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1.2. Base Transceiver Stations (BTS): BTS or access nodes provides connection to a user
through a wireless local loop, with authorisation for access and call managed by HLR, VLR,
IN and B&CCS. The wireless loop is only used when a call is in progress and is shared
among the BTS users served in a geographical area; this typically covers a radius up to 20km
(if there is no obstruction e.g tall buildings). The traffic from several BTSs is multiplexed at
the Base Station Controller (BSC) which relays to the Mobile Switching Centre (MSC) thus
providing the connection between users. A BTS is designed according to: minutes of call,
number of messages and amount of Data to be provided in a specific time period. Assuming a
BTS is designed to handle 1000 minutes of calls per hour, it could provide 200 users with 5
minutes or alternatively 500 users with 2 minutes of calls. It is clear there can be more users if
the call duration is less. This is not the case in a wire line network where a dedicated
connection from the access node is provided for each user. This characteristic of mobile
networks suggests a different strategy be folowed in providing desired Quality of Services
(QoS) to Mobile users.

A successful call/connection uses two links for transport of information: 1) originating links:
and 2) terminating links. When both the links of a call are provided by the same BTS it is
defined as intra BTS call otherwise it is called inter BTS call. Both the intra BTS and inter
BTS call passes through BSC and is switched at MSC. When a call is terminated in a network
managed by a different operator it is routed via a Gateway MSC (GMSC).

Authorisation for access to the mobile network to a user is done by allocating a unique mobile
number against the subscribers Service Identity Module (SIM) and creating a matching data
base in the HLR. The Mobile Equipment (ME) with the SIM inserted in it is generally called
the Mobile Station (MS) and communicates to HLR through BTS, BSC and MSC to get
access to the network.
Components such as the BTS, BSC and their interconnections are used for the transport of all
services, whereas components like MSC and links between BSC-MSC and MSC-GMSC are
only used for voice and low speed Data such as the Short Message Service (SMS). For
message services like SMS and Multimedia Message Services (MMS) additional nodes such
as Short Message Service Centre (SMSC) and Multimedia Message Service Centre (MMSC)
are used to store and forward the message.

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Traffic such as a voice call is carried through a Traffic Channel (TCH) which transports
information usually measured in kbps (kilo bits per second). For a full rate voice call each
TCH carries 12.2 kbps whereas the Data rate per TCH can be up to 59.2 kbps depending on
the modulation scheme and technology e.g. GPRS or EDGE. A BTS configured with 4
carriers per sector i.e. total 96 channels is generally connected to a BSC with a 2 Mbps
(Millions of bits per second) link i.e. 1E1. This 2Mbps is not sufficient for high Data usage
customers in urban areas and therefore 2 nos of 2Mbps links i.e. 2E1 per BTS to BSC is
required.

Smart Phone users heavily uses Data services such as e-mail, browsing, download and
audio/video streaming and these services do not use elements such as the MSC and BSC-
MSC links. Technologies such as General Packet Radio Service (GPRS), Enhanced Data rates
for GSM Evolution (EDGE), third Generation (3G) and forth Generation (4G) are generally
employed for these Data services. It uses Packet Handling Nodes (PHN) such as Packet
Controller Units (PCU), Serving GPRS Support Nodes (SGSN), Gateway GPRS Support
Nodes (GGSN) and Routers in place of MSCs. The resources of BTS, BSC and
interconnected links are used to update the location by each active mobile set even in the idle
state. The volume of such traffic is small but adequate no of communication channels need to
be defined.

The authorisation to access a mobile network is controlled by elements such as the HLR, the
Authentication Centre (AuC), the Equipment Identity Register (EIR), the VLR and
IN/B&CCS. HLR, AuC and EIR is normally configured in the same hardware and in general
there are two systems (1 + 1) for each geographical area ( circle ) for redundancy purposes.
An HLR can provide access to the tune of 10.0 million subscribers and can be connected to
more than one MSC. Each MSC is paired with a VLR which temporarily stores the data for
the customers who visits the area under the radio coverage of the BTSs connected to the
MSC.

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2. BTS
2.1BTS Function and Block Diagram. There are 2 models of 2G BTS of Ericsson mainly in
operation in BSNL: A- RBS 2206; and B - RBS 2964. BTS Type RBS 2202 supplied in
Phase I, will be replaced soon, and therefore, not included in this handbook.
A. RBS 2206: RBS 2206 consists of five main units: DXU; TRU; CDU; CXU; and IDM.
Picture of a sample RBS 2206 is given below.

DISTRIBUTION SWITCH UNIT (DXU)


The Distribution Switch Unit (DXU) is the RBS central control unit. There is one DXU per
RBS. It provides a system interface by cross connecting 2Mbit/s transport network and
individual time slots to their associated transceivers.

TRANSCEIVER UNIT (TRU)


It is a transmitter/receiver and signal processing unit which broadcasts and receives the radio
frequency signals that are passed to and from the mobile station. Each TRU handles 8 airtime
slots (i.e. TCH).

COMBINING AND DISTRIBUTION UNIT (CDU)


A combiner is a device, at the base station, that allows connection of several transmitters to
one antenna. It allows each transmitters RF energy out to the antenna, while blocking the RF
energy from the other transmitters utilizing the same antenna. There are two types of
combiners:
Hybrid
Filter

12
Configuration Switch Unit (CXU)

The Configuration Switch Unit (CXU) distributes the Receiver (RX) signals from the
Combining and Distribution Unit (CDU) to the double Transceiver Unit (DTRU) within the
same RBS.

Internal Distribution Module (IDM)

Supplies +24DC to the system


Has fuses and breakers for protection
Has +24V DC filter for battery connections

The main units in the power and climate system are:

Power Supply Unit (PSU)

Provide +24V DC to the system


Available in two versions.
PSU AC for 200~250VAC (Rectifier).
PSU DC for -48V system. (Converter dc to dc).
Number of units 0-3.
Additional units required to reduce battery charging times.
AC Connection Unit (ACCU)
DC Connection Unit (DCCU)
Fans controlled by Fan Control Units (FCU)
Climate sensors, i.e. temperature and humidity sensors

LOCAL BUS
The local bus offers internal communication between the DXU, TRUs and ECU. Examples of
information sent on this bus are TRX Signalling, speech and data.

TIMING BUS
The timing bus carries air timing information from the DXU to the TRUs.

CDU BUS
The CDU Bus connects the CDU to the TRUs and facilitates interface and O&M functions
e.g. transfers alarms and RU specific information.

IOM BUS
This interface consists of three individual I2C ports. It is used to communicate with the CDU,
CXU, TMA-CM and cabinet ID.

B. RBS 2964: RBS 2964 consists of PSU; DXU; DRU; and IDM . Picture of a sample RBS
2964 is given below.

13
Dual Radio Unit (DRU) Consists of
2 GSM TRX
Hybrid combiner
2 TX filter
2 duplex filters
2 bias injectors
Number of units 1-6(12 TRX)

Y-Links
Replaces Timing Bus, Local Bus and X Bus
New point-to-point interface between DXU & TRUs
Based on LVDS,( Low Voltage Differential Signalling) interface
Backplane connector on DXU with compatibilityof 2102/2202 cabinets
Each DRU has two Y links (one for each transciver)
Each Y link is divided into two interfaces:
Y1: TX control data
TX burst data (X Bus data)
Y2: Traffic data UL & DL
O&M Data
Timing

2.2 BTS Preventive Maintenance


2.2.1 General Inspection of BTS
Whenever visiting a BTS, check the following points to ensure that everything is in order:
14
Check for any fault in the unit or any other alarms
No visual damage to the equipment or site room is evident
Equipment The waveguides and connectors are fixed properly
related The equipement and the place should be kept clean and cleaning
checks schedule should be maintained sincerely
It should be ensured that all external alarms are extended and are
working properly
Air conditioners are functioning correctly. There is no leakage of
air-conditioned air through door, window or waveguide openings.
The air inlet / filters to the cabinet are clean
Environment
Indoor light is working & Indoor emergency light is working
Check for any surrounding activities or changes close to the site that
may affect the performance of the system or safety of the equipment
All modules of SMPS power plant are working properly and load is
being shared by all.
Check back-up batteries for corrosion and leakage.
Battery /
Check the run time of Engine Alternator and compare it with the
Power plant
manufacturers recommended service interval regarding the run
/ DG
time and ensure regular service.
The oil in the Engine Alternator should be checked with the dipstick
to ensure its sufficient level and also its usefulness.
It should be ensured that Earth resistance value has been measured
Earthing once in every six months and the same is displayed. It should be less
than 0.5 ohm.
Expiry date on Fire extinguisher and sufficiency of fire safety
Fire Safety
equipments.
Check that the navigation light on the tower is operational and
Tower
condition of tower with regard to its painting etc is OK.
Other The media connectivity record should be maintained in a database.

2.2.2 Monthly Routines


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Climate control i.e. air conditioners are functioning correctly. There is no leakage of air-
conditioned air through door, window or waveguide openings.
The air inlet / filters to the cabinet are clean.
The oil in the Engine Alternator should be checked with the dipstick to ensure sufficient level
and also its usefulness.
Functioning of all alarms is tested for service worthiness.
Weak cell of batteries to be identified and remedial action should be taken.
Check for logical parameter inconsistencies like Half Rate parameters modified in OMCR but
not getting reflected in traffic report in terms of half rate erlang.
Audit of adjacencies and RF parameters like BCCH / BSIC/ HSN. Number of adjacencies
should be optimized. It should be monitored whether all defined adjacencies takes traffic or
not. Extra neighbours should be removed. Missing neighbours should be added. Cells having
high ratio of handover traffic to cell originating traffic should be studied further for
improvement.
Audit of 2G / 3G adjacencies should be carried with consideration of BCCH / BSIC.
Nearby cells having same BCCH / HSN should be identified and modified
2.2.3 Quarterly Routines
The following should be checked once in a quarter in addition to the regular daily and weekly
check-ups:-
Check BTS rack filters and replace if necessary.
Carry out battery back-up voltage test, to ascertain whether the batteries are holding their full
charge.
Check the site temperature and humidity.
Updation of data in the planning tool based on results of Drive Tests during the quarter.
Cell Planning and RF Planning should be reviewed for any possible error or change in
situation due to addition, deletion or change in configuration of BTS in the network.
Any additional BTS should be put in service only after A/T and special monitoring on Call
Success Rate (CSR) in all cells in the BSC is necessary so as to be sure that it is not impacting
the performance of any other sector/ cell adversely.
Temperature monitoring
In case of shelter sites: - free cooling filter should be cleaned
In case of outdoor site: - all canopy fans should be in working condition
2.2.4 Half-yearly Routines
16
Power measurement of the BTS should be done.
The waveguides and connectors are fixed properly.
VSWR should be measured once in six months for every BTS and its value should be
maintained within the limit (<1.3) for all waveguides.
Earth resistance should be measured for all BTS sites. The value of earth resistance in respect
of DC earth, Tower earth and AC earth should beless than specified value.
It should be checked if there is any leakage for A/C as the same increases load on the plant and
also power consumption. It also needs to seen that penalty is not being imposed by Electricty
Boards on account of power factor, over consumption etc.

2.2.5 Annual Routines


Pre-monsoon activity
Shelter /canopy leakage
VSWR measurement
Waveguide termination weather proofing
Site cleaning - inside shelter / canopy & surrounding area (particularly @ NBSNL sites )
Mini link status (Antenna orientation tighten, receive power check etc.)

2.2.6 Logs and Records


Log book has to be maintained at each BTS.
Daily Log for all activities at BTS including the outage.
Power & Engine Alternator run log book
To maintain spare-part list at each SSA
To maintain complaint register at SSA for network related problems.
To maintain list of sites which fail frequently, identify the root cause and take corrective
action.

2.3 BTS Fault Monitoring, Alert and Rectification Mechanism


2.3.1 Fault Monitoring
Faults are being continuously monitored on 24 X 7 by NOC / OMCR personnels.
As and when any fault occurs in the network it is indicated on OMCR monitor.
2.3.2 Fault Alert mechanism

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24X7 NOC / OMCR staff escalates the fault to the concerned persons/ field staff.
Software based automatic alert system is put in place which informs the faults to the
concerned staff through SMS
The concerned officer identifies the fault reason like media problem / power supply problem /
equipment related problem
2.3.3 Fault Rectification Mechanism
Reason of
Action to be taken
Fault
Media The section is to be identified and concerned officer is being
informed for furher rectification.
If the power supply is disconnected, it should be ensured that
Power
Battery is taking load and if required DG set should be started.
If there is problem of power plant module, it should be replaced.
Soft reset should be given from OMCR
Equipement Hard reset should be given from the site
related Faulty Y-link cable should be replaced.
If required faulty cards (DXU, TRU etc) should be replaced.
Enviorment Check Air condition working
(High Check Free cooling system
Temperature) Check in case of out door BTS - Canopy Fan or Door Fan

In case of BTS equipement related problem, site visit is required for further investigation and
action.

2.4 BTS Health Checkup & Routine Maintenance


For Command level health checkup Winfoil has to be loaded in the work station / laptop.
2.4.1 Winfiol
WinFiol: WinFiol is a software developed by Ericsson for operation and maintenance of
Ericsson systems, which includes mainly core network and BSS.

Installation of WinFiol: The WinFiol installation offers Complete Setup, Custom Setup and
Compact Setup. Normally we chose Complete Setup. Select the Next button to go through the
installation process, and the Back button to return to the previous page to change any options.

18
Creating new Channel:
1> After opening WinFiol, go to Channel then select new

2> Click Open

3> A notice will come, to activate channel properties.

19
[Note: If you have already created a channel then, right click on the channel, and go to
properties.]

Setting Up the Channel Properties:

1> Provide Channel name.

2> Chose protocol type.

20
3> Chose mode.

4> Provide Host name [the IP address of OSS (Operation & Support System) connected to the
2G network]. Provide Port number, Terminal type.

21
5> Check some other parameters:

22
Understanding the Channel window
When you open a channel normally two windows are shown, the upper window is the Output
window, and the lower one is the Input Window. You can toggle between windows by using
Alt+F5.

Ericsson Commands

1> Logging into BSC with new channel: Whenever you open the channel that you have just
created, will ask for User ID and Password.

Login :<UID> Password:<PW>

After that you are connected to the OSS.

Now to enter into BSC, run the command:


eaw {BSC NAME} [Note BSC name in CAPITAL LETTER]

2.4.2 HEALTH CHECKUP AND MAINTENANCE

1. To check various class of alarms in BSC:


ALLIP: ACL=A1; [ACL stands for alarm category, A1 stands for EXTERNAL

23
For example, High room temp, Door open, A2 stands for INTERNAL. For example,
Permanent fault, OML FAULT, Loop Test Fault, Local Mode.Date and Time of all alarms
are shown, A3 stands for critical alarm]
ALLIP; [To show all type of alarm]

1.1 ACL=A1

1.2 ACL=A2

1.3 ACL=A3

2. To check the status of the sites and cells in the BSC:


24
2.1 RLCRP: CELL=ALL;

BCCH: Number of BCCH available for the sector.


CBCH: Number of CBCH available for the sector.
SDCCH: Number of SDCCH available for the sector.
NOOFTCH: Number of TCH available for the sector.

[Note: If the sector is down, all values will be 0, 0]

2.2 RLCRP: CELL=CAL875A;


=CAL875A; (to check status of all cells)

CHANNEL: Type of channel i.e. TCH/BCCH/SDCCH/CBCH.

25
STATE: State of the channel BUSY/IDLE.
USE: Type of service, the channel is being used for,
SPEECH/GPRS.

3. To check whether a cell is Active or Halted

RLSTP: CELL={SECTOR ID};

3.1 To Halt or To Active a cell

RLSTC: CELL= {SECTOR ID}, STATE={STATE}; [Note:


STATE=HALTED/ACTIVE]

26
4. To Check the Hardware alarms of a Site

RXTCP: MOTY=RXOTG, CELL={SECTOR ID}; [To see the Trunk Group]

RXASP: MO= RXOTG - {TG No.}; [For checking general Alarms]

[Meaning of some alarm:

27
OML FAULT: Optical and Maintenance Link fail (Normally it
indicates media is break.)
PERMANENT FAULT: The equipment is permanently down due to
some reason. (You can try to block &
deblock the equipment, sometimes after
blocking/deblocking, equipment starts
working)

LOCAL MODE: TRU in local mode & sometimes DXU in local Mode

Here some alarms can be seen like BTS EXT UNAFFECTED, BTS INT AFFECTED,
BTS INT UNAFFECTED. In that case we have to determine the Fault Code to know the
exact problem.

RXMFP:MO =RXOCF - {XX}; [To know the Fault Code, Class No &

=RXOTRX - {XX}; Replacement Unit No., Problem can be

=RXORX - {XX}; identified by using RBS Fault Decoder]

=RXOTX - {XX};

=RXOTF - {XX};

=RXOTS-{XX}

[ XX=TG No./TRX No./RX No/TF No/TS No.]

28
By putting fault code in rbs fault decoder we can know the fault details. Also locally in
BTS by connecting OMT software we can know.

After knowing the fault type i.e. vswr fault/rx diversity /card h/w fault. We shall take
necessary action.

5. To Check the DIP(PCM) status of a site

RXTCP: MOTY=RXOTG, CELL={SECTOR ID}; [To determine TG No.]

RXAPP: MO=RXOTG {TG NO}; [To see RBLT]

Observe the first RBLT number:


RBLT2 10977
Divide the number (10977-1) by 32, get the DIP no 343.
DCP=1 to 31: PCM is connected to A port of DXU at BTS.
DCP= 287 to 317:PCM is connected to C port of DXU at BTS.

DTSTP: DIP={DIP No};[To Check Status of Digital Path]

[Observe STATE here, WO=> Working, ABL=> Automatically Blocked (PCM Fail), MBL
=> Manually Blocked]

29
6. To Check the DIP(PCM) transmission quality
DTQUP: DIP= {DIP NO};

[Note: here values of N-ES, N-SES, SLIP, SFV, etc. are all measures of error values of the
PCM, large values of which indicate poor performance of the PCM. T1 value is shown in
minutes, T2 value is shown in hours]

7. To RESET error in DIP(PCM)

DTQSR: DIP= {DIP NO},es,ses;


DTQSR: DIP={DIP NO},unacc,degr;

30
8. BASIC MO COMMANDS

8.1 RXTCP: MOTY=RXOTG; (Shows cells connected to TG)

8.2 RXMOP: MOTY=RXOTG; (Shows all TG parameters)

8.3 RXMOP: MOTY=RXOCF; (Shows TEI value, Signalling & s/w version of CF)

31
RXMOP:MOTY=RXOTF; (Shows TF mode and SYNC source of site)

RXMOP:MOTY=RXOCON; (Shows DCP value of CON)

RXMOP:MOTY=RXOTRX; (Shows TEI,Signalling,CELL,DCP values of TRXs)

RXMOP:MOTY=RXOTX; (Shows CELL,Band,ChlGroup,MaxPower of TXs)

RXMSP:MOTY=RXOTRX; (Shows the status of TRXs)

RXASP:MOTY=RXOTG; (shows the Alarms of TGs)

By using RXMFP command we will also get h/w details of a card i.e. Product code,Sl no, etc.

2.4.3 OMT SOFTWARE:


OMT software is being loaded in Laptop for monitoring of BTS in BTS location.

1. It is very useful at site. It can be used locally to know all the information about site i.e.
configuration, alarms etc.

Connect->Read IDB ->OMT -> DISPLAY INFORMATION

->Installation DataBase->Display-> Information

2. It is required for any card addition, E1 addition, Cascading, Configuration change, TEI
value change, Sector addition/deletion.

OPEN OMT->CREATE IDB->CONNECT->MAKE LOCAL DXU->INSTALL IDB->


RESET DXU

When a site is not working in spite of no faults, we must check the

A) The TEI value of DXU in BTS by IDB and defined TEI value of CF in BSC.
B) The PCM terminated at A port or C port and defined DCP value in BSC.

32
3 QoS of Radio Network 2G
3.1REPORT ANANLYSIS
Important KPIs (Key performance Indicators) are to be monitored and analyzed on regular
basis.

Important 2G VOICE KPIs are:

i. BBH Call/ TCH drop (Should be <3%)


ii. BBH TCH Block (Should be <2%)
iii. BBH SDCCH Block (Should be <1%)
iv. BBH HSR (Should be >95%)
v. BBH CSR (Should be >95%)
vi. BBH Traffic

BBH means Busy Bouncing Hour of the Cell or BSC. The above KPIs can be analyzed
directly from Ericsson BO Reports

RADIO-->BBH_Report_Cell_RC5.3_rev1. ( For BBH of Sectors/ Cells)

RADIO-->Performance_Overview_BSC ( For Whole day of BSCs)

3.1.1 There are several reasons for poor KPI (Call Drop, TCH Block, SDCCH Block, HSR and
CSR). In this handbook, the faults are being explained as follows---SDCCH Block/
Congestion

Reasons---

a. Check carried Traffic (Erlang) from BO Report

b. Defining Proper No of SDCCH Channels (Default value:upto 2TRX->SDCCH 1 TS,above


2TRX to 4TRX->SDCCH 2 TS, above 4TRX to 6TRX->SDCCH 3 TS,above 6TRX-
>SDCCH 4 TS.) (use command RLCCC)

c. Dynamic SDCCH may be defined (use command RLACI)

d. Check Hardware Faults and Transmission Alarms (use command RXASP)

e. Problem in TRX in which SDCCH is defined etc.

If a cell having SDCCH blocking with less TCH traffic, then increase the SDCCH in that
cell.

RF TEAM ACTIVITY---

a. Optimize LAC boundary


b. BTS Boundary ==Define sufficient SDCCH Channels
c. Increase Cell Reselection Hysteresis (crh) to shift the Location Area Border (RLSSC)

33
3.1.2 TCH Block/ Congestion---
Reasons---

a. Check carried Traffic (Erlang) from BO Report


b. Check Hardware Faults and Transmission Alarms
c. Check TRX and Time slots Faults(Idle/ low traffic handling TRX)
d. Power adjustment (BS TX Power max)(in exceptional cases) (using command RLCPC)
e. AMRHR may be done (using command RLDHC)
f. Lowering of HR triggering thresholds.
g. Directed retry/Traffic Handover may be enabled.( RLLBC: ASSOC= ON)----In BSC, (
RLLOC) In Cell
RF TEAM ACTIVITY---

a. Antenna Adjustment for Serving Cell/Neighbour Cells Increasing Mechanical/Electrical tilt ,


Lowering Antenna Height , Changing Antenna Azimuth etc.

b. Planning for additional Cabinet (1800 band) or increasing TRX/ rearranging the existing
configuration.*

c. Load sharing in OL/ UL on basis of Path loss Criteria

d. Fourth sector may be introduced at the same BTS.

e. Last option: Introduction of new BTS

3.1.3 TCH/ Call Drop


Reasons

a. Check Hardware Faults and Transmission Alarms (Command RXASP)

b. Check Transmission error (Command DTQUP)

c. Due to Interference (ICM Band value should be=<3) (Command RLCRP)

d. Check VSWR/ RF cable alarms (Command RXMFP)

e. Check Hopping Frequency, MAIO and HSN(Command RLCHP,RLCFP)

h. Check TRX and Time slots Faults(Idle/ low traffic handling TRX)

i. Check Intra and Inter Handover definitions(Inter BSC and Inter MSC)(Command
RLNCP,RLNRP)

34
j. Check the parameter value like RLT, Rx lev. Access min., RACH Access min as per
situation.

k. Congestion of Target Neighbour sites

l. Nearby Sites Down

RF TEAM ACTIVITY---

a. Sectors Swapping to be checked

b. Intra Sectors cable Swap (Diversity Cable) to be checked

c. Improper Frequency Planning (BCCH/ BSIC) to be monitored

d. Handover Failure (Intra BSC, Inter BSC, Intra MSC, Inter MSC)

e. 3G to 2G handover & vice-versa (IRAT) definition to be checked.

f. If neighbour is missing define the neighbours& if exists then delete and recreate if Handover
is not happening properly.

g. Poor signal strength/quality in UL/DL path to be checked

h. External Interference to be analyzed.

3.1.4 Poor Handover Success Rate


Reasons

a. Check Hardware Faults and Transmission Alarms

b. Check Intra and Inter Handover definitions(Inter BSC and Inter MSC)

c. Congestion of Target Neighbour sites

d. Missing neighbour/Too many neighbours

RF TEAM ACTIVITY

a. Sectors Swapping to be checked

b. Intra Sectors cable Swap (Diversity Cable) to be checked

c. Improper RF planning mainly same BCCH/BSIC to be checked.

d. Frequent Inter MSC/Inter BSC handovers to be checked.

35
3.1.5 Poor Call Setup Success Rate---
Reasons---

a. Check Hardware Faults and Transmission Alarms

b. Check TCH Congestions

c. SDCCH Congestion/Drop

d. Check Transmission error

e. Check VSWR/ Rx Diversity alarm s (code 2A 8,2A 57,2A 33 in CF)

RF TEAM ACTIVITY---

a. Bad RF environment like poor Rxlev/Qual/TA

b. Intra Sectors cable Swap (Diversity Cable)

c. Improper RF planning mainly same BCCH/BSIC

d. External Interference

All above mentioned point to be checked & analyzed

The following points may be taken care to improve the QoS

Signalling of all TRX and CF should be in CONC mode.

Cascading of 2nd cabinet.

Check the 3G reselection and Handover(Use command RLSUP,RLUMP)

Rldep: cell=all,utran,ext; (for checking utran external cells)

Rldep: cell=urk0012; (for checking parameters of utran cells)

Define all 3G cells as External cell in BSC.

36
3.2 IMPROVEMENT OF 2G DATA SERVICES
Performance of 2G DATA are to be monitored and to be analyzed on regular basis.

Important 2G DATA Reports and parameters----

1. Busy Hour/ Whole Day Traffic( Both Uplink and Downlink)


2. Average/ Peak Throughput
3. Packet Channel Allocation Attempts and Failure
4. GSL Device Utilization ( PCU- RPP Card Utilization)
5. RPP Card Load
6. Gb Utilization (Gb interface over Frame Relay)
7. No. of Channel GPRS/ EDGE dedicated and dynamic---OMC-R
8. No. of PCM connected to BTS---OMC-R
9. Version/ Type of BTS---OMC-R
All the above report can be analyzed by generating BO report

The following step should be taken for improvement of GPRS speed in 2G:

1) Sig = CONC instead of MPLEX16 (using rxmoc command)


2) TN7BCCH= EGPRS (using rlbdc command)
3) Try to define edge bpc on Chgr=0 (on Non Hopped channel, numreqegprsbpc value should
be at least 4 for 4-4-4 site, 6 for 6-6-6 sites.3 for 2-2-2 sites per sector. If there is shortage of
BPC in CHGR-0 then we can also define edge bpc in CHGR=1. (Use RLBDC )
4) FPDCH=Number of fixed Edge channel. Dedicated mode is to be implemented for
guaranteed data service where Voice Traffic is more otherwise all Timeslots may be in
dynamic mode. Also Semi-dedicated channel can be introduced. In dedicated mode maximum
recommended value is 2 or 1. If it is set to higher value then voice traffic may be effected.
(Use RLGSC command)
5) CHCSDL =CS4 (using RLGSCcommand)
6) Streamsup=yes, epdchbr=32 (using RLGQC command)
7) Number of data user more, then increase the PRACHBLK=4 (using rlpdc command)
8) Abis allocation should be flexible (rxmoc:mo=rxotg-xx, abisalloc= flexilble;)
9) To check no. of 64k device in Abis path (rxapi: mo=rxotg-xx, dcp=xx, device=RBLT-xx,
res64k)

The following activities in Ericsson BSC required for increasing the 2G data speed--

1. Check how many RPP cards are equipped. 1 RPP card= 64 data Time Slot. If equipped with 7
RPP cards, then total resources are 448 Time slots (7x64=448).

2. All timeslots may be in dynamic mode. Also semi-dedicated channel can be introduced. We
need to ensure more 64K channel (At least 7 64K channel) needs to be defined in TG for
ensuring more use of E-PDCH rather than B-PDCH and also more Number of EDGE BPC
defined in a cell.

37
3. Check for the configuration of 100Mbps data & no error on Gb over Ip link from BSC to
MSC-MPBN router.

4. Augmentation 2nd PCM for every BTS dedicatedly for GPRS is recommended where GPRS
traffic is high.

5. Also RTGPHDEV congestion to be monitored form GSL Device utilization report. GB over
Frame Relay should be migrated to GBoIP as it will ensure some more devices towards radio
link. If RTGPHDEV congestion is more than 90% RPP card is to be added. If 7 RPP card
already in use then New RPP magazine need to be introduced to reduce RTGPHDEV
congestion. (use STDEP:DEV=RTGPHDEV=dev no to check RTGPHDEV Congestion )

Whether GPRS is enabled in cell or not can be checked by the following command.

RLGSP: CELL= {cell name}

In Cells having UL/OL concept implemented, set SCALLOC=BOTHOL (Use RLGSC).


Otherwise GPRS will be available in Under-laid Sub-cell only.

How many EGPRS BPC defined in a cell can be checked by the following command.

RLBDP: CELL= {cell name};

38
3.3CASE STUDY
3.3.1 Special Case: To increase coverage of the Cell where traffic is less, mainly in rural area.

TCC (Transmitter Coherent Combining) Implementation

It will be done in cells having 4 TRX. By doing this the configuration will be reduced to
3TRXs but coverage will be increased to around 1 to 1.5 km. The cell will work on under laid
and overlaid sub-cell concept.

RLSTC:CELL=KAN001A,STATE=HALTED;

RXBLI:MO=RXOTRX-182-0,SUBORD,FORCE;

RXESE:MO=RXOTRX-182-0,SUBORD;

RXBLI:MO=RXOTRX-182-1,SUBORD,FORCE;

RXESE:MO=RXOTRX-182-1,SUBORD;

RXBLI:MO=RXOTRX-182-2,SUBORD,FORCE;

RXESE:MO=RXOTRX-182-2,SUBORD;

RXBLI:MO=RXOTRX-182-3,SUBORD,FORCE;

RXESE:MO=RXOTRX-182-3,SUBORD;

RXMOC:MO=RXOTX-182-0, BAND=GSM900, MPWR=51;

RXMOC:MO=RXOTX-182-2, BAND=GSM900, MPWR=51;

RXMOC:MO=RXOTX-182-3, BAND=GSM900, MPWR=51;

RXMOC:MO=rxotrx-182-0,CELL=KAN001A,CHGR=0;

RXMOC:MO=rxotrx-182-2,CELL=KAN001A,CHGR=1;

RXMOC:MO=rxotrx-182-3,CELL=KAN001A,CHGR=1;

RLDSI:CELL=KAN001A;

RLCPC:CELL=KAN001A,SCTYPE=OL,MSTXPWR=33;

RLCPC:CELL=KAN001A, BSPWRT=47,SCTYPE=OL;

RLDGC:CELL=KAN001A,SCTYPE=OL,CHGR=1;

RLDEC:CELL=KAN001A,IRC=ON;

RLOLC:CELL=KAN001A,LOL=125,LOLHYST=2, TAOL=61,TAOLHYST=0;

RLLOC:CELL=KAN001A,SCTYPE=OL,BSTXPWR=51;

39
RLCPC:CELL=KAN001A, BSPWRB=51;

RLCPC:CELL=KAN001A,SCTYPE=UL,BSPWRT=51;

RLCPC:CELL=KAN001A,SCTYPE=UL,MSTXPWR=33,BSPWRT=51;

RLHPC:CELL=KAN001A,CHAP=6;

RLLLC:CELL=KAN001A,SCLD=ON,SCLDLOL=20,SCLDLUL=40,SCLDSC=OL;

RLPCC:CELL=KAN001A,SCTYPE=UL,SSDESUL=90,QDESUL=30,LCOMPUL=6,QCO
MPUL=70;

RLPCC:CELL=KAN001A,SCTYPE=OL,SSDESUL=90,QDESUL=30,LCOMPUL=6,QCO
MPUL=70;

RLLPC:CELL=KAN001A,PTIMBQ=15;

RXMOE:MO=RXOTRX-182-1;

RXMOE:MO=RXOTX-182-1;

RXMOE:MO=RXORX-182-1;

RXMOE:MO=RXOTS-182-1-0&&-7;

RXESI:MO=RXOTRX-182-0,SUBORD;

RXBLE:MO=RXOTRX-182-0,SUBORD;

RXESI:MO=RXOTRX-182-2,SUBORD;

RXBLE:MO=RXOTRX-182-2,SUBORD;

RXESI:MO=RXOTRX-182-3,SUBORD;

RXBLE:MO=RXOTRX-182-3,SUBORD;

RLCCC:CELL=KAN001A,SDCCH=0,CHGR=1;

RLCCC:CELL=KAN001A,SDCCH=2,TN=2&3,CHGR=0;

RLBDC:cell=KAN001A,NUMREQBPC=16,CHGR=1;

RLGSC:CELL=KAN001A,SCALLOC=BOTHOL;

RLSTC:CELL=KAN001A,STATE=ACTIVE;

40
3.3.2 To add no. TRXs in the Cell or to add new sector in the site where traffic
is more.

CONFIGURATION
In 2206/2206V2 cabinet:

Besides general type of configuration (2+2+2, 4+4+4)

According to traffic we can also make it 2 sector with configuration 4+4,6+6,4+8 and 8+4.

In 2964 cabinet:

According to traffic, we can make such type of configuration with 3 sectors:

2+2+4,2+2+6,2+2+8,2+4+2,2+4+4,2+2+2,4+4+4,4+2+2,4+2+4,4+2+6,4+4+2,6+2+2,6+2+4,
6+4+2,8+2+2

Above 4 configurations another antenna and feeder cable needed.

41
According to traffic, we can make such type of configuration with 2 sectors:

2+4,2+6,2+8,2+2,4+4,6+6,4+2,4+6,4+8,6+2,6+4,8+2,8+4

According to traffic, we can make such type of configuration with 1 sector:

2, 4,6,8,10,12

42
According to Traffic/Coverage we can add 4th sector.

Configuration we will make 2+2+4+4,4+4+2+2,4+2+2+4

OMC-R ACTIVITY:

According to configuration, the TRX, TX should be attached to respective cells.


Also MAIO should be given accordingly (RXMOC,RLCHC)

For 4th sector addition, a new cell D be created like old cells. RF parameters
should be given by RF planning.

3.3.3 Take the MO dump and RL dump process it (monthly). check the Co BCCH-BSIC cells,
Missing Neighbours, Missing Measurement CGI, BCCHs ,MAIO, HSN, LAC etc.

MO DUMP
MO COMMNDS:
RXTCP:MOTY=RXETG;
RXMOP:MOTY=RXETG;
RXMOP:MOTY=RXETRX;
RXMOP:MOTY=RXETX;
RXMOP:MOTY=RXERX;
RXMSP:MOTY=RXETRX;
RXASP:MOTY=RXETG;
RXTCP:MOTY=RXOTG;
RXMOP:MOTY=RXOTG;
RXMOP:MOTY=RXOCF;
RXMOP:MOTY=RXOTF;
RXMOP:MOTY=RXOCON;

43
RXMOP:MOTY=RXOTRX;
RXMOP:MOTY=RXOTX;
RXMOP:MOTY=RXORX;
RXMSP:MOTY=RXOTRX;
RXMDP:MOTY=RXOTRX;
RXMFP:MOTY=RXOTRX;
RXMFP:MOTY=RXOCF;
RXAPP:MOTY=RXOTG;
RXASP:MOTY=RXOTG;
NTCOP:SNT=ALL;
DTQUP:DIP=ALL;
RL DUMP:
RLTYP;
RLLBP;
RLDCP;
RLLSP;
RLOMP;
RLVAP;
RLCAP;
RLVLP;
RAEPP:ID=ALL;
SAAEP:BLOCK=RQCD,SAE=522;
SAAEP:BLOCK=RQCD,SAE=523;
SAAEP:SAE=298;
SAAEP:SAE=299;
RLDEP:CELL=ALL;
RLDEP:CELL=ALL,EXT;
RLSTP:CELL=ALL;
RLCFP:CELL=ALL;
RLNRP:CELL=ALL;
RLCPP:CELL=ALL;
RLCPP:CELL=ALL,EXT;
RLPCP:CELL=ALL;
RLLHP:CELL=ALL;
RLLHP:CELL=ALL,EXT;
RLLOP:CELL=ALL;
RLLOP:CELL=ALL,EXT;
RLCXP:CELL=ALL;
RLHPP:CELL=ALL;
RLBCP:CELL=ALL;
RLIHP:CELL=ALL;
RLMFP:CELL=ALL;
RLLUP:CELL=ALL;
RLLPP:CELL=ALL;

44
RLLFP:CELL=ALL;
RLLDP:CELL=ALL;
RLSBP:CELL=ALL;
RLSSP:CELL=ALL;
RLOLP:CELL=ALL;
RLSMP:CELL=ALL;
RLHPP:CELL=ALL;
RLIMP:CELL=ALL;
RLLCP:CELL=ALL;
RLCRP:CELL=ALL;
RLACP:CELL=ALL;
RLSLP:CELL=ALL;
RLCDP:CELL=ALL;
RLPBP:CELL=ALL;
RLOLP:CELL=ALL;
RLLLP:CELL=ALL;
RLBDP:CELL=ALL;
RLGSP:CELL=ALL;
RLGRP:CELL=ALL;
RLDRP:CELL=ALL;
RRGBP;

PROCEDURE:

COPY all MO commands-> paste at Command File of WIN Fiol-> Create Log file (Press
F8)->Run all commands(Again Press F8)->close output of log file.

Process it through RL DUMP Processor S/W.

It will show all the information of h/w all BTSs like TG,CF,TRX,TX,DIP everything in a
EXCEL file.

Similarly we can process al the RL commands. By which we get the cell parameters all BTSs
like CGI, pwr, neighbour, hsn, maio everything in a EXCEL file.

45
4 BSC
4.1 BSC Function
The BSC is connected to the MSC on one side and to the BTS on the other. The BSC
performs the Radio Resource (RR) management for the cells under its control. It assigns and
release frequencies and timeslots for all MSs in its own area. The BSC performs the inter-cell
handover for MSs moving between BTS in its control. It also re-allocates frequencies to the
BTSs in its area to meet locally heavy demands during peak hours or on special events. The
BSC controls the power transmission of both BSSs and MSs in its area. The minimum power
level for a mobile unit is broadcast over the BCCH. The BSC provides the time and frequency
synchronization reference signals broadcast by its BTSs. The BSC also measures the time
delay of received MS signals relative to the BTS clock. The BSC provides control of the
BTSs and manages radio resources and radio parameters. A single BSC can control a large
number of BTS.
The BSC functions are divided into the following sub-functions:
Provision of signalling links to the MSC
Signalling control of the BTSs and hence the Mobile Stations
Signalling control of the links with the MFS (what is MFS)
Switching of traffic between the MSC and the BTSs
Routing of traffic between the MFS and the BTSs
Provision of O&M facilities.
The basic functions of BSC are
Telecommunication functions,
Transmission functions,
O&M functions
Telecommunication functions:
BTS are responsible to handle physical resources. Logical resources like Radio frequency
management (GSM & GPRS) and TCH management is done by the BSC. Every half second
BTSs send radio measurements to the BSC. Those measurements are processed by the BSC
which is going to take the handover decision in some cases.
Management of GSM radio frequency is also done by BSC. The frequency of various
channels like Broadcast and Common control channels, signalling channels are handled by
BSC. Radio measurement processing, In Call Modification handling is done by BSC.

46
BSC also handle GSM & GPRS traffic channel resource management like:-
Establishes and releases radio resources
Queues requests
Selects TCH for handovers
4.2 BSC Hardware
Ericsson BSC is build up with AXE 810 architecture. It is more powerful, less space and
power dissipating. The hardware components are:

1. GEM (Generic Ericsson Magazine)


2. Group Switch GS 890 (distributed, non-blocking)
3. CL 890 (new clock modules)
4. On board RP (RPI)
5. ET 155-1 (one board ET 155)
6. APG 40
An important factor behind the AXE flexibility is the APZ Control System
Architecture, which is a two-level architecture including both central and distributed
control. It is an approach that ensures high reliability and efficient call handling.

APG Adjunct Processor Group


CP Central
Processor
EMG Extension Module Group
EMRPI Extension
Module
Regional Processor
EMG Integrated
RPs Regional Processor.....
RPB RP Bus
EMRPI STR Signal Terminal Remote
STR
TCP/IP AP
G
Ethernet

RPG RP RPP RPI RPG

RPB
IPN -
Ether
net
CP

47
CP & RP
The Central Processor, CP is duplicated, offering high hardware fault tolerance. In the event
of a fault, the control may be swapped to the other side with a minimum or no impact on the
traffic handling capability.

The Regional Processors, RPs, are used for routine repetitive processing and for processing
intensive tasks such as the termination of the lower protocol layers. The most recent regional
processors are open processing platforms, on which it is possible to run application software
using industry-standard programming languages such as C or C++. The use of high-level
languages also presents other opportunities such as substantial Time to Market gains through
the incorporation of off-the-shelf standard software modules.

RPP is targeted to support data communication related telecommunication applications.


RPP offers a range of open hardware interfaces, a range of software applications plus a
complete development environment. It work as a PCU (Packet Control Unit)

The PCU is a node in the GSM network. It is designed to provide an interface between the
circuit-switched GSM network and the packet-switched GSN nodes. These GSN nodes in
turn provide an interface to public packet-switched networks.

The hardware consists of 1-7 RPPs and 2 no of EPSs which can be connected together using
Ethernet i.e. IP. Each RPP can connect to the SGSN (via the Group Switch when FR is used).
For GB over IP EPS card connects SGSN directly through the BSC internal IP Gateways .

Each RPP card provides 64 circuits of 64kbps per circuit. If GB over Frame Relay is used
31circuits will be utilized for 2MB connectivity with SGSN and rest 33 circuits will be used
for radio access. All the 64 circuits can also be used for radio access if GB over IP is used. In
GB over IP configuration the EPS card provide up to 100 mbps bandwidth with SGSN
through IP gateway and work in redundancy mode. In this case all the RPP resource will be
utilized for radio access.

Inter Platform Network


An Ethernet based, 100 Mbps or 1 Gbps, Inter Platform Network, IPN, is ringing in
an industry standard, high capacity interface into AXE.

Other Systems,
A
P AP e.g. TSP, AXD 301

IPN
CP

48
Generic Ericsson Magazine
Another far-reaching improvement is the GEM, a high-capacity, flexible, and scalable
magazine (sub-rack) that anticipates future developments. GEM-based nodes will be smaller,
dissipate less power, and have greater maximum capacity. Their implementation will
dramatically improve the cost of ownership and cut time-to-customer for AXE.

A GEM can house

two SCB-RPs, providing an Ethernet switch, control function, maintenance support, and
power distribution;
two switch boards (XDB), providing a 16 K plane duplicated group switch;
up to 22 device boards with 15 mm spacing, such as ET155, ECP, or TRA;
pairs of DLEBs, providing multiplexing functionality for DL3 cable interfaces, placed in
device slots; and
CL890 clock modules placed in device slots.

Transcoder

The Transcoder/Rate Adaptation (TRA) function in BSC/TRC performs transcoding of


speech information and rate adaptation of data information. It also contains functions for
Discontinuous Transmission (DTX). The capacity in number of channels per board for the
different versions of TRA hardware is given below.

TRA HW FR EFR HR AMR AMR


Version FR HR
R5A 24 24 24
R5B 24 24 24 24 24
R6 without 24 per device group of any speech codec (n=1..8), 192 in total
TFO
R6B 24 per device group of any speech codec (n=1..8), 192 in total
R6 with TFO 124 124 (16 per device
(Tandem Free (16 group)
Operation) per
device
group)

For R5 different codec cannot be mixed on the same board. Each TRA R6/R6B board consists
of 8 device groups and each device group can be configured for any of the supported codec.
The capacity for TRA R6 differs depending on if the device group is configured to support
TFO, in that case a device group can handle 16 channels. Else and for TRA R6B the capacity
is 24 channels per device group.

One TRA EM consists of one TRA board. The TRA R5 magazine includes (up to) 16
TRABs. TRA R6/R6B is housed in a GEM magazine where it can be mixed with other boards
depending on the configuration. All TRA hardware versions can be mixed in the same speech
codec pool. Presently we are using CSPB R2 board which work on R6B application.

49
Note that, when there are several pools, it is normally the case that AMR, EFR or HR capable
mobiles also support FR. In this case the traffic can be shared between the pools and thus not
all of them need to be dimensioned for the same grade of service. This means that congestion
in one pool, for example, the EFR pool, does not necessary imply congestion for a call, as
another pool, e.g. the FR pool, can be used instead.

ET-155

The ET155-1 OC-3 is a single board 155 Mb/s, OC-3, Exchange Terminal supporting ANSI
standards for SONET. The ET155-1 OC-3 together with the GEM concept of AXE offers
very compact and scalable node solutions for cost efficient connections to the transport
network. For the purposes of equipment and network protection, Automatic Protection
Switching, APS 1+1, can be provided as an option. For Abis link E1 is required which can be
extracted by connecting 2Mb MUX (OMS) with ET155-1.

OMS

OMS is a MUX which convert one TM to 63 E1. It is a separate equipment and not under
AXE environment. For the maintenance of OMS its O&M software to be loaded in Laptop
and by connecting the Laptop to OMSs console the Card configuration and E1 configuration
can be done. Sometimes, on power recycle, the E1 configuration of OMS gets corrupted. To
rectify this we have to logging into OMS through console and through O&M command
reconfiguration can be done.

APG 40

The APG40 is a platform for the AXE central processor IO functions (APIO) that were
inherited from the IOGs. It is also a platform for billing (for example, FOS) and statistic data
collecting (for instance, STS), storage, processing and output from the AXE switch. For
example, the APG40 can be a platform for collecting data related to in-service performance
from the central processor. It can also format that data for distribution to an operations
management.

4.3 BSC Preventive Maintenance


Whenever visiting a BSC, check the following points to ensure that everything is in order:
Check for any fault in the unit or any other alarms
No visual damage to the equipment or site room is evident
Equipment related The equipement and the place should be kept clean and
checks cleaning schedule should be maintained sincerely
It should be ensured that all external alarms are extended
and are working properly
Air conditioners are functioning correctly. There is no
Environment leakage of air-conditioned air through door or window.

50
Indoor light is working & Indoor emergency light is
working

All modules of SMPS power plant are working properly


and load is being shared by all.
Check back-up batteries for corrosion and leakage.
Check the run time of Engine Alternator and compare it
Battery / Power
with the manufacturers recommended service interval
plant / DG
regarding the run time and ensure regular service.
The oil in the Engine Alternator should be checked with
the dipstick to ensure its sufficient level and also its
usefulness.
It should be ensured that Earth resistance value has been
Earthing measured once in every six months and the same is
displayed. It should be less than 0.5 ohm.
Expiry date on Fire extinguisher and sufficiency of fire
Fire Safety
safety equipments.
The media connectivity record should be maintained in a
Other
database.

4.4 BSCMonitoring, Alert and Rectification Mechanism


4.4.1 Fault Monitoring
Faults are being continuously monitored on 24 X 7 by NOC / OMCR personnels.
As and when any fault occurs in the network it is indicated on OMCR monitor.
4.4.2 Fault Alert mechanism
24X7 NOC / OMCR staff escalates the fault to the concerned persons/ field staff.
Software based automatic alert system is put in place which informs the faults to the
concerned staff through SMS
The concerned officer identifies the fault reason like media problem / power supply problem /
equipment related problem

51
4.4.3 Fault Rectification Mechanism

Reason of
Action to be taken
Fault
The section is to be identified and concerned officer is being
Media
informed for furher rectification.
If the power supply is disconnected, it should be ensured tha Battery
Power is taking load and if required DG set shoud be started.
If there is problem of power plant module, it should be replaced.
Hard reset should be given from the site Faulty cards should be
Equipement replaced/ Jack-out-Jack-in.
related Faulty hardwares should be attended as per the procedure given
under BSC healthcheck & Routine Maintenance
Enviorment
(High Check Air condition working
Temperature)

4.5 BSC Health Check & Routine Maintenance.


4.5.1 Daily Health Check
4.5.1.1 Check Alarm Log:
Command

ALLIP:ALCAT=APZ;

This command displays the all active alarm of control part.

Command Output:-
A2/APZ "B25I18X0150_A.W" 163 151007 1842
RP FAULT
RP TYPE
165 RPG3A

This implies RP-165 is faulty. Then attend the RP fault as per RP handling procedure given
latter on in this document.
4.5.1.2 Check the Processor Load

Command

PLLDP;

52
Command Output:-
PROCESSOR LOAD DATA
INT PLOAD CALIM OFFDO OFFDI FTCHDO FTCHDI OFFMPH OFFMPL FTCHMPH FTCHMPL
1 3 72000 59 1 59 1 3 57 3 57
2 3 72000 45 11 45 11 1 9 1 9
3 3 72000 53 9 53 9 3 4 3 4
4 3 72000 60 9 60 9 5 9 5 9
5 3 72000 62 10 62 10 3 4 3 4
6 3 72000 54 8 54 8 4 12 4 12
7 2 72000 43 8 43 8 4 5 4 5
8 3 72000 55 8 55 8 9 12 9 12
9 3 72000 56 3 56 3 6 4 6 4

Processor load must be within limits and report if it exceeds 90.

4.5.1.3 Check the CP State

Command

DPWSP;

Sample Output:-

CP STATE
MAU SB SBSTATE
NRM B WO

This implies Both CP are in working status with CP-A executive and CP-B in Standby state.
If any of the CP is in wrong state then following commands may be used to rectify the same.

4.5.1.4 CP Diagnosis

REPCI;

This command initiates diagnosis of fault in CP. The command results in a printout CP
DIAGNOSIS that contains list of suspected boards.

Command Output:

CP DIAGNOSIS

TESTRESULT
Testresult

FAULT TYPE
Fault type

MAG PCB REPLACED REASON


mag pcb [replaced reason]
mag pcb [replaced reason]

53
If there is any hardware fault, the PCB name will be displayed under PCB with
TESTRESULT as fault. Then replace the faulty board as per the output of following
command.

4.5.1.5 Manual Intervention in CP Repair

REMCI:MAG=mag, PCB=pcb;

Command Output:-

CP MANUAL INTERVENTION
INTERVATION PREPARATION SUCCESSFUL

|ACTION MAG PCB NOTE |


|action |mag| |pcb| note |

The result printout CP MANUAL INTERVENTION indicates if replacement of the board is


permitted or not, and give instructions how the replacement should be done.
4.5.1.6 Repair Check in CP

After PCB replacement as per previous command the CP repair is to be checked with the
following command.

RECCI;

Command Output:-

CP REPAIR
SUCCESSFUL
NOT SUCCESSFUL [RP: rp1 rp2 ]

If the TESTRESULT shows successful, the CP has been repaired successfully.


Otherwise we have to act as per UNCESSFUL remark (rp-address faulty)

4.5.1.7 Check RP status

EXRPP:RP=ALL:

Command Output:-

RP DATA

RP STATE TYPE TWIN STATE DS MAINT.STATE


32 WO RP4S1A 33 WO 248 IDLE
33 WO RP4S1A 32 WO 248 IDLE
34 WO RPPS1 IDLE
35 WO RPPS1 IDLE
36 WO RPPS1 IDLE
37 WO RPPS1 IDLE

54
All RPs should be in WO state. If any RP is in ABL status then attend the RP fault as per the
following commands.

4.5.1.8 Blocking & De-blocking of RP

BLRPI:RP=rp,forced;

BLRPE:RP=rp;

Then check the RP status using EXRPP command. If again the RP status becomes
ABL then use the following command to repair the RP.

4.5.1.9 RP Diagnosis

REPRI:RP=rp;

Command Output:

RP DIAGNOSIS

TESTRESULT
testresult

RP EM PCB REPLACED REASON


rp [em] pcb [replaced reason]
pcb [replaced reason]

If there is any hardware fault, the PCB name will be displayed under PCB with
TESTRESULT as fault. Then replace the faulty board as per the output of following
command.

4.5.1.10 Manual Intervention in RP Repair

REMRI:RP=rp, PCB=pcb;

Command Output:-

RP MANUAL INTERVENTION

|RP EM PCB ACTION |


|rp |em| |pcb| action |
|FAULT INTERRUPT |
|fault type |
4.5.1.11 Repair Check in RP
After PCB replacement as per previous command the RP repair is to be checked with
the following command.

55
RECRI:RP=rp;

Command Output:-

RP REPAIR
RP EM TESTRESULT
rp [em] testresult
If the TESTRESULT shows passed, the RP has been repaired successfully. Otherwise we
have to again test the RP by REPRI command.

4.5.1.12 Check that the latest backup file are available in the system
CP backup contains all Exchange database including hardware installed and configured BTS /
GB link etc. This data is most important for BSC and in emergency this need to be reloaded
to the system. Hence we should check the proper backup regularly.

Command

SYBFP: FILE;

Command Output:

SYSTEM BACKUP FILES

FILE IO EXCHANGE
RELFSW0 - B25I18X0150_A.W

SUBFILE TYPE OUTPUTTIME CURRENT COMMANDLOG


R1 DSSMALL 151202 0201 YES -
R2 DSSMALL 151201 0201 NO -
R3 DSLARGE 151201 0201 YES 0002639
R4 DSLARGE 151202 0201 NO 0002640
R5 PS,RS 151105 0823 YES -

FILE IO EXCHANGE
RELFSW1 - B25I18X0150_A.W

SUBFILE TYPE OUTPUTTIME CURRENT COMMANDLOG


R1 DSSMALL 151104 0201 NO -
R2 DSSMALL 151105 0201 YES -
R3 DSLARGE 151105 0201 NO 0002612
R4 DSLARGE 151104 0201 YES 0002611
R5 PS,RS 151006 0733 YES -

FILE IO EXCHANGE
RELFSW2 - B25I18X0150_A.W

56
SUBFILE TYPE OUTPUTTIME CURRENT COMMANDLOG
R1 DSSMALL 151005 0201 NO -
R2 DSSMALL 151006 0201 YES -
R3 DSLARGE 151006 0201 NO 0002581
R4 DSLARGE 151005 0201 YES 0002580
R5 PS,RS 150904 1435 YES -
END

The latest backup (yesterday date) file should be in RELFSW0 volume. If it is not up-to-date
then backup has been halted. Then we will go for manual backup as per the following
commands.

a. SYBUE; (to stop automatic backup)

b. SYBUP:FILE=RELFSW2; (to start cp backup in relfsw2 volume)

c. SYTUC; (to rotate latest backup from relfsw2 volume to relfsw0 volume)

d. SYBUI:DISC; (to start automatic backup)


4.5.1.13 Check for any software file congestion
Command

DBTSP: Tab=SAACTIONS;

Command Output:-
DATABASE TABLE

BLOCK TAB TABLE WRAPPED


SAFTAB1 SAACTIONS YES

ACTNUM SAE BLOCK TYPE CNTRTYP CURRNI NEWNI


0 348 GLOBAL CONS2 512 528
NIE NIR STATUS NCONG
16 16 REG 4

This implies there is congestion in SAE-348 whose size to be increase from 512 to
528 using standard procedure as per Alex.

4.5.1.14 Check the status of the C7 Links


Command

C7LTP: LS=ALL;

Command Output:-

CCITT7 LINK SET STATE

57
LS SPID SLC STATE INHIBST FCODE INFO
3-10386 ORMGSB1 00 ACTIVE
01 ACTIVE

All links should be active. If any link is not active then the E1 of corresponding link may be
faulty. We have to check the E1 status by the DTSTP command. If E1 (dip) is ok, then the
status of signalling terminal (ST) card is to be checked by the following commands.

C7LDP:LS=3-10386;

CCITT7 LINK SET DATA

LS SPID ASP SPID


3-10386 ORMGSB1

SLC ACL PARMG ST SDL SLI


0 A2 24 C7STAH-1&&-31 ORMGSB1-0 /C7STAH-1/RALT2-1
1 A2 24 C7STAH-33&&-63 ORMGSB1-1 /C7STAH-33/RALT2-4033

EXEMP:RP=ALL,EM=ALL;

EM DATA

RP TYPE EM EQM TWIN CNTRL PP STATE


258 RPPS1 0 C7STAH-0&&-31 PRIM WO
482 RPPS1 0 C7STAH-32&&-63 PRIM WO.

For problematic link, the state of the EM may be in ABL / CBL state. If it is in ABL state we
can reset the card by BLEMI, BLEME command. If it is in CBL state the RP card to be reset
by BLRPI, BLRPE command.

4.5.1.15 Check Group switch status


GDSTP;

Command Output:-

DISTRIBUTED GROUP SWITCH STATE


UNIT STATE BLSTATE VAR STATUS
CLM-0 WO 11 MASTER
CLM-1 WO 11 SLAVE

UNIT STATE BLSTATE VAR UNIT STATE BLSTATE

58
XM-A-0-0 WO 1 XM-B-0-0 WO
XM-A-0-1 WO 1 XM-B-0-1 WO
XM-A-0-2 WO 1 XM-B-0-2 WO
XM-A-0-3 WO 1 XM-B-0-3 WO
XM-A-0-4 WO 1 XM-B-0-4 WO
MUX34-A-0 WO 0 MUX34-B-0 WO
MUX34-A-1 WO 0 MUX34-B-1 WO
MUX34-A-8 WO 0 MUX34-B-8 WO
MUX34-A-9 WO 0 MUX34-B-9 WO

All TSM/SPMs should be in WO status. If any Switch card is in ABL state then attend it with
the following command.

GDBLI, GDTEI, GDBLE,

4.5.1.15.1 Check network synchronization data


GDCVP;
DISTRIBUTED GROUP SWITCH CLM CONTROL VALUE
CLM OSCILLATOR CONTRVALUE AVERAGEVALUE FAULTCASE
CLM-0 0 33706 33706
1 34018 34052
CLM-1 0 31228 31290
1 33853 33886

The clock control value should be 32768 with deviation from 31000 to 34000. If the deviation
is more it might be due to reference clock failure. Then we have to check the reference clock
status and deviation through below command.

NSSTP;

Command Output:

CLOCK-REFERENCE STATE
REF STATE BLS
0ETM2,MS-0 EX
1ETM2,MS-1 SB

One of the Clock reference state should be in EX condition. Otherwise, the corresponding TM
status to be checked. We may check the SDIP status and error if any, in the RALT device. If
TM is ok then reset clock with the following command:- NSBLI, NSTEI, NSBLE.

a. NSDAP;
Command Output:-

CLOCK-REFERENCE SUPERVISION DATA

59
AREA
OPERATING

STATIC DATA

REF CLREFINL REFGRP PRI FDL WDL ACL


0ETM2,MS-0 1 1 1 5000 10 A1
1ETM2,MS-1 4 1 2 5000 10 A1

DYNAMIC DATA

REF FD WD
0ETM2,MS-0 0 0
1ETM2,MS-1 0 0
END

The FD and WD value should be zero. If there is deviation from standard value, the problem
may be in external clock source or in clock cable. These need to be checked by clock
measuring equipment.

4.5.1.16 Check for the status of the SNTs


Command

NTSTP:SNT=ALL;

Command Output:-

SWITCHING NETWORK TERMINAL STATE


SNT STATE BLS LST FCODE
C7SNTAH-0 WO
C7SNTAH-1 WO

If any of the SNT has ABL status then reset it by NTBLI, NTBLE command. Still, if the
status remains ABL, the card may be faulty. To replace the card, we may require to know its
position. To know this we may use the following commands.

4.5.1.17 Check for the position of card.


Command

EXPOP:RP=520;

DEVICE POSITION

60
RP POS
520 BSC1-3-26-3-64

This implies the card position of RP-520 is in BSC-1, Rack-3, Sub rack Vertical Position-26,
and Card position in sub rack-64. The card position can also be known by the following
command where light will glow in all card of the particular sub rack.

Test Board Indication

Command

TEBIC:RP=520, LED=on;

Again to switch off light on PCB, give the following command.

Command

TEBIC:LED=off;
4.5.1.18 Check for the status of the DIPS

Command

DTSTP: DIP=ALL, STATE=ABL;

4.5.1.19 Transcoder Pool Status

Command

RRTPP:TRAPOOL=ALL;

Command Output

RADIO TRANSMISSION TRANSCODER POOL DETAILS

TRAPOOL CHRATE SPV RNOTRA POOLACT POOLIDLE POOLTRAF


AMRHR HR 3 7656 7440 6337 1103

SUBPOOL SUBACT SUBIDLE SUBTRAF


1 7248 6145 1103
2 192 192 0

TRAPOOL CHRATE SPV RNOTRA POOLACT POOLIDLE POOLTRAF


AMRFR FR 3 3840 3837 2546 1291

SUBPOOL SUBACT SUBIDLE SUBTRAF


1 3837 2546 1291

TRAPOOL CHRATE SPV RNOTRA POOLACT POOLIDLE POOLTRAF

61
If the POOLIDLE count is 0 or very less we may face Transcoder congestion in
corresponding pool. For this we have to rearrange TRAPOOL device by the following
commands.
RRTPC:TRAPOOL=AMRFR, RNOTRA=6500, force;

It will resize the transcoder device of TRAPOOL AMRFR from 7656 to 6500.
4.5.1.20 TRX capacity check

Command

SAAEP:SAE=1153;

SIZE ALTERATION OF DATA FILES INFORMATION

SAE BLOCK CNTRTYP NI NIU NIE NIR


1153 MANUAL 2048 1681
This implies the Data base table for TRX capacity is 1153 whose equipped capacity is 2048
and working TRX is 1681.

4.5.1.21 Check for BSC Temperature

4.5.1.22 Check for GB link status


Command

RRGBP; (This command is used for GB over Frame Relay)

Command Output:-

62
The NSVCI status should be active. If any of the NSVCI is not ok, then check the status of
corresponding E1 as per the device given under DEV1 column. If the GB link is configured
over IP (GB over IP) then use the following command.

Command:

RRINP: NSEI=ALL;

Command Output

RADIO TRANSMISSION IP NETWORK SERVICE DATA

NSEI
395

PRIP PPORT NSSTATE NSSTATUS RAT


10.222.60.88 2157 ACTIVE ACTIVE GERAN

RIP PORT SWEIGHT DWEIGHT RIPSTATUS


10.222.60.88 35364 1 0 OPERATIONAL
10.222.60.88 2158 0 1 OPERATIONAL

LIP IPDEV LIPSTATUS


10.222.95.119 RTIPGPH-20 OPERATIONAL
10.222.95.118 RTIPGPH-19 OPERATIONAL
10.222.95.117 RTIPGPH-18 OPERATIONAL
10.222.95.116 RTIPGPH-17 OPERATIONAL
END
The NSSTATUS should be active and RIPSTATUS should be operational. If it is not active,
there may be problem in IP reachability. Then we have to check the LAN connectivity from
RPS card or PCU sub rack to MPBN switch.
4.5.1.23 Check for latest Software Patches.

Command

PCORP:BLOCK=MISSRA;

Command Output:-

PROGRAM CORRECTIONS

BLOCK SUID CA CAF


MISSRA 5400/CAA 107 7256/M06AF R4A01 488 5

CI S TYPE POSITION SIZE


Z02PA5697 C CODE H'00E4 21 F 4

63
X12PA5041 C SST 60 16
X12PA5041 C SST 62 18
X12PA5041 C SDT ISSIGNALUSEDR 12
X12PA5041 C CODE H'0273 24
X12PA5041 C CODE H'039E 51
X12PA5041 C CODE H'043A 28
X12PA5041 C CODE H'0442 24
X12PA5114 C CODE H'03A8 28
X12PA5114 C CODE H'03E8 38
X12PA5114 C CODE H'03C6 29
X12PA5224 C CODE H'034F 34
X12PA5224 C CODE H'0410 36
ACA20100503 C CODE H'0178 20
IPA20100503 C CODE H'0183 20
IPA0000000007FF C CODE H'00B7 20
B30A07B130C02A C CODE H'007B 20
UPG20100503 C CODE H'01D1 20
U06AA0207BC021N C CODE H'014C 20

The Output shows the latest program correction is released on 3rd May 2010. We may ask the
vendor to update the system with latest software patch. The latest software patch will reduce
software error of the system. To know the software recovery information the following
command may be used.

4.5.1.24 Check for software recovery information


Command

SYRIP:SURVEY;

Command Output:

SOFTWARE RECOVERY SURVEY

EVENT TYPE EXPLANATION EVENTCNT FRDEL


3 FORLOPP TIMEOUT AT FORLOPP AUDIT & FLERROR 0
2 APPLERR ERROR REPORTED BY PROCEDURE FLERROR
1 APPLERR ERROR REPORTED BY PROCEDURE FLERROR 2
62 APPLERR ERROR REPORTED BY PROCEDURE FLERROR 2
61 APPLERR ERROR REPORTED BY PROCEDURE FLERROR 2
0 APPLERR ERROR REPORTED BY PROCEDURE FLERROR 2
59 FORLOPP TIMEOUT AT FORLOPP AUDIT & FLERROR 0

EVENT CODE INF1 INF2 INF3 INF4 SIDE STATE DATE TIME ACTIVE

64
3 H'310D H'4202 H'00E6 H'00AB H'00AB A-EX PARAL 151130 1718 YES
2 H'4301 H'4202 H'00E6 H'0002 H'9856 A-EX PARAL 151130 1703 YES
1 H'4301 H'4202 H'012F H'0002 H'7BD5 A-EX PARAL 151129 2357 YES
62 H'4301 H'4202 H'01CD H'0002 H'7BD5 A-EX PARAL 151129 2357 YES
61 H'4301 H'AB00 H'04CC H'0002 H'7BD5 A-EX PARAL 151129 2357 YES
END

The Output shows there is frequent software recovery (two times on 30-11-2015 and 3 times
on 29-11-2015 and so on) and the cause is APPLERR (Application detected software error)
and FORLOPP(Forlopp is a standard function which includes the capability of recovering a
software error with a Forlopp Release instead of a System Restart). To overcome such
problem latest software patch should be loaded.

4.5.1.25 Health Check for APG40


Logon on as Administrator on ACTIVE node.

PROCEDURE:

1.Confirm On active node

C:\>prcstate (Status should be active)

active

C:\>hostname (if gives the logged in node name)

apg40c-2a

2.Check SW Version

C:\>swrprint

3. Check no major alarms are present.

C:\>alist

4. Check if all resource are online.

C:\>cluster res

C:\>cluster group

6.check AP message store

C:\>msdls

7.Check if any abnormal process restarts automatically.

65
C:\>ispprint

8 List defined IO devices

C:\cpdlist

9.Ping standby node

C:\>ping <ip address> ! standby node!

if timeout, restart standby node as correct solution.

10. Check FMS is working.

C:\>:cpfls

11.Verify mml and CPT are working.

C:\>:mml

<PTCOI; (It connect to standby CP)

cpt<ptwsp; (It gives the CP working state information)

CPT MESSAGE CP STATE


CP-A EX CP-B SBWO CON B: PHC:ACT
END

cpt<ptcoe; ( To return to active CP)

12 Check status of CP-AP communication and the state of IPNs.

C:\>:mml

<APAMP;

<OCINP:IPN=ALL;

<EXIT;

13. AP Backup

AP backup contains all configuration data of Adjunct Processor including all File system.
These file system store TTFile, Statistical files etc. This also stores connectivity details of AP
to CP and AP to OSS, Mediation server etc. Hence, this back is also equaly important and is
required to restore AP in emergency.

AP backup is taken from active node/ cluster node. To check the active node use command
prcstate & hostname. Then from active node give the following command.

66
C:> burbackup -0

This command will initiate complete APG40 backup of both node and will take arround 20
minutes to complete the process. The output of the command will be as give below.

Execute burBackup with these parameters:


burbackup -o
[y=yes, n=no]?:y
AP080227483A:
Save all disk information and runtime parameter data to file
\\AP080227483A\C$\acs\data\BUR\AP080227483A_20151203_165452.ddi completed
Save all disk information and runtime parameter data to file
\\AP080227483B\C$\acs\data\BUR\AP080227483B_20151203_165452.ddi completed
Continuing with partition backup please wait
AP080227483B:
burBackup partition backup completed
3001 directories and 17632 files copied or equal and 0 files locked
Continuing with archive backup please wait
AP080227483A:
burBackup partition backup completed
3047 directories and 18965 files copied or equal and 0 files locked
Continuing with archive backup please wait
AP080227483B:
SetFileSecurity on D:\Program Files\F-Secure\ssh server\hostkey returned error 5
burBackup execution completed
AP080227483A:
SetFileSecurity on D:\Program Files\F-Secure\ssh server\hostkey returned error 5
burBackup execution completed
Continuing with archive verify, please wait
Archive file and backup image are OK.
Imagename: AP080227483A_20151203_165452
Date: 12/3/2015 5:01:09 PM
Node: AP080227483A
Status: OK (18965 files and 3047 directories copied, 0 locked files)

Archive file and backup image are OK.

Imagename: AP080227483B_20151203_165452
Date: 12/3/2015 5:00:37 PM
Node: AP080227483B
Status: OK (17632 files and 3001 directories copied, 0 locked files)

burBackup one button backup execution completed

67
Then we have to verify the APG backup by following command.

C:\>burverify -i M:\images\nodeA\AP080227483A_20151203_165452.zip

Command Output:

Archive file and backup image are OK.


Imagename: AP080227483A_20151203_165452
Date: 12/3/2015 5:01:09 PM
Node: AP080227483A
Status: OK (18965 files and 3047 directories copied, 0 locked files)

The CP Backup should be taken in external disk/ tape once in in a week and APG
backup should be taken once in a month. The external media should be reused
maximum for 20 times after that new media should be used.

4.5.1.26 APG DIRECT LOGIN PROCEDURE


Following should be kept handy at all MSS/BSC location for direct login of APG incase
of Emergency
Laptop
Local login cable (TSR4910275/2300)
T8
OR
Monitor
Keyboard
Mouse
Power extension cord
Local login cable ( TSR4910275/2300 ) / T8

68
Change the Laptop IP to as shown in below picture

Clone any active channel of Winfoil

69
Define IP 192.168.200.1 in Host name & configure port 23
Now press enter key you will get login prompt for login in APG node
Further take support of Ericsson Emergency recovery team

4.5.2 Weekly O&M Routine


4.5.2.1 Check the status of the Program Corrections

Command

PCORP: BLOCK=ALL;

Command Output:
BLOCK SUID CA CAF
RXODPI 5SMC/CAAZ 107 7149/388C R1A04 184 7

CI S TYPE POSITION SIZE


MNAAH3897 C CODE H'013D 26
MNAAH3897 C CODE H'014B 18
MNAAH3897 C CODE H'014F 20
MNAAH3897 C CODE H'031D 20
MNAAH3897 C CODE H'1354 20
MWAAH4398 C CODE H'0412 25
MWAAH4398 C CODE H'1908 24
MWAAH4398 C CODE H'1D4D 24

The state of correction (S) will be P(Passive), or A(Active), or C(Confirmed), or F(Free).


Investigate if any correction is in Passive state. If so, then this correction is to be reloaded.

70
4.5.2.2 Check the CP Error Record
Command

DIRCP;

Collect and analyze the result of temporary faults. The result has to be stored.

4.5.2.3 Check the RP Error record


Command

DIRRP: RP=ALL;

Command Output:
RP EVENT RECORD

COMMON EVENTS

EVENT DATE TIME REASON ETYPE INF1 INF2


2137 151202 170232 ALCEASING H'000 H'0000 H'0000
2137 151202 170135 ALINITIAT H'000 H'0000 H'0000
2133 151110 104535 ALCEASING H'000 H'0000 H'0000
2133 151110 104512 ALINITIAT H'000 H'0000 H'0000
2131 151107 081959 STARTCONC H'001 H'0000 H'0000
2131 151107 081945 STARTINIT H'001 H'0000 H'0000

RP AND EM EVENTS

RP TYPE INTERFACE
100 RPPS1 RP-2

EVENT DATE TIME EM REASON ETYPE INF1 INF2 INF3 INF4


2135 151124 075817 ERWORKING H'05D H'00D2 H'8300 H'0113 7A01DA40

RP TYPE INTERFACE
113 RPPS1 RP-2

EVENT DATE TIME EM REASON ETYPE INF1 INF2 INF3 INF4


2132 151110 104512 ALCEASING H'000 H'0000 H'0000 H'0000 H'0000
2128 151107 082001 ALINITIAT H'000 H'0000 H'0000 H'0000 H'0000

The reason for RP event may be analyzed for abnormal event.

4.5.2.4 Check the status of the SNTs

Command

NTSTP: SNT=ALL;

71
All SNTs should be working.

4.5.2.5 Check the status of all the EMs

Command

EXEMP:RP=ALL,EM=ALL;

All EMs should be working. For a faulty EM it maybe attended as is being done for faulty RP
using the following commands.

REPRI:RP=rp, EM=em;

REMRI:RP=rp,EM=em,PCB=pcb;

RECRI:RP=rp, EM=em;

4.5.3 Monthly O&M Routine

At monthly maintenance interval, the following should be checked in addition to daily and
weekly maintenance checkpoints.

4.5.3.1 Check for the Group Switch disturbances

Command

GSDSP; (This not applicable for distributed group switch)

Note down any latest disturbances and act accordingly.

4.5.3.2 Check the error intensity counter

Command

SYELP;

Command Output:

LIMITS FOR SOFTWARE ERROR INTENSITY

DCAT TIME LIMIT


0 0000 - 2359 1000 (DEFAULT VALUE)
1 0000 - 2359 1000 (DEFAULT VALUE)
2 0000 - 2359 1000 (DEFAULT VALUE)
3 0000 - 2359 1000 (DEFAULT VALUE)
4 0000 - 2359 1000 (DEFAULT VALUE)
5 0000 - 2359 1000 (DEFAULT VALUE)
6 0000 - 2359 1000 (DEFAULT VALUE)
7 0000 - 2359 1000 (DEFAULT VALUE)

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8 0000 - 2359 1000 (DEFAULT VALUE)
9 0000 - 2359 1000 (DEFAULT VALUE)
10 0000 - 2359 1000 (DEFAULT VALUE)
11 0000 - 2359 1000 (DEFAULT VALUE)
12 0000 - 2359 1000 (DEFAULT VALUE)

CURRENT ERROR LIMIT: 1000


CURRENT ERROR INTENSITY: 0

FORLOPP RELEASE DELAY LIMIT: 30


DELAY FOR LAST FORLOPP RELEASE: 0

NUMBER OF FORLOPPS DURING RELEASE: 0

END

Current Error Intensity & Delay of FORLOPP release should be below limit value.

4.5.3.3 Check for any restarts or Application errors


Command

SYRIP:LOG;

Command Output.
SOFTWARE RECOVERY LOG

SWRECLOG-VERSION
2.0

EXCHANGE-ID
ORBSCK1_R07B_IPA18

SYSTEM VARIANT
APZ 21233C/2 R1A 160
SUMMARY VIEW OF EVENTS FOR THE LAST 12 MONTHS

SYSTEM RESTARTS
MONTH SMLAUT LRGAUT RELAUT SMLMAN LRGMAN RELMAN SMLFC
DECEMBER 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
NOVEMBER 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
OCTOBER 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
SEPTEMBER 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
AUGUST 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
FORLOPP RELEASES
MONTH AUDIT MANUAL APPLRQ OTHER HANGSW
DECEMBER 0 0 0 0 0

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APPLICATION DETECTED ERRORS
MONTH FLERROR OTHER
DECEMBER 40 0

NOVEMBER 464 0
OCTOBER 747 0
SEPTEMBER 394 0
ACCUMULATED SYSTEM DOWN TIME (SDT) FOR THE LAST 12 MONTHS

SDT
2:11

MONTH SDT
DECEMBER 0:00

SYSTEM RESTARTS FOR THE LAST 12 MONTHS

24 N SMALL POINTER TOO LARGE MINI - -

24 H'0008 H'0317 H'0927 H'0000 H'0000 A-EX PARAL 151107 081943 16 C

This printout provides event count of various event month wise. We can analyze the summery
for abnormal occurrence of the events.

4.5.3.4 Check the Forlopp status


Command

SYFSP;

Command Output:

FORLOPP EXECUTION STATUS

FORLOPP HANDLING
ACTIVE

FORLOPP EXECUTION CONTROL FUNCTION (ECF)


OFF

FORLOPP ERROR FUNCTION (FLERROR)


ON

FORLOPP MODE SUBMODE LIMIT


OPERATION REDUCED LOAD NO LIMIT

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Forlopp handling should be active and Forlopp state should be operational. For any faulty
status we may take the help of AMC vendor.

4.5.3.5 Print the C7 Error printout


Command
C7ERP: ENUM=ALL;
Command Output:
CCITT7 EVENT REPORTING RESULT

ENUM HEADER BLOCK DATE TIME


0 USER PART UNAVAILABLE C7DP2
NONE

ENUM HEADER BLOCK DATE TIME


1 TRANSFER CONTROL RECEIVED C7DP2
NONE

ENUM HEADER BLOCK DATE TIME


9 SL RESTORATION C7SL2 151107 081959700

NI SPC SLC
3 10366 1

ENUM HEADER BLOCK DATE TIME


9 SL RESTORATION C7SL2 151107 081959700

NI SPC SLC
3 10366 0

ENUM HEADER BLOCK DATE TIME


22 LOCAL AUTOMATIC CHANGEBACK C7LS2 151107 081959700

The printout provides the C7 error event number with detailed description with date of
occurrence. We may analyze the description to rectify the fault so that further event will not
be generated.

4.5.3.6 Check of External Alarms


Verify that the External alarms are defined, generate alarms and are not manually blocked.

Command

ALEXP;

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5 3G Radio Network.
The 3G Radio Network is also called UTRAN (Universal Terrestrial Radio Access
Network). The sample UTRAN network diagram is as given below.

The main components are Node-B and RNC.

5.1NODE-B HARDWARE DESCRIPTION


Overview
Hardware description:
CF
FAN
FCU
Filter Subrack
Radio Subrack
Digital Subrack: CBU, ET, RAX, TX, RUIF
Antenna System: ASC, RET

Overview
1. Core Network: The CN provides call control as well as mobility for, and localization of, the
User Equipment (UE). The CN also interacts with the Radio Network Controller (RNC) and
supports network features and telecommunication services. The CN handles both packet
oriented services, such as data, and circuit-oriented services, such as speech.

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2. Radio Access Network: The RAN consists of the Radio Network Controller (RNC) and the
Radio Base Station (RBS) node. The RAN provides the connection between the CN and the
UE.
3. Operation & Support System Radio Control: OSS-RC is software that handles O&M tasks
for the WCDMA RAN. OSSRC is designed for handling daily network operation and
maintenance tasks. It complements the Element Manager (EM) functions implemented in the
nodes to create a complete network element management environment for the network.
4. RBS node provides radio resources and handles radio transmission and reception to and from
the UE

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RBS 3922

Hardware Description - CF
Connection Field:
A: Site local area network is used to communicate with the Base Station Element
Management (BEM). The interface consists of an RJ-45 connector.
B: Transmission interface can be equipped with up to 32 female RJ-45 connectors. Internal
connections are made between the connection interface and the CBU and between the
connection interface and any optional ET boards in the digital Subrack.

Hardware Description - Fan


The fans cool the RBS. They are situated behind the power connection unit and the FCU,
accessible from the top of the RBS.

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Hardware Description FCU

Fan Control Unit: is a single unit that controls and supervises up to four internal fans:
1. The FCU supplies -48 V DC to each fan whose speed is controlled by pulse width modulation
control signals.
2. The FCU has three indicators that display FCU and fan status.
3. Communicates with the RBS through the EC bus, receiving speed setting requirements and
sending fan status.
4. Triggers an alarm when fan speed is too low.
5. Supplies power to the XALM (external alarm unit).

Hardware Description Filter Subrack


The filter Subrack contains filter units:
1. The FU contains RX and TX filters, duplexer and a Low-Noise Amplifier (LNA). It also
handles the RF carrier splitting.
2. The FU is connected between the Radio Units (RU) and two duplex antenna feeder
branches, Ant. A and Ant. B, for transfer of uplink (RX) and downlink (TX) RF signals.
3. Downlink (TX) signals are filtered in the FU before transfer to the antenna and uplink (RX)
signals from the antenna are filtered and amplified before transfer to the RU.
4. The FU gets DC power from RU and also provides DC power for and communication with
Antenna System Controller (ASC), Remote Electrical Tilt Unit (RETU).
5. The FU consists of two main physical units:
6. Radio Frequency (RF) board
7. Duplex and Receiver (RX) band pass filter

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Hardware Description Radio Subrack
The radio Subrack contains most of the Radio Frequency (RF) processing hardware that
handles Digital to Analog (D/A) and Analog to Digital (A/D) conversion, RF modulation and
demodulation, and RF carrier combining.

The RU:

1. Amplifies the signals received from the FU


2. Performs analog digital conversion of radio signals
3. Supplies DC power to the FU and to:
Antenna System Controller (ASC)
Remote Electrical Tilt Unit (RETU)
4. Performs digital Pre-Distortion
5. Amplifies the signal to the antenna
6. Supplies DC/DC conversion for internal purposes
7. Can issue temperature alarms by means of internal temperature sensors located at critical
hot spots
RU21 has two carriers downlink, & one carrier uplink (with 2-branch diversity).
RU22 has two carriers downlink, & two carriers uplink (with -2 branch diversity).

Hardware Description Radio Subrack


RU Subrack also contains the Power Distribution Unit.
The PDU is used for the following:
1. Supplies the RU and the digital Subrack (through the CBU) with -48 V DC power. The
supply to the CBU has 10 ms hold-up.
2. Protecting CBUs from incorrect polarization
3. Distributing power to the Fan Control Unit (FCU)
4. Contains circuit breakers
5. The PDU includes the following:

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A Surge Protection Devices (SPD)
A system voltage test port

Hardware Description Digital Subrack


1. Handle dedicated and common channels to User Equipment (UE).
2. Consists of an interface for connection to a Radio Network Controller (RNC), a Main
Processor (MP), and the external Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) interface termination.
3. Also contains all functions in the baseband domain, except for average output power limiter,
power clipping, and delay and gain adjustment, which are all located in the radio Subrack.
4. Includes a backplane
5. Can include the CBU, ETMC1, ET-MFX, RAX, TX, and RUIF.

CBU:

The Control Base Unit implements the following:


1. An MP for control and contains the software for all the units on the node.
2. An ATM switch for all boards connected to the backplane in the digital Subrack.
3. A Timing Unit (TU), which provides clock signals for synchronization.
4. An ET board function, which provides 4 E1 ports to the transmission network.

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Power supply to the digital Subrack through the backplane.

Digital Subrack
ET-MC1
The Exchange Terminal board implements transmission ports. ET boards can be used when
the CBU does not have enough ports, or when another type of transmission standard is
required.

Digital Subrack
ET-MFX

1. Is a multi-port Ethernet switch blade with IP termination and inter-working functionality.


2. It provides six 10/100/1000BASE-T electrical ports on Emily connectors and one connector
which can connect an SFP module for optical interfaces.

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Digital Subrack
RAX
1. Random Access & Receiver board implements the uplink digital processing.
2. The RAX boards available in an RBS receive uplink data from the mobile device users. The
process of incoming data is shared by all RAX boards in the RBS baseband pool.
3. RAX boards are available with various processing capabilities and demodulation modules.
Extra capacity is added by license keys or by adding more boards up to maximum capacity.
4. The unit has the following functions:
Deserializing: convert data between serial data and parallel interfaces in each direction.
Demodulation: extracts modulation from a radio carrier wave.
Decoding

Digital Subrack
TX
1. The TX board implements the downlink digital processing.
2. TX boards are available with various capacity and capabilities. Extra capacity is added by
license keys or by adding more boards for load-sharing up to maximum capacity. Additional
TX boards can be added for redundancy when low capacity is required.
3. The unit has the following functions:
Soft and softer handover
Transport channel handling
Encoding
Modulation and spreading
Physical channel combining

Digital Subrack
RUIF

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Radio Unit Interface
1. The RUIF contains point-to-point connections through cables to the RUs.
2. Receives BB (Baseband) clock and Node B Frame Number (BFN) from the Control Base
Unit (CBU), and selects one of the two signals
3. Distributes BB clock and BFN to three RUs. Port F connected with 1 st RU, Port D connected
with 2nd RU & Port B connected with 3rd RU using Digital Cable (Gamma Cable). Data 1 port
is used in RU21 for connectivity with RUIF.
4. Distributes BB clock and BFN to three Random Access and Receiver (RAX) boards and one
Transmitter (TX) boards
5. Transfers control data in RS-485 format to and from three RUs
6. Transfers data in Ross format to and from the RUs for distribution to up to three antennas
7. Receives three gamma bus lines from the RUs in Uplink (UL), and distributes each line to
three RAX boards
8. Receives three gamma bus lines from the TX boards in Downlink(DL) for transferring to the
RUs, one line to each RU

Antenna System
The HW units are as follows:
1. Filter Unit (FU)
2. Feeders
3. Antenna System Controller(ASC)
4. Remote Electrical Tilt Unit (RETU)
5. Antenna

Antenna System
ASC

1. Amplifies RX-signals to compensate for feeder loss


2. Increases uplink coverage
3. Supervises antenna
4. Supplies power to an external unit, such as the RETU
5. Controls an external unit

Functional blocks of ASC:


1. Bias-T: separates DC power and control signals from radio frequency signals
2. Duplex filter (DPX): separates the RX and TX signals
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3. Low Noise Amplifier (LNA): amplifies the RX signal
4. DC Supply (DC/DC): converts the voltage supplied via the feeders to necessary internal
voltages
5. Antenna Supervision (Ant Sup): supervised by a directional coupler which monitors Voltage
Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) and forward Power

LED INDICATIONS

Sl No Boards LED Status Slot No Special General


in Normal Remarks Remarks
Condition
1 CBU Green LED 1 Normally Red
Stable. LED indicates
Yellow LED H/W fault. Card
Blinks Fast can be restarted
2 ET-M4 Green LED 2 to 4 using software
Stable commands.
3 ETMFX Green LED 2 to 5 If ET-M4 card is Procedure to
Stable absent can be restart board
inserted in slot 2 given on alarm
& if ET-M4 is analysis part
present then can below).If Red
be inserted in LED still persists
Slot 5 normally. card may be
Another 7 LEDs jacked out from
are there. Optical Magazine & then
Fibre for GE again jacked in.
connectivity is If Red LED
connected to port again appears
G having SFP then Boards
module & for FE needs to
connectivity port replaced. If
F is normally Yellow LED is
used. For Mub fixed it indicates
connectivity Board is in
Emily cable used locked mode. It
to connect port B should be
with Eth port in unlocked from
CBU & Cable Node B. Then
originally H/W test may be
connected in Eth performed.
port shifted to
port C.
4 RAX13 Green LED 7 to 9
Stable.
Yellow LED
Blinks Fast
5 TX6- Green LED 11

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HS04 Stable.
Yellow LED
Blinks Fast
6 RU21 Green LED Radio
Stable & Subrack
Yellow LED
Blinks Fast
7 FU12 Green LED Filter
Stable & Subrack
Yellow LED
Blinks Fast
8 FCU31 Green LED
Stable &
Yellow LED
Blinks Fast

Red LED means Fault


Green LED means Operational
Yellow LED means Information

5.2 Node B Preventive Maintenance


5.2.1 General Inspection of Node-B
Check the following points to ensure that everything is alright whenever visiting a NODE B
site
Check for any fault in the RBS or any other alarms
The Jumper and Feeder connectors are fixed properly
The equipment and each boards (specially RU & FU) and the
Hardware place should be kept clean and cleaning schedule should be
maintained sincerely
It should be ensured that all external alarms using XALM are
extended and are working properly.
Cooling should be proper in the shelter & air conditioners
should functioning correctly. There is no leakage of air-
conditioned air through door, window or Feeder Cable entry
plates.
Environment Ensure that the room temperature and equipment temperature
within limit .
Indoor light is working & Indoor emergency light is working
Check for any surrounding activities or changes close to the
site that may affect the performance of the system or safety of
the equipment
Battery / All modules of SMPS power plant are working properly and
load is being shared by all.
Power plant
Check back-up batteries for corrosion and leakage.
/ DG
Check the run time of Engine Alternator and compare it with

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the manufacturers recommended service interval regarding
the run time and ensure regular service.
The oil in the Engine Alternator should be checked with the
dipstick to ensure its sufficient level and also its usefulness.
It should be ensured that Earth resistance value has been
Earthing measured once in every six months and the same is displayed.
It should be less than 0.5 ohm.
Fire Safety Expiry date on Fire extinguisher and sufficiency of fire safety
equipments.
Tower Check that the navigation light on the tower is operational and
condition of tower with regard to its painting etc is OK.
The media connectivity record should be maintained in a
database.
Other
The Height of Antenna should be 25 Mtr. In rural area as there
are less users Mechanical Tilt may be made zero & Electrical
Tilt can be set to 10 for optimum coverage. In Semi-Urban or
Urban areas Tilt may be adjusted according to the density of
nearby site & Geographical position.

5.2.2 Monthly Routines


Climate control i.e. air conditioners are functioning correctly. There is no leakage of air-
conditioned air through door, window or waveguide openings.
The air inlet / filters to the cabinet are clean.
The oil in the Engine Alternator should be checked with the dipstick to ensure sufficient level
and also its usefulness.
Functioning of all alarms is tested for service worthiness.
A printout of all cell data should be made once in every month and check for false/ extra data
should be carried out.
Weak cell of batteries to be identified and remedial action should be taken.

5.2.3 Quarterly Routines


The following should be checked once in a quarter in addition to the regular daily and weekly
check-ups:-
Check rack filters and replace if necessary.
Carry out battery back-up voltage test, to ascertain whether the batteries are holding their full
charge.
Check the site temperature and humidity, see O&M handbook supplied by the vendors.
Updation of data in the planning tool based on results of Drive Tests during the quarter.
Cell Planning and RF Planning should be reviewed for any possible error or change in
situation due to addition, deletion or change in configuration of NODE B in the network.

87
Any additional NODE B should be put in service only after A/T and special monitoring on
Radio Resource Control(RRC) Setup Success Rate in all cells of the RNC is necessary so as
to be sure that it is not impacting the performance of any other sector/ cell adversely.
Temperature monitoring
In case of shelter sites free cooling filter should be cleaned
In case of outdoor site all canopy fans should be in working condition

5.2.4 Half-yearly Routines


Power measurementof the NODE B should be done.
The waveguides and connectors are fixed propoerly.
VSWR should be measured once in six months for every NODE B and its value should be
maintained within the limit (<1.3) for all waveguides.
Earth resistance should be measured for all NODE B sites. The value of earth resistance in
respect of DC earth, Tower earth and AC earth should be < 0.5 ohm.
It should be checked if there is any leakage for A/C as the same increases load on the plant and
also power consumption. It also needs to seen that penalty is not being imposed by Electricty
Boards on account of power factor, over consumption etc.

5.2.5 Annual Routines


Pre-monsoon activity
Shelter /canopy leakage
VSWR measurement
Waveguide termination weather proofing
Site cleaning - inside shelter / canopy & surrounding area (particularly @ NBSNL sites )
Mini link status (Antenna orientation tighten, receive power check etc.)

Spare-Parts Routines
There should be a regular check to ensure the availability of sufficient spares and
consumables to service the NODE B sites.
A list of spares should be available. A record of spare equipment replaced in the field,
available at site or sent for repair should be kept.
At least one spare NODE B equipment along with radio link should be kept ready in each of
the circles to meet out unforeseen developments like festivals, meetings or natural calamities.

88
*Note- Fault in RU21 is the most common. Most of the time due to improper maintenance of
AC, shelter temperature goes very high resulting in more high temperature in Board. Also
sometimes due to less cleanliness of RU fault appears. Also More Spare RU21 cards should
be available with SSA for providing uninterrupted service.
5.2.6 Logs and Records
Log book has to be maintained at each NODE B.
Daily Log for all activities at NODE B including the outage.
Power & Engine Alternator run log book
To maintain spare-part list at each SSA
To maintain complaint register at SSA for network related problems.
To maintain list of sites which fail frequently, identify the root cause and take corrective
action.

5.3 Node B Fault Monitoring, Alert and Rectification Mechanism


5.3.1 Fault Monitoring
Faults are being continuously monitored on 24 X 7 by NOC / OMCR personnels.
As and when any fault occurs the Alarm Generates

5.3.2 Fault Alert Mechanism


24X7 NOC / OMCR staff escalates the fault to the concerned persons/ field staff.
The concerned officer identifies the fault reason like media problem / power supply problem /
equipment related problem

5.3.3 Fault Rectification Mechanism

Reason of
Action to be taken
Fault
The section is to be identified and concerned officer is being
Media
informed for furher rectification.
If the power supply is disconnected, it should be ensured tha Battery
Power is taking load and if required DG set shoud be started.
If there is problem of power plant module, it should be replaced.
Equipement Soft reset should be given from OMCR
related Hard reset should be given from the site
Enviorment Check Air condition working
(High Check Free cooling system
Temperature) Check in case of out door NODE B - Door Fan

89
AMOS/MOSHELL
MoShell/AMOS(Advanced Managed Object Scripting) is an application for O&M of CPP
nodes. CPP is the Connectivity Packet Platform on which the following nodes: RNC, RBS,
MGW etc are based. All these nodes have in common the CPP part which handles
functionality for core and transport. MoShell/AMOS is text-based and uses command-line
interface.

5.4 Node B Health Check-up & Routine maintenance


5.4.1 Login Procedure to Node-B & Routine Maintenance Command

Run Winfiol.

Where Host name is the 3G OSS IP: 10.220.160.2


login:bsnl1
PW:*****

To login to the particular NODE B

After Login to OSS type


>cd moshell
> ./moshell RNC IP
> lt all [This command must be run at first, at least once before other commands are run,
this loads all managed object(mo)]

90
> !./moshell Node IP
> lt all

For login to Node-B directly from OSS


>cd moshell
> bash moshell Node IP
> lt all
> BO (For checking board and slots).Commandcan be used in NodeB as well as in RNC

>get 0 ( to Know RBS logical name and user label)

>set 0 parameter name desired value (for correcting name if it is wrong)

>alt (for checking alarms)

Detailed alarm analysysis given later part of this handbook

91
>lst cbu (for checking status of CBU)

>lst tx (for checking status of tx board)

>lst rax (to check status of rax board)

>lst ru (for checking status of RU-21)

92
>lst fu (for checking status of FU)

>cvls (to check last created cv, loaded cv, current package, whether auto create, cv enabled
or not, whether rollback status is on or not & total number of CVs. As I have already
mentioned that total No. of CVs should be less than 50 otherwise automatic backup will stop.

93
>cvms CV Name (for creating CV)

>cv rbset CV Name (for adding cv to rollback list 1)

For adding a Cv in rollback list 1, first use cvlsto find cv_name & then use

>acl config (to find out proxy of ConfigurationVersion), & then use

>acc proxy no. setFirstRollbackList CV_Name

>cvset CV Name (for making a CV Startable)

*Note-all CV related commands can also be used in RNC

>acc licensing updateLicenseKeyFile (to update licese file 3G OSS user name &
password, file location in OSS with XML file is to be known by user)

If node B cannot be logged in remotely & media is ok then we need to visit site. Default ip is
169.254.1.1 . Login using ethernet cable.

>cv ls (For checking latest CV)

>cv set CV Name (last CV name obtained from last coomand)

>restartObj me cold 2 (For giving cold restart)

94
>cabx (for checking status of boards & temperature of CBU)

>cabl ( to check status of boards, Loads on boards. Also CBU temperature can be seen)

>get radio (to check no. of radiolinks sectorwise.)

95
6. RNC (Radio Network Controller)

6.1 RNC Function

The Radio Network Controller (or RNC) is a governing element in the UMTS radio access
network (UTRAN) and is responsible for controlling the Node Bs that are connected to it. The
RNC carries out radio resource management, some of the mobility management functions and
is the point where encryption is done before user data is sent to and from the mobile. The
RNC connects to the Circuit Switched Core Network through Media Gateway (MGW) and to
the Packet Switched Core Network through SGSN (Serving GPRS Support Node).
i) Interfaces
ii) Protocols
iii) WCDMA Key Technologies

Interfaces

i) RNC Interfaces
The logical connections between the network elements are known as interfaces. The interface
between the RNC and the Circuit Switched Core Network (CS-CN) is called Iu-CS and
between the RNC and the Packet Switched Core Network is called Iu-PS. Other interfaces
include Iub (between the RNC and the Node B) and Iur (between RNCs in the same network).
Iu interfaces carry user traffic (such as voice or data) as well as control information
(see Protocols), and Iur interface is mainly needed for soft handovers involving 2 RNCs
though not required as the absence of Iur will cause these handovers to become hard
handovers.

96
ii) PROTOCOLS
Iub, Iu and Iur protocols all carry both user data and signalling (that is, control plane).

Signalling protocol responsible for the control of the NodeB by the RNC is
called NBAP (Node-B Application Part). NBAP is subdivided into Common and Dedicated
NBAP (C-NBAP and D-NBAP), where Common NBAP controls overall Node B
functionality and Dedicated NBAP controls separate cells or sectors of the Node B. NBAP is
carried over Iub. In order for NBAP to handle common and dedicated procedures, it is
divided into: NodeB Control Port (NCP) which handles common NBAP procedures and
Communication Control Port (CCP) which handles dedicated NBAP procedures.

Control plane protocol for the transport layer is called ALCAP (Access Link Control
Application Protocol). Basic functionality of ALCAP is multiplexing of different users onto
one AAL2 transmission path using channel IDs (CIDs). ALCAP is carried over Iub and Iu-CS
interfaces.

Signalling protocol responsible for communication between RNC and the core network is
called RANAP (Radio Access Network Application Part), and is carried over Iu interface.

Signalling protocol responsible for communications between RNCs is


called RNSAP (Radio Network Subsystem Application Part) and is carried on the Iur
interface.
RNC also controls the power of a Node-B.
iii) WCDMA Key Technologies
Power Control
Handover Control
Admission Control
Load Control
Code Resource Allocation
RAKE Receiver
Why Power Control?
All CDMA users occupy the same frequency spectrum at the same time! Frequency and time
are not used as discriminators.
CDMA operates by using codes to discriminate between users.
CDMA interference comes mainly from nearby users
Each user is a small voice in a roaring crowd -- but with a uniquely recoverable code.

97
To achieve acceptable service quality, the transmit power of all users must be tightly
controlled so that their signals reach the base station with the same signal strength and the
absolute minimum power level demanded to avoid the Near-Far Effect.

The Effect of Power Control


The purpose of DL power control:
Saving power resource of NodeB.
Reducing interference to other NodeB.
The purpose of UL power control:
Overcoming Near-Far life
Far effect. Extending UE battery life.
98
Why Handover?
Handover is used to guarantee the continuity of service

Admission Control
The admission control is employed to admit the access of incoming call. Its general principal
is based on the availability and utilization of the system resources.
If the system has enough resources such as load margin, code, and channel element etc. the
admission control will accept the call and allocate resources to it.
Purpose of Admission Control
When user initiates a call, the admission control should implement admission or rejection for
this service according to the resource situation.
The admission control will sustain the system stability firstly and try the best to satisfy the
new calling services QoS request, such as service rate, quality (SIR or BER), and delay etc.
basing on the radio measurement.
Admission control
ntrol is the only access entry for the incoming services, its strategy will directly
effect the cell capacity and stability, e.g. call loss rate, call drop rate.
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WCDMA Code Resource
WCDMA code resource including
Channelized Code (OVSF code)
Uplink Channelized Code
Downlink Channelized Code
Scrambling Code (PN code)
Uplink Scrambling Code
Downlink Scrambling Code

100
101
6.2 RNC HARDWARE
RNC 3810 consists of one or two cabinets. Each cabinet contains one to three subracks. It has
one MS (Master Subrack), located in the Main Cabinet. The capacity of the RNC is increased
by connecting ESs (Extension Subracks) to the MS built on a common platform and
connected in a star topology. Maximum ES that can be connected = 5 (F configuration)

Configurations A - 1 MS
B - 1 MS + 1 ES
C - 1 MS + 2 ES
D - 1 MS + 3 ES*
E - 1 MS + 4 ES*
F - 1 MS + 5 ES*

* Configuration D,E & F require two cabinets.

102
RNC 3810

RNC Hardware Structure Multiple Sub-Racks

MAIN SUBRACK Functions:

Termination of the Mur interface with OSS-RC


Termination of the Iu interface with the CN
Termination of the Iur interface with another RNC
Termination of the Iub interface with the RBSs
Distribution of broadcast information to all involved subracks
Distribution of broadcast information to all involved RBSs within subrack
External transmission interfaces
Attachment of synchronization sources
Duplicated non-blocking Cell switch
Duplicated high-speed links to interconnect with the ESs
Duplicated timing signals for the node
Input for GPS signals
Pool of processors for user plane processing and control

EXTENSION SUBRACK Functions:

Termination of the Iub interface with the RBSs


Distribution of broadcast information to all involved RBSs within subrack
External transmission interfaces
Duplicated high-speed links between subracks and the MS
Duplicated non-blocking Cell switch
Pool of processors for user plane processing and control

103
RNC Modules:

One General Purpose Processor Board (GPB)


A set of dynamically allocated Special Purpose Processor Modules (SPMs) which is inside
SPB Board.
A set of semi-static allocated Iub Links used for RBS connectivity.
Supporting software

Sub-Rack Equipment: Each MS and ES can house up to 28 boards

RNC 3810

SLOT
NO. RNC 3810 FUNCTIONALITY
1 SCB3 Power IN , 4 ports to connect ES.
2 SXB(m) To connect an Extra ES.
3 SXB(r) Same as above - for redundancy purpose
4 TUB(m) For Synch and Clock Pulse.
5 TUB(r) Same as above - for redundancy purpose
6 ET/DUMMY Towards CN - For UP
7 ET/DUMMY Redundancy - Towards CN - For UP
8 GPB (m) Towards CN - For CP (SCCP)
9 GPB(r) Redundancy - Towards CN - For CP
10 GPB(m) MAIN PROCESSOR
11 GPB(r) Redundancy - MAIN PROCESSOR
12 GPB (m) Operation and Maintenance
13 GPB (r) Redundancy - Operation and Maintenance
14 GPB RNC MODULE (IN POOL)
15 GPB RNC MODULE (IN POOL)
16 GPB RNC MODULE (IN POOL)

104
17 GPB RANAP
18 GPB Redundancy RANAP
19 SPB RNC MODULE (IN POOL)
20 SPB RNC MODULE (IN POOL)
21 SPB RNC MODULE (IN POOL)
22 SPB RNC MODULE (IN POOL)
23 SPB RNC MODULE (IN POOL)
24 ET-MFX Towards IUB for IP connectivity
25 ET-MFX Towards IUB for IP connectivity
26 ET-MC41 Toward IUB
27
Redundancy - Power IN , 4 ports to connect
28 SCB(r) ES.

LED INDICATIONS

Sl No Boards LED Slot Special General Remarks


Status in No Remarks
Normal
Condition
1 SCB Green 1 & 28 Normally Red LED
LED indicates H/W fault.Card
Stable. can restarted using
Yellow software
LED commands.(procedure to
Blinks restart board given on
Fast in alarm analysis part
Slot 1 & below).If Red LED still
Blinks persists card may be
slowly in jacked out from
Slot 28 Magazine & then again
2 SXB Green 2&3 jacked in. If Red LED
LED again appears then
Stable Boards needs to
3 TUB Green 4&5 If Green LED replaced. If Yellow LED
LED Blinks there is fixed it indicates
Stable should be media Board is in locked mode.
issue. Either It should be unlocked
media is break from RNC. Then H/W
or clock is not test may be performed.
synchronised.
4 ET- Green 6&7
MF4 LED
Stable
5 GPB Green 8 to 18
LED
Stable

105
6 SPB Green 19 to If Green LED
LED 23 Blinks slowly
Stable & then interchange
Yellow board with
LED nearby board. If
Blinks again same
Fast indication
appears then
board may be
faulty.
7 ETMFX Green 24 & Another 7 LEDs
LED 25 are there.
Stable Optical Fibre for
GE connectivity
is connected to
port G having
SFP module. For
connecting two
board port B is
normally used
8 ET- Green 26
MC41 LED
Stable

Red LED means Fault


Green LED means Operational
Yellow LED means Information

6.3 RNC HEALTH CHECKUP AND ROUTINE MAINTENANCE


After Logging into OSS, login to RNC (Procedure Described in Node B Part above)

>get RncCapacity . value (for checking capacity of RNC-Iubthroughput & user )

106
>strt (for checking status of Iublink, Cells, Transport Network whether ATM or IP &
RNC Module)

Explanation of Parameters:

CFRPHEM1: The first digit is the state of the Utrancell ,the next four digits show the state of
the common channels (Fach/Rach/Pch/Hsdsch). The sixth digit (if present) represents the
state of the EUL.

ICDS: The first digit is the state of the IubLink


The second digit is the state of NbapCommon signalling protocol.
The third digit is the state of NbapDedicated signalling protocol.
The last digit indicates status of sync.
(L means Locked, 0 means Disabled, and 1 means Enabled.)

TN: Transport network (A means ATM & I means IP)

MOD: RNC Module for a particular Iub Link

>Q[Quit] or bye (To exit from RNC or Node B)

107
>Lst UAP099 (To observe status of particular NODE B)

For working site: Adm status should be 1(unlocked) and Op. Status are normally 1(Enabled).

Otherwise they are 0.

For example: (i)

This signifies the site is Locked.

108
Example: (ii)

This signifies site is down

>lst iub_<iub number> [To see Iublink status of a Node B]

The first row represents Iublink status.

The second row represents synchronization status.

The last two rows represent nbap signalling protocol status. For IP site no need to check
status of NBAP-C & NBAP-D

>Altk (To observe all alarms of a RNC)

109
Detailed alarm, alarm log & event log analysis will be given later on

>STD (used to check status of CC,DC & PDR)

Common Channel (CC), which deals with RRC, RLC, MAC-C for Common Channels

Dedicated Channel (DC), which deals with RRC, RLC, Ciphering, MAC-D for dedicated
channels as well as Diversity Handling (DHO). This means that control signalling, circuit
switched connections and packet switched data connections are handled by the same SP
(Support Processor)

Packet Data Router (PDR), which deals with UDP/IP, GTP-U. Packet Data is mapped in both
directions between Iu and UE . This RNC application uses AAL5. PDR is only implemented
in the RNC modules of the main sub-rack. Only 5 PDRs are defined, irrespective of the size
of the RNC

>cabl (to check temperature of Boards in RNC, Operational status of boards, load of GPB,
SPB, SPM (SPM resides inside SPB boards). Load of GPB in slots MS-14 to 16, and
in
ES-12 to 17 needs to be checked (depending on how many Extension Subracks are
there. Load should be within 62%. )

110
> cedh (for
for checking ASE uses, Total Radio Links & IubLinks with Hanging
Resources. Iublinks with hanging resources will be shown in the.bottom of the command
output )

111
----------------------------------------------

To solve this problem at first we need to block Iublink & then deblock it again. If
problem not solved then check GPB_MODULE LOAD in which IubLink is located.
As described above It should be within 62%. If load is more than 62% then Change the
Subrack of Iublink. For that use

Resub Iub_(Iub no.) Subrack=ms or es-1 or es-2 as desired.

But before using resub we need to block IubLink. Then use resub command & then again
deblock IubLink.

>lkra (used to see iublink located in different subrack than their ATM Port and Net
module,net IubLink,net cell & avg. cell subrack wise. Care should be taken to maintain
similar type load in each subrack. As already described use resub command to change
subrack)

112
113
>cvls (to check last created cv, loaded cv, current package, whether autocreate , cv enabled
or not, whether rollback status is on or not & total number of CVs. Total No. of should be
less than 50 otherwise automatic backup will stop)

>st cs (for checking status of Iu-cs link. All op. state should be enabled)

*Note- If Iu-CS link is down then check corresponding ATM port. If it is also down check
media upto GMGW. In this case customers can surf data but cannot make voice calls.

>st ps (for checking status of Iu-ps link. All op. state should be enabled)

114
*Note-If Iu-PS link is down then check corresponding ATM port. If it is also down check
media upto SGSN. In this case customers can make voice calls but cannot surf data.

>st atmport (to check status of atm port. Specially atmport=ms-6-1/2/3/4 & ms-7-1/2/3/4
should be checked as it connected to Core network.

115
>pget 495 (to check error in ATM Port)

If pmSecondsWithUnexp value is continuously increasing then there is media issue

>pdiff 495& pdiff 1330 (for checking pmSecondsWithUnexp for 30 secs)

*Note- pget & pdiff commands can also be used at Node B end also

116
>sti (for checking IP pool of RNC. We can also check IpAccessHostGpb(Iub CP) of
IubLink)

117
>get 3G site ID cid (To see cell id of cells in a NODE-B
NODE )

Node-B)
>get 3G site ID primaryscramblingcode (To get Scrambling Code of cells in a Node

*Note- Same scrambling code should not defined in nearby cells

>get 3G site ID location area (To see LAC of cells of a particular NODEB)

For Deleting & Creating IubLink 1st use U+ command then use rdel iub_00001 & at last use
U- Command.

Finally copy the highlighted link appears in the


th u- command & paste it to the WinFiol
Wndow

118
>get rncfunction rncId (to know RNC ID)
>st os155 (to know status of STM connectivity)
>st PlugInUnit (to know the status Plug In Unit)
>st spm (to know the status of SPM)
>st Ethernet (to know the status of GE link of ETMFX board)
>st VclTp (to know status of Vitual Circuits)
>st VplTp (to know status of Virtual Path)
>st Mtp3b (to know status of Iu-CS & Iu-PS link)
>lst pdr (to know the status pluginUnit SPM of PDR)
>lst packet (to know the status of Packet Data Router)
>st ima (to know the status of imagroup)
>st aal2 (to know the status of aal2 & aal2sp)
>st aal5 (to know the status of ATM Adaptation Layer 5)
>st AtmCrossConnection (to know the status ATM Cross Cxn)
>get proxy no of AtmCrossConnection (to know details of ATM Cross Cxn)
>pr mo Group (to know proxy id, for e.g. )
>pr package (to know software package group)
>pr aal2routingcase (to know aal2routing id)
>acl mo Group (to know proxy id of restartable mo, pingable Mo etc.)
>get licensing (to know the status of emergency state & file URL)
>license lkf (to know information about License Key File)
>get . arfcn (to know the DL & UL ARFCN)
>inv ^cxc (to know licensed capabilities)
Most of the above commands can also be used at Node B end

6.4 ALARMS AND ANALYSIS


Common Alarms in RNC & Node-B (formatting should be done to make one line per entry)
Sl No Specific Problem Probable Cause Perceived Managed Object
1 AntennaBranch_AntennaProblemInBranchA EQUIPMENT_MALFUNCTION Severity
MAJOR AntennaBranch
2 AntennaBranch_AntennaProblemInBranchB EQUIPMENT_MALFUNCTION MAJOR AntennaBranch
3 AntennaBranch_AntennaSystemProblemInBra EQUIPMENT_MALFUNCTION MAJOR AntennaBranch
4 nchA
AntennaBranch_AntennaSystemProblemInBra EQUIPMENT_MALFUNCTION MAJOR AntennaBranch
5 nchB
AntennaBranch_FeederCurrentTooHighInBran EQUIPMENT_MALFUNCTION MAJOR AntennaBranch
6 chA
AntennaBranch_FeederCurrentTooHighInBran EQUIPMENT_MALFUNCTION MAJOR AntennaBranch
7 chB
AntennaBranch_FeederCurrentTooLowInBranc EQUIPMENT_MALFUNCTION MAJOR AntennaBranch
8 hA
AntennaBranch_FeederCurrentTooLowInBranc EQUIPMENT_MALFUNCTION MAJOR AntennaBranch
9 hB
AuxPlugInUnit_PiuConnectionLost EQUIPMENT_MALFUNCTION MAJOR AuxPlugInUnit
10 Carrier_RejectSignalFromHardware MESSAGE_NOT_EXPECTED MAJOR Carrier
11 Carrier_RxDiversityLost PERFORMANCE_DEGRADED MAJOR Carrier
12 Carrier_SignalNotReceivedWithinTime TIMEOUT_EXPIRED MAJOR Carrier
13 DbccDevice_GammaDownlinkFailure EQUIPMENT_MALFUNCTION MAJOR DbccDevice
14 DbccDeviceSet_GeneralHwError EQUIPMENT_MALFUNCTION MAJOR DbccDeviceSet
15 DbccDeviceSet_GeneralSwError SOFTWARE_ERROR MAJOR DbccDeviceSet
16 DbchDeviceSet_GeneralHwError EQUIPMENT_MALFUNCTION MAJOR DbchDeviceSet
17 DeviceGroup_FanFailure EQUIPMENT_MALFUNCTION MAJOR DeviceGroup
18 DeviceGroup_GammaDownlinkFailure EQUIPMENT_MALFUNCTION MAJOR DeviceGroup
19 DeviceGroup_GammaLinkFailure EQUIPMENT_MALFUNCTION MAJOR DeviceGroup
20 DeviceGroup_GammaUplinkFailure EQUIPMENT_MALFUNCTION MAJOR DeviceGroup
21 DeviceGroup_GeneralHwError EQUIPMENT_MALFUNCTION MAJOR DeviceGroup

119
22 DeviceGroup_GeneralSwError SOFTWARE_ERROR MAJOR DeviceGroup
23 DeviceGroup_HwNotSupported CONFIGURATION_OR_CUSTOM MAJOR DeviceGroup
24 DeviceGroup_HwSwMismatch IZING_ERROR
VERSION_MISMATCH MAJOR DeviceGroup
25 DeviceGroup_LossOfSynch LOSS_OF_SYNCHRONISATION MAJOR DeviceGroup
26 DeviceGroup_PoorClockSignal TIMING_PROBLEM_M3100 MAJOR DeviceGroup
27 DeviceGroup_TemperatureExceptionallyHigh TEMPERATURE_UNACCEPTAB MAJOR DeviceGroup
28 DigitalCable_Disconnected EQUIPMENT_MALFUNCTION MAJOR DigitalCable
29 EDbchDeviceSet_GeneralHwError EQUIPMENT_MALFUNCTION MAJOR EDbchDeviceSet
30 EDbchDeviceSet_GeneralSwError SOFTWARE_ERROR MAJOR EDbchDeviceSet
31 Emergency Unlock of Software Licensing ALARM_INDICATION_SIGNAL MINOR Licensing
32 Equipment Protection Hardware Fault REPLACEABLE_UNIT_PROBLE MINOR ExchangeTermin
33 Ethernet Switch Port Fault M
LINK_FAILURE Major al
EthernetSwitchP
34 ExternalTma_LnaDegradedInBranchA EQUIPMENT_MALFUNCTION MINOR ExternalTma
35 ExternalTma_LnaDegradedInBranchB EQUIPMENT_MALFUNCTION MINOR ExternalTma
36 ExternalTma_LnaFailureBranchA EQUIPMENT_MALFUNCTION MAJOR ExternalTma
37 ExternalTma_LnaFailureBranchB EQUIPMENT_MALFUNCTION MAJOR ExternalTma
38 Fan HW Fault COOLING_FAN_FAILURE MAJOR Fan
39 Fan SW Fault COOLING_FAN_FAILURE MAJOR Fan
40 FanDeviceGroup_GeneralHwError EQUIPMENT_MALFUNCTION MAJOR FanDeviceGroup
41 FanDeviceGroup_GeneralSwError SOFTWARE_ERROR MAJOR FanDeviceGroup
42 FcuDeviceGroup_FanFailure EQUIPMENT_MALFUNCTION MAJOR FcuDeviceGroup
43 FcuDeviceGroup_GeneralHwError EQUIPMENT_MALFUNCTION MAJOR FcuDeviceGroup
44 FcuDeviceGroup_GeneralSwError SOFTWARE_ERROR MAJOR FcuDeviceGroup
45 FuDeviceGroup_ExternalUnitFailure EQUIPMENT_MALFUNCTION MAJOR FuDeviceGroup
46 FuDeviceGroup_GeneralHwError EQUIPMENT_MALFUNCTION MAJOR FuDeviceGroup
47 FuDeviceGroup_GeneralSwError SOFTWARE_ERROR MAJOR FuDeviceGroup
48 GammaCable_GammaDownlinkFailure EQUIPMENT_MALFUNCTION MAJOR GammaCable
49 GammaCable_GammaUplinkFailure EQUIPMENT_MALFUNCTION MAJOR GammaCable
50 HsDbchDeviceSet_GeneralSwError SOFTWARE_ERROR MAJOR HsDbchDeviceS
51 IMA Config Aborted at Far End REMOTE_NODE_TRANSMISSIO MAJOR et
ImaGroup
52 IMA Group Blocked at Far End N_ERROR
REMOTE_NODE_TRANSMISSIO MAJOR ImaGroup
53 IMA Group Configuration Aborted LOCAL_NODE_TRANSMISSION_ MAJOR ImaGroup
54 IMA Group Insufficient Links ERROR
LOCAL_NODE_TRANSMISSION_ MAJOR ImaGroup
55 IMA Group Insufficient Links at Far End ERROR
REMOTE_NODE_TRANSMISSIO MAJOR ImaGroup
56 IMA Link Reception Unusable at Far End N_ERROR
REMOTE_NODE_TRANSMISSIO WARNING ImaLink
57 IMA Link Transmission Misconnected N_ERROR
LOCAL_NODE_TRANSMISSION_ MAJOR ImaLink
58 License Key File Fault ERROR
CONFIGURATION_OR_CUSTOM MAJOR Licensing
59 Loss of Frame LOSS_OF_FRAME MAJOR Os155SpiTtp
60 Loss of IMA Frame LOCAL_NODE_TRANSMISSION_ MAJOR ImaLink
61 Loss of Synch Reference Redundancy ERROR
REPLACEABLE_UNIT_PROBLE MINOR Synchronization
62 Loss of System Clock REPLACEABLE_UNIT_PROBLE CRITICAL Synchronization
63 Loss of System Clock Redundancy M
REPLACEABLE_UNIT_PROBLE WARNING Synchronization
64 Loss of Tracking M
REPLACEABLE_UNIT_PROBLE MAJOR Synchronization
65 MS Excessive Bit Error Rate EXCESSIVE_BIT_ERROR_RATE MAJOR Os155SpiTtp
66 MS Remote Defect Indication FAR_END_RECEIVER_FAILURE WARNING Os155SpiTtp
67 MTP3b Link Out of Service UNAVAILABLE WARNING Mtp3bSlAnsi
68 MTP3b Link Out of Service UNAVAILABLE WARNING Mtp3bSlChina
69 MTP3b Link Out of Service UNAVAILABLE WARNING Mtp3bSlItu
70 MTP3b Link Out of Service UNAVAILABLE WARNING Mtp3bSlTtc
71 MTP3b Route Set Unavailable ROUTING_FAILURE MAJOR Mtp3bSrs
72 NbapCommon_Layer3SetupFailure COMMUNICATION_SUBSYSTEM CRITICAL NbapCommon
73 NTP Server Reachability Fault _FAILURE
UNAVAILABLE Major IpSyncRef
74 PDH Alarm Indication Signal ALARM_INDICATION_SIGNAL WARNING E1PhysPathTer
75 PDH Alarm Indication Signal ALARM_INDICATION_SIGNAL WARNING E1Ttp
76 PDH Alarm Indication Signal ALARM_INDICATION_SIGNAL WARNING E3PhysPathTer
77 PDH Alarm Indication Signal ALARM_INDICATION_SIGNAL WARNING J1PhysPathTerm
78 PDH Alarm Indication Signal ALARM_INDICATION_SIGNAL WARNING T1PhysPathTer
79 PDH Alarm Indication Signal ALARM_INDICATION_SIGNAL WARNING m
T1Ttp
80 Power Failure Left Slot POWER_PROBLEM_M3100 MAJOR Subrack
81 RaxDeviceGroup_GammaLinkFailure CONFIGURATION_OR_CUSTOM MAJOR RaxDeviceGroup
82 RaxDeviceGroup_GeneralHwError IZING_ERROR
EQUIPMENT_MALFUNCTION MAJOR RaxDeviceGroup

120
83 RaxDeviceGroup_GeneralSwError EQUIPMENT_MALFUNCTION MAJOR RaxDeviceGroup
84 RaxDeviceGroup_HwNotSupported CONFIGURATION_OR_CUSTOM MAJOR RaxDeviceGroup
85 RbsSynchronization_SignalNotReceivedWithin IZING_ERROR
TIMEOUT_EXPIRED MAJOR RbsSynchronizat
86 Time
RbsSynchronization_TimingUnitsNotSynchroni REPLACEABLE_UNIT_PROBLE WARNING ion
RbsSynchronizat
87 zed
RetDevice_GeneralHwError M
EQUIPMENT_MALFUNCTION MAJOR ion
RetDevice
88 RetDevice_GeneralSwError SOFTWARE_ERROR MAJOR RetDevice
89 RetDevice_RetFailure EQUIPMENT_MALFUNCTION MAJOR RetDevice
90 RuDeviceGroup_ExternalUnitFailure EQUIPMENT_MALFUNCTION MAJOR RuDeviceGroup
91 RuDeviceGroup_GammaDownlinkFailure EQUIPMENT_MALFUNCTION MAJOR RuDeviceGroup
92 RuDeviceGroup_GammaUplinkFailure EQUIPMENT_MALFUNCTION MAJOR RuDeviceGroup
93 RuDeviceGroup_GeneralHwError EQUIPMENT_MALFUNCTION MAJOR RuDeviceGroup
94 RuDeviceGroup_GeneralSwError SOFTWARE_ERROR MAJOR RuDeviceGroup
95 RuDeviceGroup_HwNotSupported CONFIGURATION_OR_CUSTOM MAJOR RuDeviceGroup
96 RuDeviceGroup_LossOfSynch LOSS_OF_SYNCHRONISATION MAJOR RuDeviceGroup
97 RuifDeviceGroup_ClockDistributionMalfunction CLOCK_SYNCHRONISATION_P MAJOR RuifDeviceGroup
98 RuifDeviceGroup_DpProgramNotConfigured ROBLEM
CONFIGURATION_OR_CUSTOM MAJOR RuifDeviceGroup
99 RuifDeviceGroup_GammaDownlinkFailure EQUIPMENT_MALFUNCTION MAJOR RuifDeviceGroup
100 RuifDeviceGroup_GammaUplinkFailure EQUIPMENT_MALFUNCTION MAJOR RuifDeviceGroup
101 RuifDeviceGroup_GeneralHwError EQUIPMENT_MALFUNCTION MAJOR RuifDeviceGroup
102 RuifDeviceGroup_GeneralSwError SOFTWARE_ERROR MAJOR RuifDeviceGroup
103 RuifDeviceGroup_PoorClockSignal TIMING_PROBLEM_M3100 MAJOR RuifDeviceGroup
104 Synch Reference Not Reliable CLOCK_SYNCHRONISATION_P MAJOR Synchronization
105 Synch Reference Path HW Fault ROBLEM
CLOCK_SYNCHRONISATION_P MAJOR Synchronization
106 System Clock in Holdover Mode ROBLEM
REPLACEABLE_UNIT_PROBLE MAJOR Synchronization
107 System Clock Quality Degradation M
REPLACEABLE_UNIT_PROBLE CRITICAL Synchronization
108 TimDevice_GeneralHwError EQUIPMENT_MALFUNCTION MAJOR TimDevice
109 TimDevice_GeneralSwError SOFTWARE_ERROR MAJOR TimDevice
110 TimDevice_PhaseLockFailure EQUIPMENT_MALFUNCTION MAJOR TimDevice
111 TxDeviceGroup_GammaLinkFailure EQUIPMENT_MALFUNCTION MAJOR TxDeviceGroup
112 TxDeviceGroup_GeneralHwError EQUIPMENT_MALFUNCTION MAJOR TxDeviceGroup
113 TxDeviceGroup_GeneralSwError SOFTWARE_ERROR MAJOR TxDeviceGroup
114 TxDeviceGroup_HwNotSupported CONFIGURATION_OR_CUSTOM MAJOR TxDeviceGroup
115 TxDeviceGroup_LossOfSynch IZING_ERROR
LOSS_OF_SYNCHRONISATION MAJOR TxDeviceGroup
116 XalmDeviceGroup_GeneralHwError EQUIPMENT_MALFUNCTION MAJOR XalmDeviceGrou
117 XalmDeviceGroup_GeneralSwError SOFTWARE_ERROR MAJOR p
XalmDeviceGrou
118 XalmDeviceGroup_SoftwareDownloadFailure SOFTWARE_DOWNLOAD_FAIL MAJOR p
XalmDeviceGrou
URE p
> alt ( for checking alarm )
Analysis of Alarms

We need to check Critical alarm with highest priority and then major alarm should be
analyzed.

1. For most of the s/w (Software) alarms we need to give restart to plugin unit. For eg. if there
is alarm in RAX, TX or RUIF we need to give cold restart to the Boards.

For e.g, if there is alarm in rax-slot7 then we need to give restart

> acc 000700 restart for p5, p6 & p6.1 sw versions (Slot 07)
> acc 000700 manualrestart for p7 sw versions

2. If there is alarm in Dbcc, Edbch, ESc or HsDbch devices then cold restart should be given to
Tx Board.

> acc 001100 restart for p5, p6 & p6.1 sw versions (Slot 11)
> acc 001100 manualrestart for p7 sw versions

121
3. For alarm related to carrier we need to give cold restart to corresponding RU card.

> acl plugin (for checking proxy number of aux plugin unit)

Suppose there is alarm in RbsSubrack=RU1,RbsSlot=2 then

> acc proxy no restartAuxUnit

4. For gamma link alarm we need to check managed object & then accordingly need to give
restart to the board.

5. For Hardware alarms we need to power off the board from PDU and then power on & if
alarm remains we need to check physically in node B whether Red LED is glowing or not. If
Red LED is glowing then we need to replace the board.

6. For AntennaBranch_FeederCurrentTooHigh or low alarms we need to check VSWR in


both the feeders of a particular sector. Also we need to keep in mind that the difference in
VSWR between two feeders should be very low.

7. License related alarms such as Emergency Unlock of Software Licensing generated because
of setting emergency mode. This should be avoided as emergency state can be used once
only. In emergency state site will be up for 7 days. Also License Key File Fault alarm
generated if license file corrupted or missing. For solving the issue load new license file.

8. NbapCommon_Layer3SetupFailure alarm is a critical one. Alarm comes due problem in


Iublink between Node B & RNC. Steps given below

> st nbap (For checking status of Nbap(Node B Application Protocol)

We need to check iub controlPlaneTransportOption & userPlaneTransportOption at Node B


and both should be same as in RNC against the same iublink. If everything is alright then give
restart to CBU using
> acc 0 manualrestart or restart as per sw version of node B
>For IP sites no need to check nbap-c & nbap-d at RNC end. If Iublink is down then try to
ping IpAccessHostGpb(Iub CP) of Node B. To get Iub CP ip of Node B use
> get iub_0001 (to know iub controlPlaneTransportOption & userPlaneTransportOption
and note down remotecpipaddress1)
> acl ip note down proxy number of ETMFX-board
Then use command
> acc proxy noping if result isno answerthen check media & if result is alive then
login to node B & check alarms
Also check sync and sync related alarms resolving technique described below.

9. For imagroup related alarm in ATM based Node b use

> st imagroup (for checking status of imagroup & 3 ImaLinks)

122
If problem at far end use the same command at RNC for direct site or at sub-hub as per
ATND. This alarm arises normally due to transmission fault.

10. For ATM based node B & PDH related alarms use

> lst E1 for checking E1

> pget E1 for checking error in media if error found E1 should be blocked immediately
using

>lbl proxy for faulty E1 After there is no error in E1 then for deblocking

>ldebproxy for faulty E1

>lst vc for checking status of all VC (Virtual Circuits)

VC 32 & 33 used for mub_link(for login purpose), 36 & 37 for Nbap-c & Nbap-d, 38 for
AAL5 , 39 for CS and PS with R99 & 46 for HSDPA.

> lst aal2 for checking aal2(ATM Adaptation Layer 2)

> lst aal5 for checking aal5(ATM Adaptation Layer 5)


>get aal2sp for checking a2ea need to verify aal2routingcase in RNC using
>pr aal2routingcase

123
11. For sync related alarms 1st we need to use

> get sync at Node B end

For NTP Server Reachability Fault alarm arises due to media issue in Node B with IP
connectivity.
For System Clock in Holdover Mode alarm we need to check media.

124
For System Clock in Free-running Mode alarm we need to check sync status & if status is ok
then give restart to CBU using acc 0 restart or manualrestart.
If status of either of the parameter nodeIsStable & nodeIsSynchronized is false then also we
need to give restart to CBU
Synch Reference Not Reliable alarm normally arises in Node B with IP connectivity.
Remedy is to check syncRefStatus at RNC end using
>get synchronization (at RNC end)

Normally if there is loss of tracking alarm in RNC then Synch Reference Not Reliable
alarm arises in Node B.
For loss of tracking alarm we need to check status of TimDevice using
> get TimDevice for checking status of TUB card at RNC .Also phusically it can be seen.
If.
green LED of TUB card blinks then there should be sync issue. Media
should be checked properly and clock of transmission system as well as of
MGW should be checked .Command can be used in Node B also.

125
Status of timing device should be as above print. If standbyStatus is Cold_Standby then also
check clock of transmission system as well as of MGW should be checked.

12. For MTP3b Link Out of Service alarm we need to check atmport status of slot-6 & 7. If
down then we need to check media step by step upto core network.
13. For NodeSynch_Phase_Difference_Threshold to high we need to check power level of
media Tx & Rx at RNC and also at Node B end. Power level should be between -12 to -18
dbm for optimal performance.

Alarm log and event log


> lga (for checking alarm log)

Alarm log needs to checked on daily basis. For checking alarm log use command
>lga s yyyymmtttt time should be in 24 Hr format and also in GMT
for taking help use h lga
Kindly analyze alarm log sincerely. When the alarm was generated and when seized.
Wheather Alarm is generating frequently also needs to be checked.
commonly MTP3b Link Out of Service alarm needs to be checked.
Another alarms CcDevice_DeviceDisabled, DcDevice_DeviceDisabled,
PacketDataRouter_CnNotRespondingToICMPEchoSpDevicePool=PdrDevice,PdrDevic
e=4,PacketDataRouter=pg22a (communication_protocol_error). All these these alarms
generate in RNC because of media issue. But if media is ok then ET-MF4 boards in slot 6 & 7
as well SPB21 boards from slot 19 to 23 needs to checked.
> lge ( for checking event log)

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PIU restarted issue normally arises due to fault in board.
Action to be taken is to lock the board using
>lbl proxy number of plugin unit plugin unit can be found using acl plugin
Then give manualrestart to plugin unit
>acc proxy nomanualrestart
Then observe for few days.If event again observed in event log then first lock the board, pull
out board from slot and wait for some time and reinsert the board again. If event is again
repeating then replace the board.
For NssSynchronization_SynchRefChanged & NssSynchronization_SystemClockStatus
Changed events TUB board and needs to be checked.
Action to be taken is to lock the board using
>lbl proxy number of plugin unit ( plugin unit can be found using acl plugin )
Then give manualrestart to plugin unit
>acc proxy nomanualrestart
Then observe for few days. if event observed in event log then first lock the board, pull out
board from slot and wait for some time and reinsert the board again. If not solved then error
in media should be checked properly as well as clocks of ETR media and MGW should be
checked. If PIU restarted event is observed in slot 6 ET-MF4 in subrack=MS then card should
tested with the above mentioned procedure. For remotely located RNC form MGW this kind
issue appears more frequently.

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7. QoS of Radio Network -3G

Improvement of QoS/Data speed for UTRAN

Details of important RNC parameters& recommended values

Recommended
MO Class Name Parameter Name Node Default Value
Value
ChannelSwitching bandwidthMargin RNC 90 90
ChannelSwitching bandwidthMarginUl RNC 0 90
ChannelSwitching coverageTimer RNC 10 10
ChannelSwitching dlDownswitchBandwidthMargin RNC 0 80
ChannelSwitching dlRlcBufUpswitch RNC 500 500
ChannelSwitching dlRlcBufUpswitchMrab RNC 0 1
ChannelSwitching dlThroughputAllowUpswitchThreshold RNC 0 0
ChannelSwitching dlThroughputDownswitchTimer RNC 20 700
ChannelSwitching downswitchPwrMargin RNC 2 2
ChannelSwitching downswitchThreshold RNC 0 0
ChannelSwitching downswitchTimer RNC 10 50
ChannelSwitching downswitchTimerSp RNC 2 2
ChannelSwitching downswitchTimerThreshold RNC 0 0
ChannelSwitching downswitchTimerUp RNC 60 60
ChannelSwitching fachToHsDisabled RNC FALSE 0(FALSE)
ChannelSwitching hsdschInactivityTimer RNC 2 2
ChannelSwitching inactivityTimeMultiPsInteractive RNC 50 50
ChannelSwitching inactivityTimer RNC 120 30
ChannelSwitching inactivityTimerPch RNC 30 30
ChannelSwitching ulDownswitchBandwidthMargin RNC 0 80
ChannelSwitching ulRlcBufUpswitch RNC 256 256
ChannelSwitching ulRlcBufUpswitchMrab RNC 8 8
ChannelSwitching ulThroughputAllowUpswitchThreshold RNC 0 0
ChannelSwitching ulThroughputDownswitchTimer RNC 20 20
ChannelSwitching upswitchPwrMargin RNC 6 6
ChannelSwitching upswitchTimer RNC 5 5
ChannelSwitching upswitchTimerUl RNC 5 5
Hsdsch codeThresholdPdu656 RNC 6 6
Hsdsch cqiFeedbackCycle RNC 8 8
Hsdsch deltaAck1 RNC 4 5
Hsdsch deltaAck2 RNC 8 7
Hsdsch deltaCqi1 RNC 4 4
Hsdsch deltaCqi2 RNC 8 6
Hsdsch deltaNack1 RNC 4 5
Hsdsch deltaNack2 RNC 8 7

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Hsdsch hsMeasurementPowerOffset RNC 80 80
Hsdsch initialAckNackRepetitionFactor RNC 1 1
Hsdsch initialCqiRepetitionFactor RNC 1 1
Hsdsch numHsPdschCodes RNC 5 10
Hsdsch numHsScchCodes RNC 1 3
ResMeasControl resMeasPeriodInteractive RNC 16 16
ResMeasControl resMeasPeriodSpeech RNC 16 16
ResMeasControl resMeasPeriodStreaming RNC 16 16
ResMeasControl resMeasPeriodVideo RNC 16 16
ResMeasControl resMeasure1 RNC
ResMeasControl resMeasure1.rmq RNC NOT_ACTIVE 5 (CPICH_RSCP)
ResMeasControl resMeasure1.service RNC NOT_ACTIVE 16
ResMeasControl RNC (PSINTEULHS)
resMeasure2
ResMeasControl resMeasure2.rmq RNC NOT_ACTIVE 5 (CPICH_RSCP)
ResMeasControl resMeasure2.service RNC NOT_ACTIVE 23
ResMeasControl RNC (PSSTRDCHHS_A
resMeasure3
ResMeasControl resMeasure3.rmq RNC NOT_ACTIVE 5 (CPICH_RSCP)
ResMeasControl resMeasure3.service RNC NOT_ACTIVE 7 (PSINTDCHHS)
ResMeasControl resMeasure4 RNC
ResMeasControl resMeasure4.rmq RNC NOT_ACTIVE 5 (CPICH_RSCP)
ResMeasControl resMeasure4.service RNC NOT_ACTIVE 17
ResMeasControl RNC (PSSTRDCHHS)
resMeasure5
ResMeasControl resMeasure5.rmq RNC NOT_ACTIVE 5 (CPICH_RSCP)
ResMeasControl resMeasure5.service RNC NOT_ACTIVE 4
ResMeasControl RNC (PSINTDCHDCH)
resMeasure6
ResMeasControl resMeasure6.rmq RNC NOT_ACTIVE 5 (CPICH_RSCP)
ResMeasControl resMeasure6.service RNC NOT_ACTIVE 19
ResMeasControl RNC (PSSTRDCHDCH)
resMeasure7
ResMeasControl resMeasure7.rmq RNC NOT_ACTIVE 5 (CPICH_RSCP)
ResMeasControl resMeasure7.service RNC NOT_ACTIVE 2 (VIDEO)
ResMeasControl resMeasure8 RNC
ResMeasControl resMeasure8.rmq RNC NOT_ACTIVE 5 (CPICH_RSCP)
ResMeasControl resMeasure8.service RNC NOT_ACTIVE 26
ResMeasControl RNC (SPEECH12200_
resMeasure9
ResMeasControl resMeasure9.rmq RNC NOT_ACTIVE 5 (CPICH_RSCP)
ResMeasControl resMeasure9.service RNC NOT_ACTIVE 29
ResMeasControl RNC (PSCONVSPEEC
resMeasure10
ResMeasControl resMeasure10.rmq RNC NOT_ACTIVE 5 (CPICH_RSCP)
ResMeasControl resMeasure10.service RNC NOT_ACTIVE 22
ResMeasControl RNC (CSSTREAMING)
resMeasure11
ResMeasControl resMeasure11.rmq RNC NOT_ACTIVE 0 (NOT_ACTIVE)

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ResMeasControl resMeasure11.service RNC NOT_ACTIVE 0 (NOT_ACTIVE)
ResMeasControl resMeasure12 RNC
ResMeasControl resMeasure12.rmq RNC NOT_ACTIVE 0 (NOT_ACTIVE)
ResMeasControl resMeasure12.service RNC NOT_ACTIVE 0 (NOT_ACTIVE)
UtranCell aseDlAdm RNC 240 500
UtranCell codeLoadThresholdDlSf128 RNC 100 100
UtranCell compModeAdm RNC 15 15
UtranCell ctchOccasionPeriod RNC 256 255
UtranCell directedRetryTarget RNC
UtranCell dlCodeAdm RNC 80 80
UtranCell eulNonServingCellUsersAdm RNC 100 100
UtranCell eulServingCellUsersAdm RNC 32 32
UtranCell eulServingCellUsersAdmTti2 RNC 2 4
UtranCell hcsSib3Config.sSearchHcs RNC -105 -105
UtranCell hoType RNC GSM_PREFER
UtranCell RNC RED
10 20
hsdpaUsersAdm
UtranCell interPwrMax RNC 38 38
UtranCell interRate RNC 7760 7760
UtranCell loadSharingGsmFraction RNC 100 100
UtranCell loadSharingGsmThreshold RNC 75 75
UtranCell loadSharingMargin RNC 0 0
UtranCell maximumTransmissionPower RNC 400 430
UtranCell maxPwrMax RNC 48 48
UtranCell maxRate RNC 40690 40690
UtranCell maxTxPowerUl RNC 24 24
UtranCell minimumRate RNC 1590 1590
UtranCell minPwrMax RNC 0 0
UtranCell minPwrRl RNC -150 -150
UtranCell primaryCpichPower RNC 300 300
UtranCell primarySchPower RNC -18 -18
UtranCell primaryScramblingCode RNC
UtranCell pwrAdm RNC 75 75
UtranCell pwrHyst RNC 300 300
UtranCell pwrOffset RNC 15 15
UtranCell qQualMin RNC -18 -18
UtranCell qRxLevMin RNC -115 -115
UtranCell qualMeasQuantity RNC CPICH_EC_NO
UtranCell rateSelectionPsInteractive RNC
UtranCell rateSelectionPsInteractive.channelType RNC DCH
UtranCell rateSelectionPsInteractive.dlPrefRate RNC 64 64
UtranCell rateSelectionPsInteractive.ulPrefRate RNC 64 384

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UtranCell routingAreaRef RNC
UtranCell secondarySchPower RNC -35 -35
UtranCell sf16Adm RNC 16 16
UtranCell sf16AdmUl RNC 16 50
UtranCell sf16gAdm RNC 16 16
UtranCell sf32Adm RNC 32 32
UtranCell sf4AdmUl RNC 1000 100
UtranCell sf8Adm RNC 8 8
UtranCell sf8AdmUl RNC 8 8
UtranCell sf8gAdmUl RNC 8 8
UtranCell usedFreqThresh2dEcno RNC -12 -13
UtranCell usedFreqThresh2dRscp RNC -100 -105

All these parameters are very important and for checking these parameters use following
commands.

>get ChannelSwitching (to get all parametes in MO Class ChannelSwitching)

>pr Hsdsch (to know proxy no. of Hsdsch against a particular cell)

>get proxy no. (to get all HSDSCH parameters of a particular cell)

>get ResMeasControl (to get all parameters of MO Class ResMeasControl )

>get utrancell=usp0051 (to know all the parameters of a particular cell usp0051)

For changing value of parameters use

>set MO Class Parameter Name value

>set proxy no. Parameter Name value (To be used for Hsdsch Mo Class)

ASRNBR1> pmr -s 20151129.1100 -e 20151129.1800 (for generating reports)

1) RNC Node Traffic Performance, Whole Period


8) RNC MP Load, Whole Period
11) RNC CC Load, Hour by hour
12) RNC DC Load, Hour by hour
13) RNC PDR Load, Hour by hour
14) RNC UtranCell RRC Performance
18) RNC UtranCell PS Throughput and NrUsers
19) RNC UtranCell HSPA Performance
20) RNC UtranCell HS Throughput and NrUsers
21) RNC UtranCell IRAT Performance
22) RNC UtranCell Soft HO Performance

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23) RNC UtranCell Uplink RTWP / RSSI, ROP by ROP
24) RNC Worst 20 UtranCells for RRC Failure Rate Contribution
25) RNC Worst 20 Utrancells for Speech RRC Failure Rate
26) RNC Worst 20 Utrancells for Speech RAB Setup
27) RNC Worst 20 Utrancells for Speech Access Failure
28) RNC Worst 20 Utrancells for PS RRC Failure Rate
29) RNC Worst 20 Utrancells for PS RAB Setup
30) RNC Worst 20 Utrancells for PS Access Failure
31) RNC Worst 20 UtranCells for Speech Drop Rate Contribution
32) RNC Worst 20 UtranCells for PS Drop Rate Contribution
33) RNC Worst 20 UtranCells for HS Drop Rate Contribution
34) RNC Worst 20 UtranCells for Soft HO Failure Contribution
35) RNC Worst 20 UtranCells for High Uplink RTWP / RSSI
36) RNC IubLink RRC Performance
40) RNC IubLink Soft HO Performance
42) RNC IurLink Drop Rate
58) RNC UtranCell RAB failure breakdown

All the above mentioned report are important from QoS point of view. From all these, output
of few reports are described below
36) RNC IubLink RRC Performance
Report from 2015-11-29 11:00 UTC to 2015-11-29 17:59 UTC (28 ropfiles)
Node SW: CXP9013831_R9YH (P7.1.4.3)

Start Time: 2015-11-29 11:00:00 End Time: 2015-11-29 17:45:00


Object NoRrcConnReq NoRrcConnSuc RrcFail RrcFailContrib RrcSuc
Iub_00001 64179 64043 0.2 1.1 99.8
Iub_00002 19389 19375 0.1 0.1 99.9
Iub_00003 15201 15174 0.2 0.2 99.8
Iub_00005 94928 94686 0.3 2.0 99.7
Iub_00006 23017 22933 0.4 0.7 99.6
Iub_00007 6292 6288 0.1 0.0 99.9
Iub_00012 0 0 N/A 0 N/A
Iub_00014 89194 89123 0.1 0.6 99.9
Iub_00015 20608 20603 0.0 0.0 100.0
Iub_00016 31291 31269 0.1 0.2 99.9
Iub_00017 88970 88809 0.2 1.4 99.8
Iub_00042 146994 146745 0.2 2.1 99.8

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If RRC fail is more than 2% then RAB failure breakdown is to be analyzed.
58) RNC UtranCell RAB failure breakdown
Report from 2015-11-29 11:00 UTC to 2015-11-29 17:59 UTC (28 ropfiles)
Node SW: CXP9013831_R9YH (P7.1.4.3)
Start Time: 2015-11-29 11:00:00 End Time: 2015-11-29 17:45:00
Object ARABEstTot DlAse DlChnlCode DlConnLimit DlHw DlHwBest DlPwr UlAse UlHw UlHwBest
UtranCell=UAGA011 (Mod1/IP) 348 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
UtranCell=UAGA012 (Mod1/IP) 750 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
UtranCell=UBP0011 (Mod13/ATM) 3175 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
UtranCell=UBP0012 (Mod13/ATM) 1117 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
UtranCell=UBP0013 (Mod13/ATM) 6094 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
UtranCell=UBP0021 (Mod13/ATM) 5263 0 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
UtranCell=UBP0022 (Mod13/ATM) 5163 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
UtranCell=UBP0023 (Mod13/ATM) 8323 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
UtranCell=UBP0031 (Mod8/ATM) 2655 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
UtranCell=UBP0032 (Mod8/ATM) 7672 0 19 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
UtranCell=UBP0033 (Mod8/ATM) 927 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
UtranCell=UBP0041 (Mod1/ATM) 88 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
UtranCell=UBP0042 (Mod1/ATM) 1388 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
We need to check how many RABs are failed due to DlChnlcode, DLconnlimit, Dlpwr. If
RABS are failed to code, connection limit & power then we need to analyze the particular
cell. For that at first we need to find IubLink of that cells where there is RAB failure is more.
Then use command
>cedr r Iub_00051 (For checking power consumption, dlCode used, HS count, ASE uses,
SF uses. Live condition of cells can be observed)

For code related issue check dlCode from above command. If it is too high then check
parameter DlcodeAdm.
>get usp0051 DlcodeAdm (by default it should be 80. If RAB failure is high make it 85)
Again use cedr command. If dlCode is observed to be high again then check parameter
numHsPdschCodes in HsDsch for that cell. Procedure to check numHsPdschCodes already
described above. Reduce the value in stpes of 1 & monitor RRC failure and RAB breakdown.
If RRC failure is more than 2% value then reduce. Then again reduce the value. But we
should try to keep

133
NumHsPdschCodes value atleast 7 asThreshold for determiningRLC PDU size 656 bits are
used if codeThresholdPdu656 < numHsPdschCodes (For category 7 to 10 UE), otherwise
- 336 bits are used if codeThresholdPdu656 >= numHsPdschCodes. If issue still persists
then reduce the value to in steps of 1 again till issue is resolved.

If RAB is failed due to connection limit then SF (Spreading Factor) needs to be checked

For power issues we need to check for ulint(Uplink Interference)

>get utrancell=usp002 maximumTransmissionPower (default value 430)

> get utrancell=usp002 primaryCpichPower (default vale 300)

If power congestion is high, pwrAdm value can be set to 80. If again high RAB failure
observed and power consumption is high(using cedr r) then parameters
maximumTransmissionPower & primaryCpichPower can be set to 400 & 270
consecutively.

If issue is not resolved yet then antenna till is to be checked to it down tilted. It will reduce
both power and code congestion.

>cedr r (for checking total HSDPA user of RNC at a time, Site carrying no traffic which is
up can be also be seen)

>uer c (for checking total user of RNC. By putting cell name in the end the command we
can see total user cellwise)
ASRNBR1>get . ingressPeakBitrate
151026-11:17:59 10.228.2.201 9.0m RNC_NODE_MODEL_K_9_115 stopfile=/tmp/24595
===================================================================================
MO Attribute Value
===================================================================================
Subrack=MS,Slot=24,PlugInUnit=1,ExchangeTerminalIp=1,EthernetSwitch=1,EthernetSwitchPort=2 ingressPeakBitrate 1000
Subrack=MS,Slot=24,PlugInUnit=1,ExchangeTerminalIp=1,EthernetSwitch=1,EthernetSwitchPort=1 ingressPeakBitrate 1000
Subrack=MS,Slot=24,PlugInUnit=1,ExchangeTerminalIp=1,EthernetSwitch=1,EthernetSwitchPort=7 ingressPeakBitrate 1000
Subrack=MS,Slot=24,PlugInUnit=1,ExchangeTerminalIp=1,EthernetSwitch=1,EthernetSwitchPort=3 ingressPeakBitrate 1000
Subrack=MS,Slot=24,PlugInUnit=1,ExchangeTerminalIp=1,EthernetSwitch=1,EthernetSwitchPort=5 ingressPeakBitrate 1000
Subrack=MS,Slot=24,PlugInUnit=1,ExchangeTerminalIp=1,EthernetSwitch=1,EthernetSwitchPort=4 ingressPeakBitrate 1000
Subrack=MS,Slot=24,PlugInUnit=1,ExchangeTerminalIp=1,EthernetSwitch=1,EthernetSwitchPort=6 ingressPeakBitrate 1000
Subrack=MS,Slot=25,PlugInUnit=1,ExchangeTerminalIp=1,EthernetSwitch=1,EthernetSwitchPort=4 ingressPeakBitrate 1000
Subrack=MS,Slot=25,PlugInUnit=1,ExchangeTerminalIp=1,EthernetSwitch=1,EthernetSwitchPort=6 ingressPeakBitrate 1000
Subrack=MS,Slot=25,PlugInUnit=1,ExchangeTerminalIp=1,EthernetSwitch=1,EthernetSwitchPort=3 ingressPeakBitrate 1000
Subrack=MS,Slot=25,PlugInUnit=1,ExchangeTerminalIp=1,EthernetSwitch=1,EthernetSwitchPort=5 ingressPeakBitrate 1000
Subrack=MS,Slot=25,PlugInUnit=1,ExchangeTerminalIp=1,EthernetSwitch=1,EthernetSwitchPort=1 ingressPeakBitrate 1000
Subrack=MS,Slot=25,PlugInUnit=1,ExchangeTerminalIp=1,EthernetSwitch=1,EthernetSwitchPort=7 ingressPeakBitrate 1000
Subrack=MS,Slot=25,PlugInUnit=1,ExchangeTerminalIp=1,EthernetSwitch=1,EthernetSwitchPort=2 ingressPeakBitrate 1000

All ingressPeakBitrateshould be 1000.Use

134
>set MO ingressPeakBitrate 1000(to set value)

>lpr utrancell=UTT0013 ( For checking GSM relation, utran relation of a particular cell)

All the gsm neighbors & Utran neighbors should be checked properly. If CS failure rates &
PS failure rates are high then kindly check whether all GSM & Utran neighbors are correctly
defined or not. RF team should be informed to check neighbors and define correctly.

>pst (For checking Scanners in use )

If any of the STATS Scanner is suspended or BO report is not generating then use
>pbl proxy no (for blocking scanner)
>pdeb proxy no (for deblocking scanner)
>pgets proxy no. obtained from pst (for checking PM parameters)

135
For supporting 14.4 Mbps in Node B the following parameters needs to checked in each and
every Node B. Use commands

> get IubDataStreams


> get RbsLocalCell
> get TxDeviceGroup
> get NodeBFunction
> get Carrier
Parame
MO Class Name Parameter Name Node ter Remarks
value
IubDataStreams maxHsRate RBS 450
IubDataStreams maxEdchRate RBS 51000
RbsLocalCell maxNumHsPdschCodes RBS 15
RbsLocalCell dynamicHsPdschCodeAdditionOn RBS TRUE
RbsLocalCell hsIncrementalRedundancyOn RBS FALSE
If EUL is defined
then
TxDeviceGroup numHsCodeResources RBS 3 numEulResources=
1,numHsCodeReso
urces=2
NodeBFunction supportof16qam RBS TRUE
NodeBFunction flexibleSchedulerOn RBS TRUE
Carrier hsPowerMargin RBS 0
Carrier queueSelectAlgorithm 4
Carrier cqiAdjustmentOn RBS TRUE
For setting any parameter in Node B use
>set MO Class parameter name value

136
*For Speed related issues of a Particular Node B Above Node B parameters needs to be
checked. Then check whether all E1(for ATM based Node B) are working and if it is a IP site
then how many E1 are configured for IP sites with FE connectivity. Sometimes FE
connectivity given using minilink. Then check how many E1 are working by logging into
minilink. Physical indications of Converter used for IP connectivity can mislead.

Use UER & CEDR commands for checking load in that particular Node B.
Recommendations for IUB Bandwidth for IP sites
For heavily loaded sites use GE Connectivity if feasible
16 E1 for Urban Areas with FE connectivity
16 E1 for Sub-urban Areas with FE Connectivity
8 E1 for Rural Areas having Average Traffic
If Feasibility of 8 E1 is not available then maximum available bandwidth should be given for
IubLink of a Node B
*For Speed related Issues in all Node Bs of a RNC check all the parameters of RNC as
discussed above and the check the Media upto SGSN. Also check latency. Check IU-PS link
status, PDR & whether ATMPORTs connected for data are up or not. Check whether
AtmTrafficDescriptor of VCs of ATMPort for Iu-PS link. All VCs should be latched with
AtmTrafficDescriptorid U4. Use command
> lst pdr

>get 1538 (use proxy obtained from above command)

Now copy the highlighted link (any link reserved by transport network can be copied)

137
Now copy the link against vclTpId

If AtmTrafficDescriptor is not equal to U4 then make it U4. Use Command


>set proxy no from above command atmTrafficDescriptorId
AtmTrafficDescriptor=U4

AtmTrafficDescriptor is to be checked between each cross connection of VC. Between


RNC & MGW and between MGW & SGSN. i.e. upto SGSN AtmTrafficDescriptor is to be
checked.
If all the above points are checked then after connecting a session and by pinging DNS server,
latency issue can be checked
For e.g. ping 8.8.8.8 (DNS server of Google)
Ideally time should be less than 100 ms, If it is more than 500 ms & packet loss received
during ping then Kindly check Gn & Gp interface.
*For Coverage related issues at first check whether sector is up or not. If up then check
whether customers latching or not using CEDR & UER.
i) If customer are latching then check uplink interference. It should not be more than -100
dbm. If Uplink Interference too high then antenna should be down tilted to minimize load &
decrease coverage. Also CPICH & Maximum Transmission Power can be reduced as
explained above.
ii) If no customer is latching then check how many RRC connection requested for the
previous day and RRC success rate of a particular cell. If RRC connection request is very

138
less then swap RU from working sector of the same Node B. If problem Persists and no alarm
appears in the Node B then Antenna may be faulty.
*Note- Higher Software version at Node B & RNC is recommended (for e.g. P7) as it will
give better performance of Rake Receiver.
*Some Important Features to be implemented in BSNL for better performance of
UMTS Network
i) Introduction of EUL (HSUPA)
ii) Support of 16 HSPA (HSDPA+EUL) users in each cell
iii) Introduction of 2ms TTI
For implementation above mentioned features new licences with all the above
mentioned capacity & features to be provided in all Node Bs & RNCs.
Important KPIs (Key performance Indicators) to be monitored and analyzed on regular
basis.

Important 3G VOICE KPIs are----

1 .BBH/ Whole day Speech drop (Should be <2%)


2. BBH/ Whole day Speech Block Error Rate (Should be <2%)
3. BBH/ Whole day Speech Setup Success Rate (Should be >98%)
4. BBH/ Whole day Speech RRC Connection Success Rate (Should be >98%)
5. BBH/ Whole day Speech Traffic (Erlang)

Important 3G DATA KPIs are----

6. BBH/ Whole day PS Interactive Retainbility (Should be >95%)


7. BBH/ Whole day PS Block Error Rate (Should be <3%)
8. BBH/ Whole day PS Setup Success Rate (Should be >98%)
9. BBH/ Whole day PS RRC Connection Success Rate (Should be >98%)
10. BBH/ Whole day Total volume of User Data (DCH+HS) DL (Kbits)
11. BBH/ Whole day HS User Throughput DL (kbit/s)

Most of the KPIs can be monitored using PMR commands also

BBH means Busy Bouncing Hour of the Cell or RNC. The above reports can be extracted
directly from Ericsson 3G BO Reports

*Some important Abbreviations

RRC- Radio Resource Control

RAB- Radio Access Bearer

ASE- Air Speech Equivalent

SF- Spreading Factor

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8. Drive Test
8.1 The Purpose of Drive Test
Drive testing is principally applied in both the planning and optimization stage of network
development. However, there are other purposes for which drive testing can be used:
To verify the network physical/system parameters, as defined in the Network
To measure any interference such as overshooting from neighbouring sites.
To locate any RF issues relating to traffic problems such as dropped or blocked calls.
To locate any poor coverage areas.
To verify the performance of the network after changes have been made e.g. When a new
TRX is added; the removal or addition of a new site; any power adjustments or changes to the
antenna; any changes in clutter or traffic habits such as the addition of new roads etc.
To monitor the performance of a competitors network (Benchmark Drive).
8.2 When to Drive Test
Drive testing can take place during the day or at night and is dependent upon the operators
requirements and subscriber habits.
Drive testing during the day will mimic the conditions as seen by subscribers, but may clog
up the network if call analysis is being performed.
Drive testing during the night will allow a greater area to be surveyed due to the reduction in
vehicular congestion. It will also allow for certain test signals to be transmitted and tested,
particularly when setting up a new site, without interrupting normal operation. However,
night-time testing does not mimic the conditions experienced by subscribers.
For planning purposes, drive testing is typically performed at night and for maintenance
purposes, drive testing is performed during the day.
8.3 Where to Undertake Drive Test
Some areas of a network will have greater performance problems than others. Drive Testing
should not be uniform throughout the whole network, but should be weighted towards areas
where there are significant RF problems.
There may be other areas of the network that require temporary coverage during a certain
time of the year e.g. an exhibition centre or a sports stadium. These areas should be examined
and planned in greater detail.
It is important that a drive test is documented. This is specified by the Operator and can either
take the form of creating a new item of documentation or filling in an existing document. All

140
documentation will be passed to Analysts and Engineers, who will need accurate records of
any test work carried out.

8.4 Route Plans


The area to be drive tested is ascertained before leaving the office. There are three levels of
drive testing depending on the purpose of the test:
i) Primary Route: This includes all major roads, highways and should be given priority to all
other roads when conducting a coverage test, unless a new site is put into service for a
specific objective.
ii) Secondary Route: This includes all streets, by-streets and compounds, where accessible, such
as a University Campus. Secondary routes are used in areas where problems have been
located during a primary route test and further investigation is needed.
iii) Miscellaneous Routes: This includes in-building and non-access routes to vehicles such as
shopping malls, golf courses, airports, hotels, etc.
8.5 Drive Test tools
Drive Test tools is an air interface test tool for real-time diagnostics. It lets you monitor voice
channels as well as data transfer over GPRS/ EDGE. It now supports in-building positioning
of network data. It also measures radio parameters, assesses speech quality, and decodes air
interface messages efficiently and easily. It is powerful troubleshooting tool for RF engineers
and other personnel working with network performance improvement. The data is presented
in real time along with information on cell sites and channels, and can be saved for later use.

KPI (Key Performance Indicators)

KPI are a set of industry-standard statistics describing network performance. Drive test tool
provides KPIs for GPRS, including GPRS mean data and GPRS attach setup time. Measuring
KPIs allows impartial comparison of different networks.

2G Voice KPI

Drop call rate


Block call rate
Call Setup Success Rate(CSSR)
Handover Success Rate(HSR)
RX quality
RX level
Carrier to Interference (C/I)
2G Data KPI

Minimum download speed (Kbps)

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Maximum download speed (Kbps)
Average throughput (Kbps)
Latency
Session Disconnection Rate (Drop rate)
Successful Data transmission D/L attempts
Successful Data transmission U/L attempts

8.6 Data Measurements


Data service performance measurements can be performed on the air interface layers
(RLC/MAC/LLC) for GPRS. Typical services that can be used for data testing are e-mail,
HTTP, FTP and Ping. Measurements can be utilized from the command sequence tool in
order to automate repeated procedures. A number of measurements and events, such as
throughput, retransmissions, and C/I per timeslot can be displayed on the map, in line charts,
or in status monitors. Some of the available GPRS information include:-

RLC/LLC Throughput Downlink/Uplink(Kpbs)


RLC/LLC BLER Downlink/Uplink (%)
Number of used time slots and coding schemes
PDP context BLER
TBF events
PDCH Utilization
C/I Measurements

C/I is the ratio between the signal strength of the current serving cell and the signal strength
of interfering components. C/I is measured in real time in both idle mode and dedicated mode
(also in frequency hopping networks). The C/I parameter enables the identification of
frequencies exposed to particularly high levels of interference.

Channel Verification tool

The Channel Verification tool allows the user to check the availability of a set of traffic
channels (FR and EFR), typically those used in a cell or site. Each timeslot can be verified
separately. It is also possible to verify sites using hopping frequencies (regardless of baseband
and synthesized hopping).

Status presentation

To help users monitor the status of the network, special presentation views have been created.
These predefined views include information such as:

Serving cell and neighbouring cells (up to 6)


Current traffic channel
Radio environment parameters
Decoded Layer 2 and Layer 3 messages

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Events

Events such as handovers, dropped calls and blocked calls are indicated by symbols and audio
signals. Users can also define events of their own.

User Interface

The collected data is presented on a map, in line charts, and in test format windows, all of
which are synchronized. Events and sir interface messages are listed separately and can be
inspected in detail. Decoded Layer 3 messages can be filtered to facilitate spotting the
important messages during analysis. The utilization of so called parallel coordinates makes it
much easier to discern important relationships between different parameters. The user
interface can be freely configured, and users can build their own presentation windows. The
easy set-up leaves more time for collecting data.

Snapshot of 2G Voice Drive Test:-

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Snapshot of 2G Data Drive Test:

Snapshot of 3G Voice drive test:

144
Snapshot of 3G Data Drive test:

8.7 Log Files and Export


All measurements can be saved to log files where they are time stamped and positioned
geographically (latitude and longitude collected from GPS). Data up to 4 mobiles and a
scanner can be logged simultaneously. Using command sequence, various tests can be
automated. Log files can be exported as user defined tab-delimited text or other format.

Drive-test tools are used to measure Network Coverage, Capacity, Quality and different
RF parameters

RF Coverage

Coverage holes
Antenna positioning
Antenna Tilt
Handover
Power settings
Indoor coverage
Micro cells

RF Quality
Dropped calls

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Speech quality
Data quality
Low throughput
Excessive retransmissions
Delays
RF Interference

RF Capacity
Blocked calls
Switching
Handover Problems
Traffic handling
Micro cell overlays

Drive tool captures all information sending from BCCH channel


Information on BCCH identifies the network and cell
1. Occupies Time Slot 0
2. Cell ID, MCC, MNC
3. Neighbours, hop sequences, paging information
4. All timeslots on the BCH ARFCN are always on with the max power.
With Frequency Re-use, also need BSIC to assist in identifying the cell Base Station Identity
Code
Base Station Identity Code
Part of the BCH
Coded into the synchronization burst
Two octal digits (value 0 to 7)
Broadcast Colour Code (BCC)
National Colour Code (NCC)
BSIC discriminates re-use cells within the network and between other networks

Idle Mode Measurement updates


Serving Cell
Running average of 5 measurement samples per Rxlev value.
Measurement samples collected over a period of : = 5 secs to Max ( 5s, five consecutive
paging blocks of that MS)
This period can range between 5secs to 10.5 secs, depending upon the paging repetition rate
parameter settings.
Neighbour Cells
Running average of 5 measurement samples per Rxlev value of each neighbour cell.
Measurement samples should be collected over a period of :
= 5 secs to Max [ 5s, (5*N + 6) DIV 7) * BS_PA_MFRMS / 4 ]
N is the number of non-serving cell BCCH carriers in the BA list (max 32)
BSIC for the same the Neighbour cell ARFCN is verified every 20 secs

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C1 measurement
C1 is the path loss criterion, which is used to estimate the balance between uplink and
downlink
Mobile camps on to a cell where C1 is the maximum
Mobile in idle mode will at regular intervals carry out C1 measurements for both serving
cell and Top 6 neighbour cells.
Mobile will do a cell reselection to a neighbour whose C1 exceeds the C1 of the server
Mobile will provided addition hysteresis value to be added to the C1 of the server when the
neighbour is in different LAC

C1 Calculations
C1 = A - max ( B,0 )
A = Average Received signal Level - Min Receive Level
B = Access Power - Max power of Mobile ( Classmark )
A = + = Good Downlink Path
B = -- = Good Uplink Path
---For Cell selection C1 > 0
---For Cell Reselection C1 of new cell > C1 of current cell
or C1 falls below 0, both for a period of 5 seconds.

C2 Measurements

CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET : ( 0 - 126 dB // 2 dB steps )


Positive or a negative offsets applied to cells permanently over C1
Used for prioritazation in cell reselection ( ex: umbrella cells)
TEMPORARY_OFFSET : ( 0 - 60 dB // 10 dB steps)
Negative offset applied to a neighbor cell whose C1 exceeds C1 of server
Offset remains valid for a timer duration
Used for optimizing frequent cell reselections.
PENALTY_TIME : ( 20s to 620s // 20secs steps)
The duration for which the Temporary_Offset is applied.
C2 measurements are optionally used to optimize and prioritize cell reselections.
Additional parameters are broadcasted to the Mobile, which are implemented over C1
calculations.

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Phone Measurement Report

Rxlev
During reception of burst for serving cell
Minimum one neighbor cell measured in 1 frame

RxQual
BER measurements carried over 26 bits of midamble
Ranges between 0 - 7 ( 0 indicates no errors )

Full and Sub


Rxlev_Full&RxQual_Full: Measurements taken over full set of TDMA frames
Full set of TDMA frames : 102 for SDCCH
Full set of TDMA frames : 104 TCH

Rxlev_Sub&RxQual_Sub: Measurements taken over subset of TDMA frames


If even one frame is not transmitted in the measurement period, then it is considered as subset
of TDMA frames
When do we practically consider sub?

When DTX used, and the receiver enters the DTX mode, then the measurement done over all
the frames is not valid.
With DTX, if there is completely no speech for 480ms, then still there will be 8 frames of SID
and 4 frames of SACCH, these 12 subset frames will be used for sub measurements.
DTX is not used on BCCH carrier (all timeslots), hence if the call is on a TCH timeslot which
is on a BCH carrier, then it will always be FULL, and in the measurement report both Sub
and Full values will be same.

148
DTX is not used on the SDCCH also, hence the above clause applies to this also.
On a TCH carrier, when DTX was used by the BTS in the previous 480ms period,
measurement is Sub, else it is full.
If Frequency Hopping was used, and BCH carrier was a part of it, and downlink power
control is used, then the Rxlev measurements will always be sub ( since BCH carrier frames
are not included in the Rxlev measurement averaging), but RxQual will be full.

Radio Link Counter


Under what conditions will this decrement
-- Poor RF link (Rxlev and RxQual)
-- Interference
-- Uplink Problems!!!!

Frame Erasure Rate (FER)


3 bits CRC is added to the dedicated channels and on Type 1a bits of speech, in the coding
process
If the CRC detection at the Mobile is invalid, it indicates a Bad frame and FER counter goes
up.
The effect perceived by the user is a Ping-Pong sound.
FER is very useful to estimate quality under frequency hopping conditions, when Rxqual is
bursty.
Under Frequency Hopping condition, Rxqual does not resemble a true picture of quality,
FER is the preferred parameter.
Since only 3 bits are used for CRC, the probability of detecting bad frames is only 12.5%
How do we measure FER %?
% of speech frames erased over last 4 measurement periods

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Call Control Messages (CM)
Manages functions for circuit switched call control
Alerting
Connection messaging
Call establishment for MO
Call establishment for MT
Emergency call status
DTMF** Signalling and control
Disconnection

Mobility Management Messaging (MM)


Manages who you are and where you are
Location Update Requesting
User Authentication
IMSI Attach
Present IMSI; Get TMSI
Equipment Identity Requests
Security

Radio Resource Messaging (RR)


Controls How the Air Interface is Managed Channel Assignments & Releases
Handovers
Ciphering mode commands
Paging Requests
System Info Messages
Neighbour lists
Hopping sequences
Cell Barring

The following Info Messages are broadcasted by BCCH channel

Interference
Interference in GSM systems are classified into three major categories:-

Co-channel interference
Adjacent channel interference

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External interference
Performance Monitoring Measurement
Voice (Statistical and Geographical)

Call Success Rate


Call Drop Rate
Handover Success Rate
No Service
Percentage Quality
Percentage Coverage
Percentage Interference
Cell footprint
Handover footprint
Q.A Drive Process Suggestion

Routes should be predefined


Test plans should be preset
Drive Duration and Time of Day should be pre-planned
Peak Traffic Hours should be used for QA test
Markers and Notes should be used
Data should be preferably binned
Use Analysis Reporter to get quick shot QA performance Report
Thresholds should be standardized

151
152
KPI QA TEST
Call Performance

Blocked Call Rate


Dropped Call Rate
Handover Failures
Coverage

RF Idle Mode Coverage (Rxlev_Full)


RF Receiver Based Coverage (Top N Power)
Service Coverage (C/I In Idle Mode)

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Quality

RxQual Sub
RXlevel Sub
Timing Advance
RLTC
Est Interference
C/I and C/A
Routine optimization activities
Interference Reduction (or shift???)
Power Settings, Antenna Tilts, Antenna height change, Frequency Parameters
Coverage Holes
Adequate Coverage to Hot Spots, Indoor
Capacity Balancing
Cell configuration, Power, Antenna

Optimization Challenges

Optimization in most cases is of two types:-

Overall: Done over a wide geography


Selected: Done over a selected problem area

For overall , drive test is done over a large area for verification
For selected, drive test is done over the selected area, where optimization work was done, but
the problems (specific to frequency related) gets shifted to other areas. So it should be taken
care specially.
Pre Optimization Drive test data is generally derived from QA Drive test itself
Post Optimization Drive test can also be undertaken by QA team in a selected zone.
Different types of drive test carried out in different scenarios

Road drive test (high road, main road and small streets)
Cluster drive test
Customer complaints based drive test
Poor KPI of the site based drive test
Railway drive test
New site optimization drive test
TRAI drive test

Different Types of Drive Tools were supplied in Different Phase in Eastern Zone---

1. Agilent Drive Test Tools---PH IV


2. TEMS Drive Test Tools---PH V
3. NEMO Drive Test Tools---PH VII

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9. Management Report
Top level management in the ranks of DGM and higher need to monitor the following
parameters on daily basis and month wise reports to be aware of the network health and
revenue status:-

9.1 On daily basis

2G sites down count number of sites down due to transmission and other reasons ,
3G sites down count number of sites down due to transmission and other reasons ,
Number of Sites (2G and 3G) down more than 3 days.
Any Network Elements Failure in Core or RAN which effects Traffic directly.
Per day revenue from prepaid ,
VLR count ,
Active customer of postpaid ,
Active customer of prepaid ,
GP1 and GP2 customer count ,
Addition / Deletion of the customers ,
2G voice traffic whole day (Erlang) from BSC level,
3G voice traffic whole day (Erlang) from RNC level ,
2G data traffic whole day (GB) from SGSN level,
2G Max Throughput(Mbps) from SGSN level ,
3G data traffic whole day (GB)from SGSN level ,
3G Max Throughput(Mbps) from SGSN level ,
Total Numbers of HW Fault, VSWR and Tx Fluctuation effect KPI.
2G KPI :
Number of sector with Call Drop > 2% and 3%
Number of sector with TchBlk> 2%
Number of sector with SdcchBlk>1%
Number of sector with CSSR<95%

9.2 On monthly basis

2G network availability , downtime and number of worst affected BTS,


3G network availability ,downtime and number of worst affected NodeB,
Number of New sites (2G &3G) addition in Network.
Number of Closed sites (2G &3G) in Network
Total revenue from prepaid and postpaid ,
Addition / Deletion of the customers ,
MNP ratio
Change of VLR count w.r.t previous month ,
2G voice traffic whole month (Erlang) from BSC level,
3G voice traffic whole month (Erlang) from RNC level ,
2G data traffic whole month (GB) from SGSN level
2G Max Throughput(Mbps) from SGSN level ,
3G data traffic whole month (GB)from SGSN level ,

155
3G Max Throughput(Mbps) from SGSN level ,
Monthly TRAI network KPI
Total Numbers of HW Fault, VSWR and Tx Fluctuation rectified.
Total Numbers of Sites Optimized by RF Team
Total Road/ Railway Track (Kms) Drive Test done.
Benchmarking Drive Test Report (Compare to Leading Operators)

9.3 Sample Management Report


9.3.1 Radio Overview Report-SDCCH
BSC No. of SDCCH No. of SDCCH SDCCH SDCCH Total No. of SDCCH
SDCCHs Availability Seizure Establishments Time Dropped Drop
OL/UL (%) Attempts OL/UL No Congestion SDCCH (%)
Congestion (%) UL (%) Connections

BSC3BER 7,111 97.15 1,064,789 92.48 824.92 54,358 6.42


BSC4BER 3,390 98.57 186,776 93.09 26.06 4,092 2.38
BSC5BER 4,175 90.00 987,392 92.19 1179.61 72,374 13.15
BSC6BER 6,268 96.70 682,362 93.02 91.11 27,681 4.40
CTKBSC1 6,097 93.24 304,194 90.80 41.61 12,234 4.47
SBPBSC4 3,146 93.61 84,608 90.79 4.00 2,808 3.66
SMBBSC 6,729 89.78 410,505 91.68 89.58 8,626 2.32
SMBBSC2 6,166 91.57 303,282 92.38 10.58 8,614 3.08
SMBBSC3 8,122 97.37 703,399 91.93 95.14 17,268 2.76
SMBBSC5 936 83.12 49,854 87.63 7.19 2,467 5.69

9.3.2 Radio Overview Report:- TCH


BSC TCH No. of TCH Total TCH Subscrib Total No. TCH
Traffic TCHs Availabili Assignmen Assignm er of Drop
(Erlang) ty (%) t Attempts ent Perceived Dropped (%)
Success TCH TCH
(%) Congesti Connecti
on (%) ons
10,113.3
BSC3BER 14,815 93.23 403,629 90.21 7.74 13,963 3.83
4
BSC4BER 2,057.81 6,320 95.97 68,486 98.53 0.94 1,921 2.85

BSC5BER 7,240.56 9,578 76.16 299,157 79.75 12.57 20,357 8.53

BSC6BER 7,861.14 12,568 94.03 283,947 96.24 2.27 9,563 3.50

CTKBSC1 3,592.30 9,868 84.85 113,356 95.83 3.30 3,315 3.05

SBPBSC4 849.84 4,976 87.10 25,794 98.75 0.00 703 2.76

SMBBSC 4,538.04 12,130 85.00 146,668 98.04 1.00 4,312 3.00

SMBBSC2 3,391.67 10,874 87.78 110,630 97.67 1.56 2,683 2.48

SMBBSC3 8,761.59 14,304 94.53 281,679 96.84 1.94 7,533 2.76

SMBBSC5 346.51 1,307 82.82 12,278 99.15 0.00 337 2.77

156
9.3.3 Radio Network Performance

Subscriber
SDCCH TCH
TCH SDCC SDCCH Perceived Handover
Availabilit TCH Drop Erlang
BSC Availability H Drop Congestio TCH Success
y OL/UL (%) Minutes
(%) (%) n (%) Congestio (%)
(%) per Drop
n (%)
BSC3BER 97.15 93.23 6.42 3.83 2.81 7.74 43.46 86.40
BSC4BER 98.57 95.97 2.38 2.85 0.20 0.94 64.27 93.02
BSC5BER 90.00 76.16 13.15 8.53 7.90 12.57 21.34 86.63
BSC6BER 96.70 94.03 4.40 3.50 0.18 2.27 49.32 81.61
CTKBSC1 93.24 84.85 4.47 3.05 0.17 3.30 65.02 88.55
SBPBSC4 93.61 87.10 3.66 2.76 0.01 0.00 72.53 95.05
SMBBSC 89.78 85.00 2.32 3.00 0.21 1.00 63.15 95.98
SMBBSC2 91.57 87.78 3.08 2.48 0.04 1.56 75.85 93.94
SMBBSC3 97.37 94.53 2.76 2.76 0.62 1.94 69.79 96.44
SMBBSC5 83.12 82.82 5.69 2.77 0.16 0.00 61.69 98.29

9.3.4 GPRS GSL Device Utilisation Overview

Total Number GSL


of Attempts to Device Data
BSC Allocate GSL Allocation Availability
Devices in the Failure (%)
PCU Rate(%)
BSC3BER 68,384 0.36 100.00
BSC4BER 24,727 0.00 100.00
BSC5BER 23,535 0.00 100.00
BSC6BER 62,675 0.43 100.00
BSC_BER 0 -1.00 100.00
CTKBSC1 56,247 0.23 100.00
SBPBSC4 19,599 0.00 100.00
SMBBSC 51,396 5.87 100.00
SMBBSC2 73,525 0.03 100.00
SMBBSC3 92,898 0.00 100.00
SMBBSC5 3,618 0.00 100.00

157
10. BTS Inspection
The most important part of any Telecom Network is its access network. It is required to
maintain the access network for maximum availability so that the customer can get it. For this
it is required to regularly inspect the BTS and its infrastructure for its healthiness. The sample
BTS inspection report is given below.

BTS INSPECTION REPORT

DATE OF INSPECTION

INSPECTING AUTHORITY

(A) SITE DETAILS


SL. NO.
1 Name of the Circle
2 Name of SSA
3 Name of the BTS
4 Address
5 Lat/Long
6 SiteID
7 CellID
8 Date of Commissioning :
9 Site Type: BSNL/NBSNL/IP/USO
10 Room/Shelter

11 BSNL other services co located (CDMA/WiMax/UMTS)

12 BTS Mtce Area


13 Mtce SDE Name
14 Mtce SDE Contact No.
15 Details of Ring and Linear
16 Coomercial Power Supply WBSEDCL/CESC
17 Duration and Frequency of Load Shedding in a week
18 MSC
19 BSC
First Hop link connectivity from BTS site (i.e. OFC, Mini-link, MLLN,
20
etc)

21 Total Capacity of First Hop link connectivity from BTS site in Mbps

22 Number of Other Operator pressent( Lease In/ Lease Out)

23 Name of Other Operator present

158
24 Number of Antenna Mount and Equipment of Other Operator

(B) TOWER DETAILS


SL. NO.
1 Tower Type :GBT/RTT/RTP
2 Building Height
3 Tower Height
4 Antenna AGL
5 Aviation Lamp working or not Yes / No
6 Lightning Spike available or not Yes / No
7 Access to Tower clear or not Yes / No
8 RF cable running ok or not Yes / No
9 No. of EMR Signage available

(C) INFRASTRUCTURE DETAILS


SL. NO.
(a) Battery
1 Make
2 Capacity (AH)
3 No.of sets working
4 Presence of weak cells
5 Back up time (Hrs)
6 Date of Installation
7 Date of Last Test Discharge
(b) Power Plant
1 Make
2 Maximum Capacity (Amp)
3 Equiped Capacity(Amp)
4 No.of Working and Faulty Modules available
5 Phase : Single /Three
(c) DG
1 Make
2 Capacity (KVA)
3 Auto Mode Available (Y/N)
4 Phase : Single/Three
5 Working Condition
(d) Free Cooling Available(Y/N)

159
1 Whether Change over is working properly (Y/N)
2 Date of Last Cleaning of Filter
(e) Air Conditioners
1 Make
2 Capacity
3 No.of Working and Faulty Units available
4 Date of Last Servicing
(f) Fire Extinguishers
1 Availability
2 Date of last Refill
(g) Earth of Equipment, Electrical and Tower

1 Separate Earth for Equipment, Electrical and Tower Available (Y/N)

2 Earth Value in Ohm for Equipment and Date of measurement

3 Earth Value in Ohm for Electrical and Date of measurement

4 Earth Value in Ohm for Tower and Date of measurement

(D) LOAD DETAILS


SL. NO.
1 Total AC Load
2 Total DC Load
3 Adequacy of Capacity of BTY / PP/ DG
4 Total Capacity of EB conn in KVA
5 48V DC load of GSM BTS (in Amp)
6 48V DC load of 3G NodeB BTS (in Amp)
7 48V DC load of CDMA BTS (in Amp)
8 48V DC load of WiMax BTS (in Amp)
9 48V DC load of Tx System/Mini-Link (in Amp)

160
(E) EQUIPMENT DETAILS (2G/3G/CDMA)
SL. NO.
1 Eqpt Manufacturer :
2 Eqpt Technology :
3 Eqpt Type- Outdoor/ Indoor/ RRH
4 Eqpt Config :
5 Alarms seen at the time of inspection
(a) Visual indications in the cabinet
(b) Alarms as reported by OMCR

(c) Fire Alarm System Functional and Connected to BTS (Y/N)

Infra Alarm [Main Fail, AC Fail, HRT, Fire, Door Open, Rectifier Fail,
(d)
etc) extended to BTS (Y/N)
5 Interruption Details
(a) Down time in last seven days
(b) Does the site Frequently fail ?
6 VSWR And Hardware Faults
(a) VSWR Value and Date of Measurement:
(b) Hardware Fault Details and since when
(c) Action Taken
7 Availability of Registers
(a) Interruption Register
(b) DG Log Book
(c) Site Log Book
(d) Battery Reading register
8 General upkeep and Cleanliness:
(a) Date of cleaning of BTS Filter
(b) Date of Cleaning of BTS Cards
(c) Date of Cleanliness of Room

9 Any other information/remarks:

SIGNATURE
NAME
DESIGNATION

161
11. Radio Network Optimization.
11.1RADIO NETWORK OPTIMIZATION TOOL (RNO)----

The tools are available in OSS for Performance Management of radio access network in
GSM. RNO is most important tools which can be used for planning, tuning and
troubleshooting of the radio network. The members of RNO are--- NCS, MRR and FAS.

RNO can be accessed through CITRIX. The procedure for installing CITRIX and accessing
RNO is explained below:-

Installing CITRIX:

Run the Citrix ICA Client-7.0.0.0.msi file-> Next [Installation of Citrix is simple, no
details is provided]

Creating the first connection:

Open Citrix from Start> Programs

Go to Custom ICA Connection

162
Double Click on Add ICA Connection

Next
Provide the required information and press Next.

163
Next
Provide proper UID and PW

164
Next
Select Maximum window size

Next

Next

165
Finish

After opening 2G OSS Right Click on Desktop-> Performance-> Radio Network


Optimization

166
RNO Recordings:

167
The RNO window with recordings

NCS - NEIGHBOURING CELL SUPPORT

NCS can be used for finding missing neighbouring cell relations. If there are missing
neighbouring cell relations, the result will be more dropped calls and bad quality for the end-
users, since they will be connected to the wrong cells in some areas.

Also NCS can be used for finding unnecessary neighbouring cell relations. Having
unnecessary neighbours in the BA-list makes the measurements less accurate.

If you compare the problem of having too long BA-lists with the problem of missing cells as
defined neighbours the problem for the end-user with long BA-lists is several magnitudes less
than the problems which can occur if a cell that should be defined as a neighbour is not. As a
thumb rule about 16-20 frequencies in the Active BA-list are recommended, but some cells
require more than that since they cover a large area and need to have handover relations to
many other cells.

NCS can also be used to find neighbours to a new cell.

To find missing neighbour cell relations


To find unnecessary neighbour cell relations
To find neighbour cell relations to new cells
Cells with swapped sectors
Cell in the wrong position
Cells with wrong antenna direction
Areas with no dominant server
Allows fast re-configuration during catastrophy situations

New NCS Recording: In RNO (Radio Network Optimization) window, go to File-> New
Recording-> NCS-> The following window will open; set the parameters according to
requirement [The following figure is an example]

Provide time and period of recording [The following figure is an example]

168
Select cells

The following window will open-> Select required BSC/Cells-> Copy Cells/Copy BSCs-
>OK

169
New NCS Recording final view

Finally Click on Save and Schedule.

Measurement Resultats are available on Cell/Subcell and Channel Group level


Data collected from Measurement Results (only from TCH:s)
- UL RxLev(0....,63 GSM or-110,...,-47dBm)
- DL RxLev{0,...,63 GSM or-110,-...-47dBm)
- UL RxQual (0,...,7 GSM)
- DL RxQual (0,..7 GSM)
- TA (0,1,...,63,64-73,,..,134-143,144-163,...,184-203,204-219 GSM)
- MS transmit power level (0,...,31)
- BTS transmit power reduction (0,-2..... dB)
BSC also separately calculates and accumulates
- UL Pathless (30-31. 32-33,...,146-147,148-153 dB)
- DL Pathless (30-31. 32-33,,.., 156-157,158-190 dB)
- Pathloss difference (<-24, -24, -23,..., -1. 0. 123, 24. >24 dB).
- UL FER {0..96 GSM)
- DL FER (0..96 GSM)

New MRR Recording: In RNO (Radio Network Optimization) window, go to File-> New
Recording-> MRR-> GSM-> The following window will open; set the parameters according
to requirement [The following figure is an example]-> (Selecting Cells is just like before)->
Finally click on Save and Schedule

170
New MRR Recording final view

FAS FREQUENCY ALLOCATION SUPPORT


FAS is a tool intended to support frequency optimization in order to minimize interference in
the radio network.

The interference level in GSM networks has to be kept to a minimum in order to use the
frequency spectrum in an efficient way, and to increase the capacity of the network. The
speech quality and the amount of dropped calls are directly affected by the interference level.

FAS is an optional feature and aims at relieving the user from the burden of frequency
optimization. By monitoring the up and downlink interference environment in the network.
FAS can find bad frequency allocations, both for BCCH (Broadcast Control Channel) and
TCH (Traffic Channel) carriers and replace them with better ones.

The user can order FAS to perform recordings on up to, but not more than, 150 frequencies in
at least 2000 cells handled by one OSS (Operations Support System). After the recording is
completed, the result values are reported and in geographical maps.

to find better frequency allocations in the cells (network optimization)


to help introducing a new in the network (cell planning)
to monitor the interference levels on frequencies in use (network supervision)

171
FAS Uplink Intereference
The uplink measurements are made by all TRXs in all cells that are included in the recording.
A sample of the uplink interference is collected at least every 15th second on every frequency
that was chosen before the start of the recording. The result that is collected by FAS at the end
of the recording consists of three values for every frequency in every cell.
FAS Dowlink Interference
The downlink measurements are based on measurements made by the MSs.The information
that is included in the measurement report for the six surrounding cells are : Signal strength,
BCCH frequency and BSIC. The last two are used to identify which cell that has been
measured. FAS is able to modify the BA-list so that frequencies normally not included in the
BA-list can be measured on (test-frequencies).
For every measurement report the signal strength of the reported cells are compared with the
signal strength of the serving cell, to see if there is any potential interference between the cells.
New FAS Recording: In RNO (Radio Network Optimization) window, go to File-> New
Recording-> FAS-> The following window will open; set the parameters according to
requirement [The following figure is an example]-> (Selecting Cells is just like before)->
Finally click on Save and Schedule

172
Importing the reports to My Computer:

After one recording is complete, we can import the report to My Computer:

Select any complete report-> Go to File-> Export-> Tab Separated Files-> After that the
report will be exported to OSS

The names of the files exported and their location are shown as follows:

Now we can use any FTP client or DOS Command Prompt to get these files. An example is
given below:

Go to Start-> Run cmd-> Go to the required folder of your system [With the help of the
command cd\ (Used to go to parent directory), or cd <Directory name>, or cd <Drive name>,
or <cd ..> (Used to go to the previous directory):] [Note: While typing a directory
(folder name) press Tab once, if the directory exists, the full name of the directory will
automatically come]

173
Now run the following commands:

ftp <Required server IP> [e.g. 172.28.2.92 is the IP of TBZ 2G OSS, Provide UID, PW]

pwd [To see present working directory]

cd .. [Go to previous directory]

cd .. [Go to previous directory]

pwd [To see present working directory]

cd var/opt/ericsson/ncs/data/db/export [Go to required directory of the server]

get <File name> [Copy the file to My Computer]

bye [Exit ftp]

exit [Exit command prompt]

Example:

174
Example of NCS and MRR recording files (After opening with MS EXCEL):

NCS Recording# 1

NCS Recording# 1

175
MRR Recording# 1

MRR Recording# 1

MRR Recording# 1

176
MRR Recording# 1

MRR Recording# 1

177
MRR Recording# 1

MRR Recording# 1

178
RNO has some additional members i.e., FOX, NOX, TET and SYROX

FOX Frequency Optimization Expert

FOX always record on both uplink and downlink. But instead of just showing the results (like
FAS), FOX has the additional functionality of proposing changes that will improve the
network quality. This is done with an algorithm that takes all possible frequencies in all cells
into account, and suggests the best changes for the cells included in the recording.

NOX Neighbouring Cell List Optimization Expert

NOX does the analysis of neighbours to add and remove for all cells in the recording.

Gives recommendation on neighbours to add and remove


Possibility to accept or reject some or all of the recommendations
TET Traffic Estimation Tool

TET is used to estimate how much traffic a new cell will catch and to quantify the off-load
and remaining traffic in the surrounding cells.

SYROX - Synchronized Radio Network Optimization Expert

SYROX is a tool included in the RNO product family.

The purpose of SYROX is to provide an easy and efficient way of optimizing frequency
hopping parameters. The goal is to avoid interference and to distribute the remaining
interference evenly all over the channels.

12. Event Based Recordings for Efficient Optimisation of 3G RAN


GPEH should be implemented in BSNL as it is very useful and powerful tool. It can be
understood from explanations given below.

Event Based Recording GPEH


Dropped Call Analysis
Handset performance
HS Ue Category
Neighbour optimization
RRC measurements
Propagation Delay measurement

179
GPEH Smart Events
System Release, System Block
Events
180
System Release dropped calls
IMSI, AS members
RSCP, Ec/No, RTWP
Many (25) reasons for each RAB
Dropped call reasons in PcPMS
VIP Dropped Call Finder - Web-based tool
Customer complaints
MSISDN IMSI reasons & circumstances
System Block admission problems
Ue Identifier
Cells involved
Reasons for blocking
Current level of resources (DL Ch code, HW, ASE, etc.)GPEH System Release

Dropped call reasons


Speech
Coverage, interference
ASUC msg not received - significant
Missing Neighbour - decreasing
HSDPA
Constant HS drop rate
HS users do not move
no significant mobility related reasons
Coverage, interference dominant!

181
GPEH RRC Measurements
Cell Level Statistics Report Event
Usually sent before cell change
RSCP & EcNo density
In 1 meas. rep: several cells identified by SC
Best cell: 1st in the report
Synchronisation info: geo-locating!
Periodic reporting can be turned on
W-MRR (RSCP, EcNo, BLER, UeTxPower)
RRC Connection Request Event
Ec/No shows => better picture!
Load & Establishment cause dependent

182
call setup > 230m for indoor cells

183
13. Minilink Operation & Maintenance Procedure
13.1 Minilink Hardware
Minilink is a Microwave device which provide end link between BSC/RNC and BTS/Node-
B. It provides 2 to 16 no of E1 depending on the type of MUX used. There are two types of
Ericsson Minilink E and Minilink Micro. Minilink E has a
Minilinks supplied by M/S Ericsson-
maximum capacity of 16 E1 and Minilink Micro has a capacity of 4 E1
The
he block diagram of a Minilink is as given below.

The schematic diagram of a Minilink is as given below.

184
are:
The main components of Minilink are:-
Outdoor units:- It consist of
Radio
Antenna
Radio cable
Indoor units:- It consist of
AMM (Access Module Magazine)
o 1U, 1 Slot, 1 MMU [1+0] Terminal only
o 2U-3,
3, 3 Slots, 2 MMU, 1 SMU, 1 SAU optional 2x[1+0] or 1x[1+1] Terminal
o 4U, 7 Slots 4 MMU, 2 SMU, 1 SAU optional 4x[1+0] or 2x[1+0] + 1x[1+1] or 2x[1+1]
Fan unit (Optional) can provide cooling for up to two fully equipped AMM 4U or three fully
equipped AMM 2U-3.
3. It is placed directly on top of the AMM or in racks or cabinets. For
effective cooling, air plates, included in the kit (for AMM 4U), are fitted beneath and behind
the access modules.
SAU -optional- provides service channels, parallel inputs and outputs and access to the
External Alarm Channel
Radio unit consist of Radio interface unit, Microwave unit and RF attenuator.

185
Radio cable is nothing but the feeder cable which carry radio signal from Indo
Indoor unit to
Antena.

The Indoor Unit is also called Access Module Magazine which houses the following
units.

MMU:-Modem
Modem Unit
SMU:-Switch
Switch Multiplexer Unit

186
All MINI-LINK E and E Micro units have an integrated Control and Supervision System
(CSS) that continuously monitors the transmission quality and alarm status. The information
is available through the supervision channel, which is extended throughout the MINI-LINK
network. Communication with CSS is carried out by means of a PC, along with MINI-LINK
management software. The MINI-LINK Netman/MSM software package is used for central
supervision of large networks.

187
13.2 MSM Program
Start the MSM / Netman

The login window opens. Default password is 1111

The Main Frame window opens.

188
13.3 Fault management
13.3.1 Procedure

Click on the arrow or unit to reach a sub-level with detailed information on the alarm

Click on help.

See the information and instructions on how to solved the problem.

Take the action accordingly.

13.3.2 Alarm Log

The alarm log gives access to the alarm notifications that have been collected from the
terminals. An operator can read, filter, sort and save the log files for analysis and problem
tracking. Log records can be moved automatically to an archive, to keep the database from
growing too large. The Alarm Log window can show data for one selected terminal or for all
terminals. It contains two fields of information: a list of logged alarms and detailed
information for the selected log. The list of logged alarms includes date, time and severity and
why the log was performed. It also shows identity and terminal type for the logged equipment.

To see the alarm available in the alarm log window:

189
Select Log menu from network window

Select alarm command

The field for the Alarm Log list contains:

Date and Time


The date and time presented is the PC date and time
When the data was logged.
ID
The identity of the terminal logged. See section 4.1.1.
Type of Equipment
The type of terminal logged
Cause for Log
The reason the log was performed (Alarm notation,
Background poll etc.)
Severity
The alarm status severity when the log was performed.

The field for Detailed Information about the log selected in the Alarm Log list contains
the alarms, controls with abnormal status and additional information when the log was
performed.

190
The Log window functions

The following functions are available for the Alarm Log window:

Print to File The Print options dialog box:


-Print to Text File allows the operator to copy all the data to a text file
-Copy Database copies the database to a file read by the database program. A name for the
file must be given. If the Search filter is active the following options will be presented for
the Print to Text File function:
- Print Logs According to Filter
- Print All Logs in Database

Delete The Delete function allows the Control user to delete all data in a log or the data
selected according to the search filter.

Search Filter The Log Search Filter dialog box allows the operator to define the log events
to be presented in the Log window, to search for special conditions in the log. Any
combination of filters can be used.

191
Refresh The Refresh function updates the log presentation with the latest logged events
(events which has occurred since entering the log, or since Refresh last was activated, will
be included in the presentation).

13.3.3 List of Alarm

A number of checkpoints are implemented to track a failure down to the faulty radio unit or
units in the access module.

The following lists of terminal alarms describe the alarms that are presented graphically in
the alarm field in the Netman or MSM Terminal window. Alarms Written in bold typeface
in the alarm list correspond to buttons in the Terminal window. These alarms comprise an
underlying level shown in normal typeface.
13.3.3.1 Minilink E

Transmitter alarm

192
Receiver alarm

193
Common Alarm

SAU Alarm

194
13.3.3.2 MINILINK Micro

Transmitter alarm

Receiver alarm

Common Alarm

195
14. MPBN Router monitoring
14.1 Port Satus.
Command:
[local]ORSRBN1#show port
Command output:
Slot/Port:Ch:SubCh Type State
1/1 pos Up
1/2 pos Up
1/3 pos Down
1/4 pos Up
1/5 pos Down
1/6 pos Up
1/7 pos Up
1/8 pos Down
2/1 pos Down
2/2 pos Up
2/3 pos Down
2/5 pos Up
2/6 pos Up
2/8 pos Down
3/1 ethernet Up
3/2 ethernet Up
3/3 ethernet Up
3/4 ethernet Down
4/1 pos Down
4/2 pos Up
4/3 pos Up
4/4 pos Up
4/5 pos Up
4/6 pos Up
4/7 pos Down
4/8 pos Up
6/1 ethernet Down

The port whose state is down to be checked for media failure. The ports which are not
listed are kept in deactive state.

14.2 Error counter Check & Reset


[local]ORSRBN1#show port counter 1/1 detail

Command Output:-

196
Counters for port pos 1/1 - Interval: 5d 23:46:28

PPA Port Counters


packets sent : 47079260014 bytes sent : 4278577280866
packets recvd : 25767003369 bytes recvd : 2272144117235
send packet rate : 130945.35 send bit rate : 95011773.99
recv packet rate : 71300.86 recv bit rate : 50064837.84
IP mcast pkts rcv : 0 IP mcast bytes rcv : 0
IP mcast pkts sent : 0 IP mcast bytes snt : 0
rate refresh interval : 60 seconds

PPA Input Counters


idc other errors : 0 crc port errors : 78
idc overrun errors : 0 idc abort errors : 0
no cct packets : 0 no cct bytes :0
cct down pkts : 1281 cct down bytes : 110797
unknown encap pkts : 0 unknown encap byte : 0
unreach pkts :5 unreach bytes : 1166
media filter pkts : 0 media filter bytes : 0

PPA Output Counters


WRED drop pkts : 0 tail drop pkts : 13620315
adj drop pkts : 10144 adj drop bytes : 894830

Packet Drop Counters


not IPv4 drop pkts : 0 bad IP checksum : 0
unhandled IP optns : 0 link layer bcast : 0
bad IP length :0

Policing Counters
conform pkts :0 conform bytes :0
conform drop pkts : 0 conform drop bytes : 0
exceed pkts :0 exceed bytes :0
exceed drop pkts : 0 exceed drop bytes : 0
violate pkts :0 violate bytes :0
violate drop pkts : 0 violate drop bytes : 0
PPPoE Counters
control pkts :0
bad session pkts : 0
padt sent pkts : 0
padr drop pkts : 0
padi drop pkts : 0

padt drop pkts :0


bad code pkts :0

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Packet-Over-Sonet physical layer statistics
Active Alarms : NONE

Sonet Section
LOS : 0 LOF : 0 BIP-B1 : 0

Sonet Line
AIS : 0 RDI : 0 BIP-B2 : 0
FEBE : 0

Sonet Path
AIS : 0 RDI : 2 BIP-B3 : 407
FEBE : 43437 LOP : 0

Received Sonet Overhead


F1 : 0x0 K1 : 0x0 K2 : 0x0
S1 : 0x2 C2 : 0x16

Transmitted Sonet Overhead


F1 : 0x0 K1 : 0x0 K2 : 0x0
S1 : 0x0 C2 : 0x16

This output shows the data transmission rate and CRC error counter. The CRC error
counter can be reseted using the following command. Reseting is required if the error
counter is increasing continuously.

[local]ORSRBN1#clear port counter 1/1

This command reset the CRC error counter

14.3 COMMAND TO CHECK TEMPERATAURE IN MPBN ROUTER &


SWITCH
SWITCH

198
ROUTER
SH HARDWARE DETAILS

199
15. Frequently Asked Questions.
1. How to reduce SDC Congestion when SDCCH_Cong_Rate > 1 % ?

A - Refer to Ericsson RAN O & M Handbook QoS of 2G (Page 34)

2. How to reduce TCH Congestion when TCH_Cong_Rate > 2 % ?


A - Refer to Ericsson RAN O & M Handbook QoS of 2G (Page 35)

3. How to reduce call drop when call_drop_rate > 2 % ?


A - Refer to Ericsson RAN O & M Handbook 2 QoS of 2G (Page 35)

4. How to increase call setup success rate when CSSR < 95 % ?


A - Refer to Ericsson RAN O & M Handbook 2 QoS of 2G (Page 37)

5. How to increase handover success rate when HOSR < 90 % ?


A - Refer to Ericsson RAN O & M Handbook QoS of 2G (Page 36)

6. While calling from mobile, third partys voice is heard.XTalk

A-Check the Transmission connectivity (Mainly Tx and Rx swapping or loose connection).


Definition of Tx System, MAIO value and E1 devices.

7. Customer is facing problem that the received signal is ok but not able to make
call.(RACH failure/SDCCH or TCH congestion.)

A Check if cell is barred(CB=YES).Interference level due to wrong BCCH/BSIC


planning.
Refer to BSS O & M Handbook (Page 34,35)

8. Customer is facing problem of frequent call drops.

A - Refer to Ericsson RAN O & M Handbook


3. Call drops (Page 35)

9. Customer is facing problem of call getting disconnected while moving from one place
to another place.

A Check the proper HO definition with neighbor cells.


Refer to Ericsson RAN O & M Handbook Poor Handover Success Rate (Page 36)

200
10. Customer is facing no coverage problem, however in the recent past he was getting
good signal at the same place.

A Check the Azimuth and Tilt of antenna,any H/W fault or VSWR.

11. Sometimes when the customer is surfing data, he is not able to get voice call from
other person ?(Not reachable annocement )

A A s/w patch should be loaded in BSC.so that Data session will be halted and voice call
will be connected.

12. The traffic of the sector is drastically reduced, however all other KPIs of the sector
are ok?

A - Check the Azimuth and Tilt of antenna,any H/W fault or VSWR.

13. Customer can make calls but cannot surf the data (2G)

A - Refer to Ericsson RAN O & M Handbook


Cell is GPRS enabled or phone APN setting. (Page 37,38)

14. Customer is getting good signal but no getting incoming call (The calling party gets
Out of Coverage anouncement.

A Check the Paging Discarded of cell, PCH cogestion or big LAC area

15. Customer is facing poor data speed in 3G.

A - Refer to Ericsson RAN O & M Handbook QoS -3G (Page 137,138)

16. Customer can make calls but cannot surf the data in 3G

A Refer to Ericsson RAN O & M HandbookRNC Health Checkup (Page 106)

17. Customer can surf the data but cannot make calls in 3G

A - Refer to Ericsson RAN O & M Handbook RNC Health Checkup (Page 106)

18. Customer is having problem of signal fluctuation in 3G.

A - If customer is using 3G in the Edge of a cell Boundary or If Node B is not stable in that
place then also this may happen. Kindly trace customer and check alarms of that particular
node B.

19. The mobile is not seamlessly latching between 2G and 3G even if both signals are
good.

201
A If mobile is not latching to 2G, there may be due to heavy congestion in RTGPH
Devide group or SDCCH congestion & If mobile is not latching to 3G, there may be heavy
RRC congestion.
Refer to Ericsson RAN O & M Handbook (Page 133,134,135)

20. The customer is not able to surf the data in 3G even if there is H symbol on screen.

A This is may be due to very poor bandwidth in Iublink or error in Iu-PS link/Iu-PS link
is not stable or there is heavy congestion(power congestion & code Congestion).
Refer to Ericsson RAN O & M Handbook (Page 134)

21. The customer is facing low data speed as well as frequent interruptions while
surfing.

A - For low data speed Refer to Ericsson RAN O & M Handbook

QoS of Radio Network -3G (Page137,138&139)


Frequent interruptions may be due to very low bandwith & high load. Also power
congestion & Code Congestion is to be checked.
Refer to Ericsson RAN O & M Handbook (Page 134)

22. Doesn't switch from 2G to 3G & vice versa?

A- If UE is not switching from 2G to 3G then check reference clock status. Use


NSSTP; & NSDAP; (wd & fd value should be zero)
Check network synchronization data
Also use RLSUP & RLUMP command

If UE is not switching from 3G to 2G then check whether GSM relation is defined or not.

Use following commands for creating GSM relation

202
23. A group of newly defined Node B in same RNC are facing problem in data. The
media is ok.

A This problem may be due to New Routing Area Definition for the Node Bs at RNC
end but same routing area is not created at SGSN.

24. What are the advantages of TMA?


A- TMA reduces system noise, improves uplink sensitivity and leads to longer UE battery
life.

25. What is Eb/No?

By definition Eb/No is energy bit over noise density, i.e. is the ratio of the energy per
information bit to the power spectral density (of interference and noise) after dispreading.
Eb/No = Processing Gain + SIR

26. What is Ec/Io?

Ec/Io is the ratio of the energy per chip in CPICH to the total received power density
(including CPICH itself).

27. Sometimes we say Ec/Io and sometimes we say Ec/No, are they different?

Io = own cell interference + surrounding cell interference + noise density

No = surrounding cell interference + noise density


That is, Io is the total received power density including CPICH of its own cell, No is the
total received power density excluding CPICH of its own cell. Technically Ec/Io should
be the correct measurement but, due to equipment capability, Ec/No is actually measured.
In UMTS, Ec/No and Ec/Io are often used interchangeably.

28. What is RSCP?

RSCP stands for Received Signal Code Power the energy per chip in CPICH averaged
over 512 chips.

29. What is SIR?

SIR is the Signal-to-Interference Ratio the ratio of the energy in dedicated physical
control channel bits to the power density of interference and noise after dispreading.

30. What is pilot pollution?

Simply speaking, when the number of strong cells exceeds the active set size, there is
pilot pollution in the area. Typically the active set size is 3, so if there are more than 3
strong cells then there is pilot pollution.
Definition of strong cell: pilots within the handover window size from the strongest cell.
Typical handover window size is between 4 to 6dB. For example, if there are more than 2
cells (besides the strongest cell) within 4dB of the strongest cell then there is pilot
pollution.
203
31. Briefly describe the UE to UTRAN protocol stack (air interface layers).

The radio interface is divided into 3 layers:

Physical layer (Layer 1, L1): used to transmit data over the air, responsible for channel
coding, interleaving, repetition, modulation, power control, macro-diversity combining.
Link layer (L2): is split into 2 sub-layers Medium Access Control (MAC) and Radio Link
Control (RLC).
MAC: responsible for multiplexing data from multiple applications onto physical channels
in preparation for over-the-air transmission.
RLC: segments the data streams into frames that are small enough to be transmitted over
the radio link.
Upper layer (L3): vertically partitioned into 2 planes: control plane for signalling and user
plan for bearer traffic.
RRC (Radio Resource Control) is the control plan protocol: controls the radio resources
for the access network.
In implementation:

1. UE has all 3 layers.


2. Node B has Physical Layer.
3. RNC had MAC layer and RRC layer

32. What are the possible causes for a Drop Call on a UMTS network?

Poor Coverage (DL / UL)


Pilot Pollution / Pilot Spill over
Missing Neighbour
SC Collisions
Delayed Handovers
No resource availability (Congestion) for Hand in
Loss of Synchronization
Fast Fading
Delayed IRAT Triggers
Hardware Issues
External Interference

33. What is RTWP? What is the significance of it?

RTWP means Received Total Wide-band Power. It gives the Total Uplink Power
(Interference) level received at NodeB (Page 130)

34. How to reduce the card failure rate ?

A - It is observed that the main reasons for card failure are Temperature, frequent power
failure and dust

204
(1) Temperature of the equipment should be monitored through alarms from OMCR and if
high temperature is observed, corrective action should be immediately taken to restore the
temperature to normal level.
(2) Frequently AC supply failure should be immediately attended.
The stabilizing transformer may be introduced.
Battery back up should be proper
Engine Alternator should be in working condition.
(3) Measures should be taken to prevent / remove dust from equipment.
As a part of prevention, There should be no opening in the shelter so that entry of dust can
be restricted.
As a part of dust removal, regular cleaning should be ensured.
(4) Equipement should be properly earthed and the earth resistance should be < 1 ohm.
Some innovations , resulting in value addition to overall experience

1. TRX Reshuffling:
Since the number of TRX available in each circle is constant, it becomes a necessary to
deploy TRX in an optimum manner. The TRX in any sector should not be more than the
demand of traffic being carried by the sector. So from low traffic sectors, TRX should be
removed and those TRX should be deployed to sectors carrying high traffic.
2. Rehoming:
The Traffic load and paging load of BSCs / RNCs in terms of voice and data should be
considered at regular intervals and BTS / Node B sites should be shifted from one BSC /
RNC to another one for even distribution of the load. Similarly, BSCs / RNCs should be
paranted to MGWs in such a way that traffic load is uniformly distributed among MGWs
as well as the inter MGW traffic is minimized.
A simple software making a smart phone more useful G-NetTrack
There are many mobile network monitors available freely on the Internetwork which can
be installed in smart mobile handset. One of the good app is G-NetTrack.
G-NetTrack is a GSM / UMTS network monitor.

Features:

2G / 3G / 4G serving and neighbor cells measurements


Logging measurements in logfiles (text and kml format)
OUTDOOR and INDOOR measurements
Measurements logging in text and kml files
Cellfile import / export and sites and serving and neighbor cells lines visualization on map
205
Parameters that can be monitored from it are
(1) MCC
(2) MNC
(3) LAC
(4) CELLID
(5) Longitude
(6) Latitude
(7) Rx Level / RSCP of serving and neighbour cells
The tool can be handy when the field engineer visits the customer for any network related
complaint. He can know the basic informtion like serving cell, signal level etc without
carrying the bulky drive test kit alongwith.

206
16. Data Backup Procedure for different nodes:

The Exchange Data of BSC / MSC / MPBN are vital and it should be backed up in external
media in a routine manner . Three number of external disk / Tape should be usd for taking
any backup and same exchane data should be kept in such external media in three different
day as per the planned frequency. Mainly there are three type of Backup.

16.1 CP backup:
The CP Backup should be taken in external disk/ tape once in in a week. The same media
may be repeated after three week show that at any time we have three backup of different
date.

16.2 APG Backup:


APG backup should be taken once in a by week. Three different media should be used and
repeated after the designated frequency.

16.3 MPBN Router / Switch Backup:


The MPBN Router and Switch configuration data should be backed up in external media /
computer / Laptop once in a week. We should store data of three conswquetive week after
which it may be overwritten.

16.4 Backup Tracker:


The backup media details should be recorded in a specified format called Backup Tracker.
It will record the date of backup with media identity and the name / signature of technical
person who has taken the backup. The sample tracker format is given below.

Type of Disk / Tape Engg. Name


Date of Backup Remark
Backup level (Backup Taken)
CP
15-02-2016 CP-A P.K.Sahoo Done
Backup
AP-
15-02-2016 AP-A P.K.Sahoo Done
Backup
MPBN-
15-02-2016 MPBN-150216 Subodh Done
Backup
CP
22-02-2016 CP-B A.K.Dalai Done
Backup
MPBN
22-02-2016 MPBN-220216 Subodh Done
Backup
CP
29-02-2016 CP-C A.K.Dalai Done
Backup
AP
29-02-2016 AP-B A.K.Dalai Done
Backup
MPBN
29-02-2016 MPBN-2900216 Subodh Done
Backup

207
17. Daily Health Check Tracker:

Everyday we are doing health check for different important equipment as well as
environmental parameters for fault free network. We have maintain a daily healch check
tracker for the same. Mainly we have to maintain the following healch check tracker.

17.1 System Health Checks: Ensure that System Software & hardware for BSC, RNC, BTS, and Nodes
Bs are operational. In cases of discrepancy record same and raise the concerns with
respective team for restoration. The standard System Health Check Tracker is given below.

Date: Node Name:


Routine Check Command Output Remark
Check the CP State DPWSP;
Check all RP status EXRPP:RP=ALL; List the faulty RP
Check the Auto Backup
Status SYBFP:FILE;
Check for any Size
alternation event
required DBTSP:TAB=SAACTIONS;
Check all SS7 Signalling
Link Status C7LTP:LS=ALL:
Check EM Status EXEMP:RP=ALL,EM=ALL; List the blocked EM
Check Group switch List the faulty Group
status GDSTP; Switch Card
Check Reference Clock
Status NSSTP;
Check Clock Control
Value GDCVP; List the deviation if any
Check the SNT Status NTSTP:SNT=ALL: List the faulty SNT
Check Transcoder pool
status RRTPP:TRAPOOL=ALL; List for any congestion
Check GB link status (for
GB over Frame Relay) RRGBP;
Check for NSE Status
(for GB over IP) RRINP: NSEI=ALL;
Check for any
software recovery SYRIP:SURVEY; List active forlopp if any
Check all Cell Status RLCRP:CELL=ALL; List any faulty Cell
Check for BTS fault RXASP:MOTY=RXOTG; List for any BTS Fault
Check for TRX fault RXASP:MOTY=RXOTRX List for any TRX fault
Check for A-Bis link
Error DTQUP:DIP=ALL:

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17.2 Physical Environmental Checks - Use this checklist to ensure that physical
environment checks are completed on daily basis Hear we have to track the environmental
parameter as well as Infrastructure equipment status. The standard Daily Tracker for the
same is given below. The terminal Battery voltage should be measured weekly by isolating
from Power Plant.
P/P Bty-1 Bty-2 S/R S/R
Date Capacity P/P Load Volt Volt S/R Temp Humidity Cleanliness
22-02-16 1000 Amp 465 Amp 49.2 51.2 24.2 C 75 Good
23-02-16 1000 Amp 461 Amp 25.2 C 78 Good
24-02-16 1000 Amp 475 Amp 23.8 C 74 Good
25-02-16 1000 Amp 468 Amp 24.2 C 76 Good
26-02-16 1000 Amp 473 Amp 23.8 C 65 Good
27-02-16 1000 Amp 467 Amp 24.1 C 69 Good
28-02-16 1000 Amp 481 Amp 23.2 C 70 Bad
29-02-16 1000 Amp 480 Amp 50.1 49.8 23.2 C 70 Good

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