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alternating possession arrows

PE 204 (BASKETBAL 101) whistle-operated stop-clock systems


HISTORY basketball court in international games is 28 by 15 meters

(approx. 92 by 49 ft)
The first rules, court, and game
in the NBA is 94 by 50 feet (29 by 15 m)
a steel basket with net and backboard hang over each end of
Invented in 1891 by Dr. James Naismith the court
nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot (3.05 m) elevated track the top of the rim is exactly 10 feet (3.05 m) above the court
and 4 feet (1.2 m) inside the baseline
peach basket retained its bottom, and balls had to be The diameter of the rim is 18 inches
retrieved manually --after each "basket" or point scored Distance from the free throw line to the backboard -
15 feet (180 inches)
peach baskets were used until 1906 when they were finally college and high school 3 point arc is 19.75 feet (19 feet 9
replaced by metal hoops with backboards inches, or 237 inches)

soccer ball was used to shoot goals BALL SIZE (S)

first official game was played in the YMCA gymnasium on women - official basketball size is 28.5" in circumference
January 20, 1892 with nine players (size 6) and a weight of 20 oz
men - official ball is 29.5" in circumference (size 7) and
by 18971898 teams of five became standard. weighs 22 oz


Basketball Dribble: Process by which a player repeatedly bounces the ball off
court: a flat, rectangular surface with baskets at opposite the floor so that it returns to his/her possession. Its the only legal
ends means by which a player, while walking or running, may move the
clocks ball across the court.
score sheets
scoreboard(s) Kinds of Dribble:

Speed dribble: A dribble used for fast movement down the Layup: A shot taken close to the basket that is usually
court. banked off the backboard towards the basket.

Protective dribble: a low dribble used to prevent an Free throw: An unguarded shot taken from behind the free-
opponent (at arms length) from getting close to the ball. throw line after a foul. If successful, the shot counts one
(crossover, spin, turn around, between the legs,
behind the back) Three-point field goal: A made basket from a distance
greater than 19 feet and nine inches during a high school or
Pass: An intentional throw to a teammate. college game.

Kinds of Pass:

Bounce pass: A pass that strikes the floor before it reaches

the receiver.
The Rules
Chest pass: A two-handed pass thrown from the passers
chest in a straight line to the chest area of the receiver. Basketball is a team sport. Two teams of five players each try to
score by shooting a ball through a hoop elevated 10 feet above the
Overhead pass: A two-handed pass thrown from above the ground. The game is played on a rectangular floor called the court,
forehead. and there is a hoop at each end. The court is divided into two main
sections by the mid-court line. If the offensive team puts the ball
Baseball pass: a pass used for long distance like mid-court into play behind the mid-court line, it has ten seconds to get the
or longer. ball over the mid-court line. If it doesn't, then the defense gets the
ball. Once the offensive team gets the ball over the mid-court line,
Shoot: act of putting the ball inside the basket. it can no longer have possession of the ball in the area in back of
the line. If it does, the defense is awarded the ball.
Kinds of shots:
The ball is moved down the court toward the basket by passing or
Jump shot: A shot that is released after the shooter has dribbling. The team with the ball is called the offense. The team
jumped into the air. without the ball is called the defense. They try to steal the ball,
contest shots, steal and deflect passes, and garner rebounds.

When a team makes a basket, they score two points and the ball Fouls and Violations
goes to the other team. If a basket, or field goal, is made outside of
the three-point arc, then that basket is worth three points. A free FOULS
throw is worth one point. Free throws are awarded to a team
according to some formats involving the number of fouls committed Personal fouls: Personal fouls include any type of illegal physical
in a half and/or the type of foul committed. Fouling a shooter contact.
always results in two or three free throws being awarded the
shooter, depending upon where he was when he shot. If he was Hitting
beyond the three-point line, then he gets three shots. Other types Pushing
of fouls do not result in free throws being awarded until a certain Slapping
number have accumulated during a half. Once that number is Holding
reached, then the player who was fouled is awarded a '1-and-1' Illegal pick/screen -- when an offensive player is moving or
opportunity. If he makes his first free throw, he gets to attempt a sticks out a limb and makes physical contact with a defender
second. If he misses the first shot, the ball is live on the rebound. in an attempt to block the path of the defender.

Each game is divided into sections. All levels have two halves. In Personal foul penalties: If a player is shooting while being
college, each half is twenty minutes long. In high school and below, fouled, then he gets two free throws if his shot doesn't go in, but
the halves are divided into eight (and sometimes, six) minute only one free throw if his shot does go in.
quarters. In the pros, quarters are twelve minutes long. There is a
gap of several minutes between halves. Gaps between quarters are Three free throws are awarded if the player is fouled while
relatively short. If the score is tied at the end of regulation, then shooting for a three-point goal and they miss their shot. If a
overtime periods of various lengths are played until a winner player is fouled while shooting a three-point shot and makes
emerges. it anyway, he is awarded one free throw. Thus, he could score
four points on the play.
Each team is assigned a basket or goal to defend. This means that
the other basket is their scoring basket. At halftime, the teams Inbounds. If fouled while not shooting, the ball is given to the
switch goals. The game begins with one player from either team at team the foul was committed upon. They get the ball at the
center court. A referee will toss the ball up between the two. The nearest side or baseline, out of bounds, and have 5 seconds
player that gets his hands on the ball will tip it to a teammate. This to pass the ball onto the court.
is called a tip-off. In addition to stealing the ball from an opposing One & one. If the team committing the foul has seven or
player, there are other ways for a team to get the ball. more fouls in the game, then the player who was fouled is
awarded one free throw. If he makes his first shot, then he is
One such way is if the other team commits a foul or violation. awarded another free throw.

Ten or more fouls. If the team committing the foul has ten or without dribbling the ball is traveling. Moving your pivot foot
more fouls, then the fouled player receives two free throws. once you've stopped dribbling is traveling.

Charging. An offensive foul that is committed when a player Carrying/palming. When a player dribbles the ball with his
pushes or runs over a defensive player. The ball is given to the hand too far to the side of or, sometimes, even under the ball.
team that the foul was committed upon.
Double Dribble. Dribbling the ball with both hands on the ball
Blocking. Blocking is illegal personal contact resulting from a at the same time or picking up the dribble and then dribbling
defender not establishing position in time to prevent an again is a double dribble.
opponent's drive to the basket.
Held ball. Occasionally, two or more opposing players will gain
Flagrant foul. Violent contact with an opponent. This includes possession of the ball at the same time. In order to avoid a
hitting, kicking, and punching. This type of foul results in free prolonged and/or violent tussle, the referee stops the action and
throws plus the offense retaining possession of the ball after the awards the ball to one team or the other on a rotating basis.
free throws.
Goaltending. If a defensive player interferes with a shot while
Intentional foul. When a player makes physical contact with it's on the way down toward the basket, while it's on the way up
another player with no reasonable effort to steal the ball. It is a toward the basket after having touched the backboard, or while
judgment call for the officials. it's in the cylinder above the rim, it's goaltending and the shot
counts. If committed by an offensive player, it's a violation and
Technical foul. Technical foul. A player or a coach can commit the ball is awarded to the opposing team for a throw-in.
this type of foul. It does not involve player contact or the ball but
is instead about the 'manners' of the game. Foul language, Backcourt violation. Once the offense has brought the ball
obscenity, obscene gestures, and even arguing can be across the mid-court line, they cannot go back across the line
considered a technical foul, as can technical details regarding during possession. If they do, the ball is awarded to the other
filling in the scorebook improperly or dunking during warm-ups. team to pass inbounds.

Time restrictions. A player passing the ball inbounds has five

seconds to pass the ball. If he does not, then the ball is awarded
to the other team.
Other time restrictions include the rule that a player cannot
Walking/Traveling. Taking more than 'a step and a half' have the ball for more than five seconds when being closely

guarded and, in some states and levels, shot-clock restrictions
requiring a team to attempt a shot within a given time frame. Guard - These are potentially your shortest players and they
should be really good at dribbling fast, seeing the court, and
passing. It is their job to bring the ball down the court and set up
Number of Players and Players Positions offensive plays.
* 12 -14 members for each team
* 5 in actual play Offensive -- Dribbling, passing, and setting up offensive plays are a
guard's main responsibilities. They also need to be able to drive to
Center - Centers are generally your tallest players. They generally the basket and to shoot from the perimeter.
are positioned near the basket.
Defensive -- On defense, a guard is responsible for stealing passes,
Offensive -- The center's goal is to get open for a pass and to shoot. contesting shots, preventing drives to the hoop, and for boxing out.
They are also responsible for blocking defenders, known as picking
or screening, to open other players up for driving to the basket for a
goal. Centers are expected to get some offensive rebounds and put- SCORING
backs. 2 point field goal- a shot made from anywhere during play
inside the 3 pt arc.
Defensive -- On defense, the center's main responsibility is to keep 3 point field goal- a shot made from anywhere outside the 3
opponents from shooting by blocking shots and passes in the key pt arc.
area. They also are expected to get a lot of rebounds because Free throw- 1 point is awarded to an unguarded shot taken
they're taller. from behind the free throw line while the clock is stopped.

Forward - Your next tallest players will most likely be your

forwards. While a forward may be called upon to play under the
hoop, they may also be required to operate in the wings and corner

Offensive -- Forwards are responsible to get free for a pass, take

outside shots, drive for goals, and rebound.

Defensive -- Responsibilities include preventing drives to the goal

and rebounding.