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Collection of Masters Theses November 2012

Collection of Masters theses

November 2012

Civil Engineering and Geosciences


Stevinweg 1

Faculty of Civil Engineering


PO Box 5048
2600 GA Delft
The Netherlands

and Geosciences
T +31(0) 15 27 85440
F +31(0) 15 27 87966
Masters Theses
November 2012

Civil Engineering and Geosciences


Stevinweg 1
PO Box 5048
NL 2600 GA Delft
The Netherlands

Telephone: +31 (0)15 2784023


E-mail: studentvoorlichting-citg@tudelft.nl
2 | Masters Theses November 2012
Table of Contents

Preface 7
What is the graduation book exactly? 9

Building Engineering
A search for structural applications of transparent plastics in the building industry 12
Student: M. de Graaff
The future of BIM and the construction industry 13
Student: R. Legierse

Structural Engineering
Design and modelling of cooling water intake risers for deep ocean applications 16
Student: R. van Vliet
Shear Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Slabs under Line and Wheel Load Close to the Support 17
Student: P.H.A. van Hemert
The transition between one-way shear and punching shear 18
Student: J. Doorgeest
Experimental determination of bearing capacity of transversely prestressed concrete deck slabs 19
Student: M.W.J. Vugts
Three-dimensional numerical analysis of tunnelling induced settlements. 20
Student: J.M.J. Kappen
Characterisation, non-destructive detection and strength of compression failures in tropical hardwood 21
Student: H.P. Kuisch
Soil-structure interaction modelling in performance-based seismic jetty design 22
Student: F. Besseling
Feasibility study for a standard viaduct 23
Student: A. Gangaram-Panday
Feasibility study on fiber reinforced polymer cylindrical truss bridges for heavy traffic 24
Student: M. Chlosta
Optimal Design of a module structure with sheeting 25
Student: J. Xu
Use of high strength steel grades for economical bridge design 26
Student: E. Gogou
Human error in structural engineering 27
Student: J. de Haan
Pile Penetration Simulation with Material Point Method 28
Student: L.J. Lim
Variant studie Spoorbrug in vvUHSB. 29
Student: K. ten Pas
Dimensioneren van bouwkuipen in 3D berekeningsmodellen 30
Student: S.V. Bhagirath
Finite element modelling of near field underwater noise generated by offshore pile driving 31
Student: G. Kaushik
Probability analysis of Life Cycle Cost of bridges with different preventive measures and repair methods 32
Student: Y. Pan
FEM modeling of fiber reinforced composites 33
Student: E. Jongejans
Cracking at the unheated side of a tunnel during the heating and cooling phase of a fire 34
Student: S. van Aken

3 | Masters Theses November 2012


Wind Induced Vibrations of frUHSC Bridge decks 35
Student: E. Bosman

Hydraulic Engineering
Feasibility Study of an artificial sandy beach at Batumi, Georgia 38
Student: C. Pepping
Influence of dredging on Columbia River Mouth morphology 39
Student: J. Stark
Static and dynamic loads on the first row of interlocking, single layer armour units 40
Student: M.A. van de Koppel
Modelling the anisotropy of turbulence with the SWASH model 41
Student: T. Bogaard
Stability of open filter structures 42
Student: S.A.H. van de Sande
Water level analysis based on North Sea storms 43
Student: M.S. de Jong
Gate Design For Large, High Head Locks 44
Student: J. Doeksen
Innovative guidance structure 45
Student: P. Spruijt
Robust design in structural engineering 46
Student: C. Bus
Coal transport Kalimantan 47
Student: B.C.Joppe
Parametrisch ontwerpmodel 48
Student: P. van den Noort
The future of the Oosterschelde with a new inlet channel 49
Student: R.A. de Bruijn
Development of a generic automated instrument for the calibration of morphodynamic Delft3D model applications 50
Student: R.W. Hasselaar
Stevin Outlet Sluices, wave impact under a beam 51
Student: G.M. Hofste
Numerical modelling of Colorado sandbar growth 52
Student: B.J. Nieuwboer
Golfrandvoorwaarden in havens 53
Student: S.P. Reijmerink
Sedimentation-velocity in jet induced flow 54
Student: W.J. Siteur
Determining vessel motions in a harbour due to waves 55
Student: P. van der Ven
Relative Density of a Sand Fill 56
Student: W.C.N. Vessies
Reliability of Quay Walls 57
Student: H.J.Wolters
Innovative design for lock gates 58
Student: S. Zel Taat
Upflow limestone contactor for soft and desalinated water 59
Student: P.B. Do
Traffic induced vibration in floating thoroughfares 60
Student: E.J. Kaspers

4 | Masters Theses November 2012


Sustainability as a Procurement Criterion for Port Investments 61
Student: E.F.M. Broesterhuizen
The influence of the wave height distribution on the stability of single layer concrete armour units 62
Student: S.A.A. Zwanenburg
Simulating Barrier Island Evolution 63
Student: J.P. den Bieman
RAMSSHEEP analysis: a tool for risk-driven maintenance 64
Student: W. Wagner
The morphological impact of the deepening of the deep foreshore on the Dutch coast 65
Student: T. van Walsem

Hydraulic Engineering COMEM Domain


Calculation of Wave Forces using REEF3D 68
Student: A.M. Kamath
One-Dimensional Viscoelastic Simulation of Ice Behaviour in Relation to Dynamic Ice Action 69
Student: M. Yazarov

Geo-Engineering
Floating Piles 72
Student: J.G. Bol

Watermanagement
Pluvial flood damage modelling. 74
Student: L. Sterna
On the Topographic Classification of the Chemoga Watershed, Ethiopia 75
Student: F.B.M. Desta
Cold CANON: Anammox at low temperature 76
Student: C. Fei
Judgment under Uncertainty 77
Student: S. Malek Pour
Innovative Design of Gully Pot for Preventing Big particles Clogging Problem 78
Student: Q. Hao
Evaluation of hazard classification systems 79
Student: W. Novalia
Financial Sustainability of Rural Water Supplies in Western Kenya 80
Student: A. Adams
Water quality in bathing waters 81
Student: I. Blommers
Future Threats in drinking water winning from the Afgedamde Maas 82
Student: A.H. Knol
Transition experiments in Amsterdam; 83
Student: N.I. Lugt
Bonding and Bridging in Capacity Development Networks 84
Student: M.M. Pieron
Influence of wave climate schematisation on the simulated morphological development
of the Western Scheldt entrance 85
Student: B.W.F. van Rijn
Evaluate two different PAC operations in combination with submerged ceramic MF membrane in
surface water treatment 86
Student: C. Yun

5 | Masters Theses November 2012


Phosphorus removal by ceramic tight ultra-filtration (CTUF) membrane for RO pre-treatment 87
Student: Z. Zeng
Farmers Strategies Coping with Water Shortage; 88
Student: B. Zhang
Struvite Crystallization and Separation in Digested Sludge 89
Student: W.J. de Buck

Transport & Planning


Measuring the influence of congested bottlenecks on the route choice behavior of pedestrians
at Utrecht Centraal 92
Student: H.A.W. Voskamp
A Framework for the Modelling and Ex-ante Evaluation of Coordinated Network Management 93
Student: X. Zhang
An Assessment Framework for the Speed Policy on Dutch Motorways 94
Student: J. Kuijvenhoven
Development of a prediction model for speed limit violations on tangent roadsections. 95
Student: M. Zamanov
Realised capacity estimation with use of
vertical queuing method 96
Student: M.J. Veenstra
Quality assessment of an urban traffic network 97
Student: T. Blanken
The Effect of Network Structure and Signal Settings on the Macroscopic Fundamental Diagram 98
Student: D. de Jong

Construction Management Engineering 99


Combining Early Contractor Involvement and Availability-Based Contracting in Complex Infrastructure Projects 100
Student: A. Beekers
Assessing the Benefits of Construction Site Data Management 101
Student: M.S. Moran
Applying the Supply-driven integrated design approach 102
Student: M.A. Moreno Sanchez

Last years Civil Engineering Theses 103


Masters Theses June 2012 104

Masters Theses March 2012 106

Masters Theses October 2011 108

Masters Theses June 2011 110

Masters Theses February 2011 112

Research groups and professors within the faculty of


Civil Engineering and Geosciences 114

6 | Masters Theses November 2012


Preface

Every four months we publish a collection of abstracts


of the theses produced by our recent Masters gradu-
ates. In this collection you will find the theses of
students who graduated in November 2012.

We train our students to be more than just communi-


cators of theoretical knowledge. We also teach them
to be critical, make thorough problem analyses and
take account of social contexts. We are convinced that
a combination of theoretical knowledge and practical
skills is needed to find effective solutions for social
problems.

The graduation project and associated thesis form


the culmination of our students degree programme.
In their graduation projects they examine a concrete
problem and are required to employ all the knowledge
they have gained during the previous years. By success-
fully completing this last step they have proven that
they deserve to carry the title of Master of Science and
that they are ready for the challenges of professional
practice.

In an age when the role and qualities of engineers are


subject to more and more critical scrutiny, our gradu-
ates are still being welcomed with open arms by the
labour market. They disperse to find jobs in various
industries and most of them are offered work almost
straight after their graduation. I see this as proof that
a demand exists for the knowledge and skills of our
graduates.

So it is with pride that I present you with this collection


of thesis abstracts. They demonstrate the high level
that our graduates have attained and the breadth of
the subject matter they have mastered. I would like to
thank all those colleagues who contributed to this work
with such energy and commitment.

I wish our graduates every success with their careers


and I trust that they will be just as enterprising in their
future roles as they were during their studies. I hope
that they continue to learn and create and keep testing
the boundaries of the civil engineering industry.

Professor B.M. Geerken


Dean of the Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences

7 | Masters Theses November 2012


8 | Masters Theses November 2012
What is the graduation
book exactly?
Masters Theses November contains summaries of the A Masters programme spans several different depart-
theses produced by various students who obtained ments, each of which corresponds to a specialisation
a Master of Science degree at the Delft University of within the programme in question. At the end of this
Technology. The students in question graduated in Civil book is a comprehensive list of specialisations, which
Engineering. includes the names of their respective professors.

The purpose of this publication is to inform profes-


sionals working in these fields about recent develop- The aim of the book
ments in teaching and research at the Faculty of Civil The main purpose of publishing these Masters theses
Engineering and Geosciences. In many cases, the is to ensure that the outside world is better informed
subject of the Masters thesis is based on a request about the research that is carried out at the Faculty
from professionals working in the field in question. In of Civil Engineering and Geosciences. It is also hoped
other cases, such individuals will collaborate in the real- that this book will enhance communication with
isation of a Masters thesis. Alternatively, the thesis may professionals working in this field, and help them to
be part of a wider research project within the depart- become better informed about the capacities of current
ment itself. The primary goal of the Masters thesis is graduates.
to round-off a students course of study at the TU, and
to enable them to graduate as a Master of Science. As Further details
the regulations stand, this requires an investment of 22 Contact the department in question if you require
to 26 weeks of study. The summary of every completed further details about one or more of the published
thesis is published in Masters Theses June 2012, summaries (the phone number is given at the end of
whether they are merely average or truly outstanding. each summary). A small charge is sometimes levied to
cover the costs of printing and posting a thesis. It is not
The books layout always possible for us to send complete theses by post.
The summaries of the various theses are published per It is possible to download the complete theses. The
Masters programme and specialisation: theses can be downloaded from:
www.citg.tudelft.nl/GraduationSummaries
The Civil Engineering Masters programme has seven
specialisations: Department of Education & Student Affairs
Structural Engineering 015-27 81199 / 81765
Building Engineering
Hydraulic Engineering Department of Marketing & Communication
COMEM Domain 015-27 84023
Geo-Engineering
Water Management Further information:
Transport & Planning Delft University of Technology
Construction Management and Engineering Faculty of CEG, Department of Communications
PO Box 5048
All of the summaries have a similar layout. Email the 2600 GA Delft
department in question if you require further details The Netherlands
about a specific thesis (the email address is given at the
end of each summary).

The section containing the new summaries is followed


by a comprehensive list of those produced last year. The
layout of these summaries reflects that of the previous
publications.

9 | Masters Theses November 2012


10 | Masters Theses November 2012
1.

Civil Engineering theses

Building Engineering
1 Building Engineering

A search for structural applications of


transparent plastics in the building industry

Transparent building appeals to imagination. The


availability of glass in all shapes and sizes is continu-
ously increasing; architects and engineers thankfully
make use of the given opportunities. But glass has also
some specific disadvantages, as its extreme brittle-
ness. Luckily more materials are available that offer the
desired transparency; transparent plastics might be a
promising addition to the world of transparent building.
Lack of information, their unusual characteristics and
scepticism about their suitability make that transparent
plastics are not yet an obvious choice for structural
building applications.

The transparent plastics that are considered most suit-


able for structural applications are Acrylic (PMMA) and
polycarbonate (PC). They possess very good mechanical
properties as strength and stiffness, compared to other
plastics. Thereby the creep and weathering resistance
of both materials is relatively high.
In this research the behaviour of these transparent Transparent plastics offer some promising possibilities
plastics is analysed and it is investigated whether and for building design but still a lot will have to be inves-
how the materials can be used in building structures, tigated further before transparent plastic load bearing
to further explore the dream of completely transparent structures can be realised.
buildings. For instance the improvement of detailing, the inves-
tigation of fire safety, buckling behaviour and the
Transparent plastics show some, for building materials, behaviour for a design life exceeding 20 years, which is
unusual characteristics, as thermoplastic and visco- now the limit by a lack of data. This will be a trajectory
elastic behaviour, special production techniques and a of years, but other materials have come that long road
very low ratio between Youngs modulus and strength. before.
This requires a different design approach. Once the plastics industry recognises the opportunities
of investing in this new product market the develop-
A case study is performed to get more feeling for ment of suitable building products, standard details and
the design with thermoplastics. To be able to use optimised material compositions will certainly progress
the freedom of shape and to explore the limits of the faster.
materials an observation tower is designed. An entirely
transparent tower, made completely from transparent Transparent plastics will probably never become a
plastics. threatening substitute for standard glazing applications,
The design demonstrates that it is technically the behaviour and suitable applications are incom-
possible to design building structures in acrylic and parable. But transparent plastics have the ability to
polycarbonate. become a worthy colleague to glass in the future and to
further extend the possibilities of transparent building.

Student: M. de Graaff
Thesis Committee: Prof.ir. R. Nijsse, Dr.ir. F.A. Veer, Ir. H.R. Schipper, Ir. R.M.J. Doomen

For further information, please contact the section of Building Engineering tel. 015 - 27 83990
Email: j.m.vanderschaaf@tudelft.nl

12 | Masters Theses November 2012


1 Building Engineering

The future of BIM and the construction industry

Giving insight into the future potential of BIM and to Results


determine the next steps for developing BIM for the Eventually a new system is introduced in which BIM
future construction industry takes on a certain role and contains the information of
the construction process. With a development plan an
Background interpretation is given to the use and implementation of
Many different parties are using BIM and apply it in all the future perspective and the development of BIM into
kinds of ways. For each project the potential applica- the new system. This development plan is divided into
tions of BIM are being determined. But there is not three phases with a number of steps. With an example
enough insight into which applications are useful in the a concrete interpretation is given.
future, how to apply these in projects and what steps
need to be taken to develop BIM for the upcoming
years.

The aim of this research is to provide insight into how


to apply BIM now and in the future of the Construction
Industry with a vision, and to describe the steps that
need to be taken in a development plan which should
lead to better support of the construction processes and
a reduction of the costs of failure.

Research
To explain what BIM is exactly first a definition is given
for BIM, BIMming and Virtual Construction. With the
use of a case study on the project A4 Delft Schiedam
and a literature study the current applications of BIM
and the use of these applications have been deter-
mined. Hereafter a perspective is described for the
future Construction Industry with the use of inter-
views with practitioners and key stakeholders from the
Construction Industry. This perspective gives vision
and direction for the development of the construc-
tion industry and the use of BIM for a longer period
of time. It gives an answer to the question what to
develop and why. The current problems of the construc-
tion industry and the current use of BIM are taken into
account together with the major themes and the current
developments.

Student: R. Legierse
Thesis Committee: Prof.dr.ir. H.A.J. de Ridder, Dr.ir. C.A. van Nederveen, Ir. R. Schipper, Ir. V.H.A. de Waal

For further information, please contact the section of Building Engineering tel. 015 - 27 83990
Email: j.m.vanderschaaf@tudelft.nl

13 | Masters Theses November 2012


2.

Civil Engineering theses

Structural Engineering
2 Structural Engineering

Design and modelling of cooling water intake


risers for deep ocean applications

Shell is currently developing the first Floating Liquefied In practice there is little experience with applica-
Natural Gas (FLNG) facility in the world. It will be tion of long free-hanging water intake risers. It is not
located 200 kilometres off Australias north-west coast yet proven that the WIR design for the Prelude FLNG
at the Prelude gas field with a water depth of approxi- facility can be increased in length without major design
mately 250 m. It will be used to receive, process, modifications and applied at deeper fields. Analysis of
liquefy and store natural gas and load it onto LNG interacting risers in a bundle is not straightforward.
carriers, so that the liquefied gas can be transported The objective of this MSc thesis is therefore to develop
directly to the market instead of going via the main- feasible concepts for the water intake risers that can
land. Eight water intake risers (WIRs) of 150 m length be applied at deepwater FLNG facilities, select the best
are bundled together and deliver around 50,000 m 3/h concept and build a numerical model to predict the
of cold seawater to help cool the gas. A certain mutual behaviour of interacting risers that are closely spaced
distance between the risers is assured by so-called together in a bundle.
spacers. A sketch of the WIR bundle is seen in the
Figure. Conceptual designs of 300 m long WIRs were developed
considering different materials: a steel riser, a steel
For the development of other Shell gas riser with a hinge somewhere along its length, a rubber
fields, with larger water depths, there riser and a riser with a steel upper part and a rubber
is potential to use similar facilities. lower part. These risers can be free hanging on the side
Extension of the cooling water intake of the vessel or applied in one or more bundles. From
risers to 300 m at the deeper locations these concepts, a bundle of eight steel water intake
can increase the LNG production signifi- risers with an outer diameter of 42 surrounding a
cantly, since water from larger depths is structural riser is selected as the best concept for 300 m
colder. long water intake risers.

A new numerical model is successfully built to predict


the behaviour of interacting risers that are closely
spaced together in a bundle. With this model it is
determined that a minimum of four spacers is required
along a riser bundle of 300 m length to assure a proper
distance between the risers and make sure that the
risers move with the same shape rather than individu-
ally. Also the optimum distribution of the spacers along
the risers is found.

Sketch of the steel WIR bundle for


Prelude FLNG. Spacers keep the risers
in the bundle at a certain distance from
each other (Kuiper & Efthymiou, 2011)

Student: R. van Vliet


Thesis Committee: Prof.dr. A.V. Metrikine, Ir. H. Hendrikse, Ir. N.F.B. Diepeveen, Dr. M.M. Efthymiou,
Dr.ir. G.L. Kuiper,I r. L.J.M. Houben

For further information, please contact the section of Structural Engineering tel. 015-2784578
Email: l.j.m.houben@tudelft.nl

16 | Masters Theses November 2012


2 Structural Engineering

Shear Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Slabs


under Line and Wheel Load Close to the Support

For more than a century, the shear capacity of beams,


deep beams and slabs has been under theoretical and
experimental research. Through these investigations, no
accurate shear failure mechanism is developed for this
phenomenon. One of the explanations for this result is
that the behaviour of these members depends on more
than twenty parameters. Delft University of Technology
extends this research by investigation the behaviour of
concrete slabs under a load combination. The hypoth-
esis is that superposition of loads is possible on rein-
forced concrete slabs. To investigate the hypothesis,
experiments are done with a line load and a concen-
trated load close to the support.

Based on the previous series of experiments, with


only a concentrated load close to the support, it is
found that the hypothesis of superposition is true. The
experimental results show a large margin of capacity
as compared to the values calculated according to the
national and international codes. Although the national
and international standards are based on lower-bound
theories, they are conservative. The shear capacity of
reinforced concrete slabs depends also on the effective
width, which is not included in most of the standards.

As a last step in this research, the experimental results


are analysed with the use of TNO diana. The reinforced
concrete slabs are modelled as a three-dimensional
problem with non-linear finite elements. In this case the
finite element models are analysed with the modified
Newton-Raphson method. Typically, non-linear finite
element models, which are analysed with the Newton- To investigate the convergence and behaviour of the
Raphson method, have convergence problems. In this reinforced concrete slab, the most important param-
research the same convergence problem was discov- eters are varied. Although the spring stiffness and the
ered, but also the load-displacement curve has no accu- shear retention factor had a larger influence on the
rate approximation in comparison with the experiment. behaviour, the convergence problem disappeared when
tension stiffening instead of tension softening was used.
Usually, the finite element models give an accurate
approximation in relation to the experiments. In this
case there is no clear failure mechanism visible, so the
shear behaviour of reinforced concrete slabs remains
under investigation.

Student: P.H.A. van Hemert


Thesis Committee: Prof.dr.ir. J.C. Walraven, Dr.ir. C. van der Veen, Dr.ir. M.A.N. Hendriks, Ir. E.O.L. Lantsoght,
Ir. L.J.M. Houben

For further information, please contact the section of Structural Engineering tel. 015-2784578
Email: l.j.m.houben@tudelft.nl

17 | Masters Theses November 2012


2 Structural Engineering

The transition between one-way shear and


punching shear

Introduction
In the past century many research has been done on
the problem of shear failure. Recently the behavior
of one-way spanning concrete slabs subjected to a
concentrated load close to the support was investigated
at Delft University of Technology. Experimental data has
been analyzed to monitor the transition from one-way
shear to punching shear.

Problem definition
During the experiments the following questions arose:
Will in such a situation one-way shear failure or
punching shear failure occur and is it possible to predict
this? Do the various building codes (NEN6720, Eurocode
2, ACI 318, Model Code 2010) provide safe results for
these situations?

Research
As the distance from the concentrated load to the Conclusions and recommendations
support increases, the failure mechanism of the slab Investigating the experiments, building codes and
will change from one-way shear to punching shear. In finite element models resulted in some interesting
the thesis it is investigated how the width of the slab conclusions:
and the shear span influence the failure mechanism. It is possible to predict the occurring shear failure
The investigation is done by using experimental data mechanism by using the finite element model or by
from tests and analyzing the failure mechanisms. A fine using the graph.
element model has been made to model two tests. One To provide a more thorough classification model,
test failed in one-way shear and the other test failed more parameters that influence the failure load and
in punching shear. After the two boundary situations failure mechanism have to be investigated.
were successfully simulated with the model, it was The shear retention factor, used in the finite element
possible to investigate the transition between the two model, was fitted by using the experimental data.
failure mechanisms. By varying the shear span and It is recommended to find an average value for the
the element width the investigation was done. Various shear retention factor that can be used in more
important building codes on shear are also applied to general cases. In this way it would also be possible
the tested slabs. to predict the failure load more accurate.
If the principle of effective width is to be applied in
Results the building codes the value needs to be limited. As
The investigation resulted in a graph consisting of three the shear span increases, the effective width and
different areas representing three separate cases of therefore the shear capacity increases. Experimental
shear failure, each with their own range of element data contradicts this behavior.
width and shear span. Applying the various building
codes on the tested slabs also resulted in some impor-
tant findings.

Student: J. Doorgeest
Thesis Committee: Prof.dr.ir. J.C. Walraven, Dr.ir. M.A.N. Hendriks, Dr.ir. C. van der Veen, Ir. E.O.L. Lantsoght,
Ir. L.J.M. Houben

For further information, please contact the section of Structural Engineering tel. 015-2784578
Email: l.j.m.houben@tudelft.nl

18 | Masters Theses November 2012


2 Structural Engineering

Experimental determination of bearing capacity


of transversely prestressed concrete deck slabs

In the Netherlands traffic has grown rapidly over Two analytical methods are used to calculate the
the years. The codes which were used to design the bearing capacity of the slabs. Although these methods
structures did not take into account the high values of have not been validated with a lot of tests, the results
todays traffic. Therefore Rijkswaterstaat started doing are promising. Especially in comparison with Eurocode
research on all structures built before 1975. 2, the methods give results which are 7 to 9 times
One of the investigated structures is the Van higher.
Brienenoord bridge. The bridge deck consists of During the finite element analysis it is demonstrated
prestressed girders with a transversely prestressed that the transverse prestressing level influences the
concrete slab between them. During the review of the bearing capacity of the slabs. The occurrence of a
old structures it was found that according to the current compression arch is clearly visible when the strains
codes the Van Brienenoord bridge does not meet the are examined. Also the behaviour of the slabs changes
requirements for structural safety. Although the bridge when the level is adapted. The first moment of cracking
is loaded beyond its calculated capacity, it still is in a delays when the prestressing level increases.
good condition. Explanation for this is the occurring
phenomenon of compressive membrane action. A very important parameter of the experiment is the
skewness of the interface. When the forces of the skew
Some countries have incorporated compressive interface are decomposed, an extra vertical force loads
membrane action into their codes for the design of the slabs. The extra loading results in a lower capacity
structures by an empirical method. However, these of the interface. The investigation of this parameter via
codes do not take into account the presence of trans- finite element analysis demonstrates that the capacity
verse prestressing in the slabs. The issue with the of the skew interface is considerably lower than the
Van Brienenoord bridge is the relative slenderness of capacity of a straight interface.
the concrete slab, the span to depth ratio is high. The When the failure loads during the experiment reach
foreign design codes set a limit on the slenderness of the values of the prediction in this thesis, the Van
a slab in order to make use of the code. Because this Brienenoord bridge will meet the requirements of struc-
requirement is not met, the codes assume that the tural safety. This is demonstrated by scaling back to
occurring amount of compressive membrane action the dimensions of the bridge. Add to this the increased
is too little to take into account as beneficial for the concrete quality due to ongoing hydration and then the
bearing capacity. However, the bearing capacity is capacity increases even more. That would mean that
increased by the presence of transverse prestressing. strengthening the bridge is not necessary yet.
So the exact bearing capacity of the slender trans-
versely prestressed slab remains unknown.
This project includes a design of scale model which
represents the properties of the Van Brienenoord
bridge, where the effect of the transverse prestressing
on the amount of compressive membrane action can
be investigated. Also the bearing capacity of the slabs
is predicted via analytical methods and finite element
analysis.

Student: M.W.J. Vugts


Thesis Committee: Prof.dr.ir. J.C. Walraven, Dr.ir. C. van der Veen, Ir. S. Amir, Dr.ir. M.A.N. Hendriks,
Dr.ir. A. de Boer, Ir. L.J.M. Houben

For further information, please contact the section of Structural Engineering tel. 015-2784578
Email: l.j.m.houben@tudelft.nl

19 | Masters Theses November 2012


2 Structural Engineering

Three-dimensional numerical analysis of


tunnelling induced settlements.
The influence of masonry building geometry and location

Recent tunnelling projects have received a great according to the system of Burland et al. (1977).
amount of media attention due to settlement induced An average trend in the damage classification indicates
damage. Due to the simplified approach of existing the sensitivity to tunnelling induced settlements of the
risk assessment methods, a new assessment system parameters. Both during and after tunnelling, a position
is under development, which can account for three- of the building in the combined settlement profile is the
dimensional structural aspects of buildings. The aim of most sensitive to differential settlements. Buildings far
this study is to investigate the influence of the position away from the tunnelling axis generally obtain no more
and geometry of masonry buildings on the development than slight damage. Structures with a low aspect-ratio
of damage, while undergoing tunnelling induced settle- seem on average to obtain equal amounts of damage
ments. In line with previous research, three-dimen- as buildings with an aspect-ratio of 1. Structures with
sional finite element analyses are used as a tool to a higher aspect-ratio are less affected, both during and
perform a parametric study. The results of this research after tunnelling.
are twofold. There are the results of a numerical Grouping of the buildings seems to be an influential
robustness study and the parametric study itself, which parameter. Small isolated buildings obtain far less
express building characteristics in a certain vulnerability damage than large or grouped buildings. In relation to
to tunnelling induced settlements. the numerical analyses, the empirical Limiting Tensile
The results of the first section indicate that at least 20 Strain Method (LTSM) seems to overestimate the
load steps are required to obtain a numerically stable damage for an isolated small building, but underesti-
model with the default force convergence norm. Similar mate the damage in large or grouped buildings.
results can be obtained with a norm 1000 times stricter For buildings in the sagging zone, a building with a low
combined with 10 load steps. angle is the least sensitive to differential settlement,
while the maximum measured crack width increases by
The parametric study consists of an evaluation of the increasing the angle. The difference in maximum crack
parameters position, aspect-ratio, grouping and orien- width can grow to a factor 3. A building in the combined
tation. The position parameter is divided into three settlement profile or in the hogging zone displays
characteristics: the sagging zone, a combined settle- opposite behaviour. Cases with low orientation angles
ment profile and the hogging zone. The aspect-ratio are the most susceptible to damage, while increasing
parameter is also divided into three characteristics: the angle to 90 degrees lowers the maximum measured
shallow buildings, square buildings and deep buildings. crack width. The difference in results can grow up to a
The grouping effect parameter also distinguishes three factor 2-3.
characteristics: small and
large isolated buildings
and grouped buildings.
The orientation parameter
includes seven different
increasing angles of the
building main axis with
respect to the tunnelling
axis. The maximum meas-
ured crack width in the
buildings gives input for a
classification of damage,

Student: J.M.J. Kappen


Thesis Committee: Prof.dr.ir. J.G. Rots, Dr.ir. M.A.N. Hendriks, Ir. G. Giardina, Ir. S. Pasterkamp, Ir. L.J.M. Houben

For further information, please contact the section of Structural Engineering tel. 015-2784578
Email: l.j.m.houben@tudelft.nl

20 | Masters Theses November 2012


2 Structural Engineering

Characterisation, non-destructive detection


and strength of compression failures in tropical
hardwood

Timber intended for structural applications must be free In order to answer this question, first CFs were char-
of compression failures (CFs). CFs are defects in the acterised and non-destructive detection methods were
wood structure, which can affect more than half of the investigated on four hardwood species. Secondly,
stems cross section. It is important to detect CFs when 4-point bending tests were carried out on samples with
timber is strength graded and assigned to a strength and without CFs to determine the reducing effect of
class. Certain national standards for timber grading do CFs on bending strength (MoR). The MoR of samples
not allow the presence of CFs because CFs reduce the containing CFs can be predicted using several non-
timber strength. Timber with CFs often shows brittle destructive manners:
failure when loaded in bending and fails without any 1. By pre-selecting timber which has a very low dynamic
prior warnings. modulus of elasticity (Edyn).
On rough sawn surfaces of tropical hardwood timber, 2. By visual inspection on planed surfaces using CFs
CFs sometimes are very difficult if not impossible to which are carefully inspected and measured. These
detect with the naked eye. Non-destructive detec- CFs sizes were used in a multiple linear regression
tion methods capable of detecting CFs do not exist yet model. With this model a reliable indication of MoR
on industrial level. A reliable detection method and for samples with and without CFs can be obtained.
methodology, for both less visible and non-visible CFs, 3. By scanning timber using computed tomography
is needed in order to fulfil the requirements of visual based on X-rays (3D CT-scanning) or by using ultra-
strength grading rules and to establish a relationship sound transmission (C-scanning).
between the presence and characteristics of CFs and
the corresponding bending strength of timber.
Therefore, the main question of this master thesis was:
How can the bending strength be predicted of sawn
tropical hardwood containing visually detectable
CFs?

Student: H.P. Kuisch


Thesis Committee: Prof.dr.ir. J.W.G. van de Kuilen, Drs. W.F. Gard, Ir. G.J.P. Ravenshorst, Ing.W. Verwaal,
Ir. E.P.J. Beckers, Ir. L.J.M. Houben

For further information, please contact the section of Structural Engineering tel. 015-2784578
Email: l.j.m.houben@tudelft.nl

21 | Masters Theses November 2012


2 Structural Engineering

Soil-structure interaction modelling in


performance-based seismic jetty design

The importance of soil structure interaction in seismic Subsequently the focus is shifted towards free field
design of structures is recognized by the modern dynamic analysis of soil deposit for vertically propa-
seismic design community that is very much moving gating shear waves, because of its importance for
towards performance based design principles. seismic analysis of deep foundations. Both linear and
Particularly for structures with deep foundations in soft nonlinear finite element modelling are performed
soil conditions, soil-structure interaction is recognized and compared to equivalent linear frequency domain
to be an important factor that has to be considered analysis solutions for layered soils. The conclusions
in design. Jetty structures obviously are such struc- drawn from this phase are important input for the jetty
tures. On the contrary, seismic design standards do dynamic analysis.
hardly provide any straight forward tools for engineers
to account for soil-structure interaction in design. It Then the seismic jetty response was calculated along
is clear that a problem exists, which has initiated this the different methods. First by means of simplified
study. dynamic analysis and then by both uncoupled and
coupled dynamic analysis. Based on the results recom-
In the first phase of the study a literature review is mendations are proposed regarding the importance of
conducted, where important developments relating to soil-structure interaction for future jetty projects and
performance based seismic jetty design and soil-struc- how it should be accounted for, where both methods
ture interaction are collected. Based on this literature performance as well practical issues are taken into
review three suitable design approaches are found for consideration.
jetty structure design, being simplified dynamic analysis
(pushover + response spectrum), uncoupled dynamic
analysis and coupled dynamic analysis.
Then the second phase of the study is geared towards
static pile-soil interaction and pushover analysis of
single piles and jetty structures by modelling the soil
as a conventional Winkler foundation or by performing
more advanced hardening soil finite element analysis.
Proper selection of clay parameters for the hardening
soil model hereby is a critical step in order to be able to
verify p-y expressions. After calibration of Winkler foun-
dations for single piles, related issues like pile group
effects are studied by means of finite element pushover
analysis and subsequently p-multipliers for these effects
can be defined for dynamic jetty analysis.

Student: F. Besseling
Thesis Committee: Prof.ir. A.C.W.M. Vrouwenvelder, Prof.dr. A.V. Metrikine, Dr.ir. R.B.J. Brinkgreve,
Ir. H.J. Lengkeek, Ir. L.J.M. Houben

For further information, please contact the section of Structural Engineering tel. 015-2784578
Email: l.j.m.houben@tudelft.nl

22 | Masters Theses November 2012


2 Structural Engineering

Feasibility study for a standard viaduct

Introduction Research and result


In the past clients decided the design of viaducts. In the Netherlands two types of viaducts are used:
Nowadays the contractors get a lot more responsi- viaducts with prefabricated beams in the deck and
bility. They must design and execute the viaducts and, viaducts with a cast in situ deck. With a multicriteria
depending on the contract, also finance and maintain analysis it is concluded that prefabrication is the best
the viaduct for a certain period in the service stage. method to build the deck. Within the collection of
Both the client and contractor want to finalize a project prefabricated beams the study showed that the solid
quickly. The design of traffic viaducts with two spans is deck beam can be used till spans of 16 m and after that
the main focus of the thesis. The research was done at the box girders until 60 m. With the box girders the
BAM Infraconsult in Gouda, The Netherlands. deck can be erected fast. The Nosing joint is the best
expansion which can be used and lasts for 40 years. In
Problem definition the abutment it is always possible to use 2 pile rows for
All viaducts have the same goal: cross another road the foundation. In this way it is possible to make a good
by a bridge type structure. Still the viaducts have estimation of the deck length. In the future the possi-
another shape and are buildup of different elements. bility will be checked to get benefits from this standard
If the viaducts have the same function, the question abutment. Prefabrication or a special formwork can be
is whether it is possible to use a standard viaduct and some options.
with this optimize the design phase of these structures.
With this as the main goal the search for this optimiza- For the design phase a flow chart is made to make the
tion was started. right choice for viaducts with two spans by using the
different standardized elements. With the flow chart it
is possible to quickly make choices for the deck, expan-
sion joints and the foundations. The piers and the edge
of the deck have not been standardized. In this way
every viaduct can have another (esthetic) look, while
the basis is uniform.

Conclusions and recommendations


It is possible to limit the time of the design phase by
using a standard viaduct. By summarizing the design
phase in a flow chart, it is possible to make the first
choices quickly and after that make some design
calculations.
It is recommended to use the flow chart for practical
projects to determine if it is an effective tool. If needed,
the flow chart should be optimized.

Student: A. Gangaram-Panday
Thesis Committee: Prof.ir. A.Q.C. van der Horst, Dr.ir. C. van der Veen, Dr. M.H. Kolstein, Ing. C. J. vander Zwaard,
Ir. L.J.M. Houben

For further information, please contact the section of Structural Engineering tel. 015-2784578
Email: l.j.m.houben@tudelft.nl

23 | Masters Theses November 2012


2 Structural Engineering

Feasibility study on fiber reinforced polymer


cylindrical truss bridges for heavy traffic

Considering the recent increase in the use of fiber resistance and thereby providing a fire resistance class
reinforced polymers in the civil engineering industry of R30 for hydrocarbon fire curve loading. The initial
in general and in the bridge engineering industry in shape of the bridge was optimized in three stages: first
particular, as well as the recently more and more applied several different truss topologies, which were derived
cylindrical truss bridge type, this research focuses on the with a parametric geometric model, were analyzed and
question whether it is possible to combine fiber rein- compared using finite element analysis software, yielding
forced polymers as stand-alone structural material and the square truss with one diagonal as most efficient
this bridge type to construct a bridge suitable for heavy topology. In the next steps several grid sizes of this
traffic as well as bicycle and pedestrian traffic. truss as well as several cross section dimensions were
This research combines an extensive literature study on compared, again using finite element analysis software.
the use of fiber reinforced polymers for bridge engi- An optimum was found between minimum material usage
neering with a theoretical feasibility- and design-study and minimum deflection, which reduced the material
on fiber reinforced polymer cylindrical truss bridges for usage of the main load bearing elliptical truss by about
heavy traffic. 40% compared to the initial variant. The optimized
structure was then fitted with the inner bridge deck
During the design study the spatial needs of all bridge supporting trusses as well as the cantilever trusses. The
users were defined to obtain an initial shape of the elliptical truss bridge performed very well considering the
bridge. This shape was then optimized in several steps maximum deflections and stresses under Eurocode design
using finite-element-modeling and -analysis, yielding a loads and load combinations that were derived in finite
final shape of the bridge. The behavior of this structure element modeling software. When comparing the full-FRP
under design loads was then extensively investigated, bridge design with similar, existing steel structures, the
again using finite element analysis, showing that the maximum deformations and stresses were considerably
bridge could very well meet the self-derived deflection lower for the full-FRP bridge while only weighing about
limit for fiber reinforced polymers at relatively low stress 60% of the steel structure.
levels. Since fiber reinforced materials are a very diverse This research showed that the new cylindrical truss
field of material, with hundreds of different composi- bridge type is not only an aesthetically appealing struc-
tions being available, the first result of this study was ture but also performs structurally very well when
the choice of a suitable composite for further analysis. combined with fiber reinforced polymer as structural
For this bridge design very high fiber content (>60%) material. It turned out that fiber reinforced polymers can
carbon/epoxy composite was used. The main reason for be used as stand-alone structural material for medium
this choice was the high modulus and -strength of the span heavy traffic bridges. Next to that, this research
carbon fibers and the high durability and strength of the clarified that there is no legitimate structural reason for
epoxy resin. A major reason of the slow implementation the fact that fiber reinforced polymers are used relatively
of fiber reinforced polymers in the bridge engineering scarcely in the civil engineering- and bridge engineering
industry are the worries concerning the lack of fire safety industry compared to traditional building materials such
of the material. The literature study of this research as steel and concrete. Since this research is one of the
showed however that it is possible to construct a heavy first researches of its kind, using FRP as stand-alone
traffic full-FRP truss bridge, while complying with the structural material for a relatively new and complex
known fire safety standards. bridge type, more research is needed in the field of high
order connections for fiber reinforced polymer circular
The virgin FRP material can be adapted by several hollow sections. Next to that the possibility of the use of
fire-protection measures; it turned out that a combina- differently sized and shaped cross sections for the truss
tion of intumescent gel-coating and low volume phos- members should be investigated.
phorous filler systems works best in increasing the fire

Student: M. Chlosta
Thesis Committee: Prof.ir. F.S.K. Bijlaard, Dr. M.H. Kolstein, A.De Boer, Dr.ir. M.A.N. Hendriks,

For further information, please contact the section of Structural Engineering tel. 015-2784578
Email: l.j.m.houben@tudelft.nl

24 | Masters Theses November 2012


2 Structural Engineering

Optimal Design of a module structure


with sheeting

The master thesis work was carried out at Delft Then three plate topologies were investigated in the
University of Technology with a contract with Chicago thesis work, individually stiffened flat panel, corru-
Bridge and Iron B.V. (CB&I). The project is focused on gated plate, and composite sandwich panel. They were
an optimal design of a steel structure with sheeting. A modeled in STAAD PRO with adjacent frames. The
comparative analysis is made among different alter- critical load was applied on the local plate model to
native sheeting types. The structural behavior of the check the capacity. The local plates were adjusted a
sheeting is investigated first. Based on the total invest- lot of times to obtain satisfactory results. Every plate
ment cost analysis, a recommendation for the optimal topology is comparable with each other under the same
design is given. structural performance.
A literature review has been undertaken firstly After determining the final configuration of the three
regarding the current module structure design. plates, the total investment costs of the structure were
Specific design criteria of the module used by CB&I esimated. The sandwich panel can reduce most weight
are described. Possible sheeting configurations are (13%) and the corrugated plates can save most money
proposed and investigated in detail. The stressed skin (15%).
design concept is introduced in the frame structure The general information in the thesis provides guidance
design. A comparison is made between the conven- to the enclosed module design in practice using the
tional design and the stressed skin design concept. stressed skin design. Detailed design aspects are simply
Furthermore, a total investment cost analysis is carried mentioned and further in-depth research is needed for
out which is the chosen criteria for the final structure practical use.
type.
A substation module was taken as a study case. A
conventional beam and column module was built in
STAAD PRO. The optimized plate model was built up
using the stressed skin concept. The global models are
optimized by dozens of attempts and the final configu-
rations meet all the design criteria. By investigating the
global model, the critical load case on the structure was
found.

Student: J. Xu
Thesis Committee: Prof.ir. F.S.K. Bijlaard, Prof.ir. C.A. Willemse, Dr.ir. M.A.N. Hendriks, Ir. R. Abspoel,
Ing. G. Langerak, Ir. L.J.M. Houben

For further information, please contact the section of Structural Engineering tel. 015-2784578
Email: l.j.m.houben@tudelft.nl

25 | Masters Theses November 2012


2 Structural Engineering

Use of high strength steel grades for economical


bridge design

Introduction for design of connections and further optimization.


In Europe S355 is mainly the steel grade used for Finally, hybrid (S690 and S355) and homogeneous
bridge design. Moreover, higher steel grades (e.g. S690) (only S355) truss bridge design alternatives both
exhibiting improved material properties (e.g. higher with (RHS) and circular hollow sections (CHS) have
strength, improved toughness, excellent forming and been developed and compared on a (total) costs
welding properties) are also available for more than basis.
three decades already but their use is quite limited. This
study has been done in cooperation with Iv-Infra with
the scope to investigate the use of higher steels grades
(mainly S690) in steel bridges.

Problem definition
In contrast to US and Japan, in Europe the market
demand for high strength steels (HSS) is restricted
mainly due to lack of design codes and long term
experience, which results in an extremely high price for
these steel grades in comparison to mild steels (e.g.
in the Netherlands S460 and S690 are 40% and 75%,
respectively, more expensive than S355). In addition, Final hybrid truss design alternatives for the
HSS offers significant cost benefits due to reduced cross Schellingwouderbrug
sectional dimensions and steel weight mainly when
strength is the governing design criterion. However, in Results
case of bridges other factors may govern namely fatigue Hybrid designs show significant steel weight reduc-
and/or stability. Therefore, it is customary to consider tion (even 65% for hybrid truss bridge design with
that in these cases HSS can offer no (cost) benefits for RHS members) in comparison to their equivalents all
bridges. in S355 designs.
For the truss bridge with RHS the fatigue behavior of
Research the joints has been proven insufficient. Thus alterna-
The aim of this thesis project is to present potential tive design with gusset plates has been proposed.
advantages that high strength steels (HSS) have to The arch bridge design is governed by fatigue
offer in case of bridges but also possible disadvantages stresses mainly due to high bending moments in the
and ways of improvement. In order to achieve that the main girders, thus application of HSS S690 would not
research has been divided in two main parts: lead in an economical design.
1. Initially a literature survey has been performed
with respect to high strength steel material focused Conclusions/reccomendations
mainly on steel grades up to S700 in Q&T quality. The results from literature and trial bridge designs
Later on several preliminary bridge designs (i.e. for a long span bridge clearly indicate that despite
global calculations for a box girder, a truss girder the currently high price of HSS the steel weight and
and an arch bridge with respect to strength, fatigue, construction costs can be reduced with the increase of
stability and HSS S690) for a single span (L= 105 steel strength. Fatigue and stability may influence the
m) bridge in the Netherlands (Schellingwouderbrug) choice of the bridge type and design of connections.
have been developed. Fatigue behavior of HSS connections requires further
2. Based on results from part 1, a truss bridge design research.
with rectangular hollow sections (RHS) was chosen

Student: E. Gogou
Thesis Committee: Prof.ir. F.S.K Bijlaard, Dr. M.H. Kolstein, Dr.ir. P.C.J. Hoogenboom, Ir. W.P.J. Langedijk,
Ir. L.J.M. Houben

For further information, please contact the section of Structural Engineering tel. 015-2784578
Email: l.j.m.houben@tudelft.nl

26 | Masters Theses November 2012


2 Structural Engineering

Human error in structural engineering


The design of a human reliability assessment method for structural
engineering

In the recent past a number of buildings collapsed in method. The extended method is labour intensive and
the Netherlands under apparent normal circumstances. requires quite some knowledge concerning human
The causes of these failures are predominantly human factors. The simplified method requires considerate less
error within the design or construction of the building. efforts and knowledge, however this method is only
Examples of this are the collapse of five balconies of applicable for standard design tasks.
an apartment building in Maastricht in 2003, and the
partial collapse of a roof structure under construction The third step is to combine the individual task prob-
of a football stadium in Enschede in 2012. Based on ability distributions to obtain an overall probability
these developments it is of importance to investigate distribution of the element strength due to errors in the
the current building practice concerning the occurrence process (Design Simulation). For this, a Monte Carlo
of human error. The objective of this research is to simulation procedure is proposed. Within this simulation
investigate the effect of human error within the design process, each design task is modelled with an algorithm
process on the reliability of building structures. Based which models the design task at hand and the occur-
on this, the following research question is defined: rence of failure. Furthermore design control is modelled
What are the consequences of human error within the as well in order to investigate the proposed scenarios.
design process on the structural reliability of a typical
building structure? The last step in the model is to determine the proba-
bility of failure of the engineered structure (Probabilistic
The research question is answered by proposing a Analysis). For this a probabilistic analysis method based
Human Reliability Assessment (HRA) method and subse- on plastic limit state analysis is proposed. The overall
quently analyse the effect of selected human actions probability distributions found in step three, combined
within the design process. The HRA model is developed with probabilistic loading conditions are used to deter-
for specific use within engineering tasks and encom- mine the structural failure probability.
passes four basic steps: Qualitative Analysis, Human
Error Quantification, Design Simulation and Probabilistic From the case study it can be concluded that the
Analysis. statically determined beam element is slightly more
The first step in the HRA model is to define the process susceptible to structural failure. Within both structural
of interest and its boundaries (Qualitative Analysis). types (statically determined and undetermined beam
The selected process is a structural design process of a elements), the influence of design experience on the
beam element within a common office building. Within structural failure is limited, while the effect of normal
the analysis two beam types are considered: a stati- supervision is somewhat higher. It should be noted
cally determined beam element and a statically unde- that these results are based on a simple case study,
termined beam element. Furthermore two scenarios for selecting a more complicated case study will probably
specific analysis are selected: the level of professional lead to somewhat other results. Nevertheless, it can
knowledge and the level of design control. be concluded that the proposed HRA model has the
potential to quantify the effect of human error within
The second step within the HRA method is to quantify carefully defined boundary conditions. However further
the probability of failure within an individual design research is required to increase the accuracy of the
task (Human Error Quantification). This probability model and its practical use.
of failure is represented by a probability distribu-
tion function expressed by two parameters: a Human
Error Probability (HEP) and an Error Magnitude (EM).
The procedure for determining HEPs consists of two
methods: a basic HEP method and an extended HEP

Student: J. de Haan
Thesis Committee: Prof.ir. A.C.W.M. Vrouwenvelder, Dr.ir. P.C.J. Hoogenboom, Ir. K.C. Terwel, Ir. A. Rolvink,
Ir. L.J.M. Houben

For further information, please contact the section of Structural Engineering tel. 015-2784578
Email: l.j.m.houben@tudelft.nl

27 | Masters Theses November 2012


2 Structural Engineering

Pile Penetration Simulation with


Material Point Method

The pile penetration process involves extreme defor- Because an MPM analysis is computationally more
mation of soil around the penetration region, causing expensive than FEM, a mesh-relaxation technique has
a mesh distortion problem if the conventional finite been proposed to couple the MPM and FEM analyses.
element method (FEM) is used. The material point Contact algorithms between the pile and the soil are
method (MPM) meanwhile has been successfully used carried out by using inherent no-slip contact in MPM
in analysing some engineering problems involving and a level-set-based sliding contact algorithm.
large deformation without the issue of mesh distortion. Finally, the implementation is used to simulate the
However, MPM generates numerical noise in the calcula- pile penetration process in two dimensional and three
tion of stresses when material points cross element dimensional models.
boundaries due to the discontinuity of the gradient of
the shape functions.
To solve this noise issue, the Dual Domain Material
Point (DDMP) is used. DDMP introduces a modi-
fied gradient of the shape function by combining the
continuous gradient of the shape functions and the
conventional ones. In this study, the application of
DDMP is further extended within an implicit scheme by
formulating the consistent tangent system. In addition,
the weight function of DDMP is modified to improve its
performance in the Newton procedure.

Pile penetration of a 3D Model

Student: L.J. Lim


Thesis Committee: Prof.dr.ir L.J. Sluys, Dr.ir. R.B.J. Brinkgreve, Dr. P.J. Vardon, Dr.ir. A. Andreykiv,
Ir. L.J.M. Houben

For further information, please contact the section of Structural Engineering tel. 015-2784578
Email: l.j.m.houben@tudelft.nl

28 | Masters Theses November 2012


2 Structural Engineering

Variant studie Spoorbrug in vvUHSB.

In deze thesis wordt onderzocht in hoeverre de of andere versterkende effecten op de verplaatsing,


toepassing van vvUHSB voordelen heeft ten opzicht van als gevolg van herhaaldelijke belasting. Dit bevestigt
de traditionele materialen en op welke wijze vvUHSB de bepaling in de NEN-EN 1991-2 waarin de gevoelig-
kan worden toegepast in combinatie met de huidige heid voor dynamische effecten wordt gekoppeld aan de
geldende NEN-EN normen. Deze thesis is opgedeeld in initile verplaatsing als gevolg van het eigen gewicht.
een tweetal delen, waarbij in het theoretische kader Beide toetsingen geven dus aan dat het risico van
een opzet wordt gemaakt welke facetten belangrijk de dynamische effecten niet van toepassing is bij de
kunnen zijn voor het ontwerpen in vvUHSB. Hierin ontwerpsnelheid van vmax=160 km/h.
wordt met name de krachtswerking, loadmodellen,
materiaal-eigenschappen en andere aandachtspunten Bij herhaaldelijke belastingen op een constructie zal
toegelicht. Naast de optimalisaties die binnen de er direct moeten worden gedacht aan de effecten van
bestaande NEN-EN normen vallen, wordt er in de thesis vermoeiing. Hoewel dit tot op heden over het algemeen
een variant op partile voorspanning toegelicht. geen bepalende factor was, dient er bij het steeds
slanker en lichter worden van de constructie steeds
meer rekening te worden gehouden met de vermoeiing
van het materiaal in de constructie. In deze thesis is
het ontwerp dat voort is gekomen uit de optimalisaties,
getoetst op de vermoeiingscapaciteit.

Hierbij komt naar voren dat de benadering zoals


opgesteld in de NEN-EN 1992-2 niet aansluit bij de
toepassing van vvUHSB in de praktijk. Als gevolg van
een conservatieve benadering van de vermoeiingsterkte
zal de constructie niet voldoen aan de eisen. De lage
vermoeiingssterkte is het gevolg van de beperkingen
van de NEN-EN 1992-2. Deze is opgesteld voor de
toepassing van betonmengsels met een lagere capac-
iteit, en andere eigenschappen.

Echter door experimentele onderzoeken te koppelen


aan de bestaande normen is het mogelijk om een
bevredigend resultaat te behalen. Door middel van de
Hannover-benadering is de vermoeiingssterkte van
vvUHSB te bepalen, waardoor de vermoeiingstoets
gunstiger uitkomt.
Hierbij wordt de eigen treksterkte van het materiaal
verwerkt in de ontwerpberekeningen. Hierdoor is er te
besparen op de benodigde hoeveelheid voorspanning.
Daarnaast wordt de constructie dynamisch doorger-
ekend d.m.v. een numeriek benadering. Hierin worden
de doorsnede eigenschappen van het geoptimaliseerde
ontwerp, verwerkt in een model dat gekoppeld is aan
de real trains zoals omschreven in de NEN-EN 1991-2.
Deze numerieke toetsing resulteerde niet in resonantie

Student: K. ten Pas


Thesis Committee: Prof.dr.ir. J.C. Walraven, Dr.ir. C. van der Veen, Dr.ir. M.A.N. Hendriks, Ing. J. Blitterswijk.

For further information, please contact the section of Structural Engineering tel. 015-2784578
Email: l.j.m.houben@tudelft.nl

29 | Masters Theses November 2012


2 Structural Engineering

Dimensioneren van bouwkuipen in


3D berekeningsmodellen
Stempeluitval als calamiteiten belasting

In dit afstudeerproject is op basis van een parameter- In dit afstudeerproject is ook onderzocht of de plas-
studie in 3D-berekeningsmodellen nagegaan of het tische reserve in het stempelraam, indien daar sprake
stempelraam krachten technisch voldoende weerstand van kan zijn, het fenomeen stempeluitval kan weer-
kan bieden aan het voorval stempeluitval. De analyse staan. Bij een plastische berekening van het stempel-
van stempeluitval is uitgevoerd met als grondslag de raam (1e orde plastische berekening) zijn de sterkte- en
praktijkrichtlijnen van CUR 166 m.b.t. de geotechnische stabiliteitstoetsen van de gording weliswaar her en
analyse en staalnorm Eurocode 3 m.b.t. de construc- der iets gunstiger vanwege de eventuele plastische
tieve analyse. Het stempelraam is in de parameterstudie reserve, maar deze reserve is niet altijd voldoende om
geanalyseerd bij voorval stempeluitval door uit te gaan stempeluitval te kunnen weerstaan. Naast de stempe-
van een stempelraam dat primair is gedimensioneerd en luitval analyse is de ontwerpfilosofie voor bouwkuipen
geoptimaliseerd conform de 1e orde elasticiteitstheorie en stempelramen volgens CUR 166 vergeleken met de
van staal in de UGT op basis van de belastingen die in veelal internationale literatuur voorkomende Engelse
voortvloeien uit het plane strain model. ontwerprichtlijn CIRIA publicatie C580 en C517 met de
focus op de berekeningsfilosofie bij stempeluitval.
Vervolgens is dit stempelraam getoetst aan de sterkte-
en stabiliteitseisen conform de 1e en 2e orde elastische Hoewel de onzekerheden conform beide ontwerprichtli-
berekening in de BGT op basis van de belastingen die jnen volgens hetzelfde principe in rekening gebracht
voortvloeien bij stempeluitval uit het 3D-model. Uit worden, verschilt de mate van pessimistisch zijn in de
de analyse van stempeluitval is geconcludeerd dat het leidende parameters enigszins. De Engelse norm CIRIA
stempelraam, met name de gording, niet beschikt over gaat strenger om bij het bepalen van de karakteristieke
voldoende reserve om stempeluitval te kunnen weer- waarden van de grondparameters bij stempeluitval dan
staan conform de 1e en 2e orde elastische berekening. CUR 166. In CUR 166 zijn verder geen eisen opgenomen
De gording ter plaatse van het uitgevallen stempel voor de toelaatbare maaiveldzakkingen bij stempelu-
ondervindt ondanks de reductie van de lokale horizon- itval. De maximale maaiveldzakking bij stempeluitval
tale korrelspanning een enorme verhoging in krachten in het bovenste stempelraam heeft een patroon dat
en momenten. overeenkomt met het spandrel type, waarbij de veldz-
akking maximaal is ter plaatse van de damwand. Deze
zakking kan oplopen tot 1,5 3,0 maal de berekende
maaiveldzakking bij de normale situatie.

Student: S.V. Bhagirath


Thesis Committee: Prof.ir. A.F. van Tol, Ing. H.J. Everts, Dr.ir K.J. Bakker, Dr.ir. R.B.J. Brinkgreve, Ir. J.F. Joosse,
Ir. L.J.M. Houben

For further information, please contact the section of Structural Engineering tel. 015-2784578
Email: l.j.m.houben@tudelft.nl

30 | Masters Theses November 2012


2 Structural Engineering

Finite element modelling of near field underwater


noise generated by offshore pile driving

The primary objective of this research is to study, In the first case, soil is modeled with the spring and
by means of numerical simulation, the acoustic and dashpot elements whereas in the latter case, soil is
dynamic characteristics of the pile driving process. In modeled with the general fluid elements. This analysis
order to estimate the noise generated from the offshore is performed with ADINA-FSI because spring-dashpot
pile driving process, a finite element model is developed elements cannot be used with potential based elements.
by using the finite element software tool ADINA. In the The developed model is analysed to study the influ-
preliminary stage of the model development, a three ence of soil elements on the acoustics of the pile driving
dimensional and an axisymmetric pile-fluid interaction process.
model without the presence of soil elements is consid- It is observed that the pressure development in the
ered to understand the basic characteristics of wave surrounding fluid elements is highly dependent on the
propagation in the surrounding fluid as a result of pile dashpot and spring coefficient used in the analysis. In
driving. the final phase of the research, a parametric study of
The potential based fluid elements available in ADINA the developed model is performed.
Structures are used for the analysis. The results of the The effect of various parameters such as the inclination
analysis are found to be in good agreement with the angle of the loading, the radius of the artificial non-
findings of past researchers. reflective boundary, the radius of the pile and the sea-
soil interface is analysed. The results showed that the
The results of the three-dimensional and axisymmetric inclination angle of the loading has a considerable effect
analysis are comparable within the desired accuracy in the neighbourhood of the pile whereas its effect is
limits. Apart from that, the time taken by the analysis negligible at a distance far away.
is considerably reduced in the case of axisymmetric A strong correlation is obtained between the pressure
modelling. Therefore, in the second phase of model development and the radial distance. However, no such
development, an axisymmetric model is further devel- correlation can be established in case of depth. With
oped and the soil properties are incorporated. the increase in the radius of the pile, an increase in the
pressures is observed during the analysis.
For the simulation of soil two possibilities are explored:
a) Spring-Dashpot model, The whole study shows that the simulation model is an
b) Fluid model. effective mean to study the influence of various factors
on the pressure development in the surrounding fluid
without the need to conduct large scale experiments.

Student: G. Kaushik
Thesis Committee: Prof.dr. A.V. Metrikine, Ir. J.S. Hoving, Ir. A. Tsouvalas, Ir. L.J.M. Houben

For further information, please contact the section of Structural Engineering tel. 015-2784578
Email: l.j.m.houben@tudelft.nl

31 | Masters Theses November 2012


2 Structural Engineering

Probability analysis of Life Cycle Cost of bridges


with different preventive measures and repair
methods

Nowadays, a lot of reinforced concrete structures Following that, a life cycle cost tool was developed
begin to show signs of deterioration. Repairing them using an example, which is an ongoing Cathodic
by conventional repair not only costs a huge amount Prevention (CPre) project in Groningen. The influence
of money, but also leads to disruption of traffic and of different preventive measures and repair methods
inconvenience. There is a strong incentive to find out on the total life cycle cost has been studied using the
the cheapest way to extend the service life of existing model.
structures and to design and build new reinforced
concrete (RC) structures which will require less mainte- Results show that to apply preventive measures is
nance and repair over their lifetime. generally cheaper than to repair the structures after
they deteriorate. Using stainless steel and hydrophobic
Chloride-induced corrosion of reinforcing bars is treatment as preventive measures are the cheapest
the primary cause of deterioration of RC structures. way to maintain a bridge over 100 years. To repair with
Conventional repair (combined with hydrophobic treat- conventional repair combined with hydrophobic treat-
ment) and Cathodic Protection are most frequently used ment is the repair method which leads to the lowest life
for repair of chloride-contaminated structures. Applying cycle cost. CP and CPre have the advantage that the
preventive measures is the way to build more durable structural condition is being monitored. In a sensitivity
new buildings. Three methods namely using stainless analysis, initial cost and discount rate were found to be
steel, applying hydrophobic treatment and Cathodic the factors which have the biggest influence on the life
Prevention were considered in this project. Using cycle cost.
different preventive measures and repair methods will
involve different costs and will have different influences SEM studies are recommended to be carried out in a
on the service life of structures. comprehensive way in order to determine the service
life of CP. In terms of LCC modeling, it is recommended
In order to find out the cheapest way to maintain a to determine the time intervals for reapplication of the
bridge, a life cycle cost (LCC) method was adopted. The four repair methods using probability methods. It is also
life time of bridges with different preventive measures recommended to take the probability of price change of
and repair methods was determined based on data from the measures into account.
literature or calculated based on probabilistic methods.
Among the three repair methods, Cathodic Protection
(CP) is a relatively new technique and samples from
structures having CP for around 20 years have been
examined by SEM trying to reveal the degradation
mechanism. The costs of the preventive measure and
repair methods were derived from practical situations.

Student: Y. Pan
Thesis Committee: Prof.dr. R.B. Polder, Dr. O. Copuroglu, Dr.ir. S.A.A.M. Fennis, Dr.ir. W. Peelen, Dr.ir. W. Courage,
Ir. L.J.M. Houben

For further information, please contact the section of Structural Engineering tel. 015-2784578
Email: l.j.m.houben@tudelft.nl

32 | Masters Theses November 2012


2 Structural Engineering

FEM modeling of fiber reinforced composites

Recently several studies have been performed at the Both approaches produce very similar numerical results.
TU Delft on the use of the generalized finite element The ERS approach is more efficient as the current GFEM
method (GFEM) to model fiber reinforced composite approach.
materials in a two dimensional space. The GFEM model
allows a large number of arbitrarily placed fibers to be
taken into account. The fibers are placed on top of the
ordinary mesh and therefore do not require aligned
meshing to be done. Matrix material, fiber material and
the interface between them each have their own mate-
rial parameters. The discontinuous displacement field
on the fiber, also known as the fiber slip is taken into
account by the use of extra degrees of freedom. These
extra degrees of freedom are placed on the original
nodes of the elements crossed by fibers.

Fibers are in essence one dimensional objects. The


main degree of freedom they should have is the slip in
the direction of the fiber. It is therefore computation-
ally expensive to use extra degrees of freedom on top
of regular element nodes to describe the displacement
field of the fiber. Why not inserting the extra degrees of
freedom in the direction of the fiber on top of the fiber
itself?

In this thesis a search is done to an efficient element


with extra degrees of freedom on the fiber. A first
unsuccessful try is the use of a so called Interface-
enriched GFEM element (IGFEM). The second
successful approach is the slightly different embedded
reinforcement approach including bond slip (ERS).
This is an element that has been used before in calcu-
lating reinforced concrete in several publications. This
element is used here for calculating elastic mate-
rial reinforced with many fibers. In its mathematical
derivations, a small extension is made to allow for
an arbitrary enrichment function to be inserted on
the fiber displacement field analogous to the GFEM
derivations. This enrichment function inserts a priori
knowledge into the solution allowing it to converge
faster. However, enrichments in this research are kept
simple. Next to a two dimensional implementation
of the GFEM and ERS approach, a three dimensional
implementation is presented. Encountered problems
and numerical examples for both models are discussed.

Student: E. Jongejans
Thesis Committee: Prof.dr.ir. L.J. Sluys, Dr. A. Simone, Dr.ir. C. van der Veen, Ir. L.J.M. Houben

For further information, please contact the section of Structural Engineering tel. 015-2784578
Email: l.j.m.houben@tudelft.nl

33 | Masters Theses November 2012


2 Structural Engineering

Cracking at the unheated side of a tunnel during


the heating and cooling phase of a fire

This thesis focuses on assessing the crack width and One analysis could follow the complete fire, heating and
durability at the outside of an immersed tunnel in case cooling phase. During the heating and cooling phase
of fire inside the tunnel. Previous research (for instance the convergence behaviour was poor which is partly due
Nieman) addressed only the heating phase of a tunnel to the complex material behaviour. The material model
while also the inevitable cooling phase may have a should be improved to obtain a more stable calculation
large influence on the crack width. A user supplied code process.
was written to calculate both the heating and cooling During the cooling phase the tensile stresses increased
phase and handle the different reversibilities of the in the roof and decreased in the walls of the heated
material properties. The material model is based on an tunnel tube as expected. The crack width at the outside
explicit strain model where some simplifications had of the tunnel is cumulative over a specific area. A lower
been made such as uniaxiality and the omission of the limit is calculated and a crack width of more than 1
Poisson ratio. This material model is validated on some mm is found. This could influence the durability of the
small models; the tunnel calculations are performed by tunnel. To support this indication more calculations
making use of the geometry of the Wijkertunnel. should be performed. The effect of the load induced
thermal strain shows a decrease of the tensile stresses
in vertical direction in the walls and the compressive
stresses in the side wall which are present for a longer
time. In the mid wall an increase in compressive stress
can be seen as a consequence of the net shrinkage
which is a consequence of the load induced thermal
strain during the cooling phase.

It is possible to analyse the crack width during a fire.


However more tests need to be performed to get a
better understanding about the behaviour of the mate-
rial properties during heating (high temperatures) and
cooling. The code must be validated more thoroughly
and only when the deformations of the walls can be
explained for sure, a good assessment of the crack
The results of the tunnel calculations showed good width after a heating and cooling phase can be made.
agreement with the results of TNO 2007 for the own
weight and pressure loading. During the heating phase In this thesis a foundation is laid for assessing the crack
the results start to deviate from TNO 2007, partly due width in immersed tunnels during a heating and cooling
to differences in the material model (load induced phase. No such model existed until now. This model
thermal strains reduce the compressive stresses in should be perfected, particular with respect to conver-
the walls), partly due to instabilities in the calculation gence, in order to obtain a more stable calculation and
process. The load induced thermal strain decreases the reliable results.
thermal strain under compressive stresses and first time
heating.

Student: S. van Aken


Thesis Committee: Prof.dr.ir. J.G. Rots, Dr.ir. M.A.N. Hendriks, Prof.dr.ir. E. Schlangen, Ir. C. van der Vliet,
Ir. A.J. Breunese, Ir. L.J.M. Houben

For further information, please contact the section of Structural Engineering tel. 015-2784578
Email: l.j.m.houben@tudelft.nl

34 | Masters Theses November 2012


2 Structural Engineering

Wind Induced Vibrations of frUHSC Bridge decks


Buffeting Performance of a frUHSC Bridge Design

Owing to the development of fibre reinforced ultra high


strength concrete (frUHSC), more slender structures
can be developed. Problems that were never governing
for concrete structures can now become more important
for design. In the research the buffeting performance
of a frUHSC bridge is investigated and compared with
the performance of a normal strength concrete (NSC)
bridge. A traditional cable stayed bridge is designed Example of the displacements of the midspan of the
for the concrete classes C35/45 and C170/200. For this bridge for a certain time-domain
design the weight of the bridge deck can be reduced
with 40% by applying frUHSC. But not only the bridge From the analysis it becomes clear that for both bridge
deck can be made more slender, material can also be designs the fundamental frequencies are about the
saved in the stays and the substructure as well. The same. For the fundamental frequency of the NSC
goal of the project is to investigate whether or not the bridge the deviation between the analytical model and
frUHSC bridge is more susceptible for vertical vibrations the FE-model is 2.2%. For the frUHSC bridge design
due to wind buffeting in comparison with a NSC bridge deviation between the models is 5.9%. So the first
design. natural frequency of the FE-model corresponds very
well with the first natural frequency of the analytical
model. However, the deviation in the response of the
displacements and especially the accelerations is very
large. This is because the third and the fifth natural
frequency of the analytical model have far lower values
compared with the natural frequencies of the FE-model.
Therefore have these natural frequencies more influ-
ence on the response of the system. But probably the
Deformed plot of the FE-model in Matlab most important observation is that both bridge designs
have approximately the same fundamental frequency,
For the analysis an analytical model and a FE-model but the response of the frUHSC bridge is for the vertical
are used. For the analytical model the main span of displacements and accelerations in all the different
the bridge is modeled as an Euler-Bernoulli beam on analysis more than 59% higher than the response of
an elastic foundation with at both ends a rotational the NSC bridge.
spring. By means of a FE-model of the bridges a second
analysis is performed. This FE-model is designed in
Matlab with two dimensional two nodes Euler-Bernoulli
beam elements.

Student: E. Bosman
Thesis Committee: Prof.dr.ir. J.C. Walraven, Dr.ir. C. van der Veen, Dr.ir. P.C.J. Hoogenboom, Prof.dr.ir. C. Geurts,
Ing. P.A.M. Taken, Ing. M. Wiggers

For further information, please contact the section of Structural Engineering tel. 015-2784578
Email: l.j.m.houben@tudelft.nl

35 | Masters Theses November 2012


2 Structural Engineering

36 | Masters Theses November 2012


3.

Civil Engineering theses

Hydraulic Engineering
3 Hydraulic Engineering

Feasibility Study of an artificial sandy beach at


Batumi, Georgia

Introduction on their costs. From the MCA follows that a fully sandy
Batumi is a city located on the coast of the Black Sea beach placed parallel to the boulevard and a perched
in the southwest of Georgia. The coastline south of beach with a beach placed parallel to the boulevard
Batumi is affected by erosion problems. The coastal are the most promising alternatives. The fully sandy
stretch between the port in the north and the Chorokhi beach has a better rating for the qualitative criteria
River south of Batumi should be protected. In 2010 where the perched beach is the cheapest solution.
Alkyon/ARCADIS proposed a detailed design to protect Because of the small differences between both alterna-
this coastal stretch. The beaches of Batumi originally tives in qualitative criteria, but a noticeable difference
consist of pebble. In the northern part of the coastal in the total costs, the perched beach is selected as
stretch, the so called Old Boulevard, a lot of tourist the most promising alternative. A preliminary design
activities take place. Along this part of the coast sandy has been prepared for this alternative. The perched
beaches where requested by the client. In the design beach consists of a sandy beach with a width of 135
proposed in 2010, pocket beaches have been envis- meter. At Approximately 180 meter from the shoreline a
aged here. These pocket beaches consists of pebbles up submerged breakwater is present with a submergence
to a level of MSL +3m and a layer of sand above MSL of 0.5 meter.
+3m. In this thesis an alternative design for the pocket
beaches are proposed. This design should contain Conclusion
more sand and less visual structures, opposed to the The pocket beaches as designed in the 2010 study
pocket beaches proposed in the 2010 study. This master and the preliminary design of the perched beach as
thesis aims to determine the best design option and designed in this study are finally compared. The pocket
the feasibility of an artificial sandy beach along the Old beaches have a partly sandy beach and contain some
Boulevard of Batumi. undesirable visual structures. The perched beach fulfils
In order to determine suitable measures and alterna- the wish of a fully sandy beach with almost no visual
tives, the morphological impact of the measures and structures, the costs are however considerably higher
the corresponding sediment transports have been than for the pocket beaches, 25.5 M versus 56.6 M.
considered. The sediment transport rates have been It can be concluded that the two options have their own
computed using numerical models. For the longshore benefits and drawbacks. The preference depends on
transports the model UNIBEST-LT is used and the cross- which aspect is valued as most important and/or which
shore losses are determined with the use of the XBeach aspect is valued as least important.
model.

Alternatives
With the use of gained information of the behaviour
of a sandy beach and possible measures to optimise
the design of an artificial sandy beach, 7 alternatives
are proposed. The 7 alternatives are compared and
assessed with the use of a Multi-Criteria analysis (MCA).
The alternatives are rated on 6 qualitative criteria and

Student: C. Pepping
Thesis Committee: Prof.dr.ir. M.J.F. Stive, Dr.ir. M. Zijlema, Ir. J. van Overeem, Ir. M.C. Onderwater

For further information please contact the section Hydraulic Engineering, 015-2783348
Email: secr-wbk-citg@tudelft.nl

38 | Masters Theses November 2012


3 Hydraulic Engineering

Influence of dredging on Columbia River Mouth


morphology

A numerical modeling study is performed about the tional supply due to disposal activities. Meanwhile, the
impact of dredging and disposal activities on the sediment supply function of the shoal for the adjacent
long-term morphological development of the Columbia coastal cell was maintained. Other effects of dredging
River Mouth (MCR). The MCR is flanked by two large and disposal activities were the formation of distinct
jetties, which were constructed in the late 19 th century sand mounds at the locations of some disposal sites
to improve navigation possibilities. Jetty construc- and maintaining the southern orientation of the MCR
tion initiated large-scale morphological changes. This channel at the estuary side of the inlet.
morphological development was mainly driven by tidal
flow, a seasonal varying discharge and high-energy
wave climate. In addition, dredging activities displaced
relatively large amounts of sand. Approximately 120
Mm 3 was dredged from the MCR between 1958 and
1999. Only one-third of this volume was disposed in the
active littoral zone. The remaining amount was placed
at offshore disposal sites and is probably lost for the
littoral system. Therefore, dredging activities might be
an important factor for the long-term morphological
development and for recent erosion trends at the coasts
directly adjacent to the MCR.

Methodology
The net influence of both dredging and disposal activi-
ties is analyzed with a Delft3D model. Morphological
acceleration techniques and wave climate reduction
are used to bridge the gap between hydrodynamic and
morphological time scales. The model performance
and capabilities are assessed with simulations for the Main implication of the model results for disposal strate-
1926-1958 interval. These simulations indicate that the gies is that the sand volume of the Peacock Spit shoal
model captures the large-scale morphological changes should be maintained to avoid further erosion of the
that occurred in the study area. Simulations for the shoal and prevent undermining of the North Jetty and
1958-1999 interval are then used for the analysis of the to maintain the sediment supply function of the shoal
impact of dredging and disposal activities. for the updrift coastal cell.

Results
Based on the model results, dredging activities led to
significant volume losses in the inlet itself and in the
area west of the river entrance. On the Peacock Spit
shoal directly north of the inlet, the volume losses due
to dredging are almost completely reversed by disposal
of dredged material on the shoal itself. Dredging and
disposal activities did not have significant effects for
the littoral drift at coastal stretches adjacent to the
MCR. In the studied interval, the Peacock Spit shoal did
absorb the negative effects of dredging and the addi-

Student: J. Stark
Thesis Committee: Prof.dr.ir. M.J.F. Stive, Ir. A.P. Luijendijk, Dr.ir. E. Elias, Dr.G. Gelfenbaum, Dr.ir. J.E.A. Storms,
Ir. D.J.R. Walstra

For further information please contact the section Hydraulic Engineering, 015-2783348
Email: secr-wbk-citg@tudelft.nl

39 | Masters Theses November 2012


3 Hydraulic Engineering

Static and dynamic loads on the first row of


interlocking, single layer armour units

Interlocking, single layer concrete armour units are experiment resulted in a relationship of the measured
placed in a specific grid depending on the type of static load on the first row of armour units with the
armour unit. Within this grid, armour units are placed number of rows applied on the slope of the model.
in horizontal rows. The number of horizontal rows of
single layer armour units on a breakwater is limited From this relationship appeared that the static load
to 20. This limit is proposed in order to prevent major approaches a maximum value after 10 rows. An analyt-
settlements, which might affect the interlocking of the ical model was developed and validated against the
armour units. measured results. This model gives an interpretation of
the cause of the maximum value. The measurements
The limit on the number of rows is based on experience of the dynamic load showed two clear phenomena. The
from prototypes and is not yet confirmed in a system- dynamic load appeared to be a harmonic load with the
atic study. Then number of rows also might have an same period as the waves imposed on the model. The
effect on the load on the first (bottom) row of armour dynamic load is the result of the flow of water along the
units, which affects the structural integrity of the armour layer. The maximum dynamic load on the first
armour units. The load on the first row of armour units row of armour units occurred simultaneous with the
is however unknown. maximum downwash which is in line with expectations.
A relation between the downwash velocity and the
The research presented in this thesis is a study on the amplitude of the dynamic load was found.
load on the first (bottom) row of concrete armour units
placed on a breakwater. Both the static load and the The second observed phenomenon is the increase of
dynamic load were examined. The static load is defined the wave averaged load on the first row of armour units
as the load on the bottom row of armour units resulting during the test. During the tests the harmonic load
from the higher positioned rows of armour units during oscillated around an equilibrium line which showed a
conditions without waves. The dynamic load is defined positive trend. The measured load after testing was
as the load on the bottom row of armour units during significant higher than the measured load at the begin-
conditions with wave attack minus the static load. ning of the tests. A relation was found between the
These loads were studied by physical model tests. The wave characteristics and the increase of the load on the
static load was studied in an experiment in which the first row of armour units.
down slope force on the bottom rows of armour units
(Xbloc units of 366 grams) was continuously measured
during the placement of 20 rows of armour units on
a slope of 37 degrees (slope of 3:4) in a series of 15
tests.

The dynamic load was studied in a physical model test


in a wave flume. The first row of armour units was
placed on a movable frame which was connected to a
load cell. The dynamic load was measured during tests
with regular waves of 20% to 100% of the maximum
wave height corresponding to the used armour unit
(Xbloc units of 61.7 gram which were positioned on
a typical breakwater slope of 3:4) and a wave period
corresponding to an Iribarren number of 3, 4 and 5
for all of the described wave heights. This static load

Student: M.A. van de Koppel


Thesis Committee: Prof.dr.ir. W.S.J. Uijttewaal, Ir. J. van den Bos, Ir. H.J. Verhagen, M. Muilwijk,

For further information please contact the section Hydraulic Engineering, 015-2783348
Email: secr-wbk-citg@tudelft.nl

40 | Masters Theses November 2012


3 Hydraulic Engineering

Modelling the anisotropy of turbulence with the


SWASH model

Heterogeneous roughness conditions in open channel Although there is a number of closure constants
flows involved with the non-linear k- model, additional tuning
of these coefficients was not necessary for this study:
In this study the focus is on modelling turbulence both the homogeneous and non-homogenous test case
anisotropy in open channel flows with the SWASH were simulated successfully using the standard values
model. Turbulence anisotropy significantly influences proposed by Speziale [25]. With its low computational
the flow features of: channel flows with heterogeneous costs and robustness, the non-linear k- model appears
roughness conditions, curved open channel flows, to be a useful extension to the SWASH wave-flow
compound channel flows with different floodplain model. LES results for horizontal uniform flow are vali-
depths, etc. The SWASH model is a non-hydrostatic dated with DNS data of Moser, Kim and Mansour [12].
wave-flow model, mainly used to predict the transfor-
mation of surface waves from offshore to the beach. Especially near the bed the LES results deviate from the
DNS data. The mean velocity, as well as the transverse
For this study, adaptations were made to this SWASH and vertical turbulence intensities, is seriously under-
model, in order to model turbulence anisotropy. Two estimated. The deviation from the DNS data is related
different modelling approaches were used: RANS to the use of non- periodic boundary conditions, the
modelling and Large Eddy Simulation (LES). The SWASH coarse grid resolution, the size of the computational
model is extended with a non-linear k- closure to domain and the amount of numerical dissipation that is
the RANS equations, since the standard linear closure involved. Since it is the bottom region where secondary
does not take turbulence anisotropy into account. A currents are generated, the use of the present LES code
3D subgrid model is implemented to perform LES. The for problems involving heterogeneous roughness is not
performance of the LES code and the RANS model with appropriate.
the non-linear k- closure is tested on two flow geom-
etries: an open channel flow with homogeneous bottom
roughness conditions and an open channel flow with
parallel smooth to rough bed sections. Results of the
RANS computations, for both horizontal homogeneous
and non-homogeneous open channel flow, show good
agreement with laboratory measurements of Muller and
Studerus [13], Nezu and Rodi [17] and Wang and Cheng
[32].

Student: T. Bogaard
Thesis Committee: Prof.dr.ir. W.S.J. Uijttewaal, Dr. M.Zijlema, Dr.ir. B.C. van Prooijen

For further information please contact the section Hydraulic Engineering, 015-2783348
Email: secr-wbk-citg@tudelft.nl

41 | Masters Theses November 2012


3 Hydraulic Engineering

Stability of open filter structures

Granular filters are used for protection against scour The analysis showed that the formula is valid for single
and erosion. For a proper functioning it is necessary layered geometrically open filter structures loaded by
that interfaces between the filter structure, the subsoil currents.
and the water flowing above the filter structure are Two adjustments to the design formula are proposed:
stable. Stability means that there is no transport of 1. The relative layer thickness fits better when related
subsoil material through the filter to the water above to the nominal diameter of the filter material;
the filter, and that no filter material is removed by 2. The alpha value proposed by Hoffmans [2012] is too
currents above the filter. high (new alpha values are 30% to 60% lower). The
original formula as proposed by Hoffmans [2012]
Three types of granular filters can be distinguished; gives unrealistic values for situations with wide
1. Geometrically closed filter structures, graded filter material. Model tests showed that the
2. Stable geometrically open filter structures, relative layer thickness is better represented when
3. Unstable geometrically open filter structures. related to the nominal diameter of the filter material.
The design formula can be used for design purposes.
This research is focusing on stable geometrically open The design of a single layered geometrically open filter
filter structures. Recently, a desk study has been carried structure can be schematized in two steps;
out by Deltares resulting in a new theoretical formula 1. Firstly, determination of the material that should be
for single layered geometrically open filter structures used for the top-layer;
(CUR, 2010). Hoffmans improved the theoretical 2. Secondly, determination of the layer-thickness of the
formula that had been founded by Deltares (Hoffmans filter/top-layer taking into account filter and base
G. , 2012) material characteristics.
The goal of this research was to verify the formula
found by Hoffmans [2012] for structures loaded by
currents (flow parallel to the filter construction). As
part of the verification of the design formula ten flume
experiments were performed in the Environmental Fluid
Mechanic Laboratory at Delft University of Technology.
After the execution of the model tests an extensive
analysis was made based on the performed model tests
and model tests performed in the past (Bakker [1960],
Haverhoek [1968], Wouters [1982], Konter et al.
[1990], Van Huijstee and Verheij [1991] and Van Velzen
[2012]).

Student: S.A.H. van de Sande


Thesis Committee: Prof.dr.ir. W.S.J. Uijttewaal, Ir. H.J. Verheij, Ir H.J. Verhagen, Ir. J.P. van den Bos

For further information please contact the section Hydraulic Engineering, 015-2783348
Email: secr-wbk-citg@tudelft.nl

42 | Masters Theses November 2012


3 Hydraulic Engineering

Water level analysis based on North Sea storms

Protection of the land against the sea is an important Based on the developed parametric model for Hook
issue for the Netherlands. Already since the era of the of Holland, the 10 -4/year water level is approximately
Romans the Netherlands have been fighting against the NAP + 5.45m. This compares well with the water level
sea. Especially storm surges are a major threat for the based on the current method. Furthermore, the results
Dutch coastal areas. Safety standards have been set to suggest that much higher water levels can occur, albeit
defend the coastline against these surges. For the coast with a very low probability. It should however be noted
of Holland the probability of occurrence was set to 1% that there is still a considerable spread of the observed
per 100 years. Based on extrapolation of the historic values around the simulated water level. This model
dataset of water levels, this results in a water level also provides insight in the influence of individual storm
height of NAP + 5m for 10 -4/year condition. characteristics on the extreme water level for Hook
To date no study has been done to analyse the effect of Holland. The parameters with the most significant
on water level for the Dutch coast from the passage of impact are: the central pressure, the latitudinal starting
storms over the North Sea. This research examines the point, the forward movement of the storm, the radius to
feasibility of developing a joint probability method to maximum winds and the Holland B parameter.
determine the extreme water level for the Dutch coast,
resulting from these storms. This has been done by As with any model the results depend critically on the
means of a parametric model, which determines the volume and the quality of the available data. For this
hydraulic boundary conditions from a set of significant research the dataset of applicable storms was relatively
storm parameters. small. A larger dataset will not only offer more data, but
also provide more understanding of the interdepend-
The objective of this research is to obtain physical ence of storm parameters. This will help to refine the
knowledge in predicting the water level for the Dutch model and hence obtain a more reliable estimation of
coast. This provides a better understanding of the the extreme water level. Additionally, this study offers
contribution of storm characteristics to high water a basis for expansion to obtain further understanding
levels, and can therefore be very useful in the fore- of the behaviour of water in the North Sea basin.
casting of extreme surges from the passage of these Particularly, the wind field analysis is not only applicable
storms. Secondly, possible changes in meteorology can for the water level estimation, but can also be used for
be taken into account in this model, in contrast to the analysing waves. It can also be worthwhile to investi-
current method. Another advantage is that the simu- gate whether this method is also applicable for other
lated wind field based on storm parameters may also be regions and countries.
a tool for simulating and understanding the behaviour
of waves for the North Sea and the joint probability with
the water level.

Student: M.S. de Jong


Thesis Committee: Prof.drs.ir. J.K. Vrijling, Dr.ir. P.H.A.J.M. van Gelder, Dr.ir L.H. Holthuijsen, Dr.ir. M. van Ledden,
Ir. C. den Heijer

For further information please contact the section Hydraulic Engineering, 015-2783348
Email: secr-wbk-citg@tudelft.nl

43 | Masters Theses November 2012


3 Hydraulic Engineering

Gate Design For Large, High Head Locks


The development of an innovative lock gate

Introduction
The increasing dimensions of ships and the devel-
opment of new navigation infrastructure result in
increasing dimensions of locks. Therefore lock gate
dimensions are also increasing and conventional tech-
nologies are being scaled up, to the new dimensions
and demands emplaced by the infrastructure system.
However, it is questionable if up-scaling conventional
technologies will provide optimal solutions and the
objective of this study is therefore: To research the
need and possibilities of innovative lock gate design
for future large, high head locks. Finally developing an Some illustrations of the Sliding Arch Gate
innovative gate design, that is geared towards dimin-
ishing the drawbacks of extrapolated technologies. The Sliding (tension) Arch Gate
Meeting the future requirements emplaced by the navi- A new lock gate technology has been developed specifi-
gation infrastructure system. cally attuned to the future dimensions and highlighted
requirements resulting into the design of: The Sliding
Current Lock Gate Technologies and the Arch Gate (see figure b), an extremely slender gate
Future design, using (tension) arch action to transfer loads
A historical data analysis has been performed, contem- to the lock head structure, minimizing recess dimen-
plating over 220 of the worlds largest locks throughout sions and water consumption. In addition, the absence
time, analyzing the development and application of of submerged moving / mechanical parts, minimizes
conventional lock gate technologies. From this, the maintenance requirements and the modular design of
conclusions have been drawn that the required lock the gate enhances ease of maintenance, transport and
gate dimensions of a number of future projects, fall manufacture. The Sliding Arch Gate has been worked
far outside the application area of current technologies out to an operational design level, using the Panama
(see figure a), and that it may not be assumed that Canal Expansion Project as reference, in order to eval-
conventional technologies will lead to optimal solu- uate its potential performance and to make comparison
tions at this scale. In addition, a number of aspects will with conventional technologies. From the evaluation it
be highlighted for future large & high head lock gate has been concluded that Sliding Arch Gate will require
design, especially reliability, water consumption and its higher initial investments but that major benefits are
effects on the locks accessibility. achieved by reduced water consumption and low main-
tenance. The first of which can result into over $2,000
mln. in added revenues for the Panama Canal, during
the commercial lifetime of the gate, due to increased
lockage capacity. It has thus been concluded that new/
innovative technologies, like the Sliding Arch Gate,
can outperform up-scaled conventional technologies.
The applica- However as the design of the Sliding Arch Gate is still in
tion of current a pioneering stage, there are many optimizations to be
technologies found and uncertainties to be investigated.
and the field of
innovation

Student: J. Doeksen
Thesis Committee: Prof.dr.ir. J.K. Vrijling,Ir. W.F. Molenaar, Dr.ir. R.A.J. van Ostayen, Ir. H. van Stralen,
Ir. P.T. van der Sar

For further information please contact the section Hydraulic Engineering, 015-2783348
Email: secr-wbk-citg@tudelft.nl

44 | Masters Theses November 2012


3 Hydraulic Engineering

Innovative guidance structure


Technical and economical feasibility cable variant

Guidance structures are built in the vicinity of a sluice Cables are connected to vertical supports. Those
complex to serve as berth for ships waiting for the supports are relatively stiff compared to the stiffness
sluice to be available. The structure is loaded by the halfway the span. Calculations showed the stiffness of
ship and should stop the ship without being damaged. the guidance structures increases gradually as the ship
The design of a guidance structure did not signifi- approaches the support. To get the ship safely past the
cantly change over the last decades. Therefore one support a support glider is invented. The support gliders
could talk about a traditional structure. The structure are also used to prevent crushing of the cable between
consists of vertical supports with horizontal beams support and ship.
covered with timber. A new solution is found by mr. Ros
who proposes to use pre-tensioned cables to stop the The determent factor for the design of a cable guid-
ship. The high tension capacity will make it possible to ance structure is the cable span. For a first design the
significantly reduce the use of material. situation at Krammersluizen (Netherlands) is used. The
span is 57,6 meter and the total length is 288 meter.
The load on a guidance structure is formed by the ships With the use of a maximum allowable stopping length,
kinetic energy. The interaction between ship, water, the needed pretension force is calculated. Only elastic
structure and soil will determine the reaction force by deformation of the supports is allowed. This limits the
which the ship is slowed down. The influence of the maximum stopping length to 1,0 meter in the case of
water is formed by added water mass and damping 57,6 meter cable span. Optimizing the design is done
through wave radiation. A cable structure has relatively through varying the amount of support and thereby
low stiffness which leads to a larger stopping length, changing the cable span. Even the extreme case of
which implies more kinetic energy to absorb through 1 span of 288 meter has a solution that satisfies all
the water influence. demands. The steel cables have a design factor of 2,3.

The guidance structures should be able to serve the Reducing the amount of supports leads to a net profit.
entire fleet. The stiffness needs to be low enough for Extra costs for cables and the pre-tensioning system are
an empty ship which hits all the cables and high enough not as big as the savings by reduction of the amount
for a loaded ship which only hits the lower cables. To of steel. The cheapest possibility is a cable guidance
guaranty safety, the ship should not be able to sail structure with 1 support. Due to placement of bollards
underneath any cable. The solution is found in the use and ladders a minimum of 4 supports are needed. The
of an integral pre-tensioning system. By a balancing bar cost reduction for this design is 32% and the reduc-
the cables are connected and able to interact. A lever tion on environmental impact 44%. The cable guidance
beam with counter weight is used for pre-tensioning. structure is technical and economic feasible. Further
With this system the vulnerability for stretch, creep, research should focus on the proposed issues to reduce
relaxation, deformation or temperature is minimal. costs and environmental impact even further.
Skirts are providing vertical stiffness, so all cables will
deform together.

Student: P. Spruijt
Thesis Committee: Prof.dr.ir. J.K. Vrijling, Ir. W. van den Bos, Dr. A. Romeijn, Ir. A. van der Toorn, J. den Ouden,
D. Ros, E. van Dijk

For further information please contact the section Hydraulic Engineering, 015-2783348
Email: secr-wbk-citg@tudelft.nl

45 | Masters Theses November 2012


3 Hydraulic Engineering

Robust design in structural engineering

Robustness has recently become a popular term in Robust design in practice


structural and hydraulic engineering. Examples are It was concluded that the lifecycle costs of a robust
the robust superlevees that have been constructed in system are least sensitive for model discrepancies. The
Japan or the robust surcharge on the dike heights as choice for a robust system does however depend on
proposed in Leidraad Rivieren. Also, many methods for the relative importance of the investment costs and the
designing a robust design have been proposed in scien- risks. Robustness will often reduce the risk, but increase
tific literature. However, the concept of robust design the investment costs. Several case studies were done to
has no clear definition. The aim of this thesis was to investigate this tradeoff between robustness and invest-
find a definition for a robust system and to use this ment costs. From the case studies it was concluded
definition to search for a practical application of robust that robustness can be achieved by increasing the
design in structural engineering. reliability of the system, or by searching for a robust
design alternative. Increasing the reliability will always
Literature study: Definition increase the investment costs. A way to design a robust
The literature on robust design has been extensively system without automatically increasing the investment
studied to establish a definition for a robust system. It costs, is to search for a robust design alternative. An
was concluded that a robust system is least sensitive to example is given in the figure, in which it is shown that
changes in the uncertain parameters, such as loading a dike with a stone revetment is more robust than a
and strength. The reason to choose for a robust system dike with a clay- and grass cover, under discrepancies
is that the costs during the lifetime will be reduced. If in the distribution parameters of the water level and the
this were the only goal, it would be justified to design wave height.
a system that is reliable, even under extreme values of Bus1.png
the uncertain parameters. However, in practice, invest-
ment costs should be taken into account, as well as the
probability that such an extreme value occurs.

Literature study: Robust design


methods
Several so-called robust design methods were tested
for their applicability in structural engineering. Some of
these methods did not consider investment costs, while
others were based uncertainty that was described by
convex models instead of probability distributions. It
was concluded that these methods are all inferior to the
lifecycle cost optimization as introduced by van Dantzig,
when it comes to the practice of structural engineering.
In this method, the aim is to find a design for which
the sum of the investment costs and all risks over the
lifetime, is minimal. This means that the investment
costs and all lifecycle costs, as well as their probability
of becoming reality, are taken into account equally.

Student: C. Bus
Thesis Committee: Prof.drs.ir. J.K. Vrijling, Prof.ir. A.C.W.M. Vrouwenvelder, Dr.ir. P.H.A.J.M. van Gelder,
Ir. A. Willems, Ir. W.D. van der Wiel

For further information please contact the section Hydraulic Engineering, 015-2783348
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46 | Masters Theses November 2012


3 Hydraulic Engineering

Coal transport Kalimantan

This master thesis focuses on the transportation of coal The current transport system consists of several cycles
from two coalmines in South Kalimantan to the Java of barges, where full barges sail one way and empty
sea. Coal has to be transported from the coal mine barges sail the other way back. Two different cycles
area, situated hundred kilometre land inward, to a loca- have been investigated. A cycle with barge transport
tion with sufficient water depth, at the mouth of the between two terminals and a cycle with barge transport
river Barito. between a terminal and an anchorage for loading coal
The objective of this master thesis is summarized in carriers
two research questions. What are the possibilities to
transport coal from the mine hundred kilometre land Hydraulic transportation of coal is an unconventional
inward to a location with sufficient water depth to transport mode. Hydraulic transportation of coal is very
load Cape-size coal carriers? Which of the alterna- similar with the transportation of sand in the dredging
tives are most feasible from a technical and financial industry. The coarse coal is first mixed with water and
point of view? then transported through a pipeline by means of a
number of centrifugal pumps in series. The main differ-
ences between a coal-water slurry and a sand-water
slurry are the density of the particles and the average
particle size (dm 50)

Sands consists mainly of quarts with a density of 2650


kg/m 3, while coal has a density between 1100 kg/
m 3 and 1500 kg/m 3, depending on the quality and the
origin of the coal. The particles are transported in
water, therefor the relative density underwater deter-
mines the tendency of settling. The relative density is
1650 kg/m 3 for sand, respectively 300 kg/m 3 for coal
particles. This means that the tendency of settling is
around 5 times higher for sand than for coal.

The biggest challenge for the new transport system is The particle size of coal, when it is exported, is much
to increase the throughput capacity five times in five larger than the average particle size of sand (between
years. Three different transport modes have been inves- 63m 2000m). Larger particle sizes will increase the
tigated in this thesis. Those are; transport by barges, turbulent behaviour of the slurry. Different formulas
conveyor belt transport and hydraulic transport. for a coal-water slurry are analysed. In the analysis is
investigated which influence the particle density and
A comprehensive logistics study is performed with the particle size have on the friction head in a particular
use of a simulation model. The simulation model is formula.
written in Matlab and is a so-called event based model.
The transport configuration which is lowest in transport
costs, is determined with the results from the simulation
model. A transport configuration is a combination of the
number of barges, number of berths and the loading
capacity of the berths.

Student: B.C. Joppe


Thesis Committee: Prof.ir. T.Vellinga, Ir. P.Quist, Dr.ir. W.Daamen, Ing. M.G.M.Huijsmans

For further information please contact the section Hydraulic Engineering, 015-2783348
Email: secr-wbk-citg@tudelft.nl

47 | Masters Theses November 2012


3 Hydraulic Engineering

Parametrisch ontwerpmodel
Toepassing op een onderdoorgang

Inleiding interne krachten in de doorsneden ten gevolge van de


Het spoor- en wegennetwerk kruist elkaar in Nederland belastingen wordt gebruik gemaakt van het eindige
op veel plaatsen met behulp van spoorwegovergangen. elementenprogramma SCIA Engineer. Voor de visu-
Dit is geen ideale situatie in verband met de veilig- alisatie en hoeveelheden wordt gebruik gemaakt van
heid en doorstroming. Daarom worden veel kruisingen Civil 3D. In Excel is verder een sheet gemaakt voor
vervangen door onderdoorgangen. Het ontwerp van de berekening van de kosten. De doorsnede capac-
een dergelijke onderdoorgang begint in de regel iedere iteiten worden gecontroleerd aan de hand van de DAKO
keer opnieuw, met weinig hergebruik van kennis. Vanuit sheets. Dit zijn gestandaardiseerde Excel sheets die
verschillende partijen is de vraag ontstaan of dit niet doorsnede capaciteiten berekenen.
sneller kan met behulp van modellen. In dit rapport
wordt dit onderzocht. Toepassing en resultaten
Om de kosten en dimensies van het model ten opzichte
Onderzoek van de werkelijkheid te interpreteren, is het toegepast
Als eerste is een literatuuronderzoek gedaan naar op drie onderdoorgangen (Veeneslagen, Waddinxveen
mogelijk toepasbare modellen: en Boskoop). De resultaten benaderden de werkelijk-
Parametrische modellen, die met behulp van parame- heid tot op 15%.
trische regels het uiteindelijke resultaat behalen.
Of zelf optimaliserende modellen, welke met behulp Conclusie
van interne berekeningen een nieuwe constructie Een model is opgezet dat met behulp van een beperkt
bepalen. aantal invoergegevens een onderdoorgang kan dimen-
De onderdoorgangen kunnen op verschillende manieren sioneren, controleren, tekenen en beprijzen. Dit
gebouwd worden. Allen hebben voor en nadelen. is gedaan voor onderdoorgangen en opgezet voor
Op een traditionele manier bruggen. De grootste problemen die zijn tegengekomen
Met behulp van een inschuifbaar dek zijn het ontbreken van vuistregels. Om dit op te lossen
Met behulp van een gehele inschuifbare constructie zouden hiervoor databases aangelegd moeten worden,
Een combinatie van de voorgaande zodat deze gegevens snel te vinden zijn.
Voor het model is gekozen voor een constructie met Het model voor de spooronderdoorgangen presteert als
een inschuifbaar dek, omdat dit op veel plaatsen toe te eerste indicatie van de dimensies en kosten goed. De
passen is. 15% variatie in resultaten is te verklaren. Het verschil in
dimensies volgt uit de gebruikte vuistregels en cases en
Naast de bouwmethoden is onderzoek gedaan naar de afronding hiervan.
de werkelijkheid. Wat voor spoorkruisingen zijn er en
welke moeten nog uitgevoerd worden. Dit is gedaan
door de belangrijkste gegevens van een representatief
spoor te analyseren. Hieruit volgen verschillende typen
spoorkruisingen met het bijbehorende profiel van vrije
ruimte.

Model
In het model wordt gebruik gemaakt van verschillende
programma`s. Om deze allemaal te koppelen wordt
gebruik gemaakt van Excel. Hierin wordt de in- en
uitvoer voor en van de verschillende programma`s
gegenereerd en verwerkt. Voor het berekenen van de

Student: P. van den Noort


Thesis Committee: Prof.dr.ir. J.K. Vrijling, Dr.ir. K.J. Bakker, Ir. H.K.M. van de Ruitenbeek, Ir. S. van der Woude

For further information please contact the section Hydraulic Engineering, 015-2783348
Email: secr-wbk-citg@tudelft.nl

48 | Masters Theses November 2012


3 Hydraulic Engineering

The future of the Oosterschelde with a new inlet


channel

After the storm surge of 1953, the Dutch Delta project coarse sediment if the inlet would not block the sedi-
was initiated in order to protect the southwestern ment transport. This ebb dominance follows from the
part of The Netherlands. A storm surge barrier in front large intertidal area and deep channels.
of the Oosterschelde and various dams at the back Notwithstanding the ebb dominance, there is no sedi-
of the estuary were constructed. These interventions ment export
led to a large change of the hydrodynamics of the possible through the inlet. The inlet blocks the sediment
Oosterschelde: a large decrease in tidal volume and transport in both directions mainly because of a
flow velocities. This decrease in flow velocities caused tidal jet, caused by the small inlet and large tidal
a decrease in sediment transport from the channels with prism.
about 75%. It is estimated that an amount of 400- The tidal prism increases with a new inlet channel and
600 million m3 of sediment is necessary to increase the thus increases the flow velocities in the channels.
flow velocities, restore the sediment transport The increase in tidal prism and thus flow velocities
from the channels and to obtain a new dynamic equilib- brings the Oosterschelde closer to the old situation.
rium (Kohsiek, 1987). This need for sand is called The higher flow velocities increase the sediment trans-
the sand demand. At present, the shoal height inside port from the channels and thus increase the shoal
the estuary decreases by wave erosion. This building. It is not known how much the shoal building is
decrease in shoal height mainly has a negative influence exactly restored. Some channels have such an
on the protected nature in the Oosterschelde. increase in flow velocities that shoal building occurs
The Oosterschelde was ebb dominant and exporting again. However, parts of the basin are still not in
sediment for centuries. All the events and equilibrium, which can be seen from comparing the old
interventions from 1530 up to the construction of with the new flow velocities and by comparing the
Volkerakdam and Grevelingendam in 1969, caused an tidal prism and the cross-sectional areas of the channels
increase in tidal prism and export of sediment towards with the empirical relations of Louters (1998) and
the ebb tidal delta. By the construction of the storm Haring (1976).
surge barrier, Philipsdam and Oesterdam in 1986, the An important disadvantage of an increase in tidal prism
situation changed, the tidal prism decreased and the is the enhancement of the ebb dominance that
sand demand started. causes more sediment transport in ebb direction.
This research is aimed at finding a structural solution However there is no export possible through the new
for the sand demand by opening the storm surge inlet channel, because also the new inlet channel has a
barrier. The present situation of the Oosterschelde and tidal jet that blocks all sediment transport through
a future situation with a new inlet channel at the inlet.
Neeltje Jans are analyzed in order to determine if a new The large-scale effects of the Oosterschelde, like the
inlet channel could influence the hydrodynamics ebb dominance and sand demand cannot be
and sediment transport in order to structurally solve the structurally changed a new inlet channel. However the
sand demand. shoal degradation rate will probably be slowed
A process based hydrodynamic and morphological down with an increase in tidal prism.
model (Delft3D) is used to analyze the present and
possible future situations with a new inlet channel.
The new model and the methods of Van de Kreeke
(1993) and Groen (1967) applied to the present
situation of the basin, show that the Oosterschelde is
still ebb dominant and would be exporting fine and

Student: R.A. de Bruijn


Thesis Committee: Prof.dr.ir. M.J.F. Stive, Prof. Dr. ir. Z.B. Wang, Dr.Ir.B.C. van Prooijen, Ir. L.A. Adriaanse,
Ing. S. Brasser

For further information please contact the section Hydraulic Engineering, 015-2783348
Email: secr-wbk-citg@tudelft.nl

49 | Masters Theses November 2012


3 Hydraulic Engineering

Development of a generic automated instrument for the


calibration of morphodynamic Delft3D model applications

The numerical flow model Delft3D simulates the flow of when no more than 2 parameters were calibrated at once,
water and movement of submerged sediment by means of these parameters are non-inter-related, the parameter(s)
solving simplified equations that describe these processes. are sensitive and that the initial values of the parameters are
Because of these simplifications, parameterizations are within a 75% range of their optimum values.
introduced. These parameters represent amongst others An extensive sensitivity analysis was performed on 17
the processes that take place on scales smaller than the parameters using four model applications. A large overlap in
spacing of the numerical grid. Furthermore, parameters exist sensitivity throughout the model applications was found; i.e.
that represent measurable attributes of the system, such the same parameters were sensitive in all model applications.
as the grain diameter. Lastly, scaling parameters are found Furthermore, from the parameter sensitivity, conclusions
in the model, with which the relative importance of certain could be drawn on the relative importance of the different
processes in the model can be indicated. All these param- processes in the various model applications. Lastly, the sensi-
eters have to be calibrated using measured data; a model tivity analysis has resulted in insights in the inter-relation-
application has to be tuned to produce the best fit with a set ships that exist between the various model parameters.
of measurements. Although calibration is an essential part in After successfully testing the calibration instrument, different
the development of any numerical flow model, no automated calibration cases have been set up to investigate two ques-
or standardized calibration approaches exist within Deltares. tions; can OpenDA MOR pinpoint sensitive parameters auto-
As many parameters are available within Delft3D, calibration matically? Do optimum parameter values differ for different
can be a complex, time consuming process. Automated cali- model applications and transport formulations? It was found
bration is objective and can save time, whilst in the process that automatic pinpointing was not possible, implying that
improving the model performance; i.e. minimizing the error a sensitivity analysis has to be performed separately before
between the model results and the measurements. Objective starting a calibration. From the second calibration case it
of this Thesis therefore was to develop an efficient method became clear that different optimum parameter values were
to improve performance of and insights in the Delft3D found depending on the model application and transport
model throughout complex morphodynamic applications. A formula used. This shows the importance of calibration and
careful reading showed that a generic open source platform that there is no such thing as a universal best suited calibra-
for calibration of hydrodynamic Delft3D model applications tion strategy. What parameters should be calibrated depends
already existed in the form of the software package OpenDA. completely on the goal of the model; perfectly calibrated
This software systematically alters parameter values and hydrodynamic parameters do not necessarily produce the
compares the corresponding model results with the meas- best morphodynamic results and vice versa.
urements provided. The results are judged by means of a The test results and calibration cases have shown that
cost function; a performance indicator which represents the calibration instrument OpenDA MOR has successfully
the goodness of fit between the model results and the been developed and is applicable on any morphodynamic
measurements. OpenDA was however not yet applicable on model application. However, the applicability on complex
morphodynamic model applications. Therefore, the software models was shown to be difficult from a practical point of
was adjusted, resulting in an upgraded version of OpenDA; view, because of the very long runtimes of these models.
OpenDA MOR. Apart from adding morphological parameter Therefore, further research is needed on how to decrease
and -result readers, two additional performance indicators the runtimes of complex model applications. Moreover, a
were implemented in the code; the Brier skill score and new cost function should be developed which enables a more
Kirchhofer scores. OpenDA MOR is suited for both calibration accurate judgment of the morphodynamic model results, as it
and sensitivity analysis of morphodynamic model applica- was found that the Brier skill score and Kirchhofer scores are
tions. The OpenDA MOR calibration instrument has been not suited to replace the standard cost function used during
tested by means of TWIN experiments. From these tests, this Thesis.
rules of thumb have been deduced on how to apply the tool.
It was shown that a calibration was most likely to succeed

Student: R.W. Hasselaar


Thesis Committee: Prof.dr.ir. M.J.F. Stive; Dr.ir. M. Verlaan; Ir. A.P. Luijendijk; Ir. S. Hummel

For further information please contact the section Hydraulic Engineering, 015-2783348
Email: secr-wbk-citg@tudelft.nl

50 | Masters Theses November 2012


3 Hydraulic Engineering

Stevin Outlet Sluices, wave impact under a beam

The Dutch department of Public Works had a problem beam, a large impact peak was observed, whereas the
regarding wave impacts on a beam in the Stevin outlet other wave only showed a small hump caused by the
sluices, located in the Afsluitdijk. Wave impacts on this deflected flow against
beam could also cause a peak pressure on the barrier the vertical wall.
gate, just behind the beam. The numerical program
ComFLOW and physical scale experiments were used to Comparison with numerical model
predict the wave impacts for different hydraulic condi- When the calculated and measured wave impact results
tions (i.e. wave height, wave period and water level). were compared it became clear that ComFLOW under-
The research questions were: estimated the peak pressures by a factor 2 to 20 for the
1. How is the wave load on the northern gates pressures on the impact plane. The same was done for
depending on the presence of the military beam? the peak impulse. This showed that the
2. How large is a wave impact load on the bottom of the impulse of the peak on the impact plane were underes-
military beam in the Stevin outlet sluices? timated by a factor 2 at most. These results confirmed
3. How well can the numerical model ComFLOW and that the used grid was too coarse for the program to
physical modelling be used to determine the wave model the physics correctly. The main conclusions to
impact on the bottom of the military beam in the the research questions were:
Stevin outlet sluices? 1. The presence of the military beam causes a different
distribution of the force on the gate within a wave
Physical experiments period. The total amount of impulse is more or less
2D scaled experiments were performed making use of the same as for the situation without a beam. With
a model with the (simplified) geometry of the Stevin the military beam, a wave impact results in a peak
outlet sluices and regular waves. It was found that the force on the gate. Without the beam, there will be no
largest wave impacts occurred for water levels equal peak force.
to the bottom plane of the beam or slightly under 2. The largest measured wave impact pressure is 35H.
it. This happened for the shortest waves in the test 3. Both ComFLOW and physical modelling can be used
domain. The largest pressure measured on the beam to predict wave impacts for the geometry of Stevin
was approximately 50 kPa or 35H, with H representing outlet sluices. Much care should be taken when
the incident wave height in front of the model. It was modelling and much attention should go to the input
also found that the spread in the peak pressures for parameters of the program.
one single experiment was large. The results of the
measured impulse per peak showed far less spread. The
effect of wave impacts under the beam was also found
on the vertical wall under the beam. The actual pres-
sures however were less and they were decreasing with
increasing depth. Besides physical wave impact testing,
a few experiments were performed with the beam
removed from the model. This resulted in wave simply
running up the vertical wall of the model. They did
not cause a wave impact. The measurements of both
type of experiments, with and without a beam, were
compared. This revealed that the total wave impulse on
the gate was not affected by the presence of the beam.
However the distribution of the pressure within a single
wave period was significantly different. In case of a

Student: G.M. Hofste


Thesis Committee: Prof.drs.ir. J.K. Vrijling, Prof.drs.ir. W.S.J. Uijttewaal, Dr.ir. R.J. Labeur, Ir. W.F. Molenaar,
Ing. J.P. Vos, Dr.ir. P. Wellens (Deltares)

For further information please contact the section Hydraulic Engineering, 015-2783348
Email: secr-wbk-citg@tudelft.nl

51 | Masters Theses November 2012


3 Hydraulic Engineering

Numerical modelling of Colorado sandbar growth


An improved formulation of sediment transport and underwater slope slumping

In the Colorado River the Glen Canyon dam is located. the concentration including the turbulent fluctuations.
The Glen Canyon dam is constructed in the Colorado The avalanching is included by stating that no deposi-
river for the production of electricity. Due to the dam, tion can take place on slopes steeper than the angle
nowadays only a fifth of the pre-dam sediment volume of repose (32 degrees). Two methods are described:
flows into the Colorado River through the Glen Canyon one where the sediment that cannot be deposited is
dam and the two major tributaries, the Paria River and re-suspended and one where it is transported as bed
the Little Colorado River. Due to the lack of sediment load. A third method simulates a large slope slump at a
the sandbars present in the Colorado River started location where the bed slope was larger than the angle
eroding. An attempt to solve this problem was by of repose. The slope is then changed to an equilibrium
mimicking the pre-dam seasonal variation in discharge. slope of 25 degrees. The sediment is transported as
High flood experiments (HFE) were conducted in 1996, bed-load to the lower lying computational cells. With
2004 and 2008. These HFEs were partly successful; the inclusion of the two new formulations in the model
some sandbars grew, while other eroded during the that is applied to the Eminence pool, both formulations
HFE. A Delft3D model of two pools and sandbars was show to have an effect on the computed topography.
created for a better understanding of deposition of sedi- When the near-bed turbulent velocities are included
ment on the sand bar. The resulting modelled topog- in the sediment transport the sandbar extends more
raphy showed 5 major differences with the measured into the pool, where the measurements show a shorter
bed levels. The banks in the model were higher than sandbar. The slope slumping method severely changed
in reality. The main stream width became smaller the computed topography; the Delft3D model became
as opposed to reality. The sandbar height was over- unstable. Both avalanching formulations showed a same
predicted and the sandbars were growing too much into influence on the final computed topography. The model
the pool. results show reduced slope angles and an increase of
the width of the stream. However, this is not to the
The last difference is that the model did not show an extent that was measured.
erosion hole in the main stream as was visible in the
measurements. To improve the shortcomings of the
model two adjustments are implemented in the model.
Turbulent velocities appear to be important because
surface boils were seen during the HFE. In this thesis a
sediment transport formula is created, which includes
the turbulent velocity fluctuations on the sediment
entrainment. The second adjustment is an avalanching
and slumping formulation to overcome the shortcoming
related to the narrowing of the main stream and to
include the slope slumps as seen at the site.
These near-bed velocities are described using a prob-
ability density function, which includes the turbulent
velocity fluctuations. The near-bed concentrations
are calculated using the probability of occurrence of
an instantaneous velocity. This probability is multi-
plied with the concentration corresponding to that
velocity. For every instantaneous velocity in the prob-
ability density function a concentration contribution is
calculated. The sum of these contributions describes

Student: B.J. Nieuwboer


Thesis Committee: Prof.drs.ir. W.S.J. Uijttewaal, Dr.ir. C.J. Sloff, Dr.ir. E. Mosselman, D.R. Mastbergen

For further information please contact the section Hydraulic Engineering, 015-2783348
Email: secr-wbk-citg@tudelft.nl

52 | Masters Theses November 2012


3 Hydraulic Engineering

Golfrandvoorwaarden in havens
Bruikbaarheidsgrenzen voor (numerieke) modellen

Background numerical model. Also, analyses have been carried out


Hydraulic Boundary Conditions (HBC) have to be set for to determine the sensitivity of the (numerical) models
flood defences in harbours. In these specific areas one for certain hydraulic and numeric aspects. The perfor-
may account for a reduction of wave conditions rela- mances of the separate models have been assessed,
tive to open sea as a result of the geometry and the based on the various cases and the sensitivity analyses.
bathymetry of the area. The Voorschrift Toetsen op From this, limits of use have been determined.
Veiligheid (VTV) prescribes a scheme of three steps to
determine the level of reduction that may be accounted Spreadsheet
for. Every next step in this scheme yields more specific, The research carried out for this project shows it is
reliable and detailed wave conditions. One must move likely that the range of applicability of the spreadsheet
to the next step of the scheme when a flood defence model is wider than the present guidelines dictate.
does not satisfy the required safety standards with the The results of the spreadsheet model turn out to be
loads of that step. conservative in situations the model was meant for
The first step of the scheme consists of considering when compared with measurements or results of
unreduced wave conditions and is the most conserva- numerical models. Though, the spreadsheet model
tive step. The spreadsheet model from the second step appears also conservative in situations it wasnt devel-
is primarily developed for simple harbour geometries. oped for, like harbours with highly reflective boundaries
Its use is restricted by certain conditions of use. The and/or a lot of sheltered areas. The wider use of the
problem of these conditions is that they are based on spreadsheet model can save time and money by not
theory and have not yet been verified using wave meas- applying numerical models.
urements. It is therefore not clear where the limits of
use lie for this model and when the user has to proceed Numerical Models
to the last and most detailed step. A selection scheme has been derived from the limits
The third step uses numerical models and there is no of use of the numerical models considered. With this
prescription in the VTV of which model should be used scheme a substantiated choice can be made between
in a certain case. Every model has its own character- the two models. Pharos appears to be the most widely
istics. A numerical model can therefore not always be usable model. SWAN is mainly usable in harbours with
applied in every situation to correctly calculate the an open geometry which are attacked by an irregular
reduction of wave conditions. A prescription of the short-crested wave field. For this type of harbour the
limits of use of numerical models would lead to a safe wave process of diffraction, which is missing in SWAN,
and well founded choice of a model. is of less importance. In all other cases, the perfor-
mance of SWAN is moderate to poor.
Research Goal
The goal of this project was to determine within which
limits of use the spreadsheet model, Pharos (mild-slope
model) and SWAN (spectral energy model) could be
used for modelling wave penetration into harbours and
sheltered areas and would lead to conservative results.
Local wind effects have not been taken into account
to be able to make an unbiased comparison between
the models considered. To reach the goal of the
research, the models were applied to various cases and
the results were subsequently compared with results
of scale model tests and results of a more detailed

Student: S.P. Reijmerink


Thesis Committee: Prof.dr.ir. T. Vellinga, Ir. P. Quist, Dr.ir. M. Zijlema, Ir. A.T.M.M. Kieftenburg,
Dr.ir. M.P.C. de Jong

For further information please contact the section Hydraulic Engineering, 015-2783348
Email: secr-wbk-citg@tudelft.nl

53 | Masters Theses November 2012


3 Hydraulic Engineering

Sedimentation-velocity in jet induced flow

Research on the sedimentation-velocity of sand in the To see if the theory on the sedimentation process can
turbulent jet induced flow of a trailer suction hopper represent the post-trenching process, a calculation
dredger while post-trenching. model is made that uses the theoretical concentra-
tion profile to calculate the sedimentation velocity. A
Embedding of subsea pipelines for protection purposes good similarity was found between the model and the
is usually done in a Trench Install Backfill opera- experiments.
tion. The pipeline can also be embedded after it is The experimental research on the sedimentation
installed on the seabed. This method is called post- velocity in a trench that is created in a post-trenching
trenching. When using a trailer suction hopper dredger process, indicates that sedimentation velocity is largely
for post-trenching, a large water jet erodes the soil independent of the jet parameters. To make the trench
underneath the pipe creating a temporarily trench in longer, it has to be deeper to lengthen the path that the
which the pipeline can sink. Large steel pipelines are bed has to travel. A test with a second run over the bed
inflexible and need a considerable free span to sink to proved highly effective due to the high porosity of the
the desired depth. The length of the trench is limited sand that settles in the first run, the maximum excava-
as the eroded sand that is brought in suspension starts tion depth is twice the depth of the first run. By imple-
to settle in the trench when the velocity of the suspen- menting a pipeline in the experiment it is investigated if
sion decreases. To be able to predict the length of the the pipeline has an influence on the flow conditions and
trench, the sedimentation velocity in jet induced flow is sedimentation velocity.
investigated in this research.

The research describes the experiment series that is


performed to investigate the behavior of a trench that is
created by a vertical jet flow, trailing over a sand bed.
The focus is on the sedimentation part of the trench.
Concentrations and flow velocities are measured to
determine the shape of the trench, the distribution
profile and velocity profile.
The experiments show a clear relation between the
depth of the trench and the length that the trench is
open. A deeper trench (due to a higher pressure or
lower trail velocity) results in all experiments in a longer
trench. The near bed concentration and the sedimenta-
tion velocity do not change a lot for different settings of
the jet.

Student: W.J. Siteur


Thesis Committee: Prof.dr.ir. C. van Rhee, Dr.ir. A.M. Talmon, Ing. M. Biesheuvel, Ir. G.L.M. van der Schrieck

For further information please contact the section Hydraulic Engineering, 015-2783348
Email: secr-wbk-citg@tudelft.nl

54 | Masters Theses November 2012


3 Hydraulic Engineering

Determining vessel motions in a harbour due to waves


Using a numerical chain including a Boussinesq-type wave model

A moored vessel can experience large motions when been overestimated. Using the vessel motion a priori,
agitated by waves. As a result, mooring lines risk without using physical measurements for calibration,
breaking, the ship becomes a dangerously uncontrolled is limited too. The sensitivity for fender friction on the
object, but most importantly unloading and loading the surge-motion, a very relevant motion for loading and
ship is made impossible. From an economic perspec- unloading vessels, induces a high inaccuracy in case of
tive, it is thus important to determine vessel motions uncalibrated settings.
due to waves at a berth. A suitable method including
this in a port design would prevent an unexpectedly Case study results
high inoperativeness of a built quay. The determination The study regarding berth A, Leixes, shows that the
of vessel motion is, however, not an easy matter; wave quay is relatively unprotected for low-frequency waves.
penetration in a harbour is not easily simulated due to Their wave height is considerable with respect to the
its complex geometry and bathymetry. This is further imposed low-frequency wave height (approximately
complicated by the high influence of low-frequency 60%), particularly due to the profound shoaling towards
waves. These waves, especially bound low-frequency the beach and the reflection off the beach.An added
waves, impose a strict demand on the used method. value of the models used in the present report has been
The method used in the present thesis is a chain of the shown by including the harbour basin of the Port of
Boussinesq-type model Triton (Deltares) with the panel- Leixes. The occurrence of seiching is recognized and
method diffraction model Harberth (Van der Molen) and spatially analysed using a method developed within
the time domain vessel motion model Quaysim (Van der this project. The energy of these eigenwaves and their
Molen). This chain adequately takes into account the nodal patterns are an indication of a significant influ-
non-linear wave component, having an important influ- ence of these waves on vessel motion.
ence on the motion and provides a complete indication Finally, the wave model indicates a current caused by
of the relevant processes, using a single model chain. wave-driven setup. The influence thereof on the quay is
An example of the aforementioned problem is the oil likely, although the magnitude of this current in reality
berth A in the Port of Leixes, Portugal. This berth needs to be verified.
experiences a mean inoperativeness of 23%. Within
the present thesis, this case has been elaborated both Applicability of the method
to obtain an insight on the origin of the problem as to The method used in the present report adequately
assess the potential of the model chain for practice- takes into account the relevant wave processes. Vessel
driven engineering activities. The application of the dynamics are properly accounted for too, allowing the
model chain has been restricted by the limited amount inclusion of reflections off the quay wall and non-linear
of available time and the results of the validation of the mooring line forces.
diffraction and motion model. To be applicable in practice-oriented applications,
improvements of the method are necessary, especially
Validation results with respect to the robustness and computational
Due to a discrepancy found between the measured and speed. Nonetheless, the method has shown its added
theoretically expected low-frequency energy content, value in the presented application.
the wavemodels wave input used in the validation
has been defined on the boundary using a measured
timeseries. This improved the global reproduction of
the low-frequency wave energy content. It is expected
that the discrepancy, the high amount of low-frequency
energy in the physical scale model basin, is due to the
control of the wavemaker, in which this energy has

Student: P. van der Ven


Thesis Committee: Prof.ir. T. Vellinga, Prof.ir. H. Ligteringen, Dr.ir. M. Zijlema, Ir. M. de Jong, Ir. A.J. van der Hout

For further information please contact the section Hydraulic Engineering, 015-2783348
Email: secr-wbk-citg@tudelft.nl

55 | Masters Theses November 2012


3 Hydraulic Engineering

Relative Density of a Sand Fill

The Maasvlakte II project is a joint venture between The work methods used for the hydraulic placement,
Boskalis and Van Oord. During the construction, they the discharge conditions, the layer thickness, the water
have measured the relative density for different kind of depth and the soil properties of the borrow area are all
work methods, by making cone penetration tests. The important in the achieved relative densities. From statis-
result of those measurements is that the measured tical testing, with the Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon Rank
relative density for the Maasvlakte II project is higher Sum Test, the used work method has an influence on the
than the values that can be found in literature for the achieved relative density.
different kind of work methods. Thus the objective of
this MSc-thesis is to understand the influencing and
determining processes for the relative density of dumped
or sprayed sand underwater.

This MSc-thesis can be divided in four parts. The first


part describes the characteristics of sand and the rela-
tion between the density and the relative density.
Laboratory testing is executed to determine the rele-
vant parameters of the sand, such as the minimum and
maximum density and the particle size distribution. The
second part describes the used work methods, such as
dumping, rainbowing, back filling through the suction
pipe and spraying with a spray pontoon, that are used
by the construction of the Maasvlakte II project. The
third part describes the analysis of the CPT data. The
CPT data is linked to the work methods and the relative
density based on the correlations of Baldi and Lunne and
Christoffersen. Also, a statistical analysis is made. The
statistical analysis is based upon different kinds of statis-
tical tests, such as Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon Rank
Sum Test. The last part consist of physical hypotheses
that explain the potential influencing and determining
processes for the relative density of dumped and sprayed
sand underwater.

Student: W.C.N. Vessies


Thesis Committee: Prof.dr.ir. C. van Rhee, Ir. G.L.M. van der Schrieck, Dr.ir.P.H.A.J.M. van Gelder,
Ir. M.J.M. van den Heuvel

For further information please contact the section Hydraulic Engineering, 015-2783348
Email: secr-wbk-citg@tudelft.nl

56 | Masters Theses November 2012


3 Hydraulic Engineering

Reliability of Quay Walls


Calibration of Partial Safety Factors Handbook Quay Walls

A committee of Civieltechnisch Centrum Uitvoering The main consequences according to the output of the
Research en Regelgeving (CUR) is currently (2012) probabilistic FEM calculations are:
working on the update of the handbook Quay Walls Higher partial safety factors on the internal angle of
(CUR 211). In the past the partial safety factors in this friction and stiffness parameters of the soil
book were derived using a spring model, but new devel- Lower partial safety factors on the geometrical para-
opments enable to use Finite Element Methods (FEM) meters (retaining height, water levels)
to model sheet-pile structures and quay walls with Mean values for cohesion, sheet-pile parameters and
relieving floor. The main objective is to use FEM (in this anchor diameter
case PLAXIS) to calibrate the partial safety factors. Changes in fault tree for quay walls with relieving
floor
To fulfil this objective, level II probabilistic calculations Adaptation of the in the handbook sheet-pile struc-
(FORM) are performed using Prob2B (a toolbox from tures (CUR 166) prescribed calculation method using
TNO) to define influence coefficients for the different FEM for quay walls with relieving floor (CUR 211)
parameters and reliability indices for the different Additional effort in the research and calculations of
failure mechanisms. This is done for two benchmark other quay walls
quay walls: an anchored sheet-pile and a quay wall with Standardization of probabilistic calculations or sensi-
relieving floor. Both are designed according to the FEM tivity analysis in quay wall design
design guidelines in CUR 166, the handbook on sheet-
pile structures. Furthermore, the calculations require
coefficients of variation for each stochastic parameter,
correlation coefficients and definitions of Limit State
Functions. These are all derived and presented in the
report. With the output of the level II calculations,
a level I method is used to define the partial safety
factors and besides the design procedure of CUR 166
with FEM is evaluated and suggestions for adaptation
for quay walls with relieving floor are presented.

Student: H.J.Wolters
Thesis committee: Dr.ir. K.J. Bakker, Dr.ir. R.B.J. Brinkgreve, Dr.ir. J.G. de Gijt, T. Schweckendiek,
Prof.drs.ir. J.K. Vrijling, Prof.ir. A.C.W.M. Vrouwenvelder

For further information please contact the section Hydraulic Engineering, 015-2783348
Email: secr-wbk-citg@tudelft.nl

57 | Masters Theses November 2012


3 Hydraulic Engineering

Innovative design for lock gates


Curved sliding gate

Design of a lock gate for Nieuwe Zeesluis in IJmuiden After an integrated and consistent conceptual design is
becomes a challenge when the boundary conditions provided, the study presents a rather detailed design
limit the choice for the conventional types of the gate. of certain compartments such as operational equip-
All the initial efforts of this study have been made in ment, guidance devices, tracks, hydraulic bearings and
search of a new alternative to solve the space limit sealing system. Structural and stability checks for the
problem. Finally, when the curved gate concept was extreme load cases, construction and during the special
introduced based on the concept of rolling gates and combined movement of the gate provide necessary
sliding gates, all the functional requirements of the information which result in a preliminary design. The
design had to be met. preliminary design stage ends by evaluating the feasi-
bility of curved sliding gate concept.
This study will discuss the approach and steps in
which the idea was developed and investigates in The final and most important evaluation of the research
three different structural alternatives for the curved study discusses the costs, safety, reliability and avail-
gate in the concept development stage. Based on ability of the gate structure. A qualitative RAMS analysis
certain design objectives, a final innovative concept is accompanied by a cost comparison table provides
chosen and is developed into a preliminary design. The insight on applicability of the gate into the different
main challenge in the conceptual design is to find the situations but especially in this case study. The answer
optimum combination within the alternatives for the to the applicability question is the highlight of the
main compartments of the gate. Every advantageous outcomes within the conclusions of this graduation
solution for a compartment, introduces a new problem work.
in another.

Student: S. Zel Taat


Thesis Committee: Prof.drs.ir. J.K. Vrijling, Ir. A. van der Toorn, Ir. R. Abspoel, Ir. W.P.J. Langedijk,
Th. P.M. van der Tol

For further information please contact the section Hydraulic Engineering, 015-2783348
Email: secr-wbk-citg@tudelft.nl

58 | Masters Theses November 2012


3 Hydraulic Engineering

Upflow limestone contactor for soft and


desalinated water

Desalinated or demineralised water or even soft water alizing process at Hoenderloo marble filtration with the
is characteristically low in hardness, alkalinity and pH. aim to increase the filtering capacity, effluent quality
Thus, these kinds of water need to be re-conditioned and reducing the operational costs at the same time.
(re-mineralized) before distributing for usage as In addition to the technical research, a computer based
drinking water. The produced water is expected to program was built in Excel application with PHREEQC
satisfy the following requirements: safe quality for embedded, which includes all of the developed kinetics
human health, no quality change during distribution and models for calcite dissolution. The program is developed
no demolishing of the distribution infrastructure (no in order to assist the users as an accurate yet handy
corrosion or excessive scaling). tool for quickly predicting or simulating certain calcite
In order to achieve both targets, the water alkalinity, pH dissolution kinetics.
and calcium saturation level must be considered as the
three main parameters in re-mineralization process. In
general, limestone contactors are frequently used for
increasing these three parameters before the water can
be distributed. This technology should be considered as
one of the most popular conditioning techniques used in
drinking water treatment field nowadays. Typical exam-
ples are limestone contactors of Ashkelon Desalination
plant in Israel, Larnaka sea water reversed osmosis
(SWRO) plant in Cyprus and Barcelona SWRO plant in
Spain. In fact, the determining factor for remineralized
water quality is the kinetics of limestone dissolution.
There are several theoretical models (PWP, Chou) as
well as practical models (Dreybrodt) to describe the
calcite dissolution kinetics.
However, the theoretical models tend to idealize the
real kinetics in practice while the empirical models are
not systematic and constituent to be widely applied.
Consequently, this study would mainly focus on devel-
oping the two popular theoretical kinetics models (PWP
and Chou) to a practical model with theoretical basis
that could fully capture the practical calcite dissolution
kinetics.
On top of that, a layer model concept would be
introduced as the base for further developing the
downflow and upflow limestone contactor model.
Subsequently, simulated results indicate that upflow
model is technically more superior to downflow hence
providing more economical benefits as well. Vosbeck,
Anderlohrs experiments as well as the marble filtra-
tion recorded data at Hoenderloo pumping station of
Vitens (Netherlands) would be utilized for building and
verifying models throughout this research. In the end,
an optimal design would be introduced for the reminer-

Student: P.B. Do
Thesis Committee: Prof.dr.ir. W.G.J. van der Meer, Ir. P.J. de Moel, Dr,ir. J.Q.J.C. Verberk, Dr.ir. P.J. Visser, Y.P. Lin

For further information please contact the section Hydraulic Engineering, 015-2783348
Email: secr-wbk-citg@tudelft.nl

59 | Masters Theses November 2012


3 Hydraulic Engineering

Traffic induced vibration in floating thoroughfares


(Vibraties in drijvende wegen als gevolg van het verkeer)

De ontwikkeling van drijvende constructies bevindt Uit het onderzoek is gebleken dat uitgaande van
zich momenteel in een stroomversnelling. De drijvende elementen met een soortelijke massa van 102.5 kg/
kracht hierachter is de alsmaar toenemende druk op m 3, een breedte van 5.4 meter en een hoogte van 1.6
de openbare ruimte die het gevolg is van de verwachte meter, minimaal een lengte van 4.5 meter nodig is
zeespiegelstijging en de volksmigratie naar de water- om verkeer met een snelheid van 120 km/u veilig en
rijke (kust-) gebieden. Logischerwijs vindt de ontwikke- comfortabel te kunnen faciliteren. Voorwaarde is wel dat
ling plaats binnen de woningbouwsector en de kust- en de verbindingen tussen de elementen bestand moeten
havenbouw, maar wat mij betreft mag daar binnenkort zijn tegen ongeveer 40 kN. Verder toont het onderzoek
de wegenbouw aan worden toegevoegd. aan dat in theorie resonantie niet is uit te sluiten, maar
wel effectief kan worden onderdrukt. Dit kan bijvoor-
De drijvende weg die ik gemodelleerd heb maakt onder- beeld door de lengte van de elementen te vergroten
deel uit van het Nederlandse hoofdwegennet dat door tot 5.5 meter. Hierdoor is er voldoende tijd (halve
drassig gebied voert, dat wil zeggen: over land met minuut!) om te anticiperen op zon gevaarlijke situatie.
een hoge grondwaterstand en slappe bodem zoals dat Behalve verlenging is verzwaring van de elementen ook
veelal voorkomt in het westelijk deel van Nederland. De mogelijk. Helaas gaan beide aanpassingen ten koste
weg is enkelbaans en bestaat uit een serie geschakelde, van de transporteerbaarheid. In de ontwerpfase zal
drijvende elementen (pontons). Elk element is rech- naar een goede balans moeten worden gezocht tussen
thoekig van vorm. Onder invloed van het verkeer zal de veiligheid en transporteerbaarheid.
weg verticale uitwijkingen vertonen. Factoren als wind
en golven mogen geen rol van betekenis spelen omdat
ze een te grote invloed zouden hebben op de beweging
waardoor de veiligheid van de gebruiker en de begaan-
baarheid van de weg ernstig in het gedrang komen.

Ook zonder de invloed van wind en golven kunnen


significante uitwijkingen worden opgewekt; binnen
mijn afstudeerproject hebben ik (model)onderzoek
gedaan naar de grootte van de uitwijkingen ten gevolge
van verkeer. Maatgevend voor het onderzoek is het
fysieke fenomeen van de impact achtige uitwijking
die ontstaat wanneer een voertuig de weg oprijdt
en, als de weg lang genoeg is, de resonantie die kan
ontstaan wanneer voertuigen zich voortbewegen met
een snelheid die dicht bij de voortplantingssnelheid ligt
van de verticale golf in de serie drijvende elementen.
Het model is overigens zodanig ontworpen dat de
verbindingen deze vibraties moeten kunnen reduceren.

Student: E.J. Kaspers


Thesis Committee: Prof.drs.ir. J.K. Vrijling, Prof.dr. A.V. Metrikine, Dr.ir. W.G.M. Groeneveld, Ir. W.F. Molenaar.

For further information please contact the section Hydraulic Engineering, 015-2783348
Email: secr-wbk-citg@tudelft.nl

60 | Masters Theses November 2012


3 Hydraulic Engineering

Sustainability as a Procurement Criterion for


Port Investments

Many industries are already aware of the fact that they flexibility, stability, effectiveness and user-friendliness.
can gain higher profits by integrating sustainability Beside it evaluates the scoring on weighted criteria
within their management process. The construction (concordance), the concordance method evaluates how
industry seems to be a late developer. Lately, port low the alternative scores for a good balance between
authorities have started many initiatives for a more the criteria. This is how this method distinguishes
sustainable port. To make ports more sustainable it is itself in a positive way. The criteria with the evalua-
worthwhile to improve the construction of infrastruc- tion method form the model and it is applied on three
ture and building projects: the construction industry is different projects for the construction of quay walls in
still one of the most polluting industries. Hence, in this the port of Rotterdam. There was a clear differentia-
thesis the answer is given to the question of how to tion between the alternatives in the outcomes, in an
integrate sustainability as a procurement criterion for appraisal was made between sustainable criteria and
infrastructure projects in ports. This is done by devel- investment costs. The model is applicable in different
oping a procurement model which is aimed at sustain- phases in the tender process. The scores on concord-
able procurement. Sustainability is important for a port: ance and discordance give extra information about the
the amount of total environmental space is decreasing foundations of the outcomes of the tender, which is an
due to stricter policies. To enable further growth of port advantage of the method.
activities, sustainable management is inevitable. A more
sustainable port results in a larger public support for
port activities. Furthermore, sustainable management
can result in lower costs due to a higher efficiency in
the business activities.

It is important that the port authority chooses for a


contracting form that allows enough space for the
contractor to deliver a sustainable construction. This is
possible with innovative contracting forms such as D&B
contracts in contrast to traditional contracting forms.
The right procurement procedure is important too.
The model includes criteria and an evaluation method.
These criteria are set based on interviews with stake-
holders and literature search. Those can be categorized
in the fields People, Planet and Profit. It is essential to
apply Life Cycle Analyses with a preference for quanti-
fication of criteria e.g. emission footprints. In practice
this is almost impossible due to the complex computa-
tions which contractors have to do. That is why the
applied model is different from the ideal model, because
there is chosen to assess the different measures in a
qualitative way on 1) how specific, measurable, accept-
able, realistic and time bounded the measures are
and on 2) the impact during the whole Life Cycle of
the construction. The alternatives are evaluated with
the concordance method. This method is emerged as
the most suitable based on applicability, transparency,

Student: E.F.M. Broesterhuizen


Thesis Committee: Prof. T. Vellinga, Ir. L. Docters van Leeuwen, Ing. J.W. Zwakhals, Ir. P. Taneja, Dr. M. Nijdam,
Dr.ir. R.J. Verhaeghe

For further information please contact the section Hydraulic Engineering, 015-2783348
Email: secr-wbk-citg@tudelft.nl

61 | Masters Theses November 2012


3 Hydraulic Engineering

The influence of the wave height distribution on


the stability of single layer concrete armour units

The dimensions of single layer concrete armour units To find the relation between waves and rocking,
(interlocking armour units) are calculated with a similar physical model tests are performed. In these tests
stability relation as the stability relation for quarry a model breakwater is loaded by wave series with
stone. In these design formulas an average/signifi- different wave height distributions, wave steepness and
cant wave load is used (Hs). Since quarry stone gains groupiness. It resulted that every wave has a certain
its stability only from gravity, this type of armour unit probability of causing rocking of an armour unit. This
is constructed in a double layer and therefore some probability of rocking is mainly dependent on the height
damage development is allowed. Interlocking armour of individual waves and to a lesser extent on the groupi-
units are constructed in a single layer and the design ness of the wave series. The steepness of the waves
should be based on zero damage. This research investi- appeared to have a negligible small influence. When the
gates whether this different approach to damage leads found rocking probability relation is combined with the
to a different characteristic design wave load which criterion for rocking, it appears that H2% is mathemati-
will increase the accuracy of the design method for cally a better fitting parameter for a stability relation
interlocking armour units. It is focussed on the influ- according to rocking. A new stability relation for Xbloc
ence of the wave height distribution on the stability is derived based on H2%. Additionally, it is found that
of single layer concrete armour units in general and very extreme wave heights can dislodge an armour unit
Xbloc in particular. For Xbloc, zero damage is defined in such a way that this armour unit does not interlock
as a criterion for rocking of the armour units: during anymore. Because it is undesirable that armour units
design conditions not more than 2% of the units are do not interlock anymore, dislodgement of armour units
allowed to move during more than 2% of the waves. should be accounted for in the stability calculations.
To find a stability relation based on this criterion, the Therefore, also a stability relation based on dislodge-
stability of Xbloc is investigated according to rocking of ment of units is provided.
armour units contrary to the conventionally approach to
stability based on the number of displaced units from
the armour layer.

Student: S.A.A. Zwanenburg


Thesis Committee: Prof.dr.ir. W.S.J. Uijttewaal, Dr.ir. G.P. van Vledder, Ir. H.J. Verhagen, E.Ten Oever

For further information please contact the section Hydraulic Engineering, 015-2783348
Email: secr-wbk-citg@tudelft.nl

62 | Masters Theses November 2012


3 Hydraulic Engineering

Simulating Barrier Island Evolution


Coupling Process-Based Models

Barrier islands are important features in the coastal During recovery, aeolian transport does play an impor-
zone, among others because they shelter the main- tant role in transporting the sediment towards the
land from waves and storm surge. Thus, the degra- beachand dunes, where it is often trapped by vegeta-
dation of barrier islands can pose a threat to coastal tion. The lower wave height during these periods
safety. Hence, there is a societal demand for under- allows for a relatively larger influence of short wave
standing and predicting barrier island evolution. High asymmetry, that can lead to hydraulic transport towards
energy events, such as storms and hurricanes, play an the shoreline, creating a sediment supply for beachand
important part in this evolution, with hydraulic sedi- dune recovery. This makes the foreshore zone an inter-
ment transport causing large and rapid changes in face between hydraulic and aeolian processes.
morphology. The coupling between XBeach and Dune allows the
In the periods between storms, (partial) barrier island models to exchange information after every communal
recovery takes place, largely driven by aeolian sediment timestep, thus facilitating dynamic interaction. This
transport on longer timescales. Hence, when predicting is only necessary when simulating recovery periods,
the morphological development of barrier islands, both for the influence of aeolian transport during storms is
hydraulic and aeolian transport need to be taken into assumed negligible.
account. Also, both the event timescale of hours to The structure of the ESMF makes it possible to couple
days, and the recovery timescale of weeks to months multiple models together, requiring only a few adapta-
need to be resolved. tions to the structure of the sub-model codes. This
also provides the flexibility to add new or replace old
Currently, no single numerical model exists that simu- models with relative ease. To confirm the predictive
lates both hydraulic and aeolian transport, though there skill of this coupled model, a hindcast of six months of
are models that resolve either one separately. So, to morphological development of Assateague Island will be
resolve both simultaneously, twomodels will have to be performed.
coupled.
The above leads to the two objectives of this thesis; To this end,storms are distinguished from recovery
firstly, constructing a coupling between a hydraulic periods, and are simulated in chronological order, the
and an aeolian sediment transport model, and analyze former with XBeach, the latter with the coupled model.
physical and numerical aspects of the model interac- The simulations lead to negative skill scores because of
tion. For this purpose the models XBeach and Dune are a significant overestimation of storm induced erosion.
selected. Even when using an overwash sediment transport
The coupling is created using the Earth System limiter to reduce the erosion during storms, the skill
Modelling Framework (ESMF). The second objectiveis scores remain negative. It can be concluded that
confirmation of the predictive skill of the coupled model the first objective has been fulfilled, since a coupling
for the evolution of a real barrier island. Assateague between XBeach and Dune has been constructed.
Island (MD, USA) is selected, and a combination of Although a hindcast was performed, this could not
model skill score and bias is used to represent the confirm the predictive skill of the coupled model, so the
predictive capabilities of the coupled model. second objective was not completed.
From a process point of view, undertow, long wave
flow, and increased turbulence due to wave breaking
have a significant effect on the sediment transport
during storms, and all are represented within the
XBeach model. Aeolian transport is less important
during storms, because the sand supply is limited by
submergence and moisture content.

Student: J.P. den Bieman


Thesis Committee: Prof.dr.ir. M.J.F. Stive, Dr.ir. J.S.M. van Thiel-de Vries, Drs. F. Baart, Dr.ir. A.R. van Dongeren,
Dr.ir. J.E.A. Storms

For further information please contact the section Hydraulic Engineering, 015-2783348
Email: secr-wbk-citg@tudelft.nl

63 | Masters Theses November 2012


3 Hydraulic Engineering

RAMSSHEEP analysis: a tool for risk-driven


maintenance
Applied for primary flood defence systems in the Netherlands

Introduction Moreover, it is not always profitable to take such invest-


Floods are a threat to millions of people who live in ments in an existing system. Therefore maintenance
lowlands like the Netherlands. Therefore the Dutch can be applied to decrease the probability of occur-
government has been given requirements for primary rence temporarily. Dominant failure events have been
flood defence systems like dikes. The current condition approached by describing scientific deterioration models
of most of these dikes does not fulfill to these require- which illustrates decrease of strength over time. A
ments based on flood risk analyses of RWS. The most maintenance optimization describes the most econom-
logical step is to take measures by constructing new ical beneficial time intervals in which maintenance
structures or planning regular maintenance activi- should be applied based on the deterioration model.
ties over time. It is most commonly used to focus on Eventually these results form the basis for the transla-
economical most beneficial measures and maintenance tion to RAMSSHEEP requirements. This result illustrates
intervals for a primary flood defence system like the which requirements have been used and which not. This
Afsluitdijk. comparison (Probabilistic Approach vs. RAMSSHEEP)
gives more grip on the assessment of the correctness
Research goal of RAMSSHEEP as a risk-driven maintenance tool in the
RWS aims to launch a certain risk-driven mainte- hydraulic engineering.
nance concept named RAMSSHEEP which should be
developed by the current market. The objective is to Conclusion and recommendation
assess whether or not RAMSSHEEP can be applied The probabilistic analysis always gives the most
as a risk-driven maintenance tool for primary flood economical beneficial solution which forms the main
defence systems based on the results of the existing driver of all the problems in society. RAMSSHEEP has
method of Probabilistic Approach. By describing the proven not to be able to use as a risk-driven main-
two approaches of a flooding problem more insight tenance tool with economics as the main driver. By
will be gained in the advantages and disadvantages of combining the probabilistic analysis and maintenance
RAMSSHEEP. optimization, it is recommended to apply a new given
model named EMAR.
Methodology and approach
A general flooding problem has been approached
by analyzing the system on its main functions.
Sub-sequently, a probabilistic analysis has been made
by estimating the possible damage and its annual
probability of occurrence which together lead to the
monetary risk.
To decrease this probability of occurrence some meas-
ures can be taken which will cost a certain amount of
money. Eventually these investments will be analyzed
whether or not this amount is lower than the expected
level of damage in the old situation, so is the criterion
of gaining safety larger than the improvement costs
met?

Student: W. Wagner
Thesis Committee: Prof.dr.ir. J.K. Vrijling, Dr.ir. P.H.A. J.M. van Gelder, Prof.ir. A.C.W.M. Vrouwenvelder, Ing. R.E.
Peterse, Dhr. B. Maas

For further information please contact the section Hydraulic Engineering, 015-2783348
Email: secr-wbk-citg@tudelft.nl

64 | Masters Theses November 2012


3 Hydraulic Engineering

The morphological impact of the deepening of the


deep foreshore on the Dutch coast

The deep foreshore is the part of the cross-shore profile Increases of longshore transport vary between 3 to 8%,
that is between 8 m and 20 m deep. Indications exist depending on the waveheight and angle of incidence.
that this area might be deepening. In this report the The increase of longshore transport is assumed to be
long term morphological consequences of this possible proportional to the increase of longshore transport
trend on the sandy coast of Holland (the stretch gradients along the sandy coast of Holland.
between Hook of Holland and Den Helder, excluding 3. Cross-shore transport
artificial defences) are discussed. It is assumed that the The process-based Unibest TC model is used for the
deep foreshore is deepening at a rate of 2 cm a year. calculations. Unibest TC is capable of simulating the
various processes that contribute to sediment transport
Two scenarios, representing the hypothetical situation such as streaming, wave asymmetry, undertow and long
after 50 and 100 years, namely, scenarios where the bound waves. Deepening of the deep foreshore leads
deep foreshore has deepened 1 metre respectively 2 to an overall clear seaward shift of calculated transport
metres, are compared to the scenario where the deep rates in the order of several cubic metres per year per
foreshore does not deepen more or less the actual running meter (m) of coastline.
situation. General conclusion: altogether, these effects are limited
Six locations, spread along the sandy coast of Holland, when put into the perspective of the yearly volume of
are subjected to calculations to determine the effect suppletions that are required now and in the future.
that deepening of the deep foreshore has on the sandy However, they would be lasting and would endure many
coast of Holland. The focus is on three morphological decades.
aspects:
1. Dune erosion and extent of area of offshore
deposition of sand storm surge.
The process-based DurosTA model is used for calcula-
tions. The sandy coast is subjected to a storm surge
with wave heights and water levels reaching maximum
design values.
The calculations show that dune erosion during storm
surge does not significantly increase as a result of the
deepening of the deep foreshore. The area of deposi-
tion the extent to which sand is deposited offshore
during a storm surge increases slightly due to deep-
ening of the deep foreshore.
2. Longshore transport
The impact of deepening of the deep foreshore on the
Dutch coast is determined by calculating the longshore
transport created by two wavetypes, that together form
a couple that is representative for the morphologi-
cally relevant wave types along the sandy coast. The
process-based Unibest LT model is used for calcula-
tions. The Van Rijn formulation of sediment transport is
applied.

Student: T. van Walsem


Thesis Committee: Prof.dr.ir. M.J.F. Stive, Ir. C. den Heijer, Dr.ir. P.J. Visser, Drs. N. Geleijnse

For further information please contact the section Hydraulic Engineering, 015-2783348
Email: secr-wbk-citg@tudelft.nl

65 | Masters Theses November 2012


3 Hydraulic Engineering

66 | Masters Theses November 2012


3.a

Civil Engineering theses

Hydraulic Engineering
COMEM Domain
Coastal and Marine Engineering and Management
3a Hydraulic Engineering COMEM Domain

Calculation of Wave Forces using REEF3D

Non-breaking wave forces on a cylindrical pile are


calculated numerically by solving the three-dimensional
Navier Stokes equations in the numerical wave tank
of REEF3D. Initially, the numerical wave tank is vali-
dated by comparison of the numerical results with the
analytical solutions for varying grid density, time step
size, numerical beach width, wave amplitude, numerical
methods- time and spatial discretization, relaxation
method and wave type. The performance of the wave
tank under the aforementioned various conditions is
observed. As a result the appropriate parameters to
be used for the numerical experiment are obtained.
Finally, simulations are carried out to calculate the
wave forces on a cylindrical pile and the numerical
results are compared to the results obtained using the
Morison formula. During validation, it is observed that
the wave tank gives good results with an error of 0.24%
in the wave amplitude at a grid density of 100 cells per
wavelength and CFL number 0.1 for a fifth order Stokes
wave of amplitude 0.05m and wavelength 2m. A recent
study using a different approach reported a requirement
of 200 cells per wavelength. Thus, the performance of
the wave tank in this study is considered very good. The
calculation of wave forces also shows promising results.
The wave forces from REEF3D seem to be slightly
under estimated compared to the Morison force in the
four numerical experiments carried out. There exists a
possibility of erroneous calculation of the Morison force.
There were no instabilities in the solution from the
numerical calculations. Due to the absence of simple
experimental data for wave force on a cylinder and
time constraints, validation is attempted only through
Morison formula by adding the formula in the code.
The validation of wave force calculation could not be
deemed conclusive.

Student: A.M. Kamath


Thesis Committee: H. Bihs

For further information please contact the section Hydraulic Engineering, 015-2783348
Email: secr-wbk-citg@tudelft.nl

68 | Masters Theses November 2012


3a Hydraulic Engineering COMEM Domain

One-Dimensional Viscoelastic Simulation of Ice


Behaviour in Relation to Dynamic Ice Action

The goal of this work was to simulate the behaviour


of ice under cyclic loading. The linear viscoelastic
Kelvin, Maxwell and Burgers models were implemented
in Matlab by means of The Boltzmann superposition
principle. This method was verified using cases which
could be represented by analytical solutions. During
the extensive sensitivity analysis carried out, it was
determined that the ratio n/(f) influences the shape of
the strain response curve in a creep test for all of the
models considered in this study. With the knowledge of
parameter n/(f), preliminary conclusion on the result
of the test can be drawn. The change of the second
modulus is defined by the Kelvin unit which determines
the delayed elastic deformations. The time required
for these deformations to fully developed is given by
52. The changes in the value of the second modulus
occurs only before this value is attained. However in
linear viscoelastic Burgers model, this change is rela-
tively small . This is because the Maxwell unit in the
Burger model has a major influence on the shape of
the stress-strain curves. Available literature was used
to obtain the input parameters for Burgers model for
ice. They were obtained by calibration of the model
data with the experimental data presented therein by
producing a best fit curve. Since this study utilized a
non-linear model to replicate the experimental data, it
was also used to compare the results of a linear model
with a non-linear model. The region conforming to the
delayed elastic deformation was not represented accu-
rately by the linear model. Uniaxial cyclic compression
test performed at UNIS was modeled using the linear
viscoelastic Burgers model using the scaled down input
parameters obtained through calibration with fresh ice
creep test to enable their application to this case. The
viscoelastic model was unable to completely agree with
the findings from the test carried out at UNIS.

Student: M. Yazarov
Thesis Committee: Prof.dr.ir. M.J.F. Stive, K. Hyland

For further information please contact the section Hydraulic Engineering, 015-2783348
Email: secr-wbk-citg@tudelft.nl

69 | Masters Theses November 2012


3a Hydraulic Engineering COMEM Domain

70 | Masters Theses November 2012


4.

Civil Engineering theses

Geo-Engineering
4 Geo Engineering

Floating Piles
An investigative study into the behavior of friction piles within a
settling soil profile

Loading of a highly impermeable soft soil substratum, This entire study will be split up into two separate parts.
like the placing of an artificial island on a marine clay This study, which is the first part, will focus on the
or road construction on peat soils, will cause consoli- settlement of the soil profile and its modeling this in a
dation leading to settlements. Due to the imperme- geotechnical centrifuge. The centrifuge is used to scale
ability of these soils consolidation can take years to up the dimensions of the sample, and scale down the
complete. Extra loading, i.e. buildings or other facilities, consolidation process. The amount of settlement occur-
will cause even more compression of the soil causing ring due to this consolidation is predicted with different
differential settlements. Differential settlements cause calculation methods and checked with centrifuge tests.
large damage and mitigating measures are difficult and The next part of the research will focus on the interac-
costly. tion between pile and soil, including centrifuge tests.
One of the measures to prevent these differential
settlements from occurring is the use of settlement
reducing piles. These piles are not placed on a bearing
substratum but are installed in the settling soil profile.
This will cause to piles to settle together with the soil.

Different uncertainties in these so called floating piles


are the amount of settlement the soil shows. This is the
driving mechanism in the problem. Because the soil will
both load and support the pile it is important to have a
good image of the subsoil reaction, both over the depth
of the stratum as well as its reaction in time.
Besides this another important uncertainty is the inter-
action between the pile and the soil. The strength of friction pile in a settling soil profile
the interface between the pile and soil varies depending
on soil type, pile material and depth of the pile. Load
- displacement curves can be determined at different
depths to make an evaluation of the stresses in the
piles and the amount of settlement caused by the loads.

Student: J.G. Bol


Thesis Committee: Prof.ir. A.F. van Tol, Dr.ir. K.J. Bakker, Dr.ir. J. Dijkstra, ing. H.J. Everts, Dr. M. Cunningham

For further information please contact the section Geo-Engineering, 015-2781423


Email: M.J.M.Ammerlaan@tudelft.nl

72 | Masters Theses November 2012


5.

Civil Engineering theses

Watermanagement
5 Watermanagement

Pluvial flood damage modelling.


Assessment of the flood damage model HOWAD-PREVENT

Introduction Results
Flooding is a natural phenomenon, but human activity Results show that there is significant increase in the
has significantly altered the natural drainage processes number of flooded buildings and consequently the
thereby occasionally causing greater flood risk. Urban damage with a water level increase of each 0,1 m step
flooding has become more frequent due to a number of meaning that the model estimates are sensitive to
factors including climate change, urban growth and an water level changes. As expected, there is difference in
increase in paved surfaces. Pluvial flooding results from damage estimates, if two different depth-damage curves
heavy rainfall when water that does not infiltrate into are used.
the ground ponds in hollows or flows over the ground. In
flood damage estimation, the concept of damage curves Conclusions and recommendations
or damage functions is applied. Such functions give the The model can be successfully used for pluvial flood
building damage due to inundation. Most damage assess- damage assessment. The main uncertainty sources of
ment models have in common that the direct monetary the HOWAD-PREVENT are all input data sources water
damage is obtained from the type of the element at risk level, building stock classification and depth-damage
and the inundation depth. curves. While building classification has the least influ-
ence on the uncertainty, both water level and depth-
Problem definition damage curves have the most influence. Some of the
Flood damage assessment models do not focus solely on recommendations for model adjustments include relative
pluvial flood damage estimation. In addition, the existing depth-damage curve development especially for pluvial
flood damage models and developed depth-damage flood events and automation of the building stock anal-
curves have not been tested for application of pluvial yses. Recommendations for further research are model
flood events. validation by comparing model outcomes with insurance
company payouts.
Research
This study is carried out with the main objective to test
the flood damage assessment model HOWAD-PREVENT
in a case study in Rotterdam and to evaluate the uncer-
tainty and sensitivity of this model. The model applica-
bility and sensitivity was tested by running the model
with two building type files together with three water
level files.

Student: L. Sterna
Thesis Committee: Prof.ir. F.H.L.R. Clemens, Dr.ir. J.A.E. ten Veldhuis, Dr.ir. O.A.C. Hoes, Ir. M.H. Spekkers

For further information please contact the section Water Management, +31 (0)15 278 1646
Email: m.a.j.hubert@tudelft.nl

74 | Masters Theses November 2012


5 Watermanagement

On the Topographic Classification of the


Chemoga Watershed, Ethiopia

The applicability of recently developed landscape clas-


sification system that uses height above the nearest
drainage (HAND) and slope was tested for the Chemoga
basin located in east Africa, Ethiopia, than the place it
was developed for. Besides that the sensitivity of HAND
and slope for various inputs in the landscape classifi-
cation model and location of the observed data used
for the calibration of HAND and slope, were tested.
Using the threshold Hand and slope the catchment was
grouped into three distinct runoff generating units,
i.e. wetland, hillslope and plateau. The equifinality of
the threshold HAND and slope that helps to classify
the catchment into these landscape units decreases
as we use observed data collected from the boundary
between different landscape units. In addition, having
enough hydrotope data from all hydrotope units lower
the discrepancy caused by not having the right flow
initiation area threshold and insulates the problem of
having misinterpreted observed data. Hence similar
landscape unit in most part of the world exhibit similar
runoff generating property having the right frame work
to collect data to classify the basin into these units will
make the communication between hydrologists easy.

Student: F.B.M. Desta


Thesis Committee: Prof.dr.ir. H.H.G. Savenije, Prof.dr. S. Uhlenbrook, Dr. M. Hrachowitz, Dr. Y.A. Mohamed

For further information please contact the section Water Management, +31 (0)15 278 1646
Email: m.a.j.hubert@tudelft.nl

75 | Masters Theses November 2012


5 Watermanagement

Cold CANON: Anammox at low temperature

Introduction Result
The process of one-stage partial-nitritation and 1. Through lab experiments, ways of limiting NOB
Anammox system can be called CANON. Although activity (by lowering DO) and remaining high AOB
CANON has many advantages over traditional N removal activity (by setting an appropriate DO) and Anammox
methods, CANON needs high temperature (around 30) activity (by setting an appropriate DO and pH,
to operate. So if CANON or Anammox in CANON can ensuring enough N load, controlling low shear stress
work at low temperature, this innovative technology can and low NO 2- concentration in the bulk, keeping a
also be applied in mainstream WWTP, which will make short SRT which didnt washout Anammox) at 15 C
WWTP more cost-efficient and sustainable. CANON were found.
at low temperature would be the focus of my thesis. 2. Through model simulation, mainstream CANON had
I did my research in cooperation with Environmental smaller energy consumption, less footprint and better
Biotechnology department and my lab experiments were effluent quality, so its application would be cost-
also done there. efficient for Dokhaven WWTP.

Conclusions and Recommendations


CANON or Anammox at 15 C can have a good perfor-
mance (with TN removal efficiency of more than 60%)
in lab-scale as long as suitable operating conditions
were supplied. The suitable operating conditions were
determined by understanding granular sludge structure
and bacterial characteristics and by lab experience.
Based on the model simulation and balance calculation
of N and energy, the mainstream CANON would be very
promising to Dokhaven WWTP.

Research
My research focused on how AOB, NOB, Anammox
competed with each other and develop themselves in
granules at low temperatures (mainly at 15 C) under
different operating conditions. The whole research was
divided into two parts:
1. Lab experiments: to obtain the overall N removal
efficiency of the system, activities of AOB, NOB
and Anammox, and morphology of granules under
different operating conditions at 15 C.
2. Model simulation: to know the impact on energy
consumption and N removal efficiency of the imple-
mentation of mainstream CANON in Dokhaven WWTP.

Student: C. Fei
Thesis Committee: Prof.ir. J.B. van Lier, Prof.ir. M.C.M. van Loosdrecht, Dr.ir. M.K. de Kreuk, Dr.ir. R. Kleerebezem,
Dr.ir. H.L.F.M. Spanjers, Ing. T. Lotti

For further information please contact the section Water Management, +31 (0)15 278 1646
Email: m.a.j.hubert@tudelft.nl

76 | Masters Theses November 2012


5 Watermanagement

Judgment under Uncertainty


A Probabilistic Evaluation Framework for Decision-Making about
Sanitation Systems in Low-Income Countries

Introduction Conclusions and Recommendations


Sanitation, as described by the World Health By applying the probabilistic evaluation approach for
Organization (WHO), refers to the provisions of facili- decision-making about sanitation facilities in low-
ties and services for safe disposal of human urine and income unplanned slum settlement of Nyalenda in
faeces. On the outset of the 21st century, 40% of the Kisumu, Kenya (based on limited available data about
worlds inhabitants do not have access to sanitation this region in literature) it is indicated that while a sani-
facilities and still rely on a bucket, a bush or a back- tation option may be known for fulfilling a certain task
street for excretion. Technically, all options that are by definition, through a probabilistic evaluation it may
required to deal with the global sanitation problem be revealed that the local conditions are not likely to
seem to have been already developed. However, the allow the expected outcome to occur in practice and as
challenge remains in selection and implementation a result this option would have no priority among other
of technologies in a way that the desirable outcomes options. The necessity for monitoring and post-evalua-
would be resulted. Some decision-making support tools tion of implemented sanitation projects in order to have
have been developed so far to address this problem by sufficient feedback for improvement of future decisions
assisting the decision-makers in selecting the appro- is also highlighted.
priate technologies. While decision-making is about
considering the likelihood of uncertain events, in most
of the existing evaluation approaches the complex task
of predicting and evaluating probabilities is reduced
to simple judgmental operations. For instance, evalua-
tion of sanitation options is often performed based on
predicting the outcomes that best represent a sanitation
system, with no or little regard to the factors that limit
the predictive accuracy.

Research
This thesis adopts a new evaluation approach by taking
into account the real world examples from executed
sanitation facilities and develops a probabilistic evalua-
tion framework in which sanitation options are assessed
based on the probabilities that specific outcomes occur
in practice. Absolute judgments are replaced by prob-
able assessments, as this approach tries to keep its
distance from making the uncertain certain. Although
there may be a hidden consensus that quantification of
occurrence probabilities for various outcomes of sanita-
tion options is not always possible, some quantification
methods are developed and presented in this thesis for
all the assessment criteria. Moreover, this thesis does
not only focus on making
the decisions, but also tries to channel the decisions in
a way that the negative outcomes of sanitation facilities
would be reduced through the measures that could be
taken to improve the performance of sanitation options.

Student: S. Malek Pour


Thesis Committee: Prof.dr.ir. J. van Lier, Prof.dr.ir. F. Clemens, Dr.ir. J. Langeveld, Ir. Laura Talsma

For further information please contact the section Water Management, +31 (0)15 278 1646
Email: m.a.j.hubert@tudelft.nl

77 | Masters Theses November 2012


5 Watermanagement

Innovative Design of Gully Pot for Preventing Big


particles Clogging Problem

Introduction Conclusions and recommendations


Gully pots or roadside catch basins are a common and The gully pot clogging problems can be improving by
important part of sewerage drainage networks. Their new alternatives design. And the results show that big
primary function is to retain larger solids from road size of gully pot design also will be a good choice in the
runoff. They are used to minimize the problems associ- future. However, the experiment results show that the
ated with sediment in downstream drainage structures, new alternatives will cause a higher water level on the
pumps, treatment plants and receiving waters. testing table. Also the bicycle safety on the road should
be considered. For the further research, the experiment
Problem definition method should be improved and the maintenance cost
Gully pots clogging problems have gradually been for the new design should be a concern.
recognized over recent years. Blockage of inflow
devices (especially gully pots) is the most frequent
cause of flooding, for flooding of buildings and of roads.
Gully pot blockages cause the highest numbers of flood
incidents and are subject to larger uncertainty than
other basic events.

Research
After literature study, it is clear that my research
focuses on large particles clogging problem. To achieve
my goal, the approach could be divided in several
aspects:
1. In the first place, In order to define the large parti-
cles which real clogged gully pot, a field work to
interview the on-site workers from cleaning company
is done.
2. Based on feedback from on-site field work, 4 kind of
new alternatives are proposed.
3. Then a laboratory experiment is designed to test
these alternatives and also a new re-designed gully
pot provided by Wavin Company.

Results
1. The new grating alternatives for original gully pot
can significantly reduce the incidence of gully pot
clogging problem. They can reduce the covering
percentage of the grating during the extreme rain fall
event and leave more opening space on the grating.
2. The new gully pot from Wavin Company has a better
performance than the original gully pot. But consid-
ering the big settling tank and large grating of the
new gully pot, it is not fair to directly compare with
the other alternatives of original gully pot.

Student: Q. Hao
Thesis Committee: Prof.dr.ir. N.C. van de Giesen, Dr.ir.F.H.M. van de Ven, Prof.dr.ir. Wim S.J. Uijttewaal,
Dr.ir. Marie-claire ten Veldhuis

For further information please contact the section Water Management, +31 (0)15 278 1646
Email: m.a.j.hubert@tudelft.nl

78 | Masters Theses November 2012


5 Watermanagement

Evaluation of hazard classification systems


Of water source, sanitation and hygiene behavior in determining
drinking water safety

Introduction Results
The research was performed in two rural sites in Thailand 1. The first investigation found that the hazards in Laos were
and Laos. The Diarrhea and Dengue (DIADEN) group from more severe than in Thailand.
the Norwegian University of Life Sciences facilitated the 2. Water quality of the rainwater source (improved) was vari-
fieldwork. In the Thai site, rainwater was the main drinking ably contaminated. The unprotected dug well (unimproved)
water source, whereas in Lao site, unprotected dug well was was grossly contaminated.
predominant in dry season and was replaced by rainwater in 3. Water quality at the household containers was also variable.
wet season. Drinking water was largely consumed untreated. Overall, there was significant deterioration of water quality
Combined with varying sanitation service and hygiene behavior, from sources to households that can be attributed to house-
it was assumed that the safety of drinking water might be hold water handling practices (e.g. extraction methods,
compromised. cleanliness, treatment).
4. The hazard classification system for water sources in Laos
Problem definition was moderately correlated with water quality data and was
The global monitoring of the MDG target to halve the popula- not significantly correlated for Thailand. The sanitation and
tion without safe drinking water access is performed by the hygiene hazards were not significantly correlated in both
Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP). The JMP uses techno- sites.
logical classification (improved or unimproved sources) as 5. The CBT data was significantly different from the Colisure/
monitoring indicator for water safety. This has been criticized Quanti-tray 2000 data.
for being inadequate in representing the actual conditions
in water provision. The core argument is that drinking water
quality at improved sources might not necessarily be free
from pathogens. In addition, drinking water that is safe at the
sources might as well be recontaminated through various water
handling practices, particularly where manual collection, trans-
port and storage are common. Thus, in this study it is proposed
that the technological classification is refined through the use
of a semi-quantitative hazard classification system.

Research
In the first part, the research was focused on the identifica- Household storage (medium earth jars) and point of
tion and classification of the hazards found at the various use container (plastic gallon) in Laos (left)
water sources and the hazards related to sanitation facility Rainwater collection systems (large concrete jars) in
and hygiene behavior. This was achieved through sanitary Thailand (right)
inspection, household questionnaire and spot observation
carried out in about two weeks time. In the second part, Conclusions and recommendations
water samples were collected twice at selected sources and The JMP indicator overestimates water safety both at sources
household drinking containers. Samples were tested for E. coli and at households. The hazard classification system, if refined
as faecal indicator organisms, using the standard Colisure/ further with weighted-scoring and long-term water quality
Ouanti-tray 2000 method from IDEXX. The water quality data data, might enable a more accurate representation of the
were then used to validate the hazard classification systems. actual conditions. Correlations with health impacts are also
Simultaneously, a new E. coli enumeration method, the recommended. Furthermore, manual water handling practices
Compartment Bag Test (CBT) by University of North Carolina, compromises water quality and it is thus advised to eliminate
was used in parallel to investigate the comparability of the two hand-water contact as much as possible.
tests.

Student: W. Novalia
Thesis Committee: Prof.dr. G. Medema, Prof.dr.ir. J.B. van Lier, Dr.ir. M. Bakker, Prof. T. A. Stenstrm

For further information please contact the section Water Management, +31 (0)15 278 1646
Email: m.a.j.hubert@tudelft.nl

79 | Masters Theses November 2012


5 Watermanagement

Financial Sustainability of Rural Water Supplies


in Western Kenya
Comparing technology types and management models

Introduction than at the handpumps.


Kenya is in the top ten of countries with the largest Comparing the four management models, the diffe-
population without access to safe drinking water. rences were not big. The community managed loca-
Large investments are done in the Kenyan rural water tions have difficulties with making people pay. At the
supply, but recent studies show that many of the new combined managed systems the responsibilities for
water supplies stop functioning within a few years after O&M and financial management are not clear. At the
implementation. This study compares the financial government systems the costs (including high sala-
sustainability of rural water supplies in Western Kenya. ries of government staff) are too high for the amount
Within this comparison the aim is to compare different of users. The privately managed systems score
technology types, different management models and slightly higher, especially in terms of cost recovery.
different combinations of these two. The included tech-
nology types are a handpump and a motorized pump, Recommendations
both used for ground water pumping. The included Four recommendations are made:
management models are community management, The higher costs make the motorized pump less
government management and private management. suitable for use in rural areas of Western Kenya.
For 27 handpumps and 25 motorized pumps data are Actions regarding users willingness to pay are
collected about service level, operation and mainte- required: economic development, training about the
nance, financial management and cost recovery. importance of clean water which is not for free and
training for responsible entities about dealing with
Results / Conclusions sanctions against non-payment and about making
Out of all handpumps, the locations with commu- finances more transparent.
nity management and the locations with combined Improving community management by increasing
community and government management scored low. the influence of the local authorities: part of major
The communities were not able to collect enough maintenance costs, performance monitoring and
money. The private managed handpumps scored retraining.
good, especially in terms of cost recovery and quick More attention for private management including
response to breakdowns. government contribution in investment costs, training
The motorized pumps scored low at the locations for private owners and formal recognition of private
with combined community and government manage- management.
ment and at the locations with government manage-
ment. At the community managed motorized pumps,
the committees were well organized but they did
not manage to make all users pay. At the privately
managed motorized pumps, the responsibilities for
O&M and financial management were not clearly
defined but the financial situation was good.
Comparing the two technologies, the handpumps
score higher on cost recovery and the motorized
pumps score higher on O&M and financial manage-
ment. The responsible entities at the motorized
pumps have more need to be organized because of
the daily need for staff and money for e.g. fuel refil-
ling. A negative side of the motorized pumps are the
high costs per user per year, about nine times higher

Student: A. Adams
Thesis Committee: Prof.ir. L.C. Rietveld, Dr.ir. D. van Halem, C. Tiwari, Dr. J.O. Kroesen

For further information please contact the section Water Management, +31 (0)15 278 1646
Email: m.a.j.hubert@tudelft.nl

80 | Masters Theses November 2012


5 Watermanagement

Water quality in bathing waters


An analysis to determine the influencing factors on faecal bacteria
concentration peaks

Introduction Results
The water quality at bathing locations in the Statistically significant relationships were found with
Netherlands is assessed once every two weeks during E.coli and/or intestinal enterococci for the following
the bathing season by monitoring for the presence of variables:
faecal indicator bacteria, Escherichia coli and intestinal
enterococci. If the limits of bacteria concentrations surface area of the bathing water
(CEC, 76/160/EEG and CEU, 2006/7/EG) are exceeded depth of the bathing water
the public is informed via the internet and by posting presence of an adjacent combined sewer overflow
signs at the bathing locations. rainfall
the average air temperature
Problem definition soil type
Swimmers who have a low immune system, like older
people, children and sick people, are most vulnerable Conclusions and recommendations
to the effects of faecal bacteria. Therefore it is impor- The variables average air temperature, soil type and
tant that the public is notified not to use the bathing rainfall are likely to have covariance to other variables
water as soon as possible when the concentrations of and it is recommended to study that suspected covari-
faecal indicators are too high. Peaks of faecal indicator ance in future research. This thesis encountered several
bacteria can occur rapidly, therefore the peaks are difficulties concerning data reliability due to estimates
not always detected and a warning cannot be given in of the variables of several external pollution sources
time to warn the bathers. This thesis helps to identify such as numbers of Swimmers and Boats and presence
influencing factors for further use in future predictive of Manuring. The analysis is thought to be unreliable
modelling research in order to predict those peaks for and in the absence of actual daily data, the use of these
small, fresh water, inland lakes. variables for predictive modelling of peak contamination
events will be limited. Therefore another recommenda-
Research tion is given for future reference to procure the neces-
In this thesis research was conducted into various vari- sary data from fieldwork or a reliable secondary source.
ables representing meteorological conditions, physical The most pressing recommendation is to increase the
characteristics and external pollution sources, at 52 temporal resolution of the water quality samples that
fresh water bathing locations, which are thought to are now taken biweekly. This frequency is not enough
be of influence on the concentrations of the faecal to detect the peaks in the concentration.
indicator bacteria Escherichia coli and intestinal ente-
rococci. The analysis was done by using Spearmans
correlation method to find a relationship between
the continuous variables and the bacteria concentra-
tions and Point-Biserial correlation to find relation-
ships between the bacteria and dichotomous variables.
The Mann-Whitney U-test and the Kruskal-Wallis test
were performed to see if the difference in distribution
between categories is statistically significant and thus
indicating an influencing category.

Student: I. Blommers
Thesis Committee P rof.dr. G. Medema, Dr.ir. J.A.E. ten Veldhuis, Ir. R.W. Hut

For further information please contact the section Water Management, +31 (0)15 278 1646
Email: m.a.j.hubert@tudelft.nl

81 | Masters Theses November 2012


5 Watermanagement

Future Threats in drinking water winning from


the Afgedamde Maas

Introduction Results
Dunea yearly produces and supplies about 75 million m 3 1. The bromate concentrations at setting 6/1.5 (6 mg/L
drinking water to 1.2 million customers in the Western hydrogen peroxide and 1.5 mg/L ozone) varied from
part of the Netherlands. The source of the drinking 0.27 till 0.69 g/L, with an average of 0.41 g/L
water production is surface water from the Afgedamde and complied the Company bromate guideline of an
Maas, a branch of the river Meuse. The multi barrier average value 0.5 g/L and a maximum of 1 g/L.
treatment delivers an excellent drinking water quality With that optimal peroxone setting, the conversion
that comply all strict guidelines of the Dutch Drinking of the 14 dosed target compounds differed between
Water Law. 24% and > 95%, with an average conversion of all
compounds of 70%. The ozone dosage mainly deter-
Problem definition mines the conversion and the peroxide limits the
Dunea recognize future threats in form of polar organic bromate formation.
micropollutants (OMPs). Pharmaceutically active 2. Decomposing excessive hydrogen peroxide after
compounds and pesticides are main contaminants applying peroxone in the pre-treated water, up to
detected structurally in the river Meuse and they are about 5.75 mg/L till 0.25 mg/L in the infiltrated water
of concern to drinking water utilities because of their in the dune areas, required an EBCT of about 150
possible long term effects, the possibility of mixture seconds with GAC. With ground water gravel skins,
activity and the sensitivity for customer perception. the required EBCT was spectacularly lower, no longer
than about 11 seconds.
Research
Dunea built a pilot plant in the pre-treatment in Conclusions and Recommendations
Bergambacht to investigate Advanced Oxidation It was proved that peroxone will increase the robust-
Processes (AOPs) to increase the barrier against OMPs. ness of the multi barrier treatment of Dunea against
My research concerned applying AOP with O 3/H 2O 2, OMPs. The bromate formation can be controlled and
commonly called peroxone process, with the goals: comply the strict Company guideline. Ground water
1. Investigation of the optimal dosage combination of gravel skin is a very promising catalyst to decompose
hydrogen peroxide and ozone for the best conversion excessive peroxide. Research to this catalyst, also suit-
of OMPs, without exceeding the Company guideline able for up flow operation, is advised.
for bromate
2. Investigation of catalysts to decompose excessive
hydrogen peroxide

Student: A.H. Knol


Thesis Committee: Prof. Ir. J.C. van Dijk, Prof. dr. ir. T.N. Olsthoorn, Dr. ir. J.Q.J.C. Verberk,
Ir. K. Lekkerkerker-Teunissen

For further information please contact the section Water Management, +31 (0)15 278 1646
Email: m.a.j.hubert@tudelft.nl

82 | Masters Theses November 2012


5 Watermanagement

Transition experiments in Amsterdam;


Conceptual and empirical analysis of two transition experiments in
the WATERgraafsmeer program

The city of Amsterdam is faced with substantial chal-


lenges in maintaining urban living quality. Increasing
societal involvement and inflexibility of the urban
governance system have ceased progress in water
management, ecological quality and sustainability. In
the Watergraafsmeer area, a low-lying urban polder
area in the eastern part of Amsterdam, these issues
are perceived as persistent. Under the flag of the
WATERgraafsmeer program transition management is
adopted as a governance approach to change and water
management is taken as the key carrier for sustainable
development. In transition management, experimenting
is a vital activity and transitions experiments are
designed to assure their contribution to change. In this
research, transition experiments in the Watergraafsmeer
area are analyzed, using the mechanisms of deepening,
broadening and scaling-up and their operationalization
in 11 project characteristics. The research is based on
an analysis of primary sources on the WATERgraafsmeer
program. The case studies show that WATERgraafsmeer
functions well as a transition experiment. They also
show how the overall program and local project support
each other in their quest for sustainable development.
Furthermore we conclude that the management guide-
lines for transition experiments fail to accommodate
interaction processes between project and program and
lacks attention for substance.

Student: N.I. Lugt


Thesis Committee: Prof.dr.ir. N.C. van de Giesen, Dr.ir. F.H.M. van de Ven, Dr.ir. J.S. Timmermans,
Drs. M. Claassen

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Email: m.a.j.hubert@tudelft.nl

83 | Masters Theses November 2012


5 Watermanagement

Bonding and Bridging in Capacity Development


Networks
to address Wicked Water Challenges

Capacity development has become an increasingly hot the water system and an adaptive water management
topic in the water sector. The development of individual, approach.
organizational, institutional and even societal capacities
is argued to be required to be able to addressing the This thesis concludes that a careful balance is required
present-day water challenges. From a natural resources between bonding and bridging on the network level,
management context, much literature is available on proximity and diversity on the relational level, and the
WHAT is required for capacity development: social right personal characteristics on the individual level.
learning in social networks, by means of which an inte- It provides a scientific basis for practical insights and
grated view of the challenges under consideration could recommendation for capacity developers on how to
be established, effective participation design their capacity development projects.
is enabled, and a resilient adaptive water system should
be developed. However, HOW to achieve this is a much
less considered topic in water related contexts and
forms the main topic of this thesis, which centers on the
following central research question:

Which social network characteristics, with a focus on


bonding and bridging mechanisms, facilitate social
learning in capacity development networks that aim
to address wicked water challenges?

Combing insights from the Science Communications


field and other related fields of study regarding knowl-
edge management, social network analysis and social
capital provided a framework on the important roles of
bonding and bridging mechanisms in social networks
and their benefits for social learning for capacity
development. Bonding mechanisms are closely related
to similarities between network members (also called
relational proximity), while bridging mechanisms are on
the contrary characterized by diversity on the relational
level. Paradoxically both mechanisms, and both prox-
imity and diversity, turn out to have important benefits
for capacity development to address water challenges,
which are often considered to be wicked due to the
involvement of great systems complexity, stakeholders
diversity and uncertainty. Bonding mechanisms in social
networks benefit the knowledge sharing efficiency,
quality and frequency, resulting in a high potential for
effective stakeholder participation. Cross-boundary
bridges within such capacity development networks
facilitate social learning by introducing novel and
nonredundant knowledge into the network, enabling the
establishment of in integrated multidisciplinary view on

Student: M.M. Pieron


Thesis Committee: Prof.dr.ir. N.C. van de Giesen, Dr. M.C.A. Van der Sanden, Dr. E. Mostert, M. van der Zouwen,
Drs. C. Wehrmann

For further information please contact the section Water Management, +31 (0)15 278 1646
Email: m.a.j.hubert@tudelft.nl

84 | Masters Theses November 2012


5 Watermanagement

Influence of wave climate schematisation on the


simulated morphological development of the
Western Scheldt entrance

In the entrance of the estuary of the Western


Scheldt (defined as the area between Vlissingen and
Terneuzen), wave conditions are dominated by local
wind conditions rather than by wave conditions at the
North Sea. This is caused by the presence of the ebb
tidal delta in front of the entrance. Waves influence
the simulated morphology by eroding shoals edges,
depositing sediment in the adjacent channels and by
partly shifting patterns of erosion and sedimentation.
Waves have the most influence at relative shallow areas
where also tidal currents are present. These areas are
in particular the shoals of Spijkerplaat and the shoals
south of the Everingen flood channel. The way the
wave climate is schematised influences the simulated
local morphological development up to 20% to 25%
(on the spatial scale of the channels and shoals and a
time scale of one year). The amount of wind and wave
classes within the climate schematisation has the most
influence on the simulated morphology (up 20% to
25%). Other influences within the schematisation are
subordinate to the influence of the amount of classes
(in the order of 5%). Including a storm event within the
wave climate schematisation, has limited influence on
the considered time and spatial scale (order of 5%). On
the time scale of one year, the influence of the storm is
to a large extent redone by more occurring, moderate
conditions. For the simulation of the morphological
development in the entrance of the Western Scheldt it
is recommended to apply a wave climate schematisation
of five wind and wave classes at most. The schematisa-
tion should be based on the reproduction of the bottom
changes in the estuary, seasonality and storm event
dont need to be taken into account.

Student: B.W.F. van Rijn


Thesis Committee: Prof.dr.ir. M.J.F. Stive

For further information please contact the section Water Management, +31 (0)15 278 1646
Email: m.a.j.hubert@tudelft.nl

85 | Masters Theses November 2012


5 Watermanagement

Evaluate two different PAC operations in


combination with submerged ceramic MF
membrane in surface water treatment

Introduction 3. The total DOC and UV254 removal of these two


Membrane technologies, regarded as a modern tech- operations are similar to each other during the
nology, are playing an increasingly significant role in experiment.
drinking water treatment. However, membrane fouling
is one of the most important factors limiting the
performance of membrane process. Pre-treatment is
the first step to control membrane fouling. And coagula-
tion is considered as the most common pre-treatment.
Otherwise, as powdered activated carbon (PAC) can
reduce taste, odour, colour and other concerns caused
by organic material, it is widely used in conjunction with
membrane microfiltration.

Problem definition
Most PAC application in water treatment is the PAC/
MF or UF systems, which usually dose the PAC before
the membrane filtration and with a frequent backwash
during the filtration time. Besides, the operation of PAC
pre-coated on the membrane surface is also studied Conclusions and Recommendations
by many researchers. However, most of them focus on Combined with various aspects of results, it is can be
the short time filtration within about two hours. The concluded that the PAC pre-coating operation in long
performance of long time filtration without backwash time filtration has a better performance than that
in pre-coated PAC operation is still necessary to be of continuous operation. But the research has to be
researched. continued to test and improve the PAC pre-coating
approach.
Research
My research focuses on the evaluate the PAC/MF system
(continuous operation) and the PAC pre-coating opera-
tion on the membrane fouling in a long filtration time as
well as on recovery, energy economization, NOM (DOC)
and UV removal.

Results
1. Of the same flux, the recovery of TMP in PAC pre-
coating channel after every cycle (6 hour)s back-
wash was higher compared to continuous operation.
The PAC pre-coating operation had a better perfor-
mance on membrane fouling. And the most important
fouling in continuous operation is the cake fouling,
which is non-backwashable. Whereas, the most
fouling in pre-coating can be backwashable.
2. The PAC pre-coating operation had a high recovery
with 99.2% while the continuous operation owed a
normal recovery of 85.5%.

Student: C. Yun
Thesis Committee: Prof.dr.ir. L.C. Rietveld, Dr. ir. B. Heijman, Dr.ir. H. Vrouwenvelder, P. Lu

For further information please contact the section Water Management, +31 (0)15 278 1646
Email: m.a.j.hubert@tudelft.nl

86 | Masters Theses November 2012


5 Watermanagement

Phosphorus removal by ceramic tight ultra-


filtration (CTUF) membrane for RO pre-treatment

Introduction Results
This MSc program is part of ICAN project (Innovative A. Increasing flux, cross flow velocity will increase the
application of ceramic ultra- and nano- filtration). The removal rate of phosphate.
project is aiming at wastewater reclamation and in B. Increasing ions strength decreases the double
ICAN, the RO system is chosen to treat the waste water layer thickness and decreases the removal rate of
thus effluent of RO system will be reused as industrial phosphate.
water for the factory. Due to large number of inorganic C. The pH effect both the zeta potential of the
and organic matters of the feed water, bio-foiling will membrane as well as the charge of the phosphate
occur which needs to be controlled. Phosphorus limita- ion. Increasing pH will increase removal rate of phos-
tion is one strategy to control bio-fouling. This report phate but after pH 8.3, removal rate of phosphate
focuses on phosphorus removal by ceramic tight ultra- begins to decrease.
filtration (CTUF) membranes (1kD and 3kD MWCO) as a D. In the same ionic strength, the zeta potential of
pretreatment before RO systems. membrane with NaCl solution is larger than it with
Na 2SO 4 solution and larger zeta potential gets better
Problem definition removal rate of phosphorus.
1. What could be the highest removal rate of phos-
phorus with CTUF membranes in different filtration Conclusions and recommendations
conditions? CTUF membrane could remove phosphorus and its
2. What are the influence factors of phosphorus removal rate is determined by operational param-
removal and how do they influence the removal rate eters. Larger flux and cross flow velocity will have
of phosphorus better removal rates and at pH 8.3 the removal rate
gets highest. The following steps are suggested that
Research observing phosphorus removal rates with NOM in feed
The research in laboratory consists for more than water, with effluent of wastewater plant as feed water
six months. Here are planned phases to answer the and combine coagulation.
research questions.
1. Observe removal rate of P-PO 4 with different fluxes,
cross flow velocities, phosphorus concentrations in
feed water
2. Observe removal rate of P-PO 4 with different solu-
tions (NaCl & Na2SO4)
3. Observe removal rate of P-PO 4 with different pH
value (5.7~9)
4. Zeta potential measurements

Student: Z. Zeng
Thesis Committee: Prof.dr.ir. L.C. Rietveld, Dr.ir. B. Heijman, Ir. R.Shang, Dr.ir. H.Vrouwenvelder

For further information please contact the section Water Management, +31 (0)15 278 1646
Email: m.a.j.hubert@tudelft.nl

87 | Masters Theses November 2012


5 Watermanagement

Farmers Strategies Coping with Water Shortage;


A Case Study in the Irrigation District of La Joya Antigua, Peru

The irrigation district of La Joya Antigua (Province The results of the study show that there is sufficient
and Department of Arequipa, Peru), is located in the irrigation water on most of the farms in a wet year but
Chili-Quilca river basin, which lies between the Andes deficit of irrigation water in a dry year. Furthermore, the
Mountains and the southwestern coastline of Peru. study shows that the percentage of prickly pear cactus
The location of this irrigation district leads to a limited planted on each farm has a strong connection with the
amount of annual precipitation and the loamy sand type irrigation water availability of the farm. The cultivation
soil of the district; together with the gravity irrigation of the prickly pear cactus has contributed to the reduc-
system, the low irrigation efficiency, the sensitivity of tion of crop water demand of the midstream and down-
the regulated discharges from the upstream reservoirs, stream farms, which ensures a sufficient irrigation water
the irrigation district of La Joya Antigua encounters supply on most of the farms in the irrigation district of
scarcity of irrigation water specially during dry years. La Joya Antigua in a wet year. However, in a dry year,
the amount of irrigation water supplied to the farms are
According to the history of the district, irrigation activi- too low to meet the crop water demand of the farms.
ties have been performed in the irrigation district of La Under the dry year situation, strategies are taken by the
Joya Antigua since 1939. In order to cope with water local farmers to reduce the yield losses of the crops on
shortages, certain strategies must have been taken by their farms. The most common strategies that are taken
the local farmers. This has led to the research ques- by the farmers are: focusing on irrigating certain crops
tions of this study: What strategies do farmers take to while giving up others, reducing the irrigation area,
cope with water shortage in the irrigation district of La and changing crops to less water demand crops. Study
Joya Antigua? Do these strategies help to relieve water shows that the farmers strategies, although mainly
shortage? Furthermore, in order to compare with the based on experience, have potential to reduce the
farmers strategies, crop water demands under deficit crop water demand in a large extent. On most of the
irrigation are modeled to see whether the application farms, the farmers strategies bring a balance between
of deficit irrigation can bring a better crop performance the crop water demand and the irrigation water supply
during water shortage. under water shortage; While deficit irrigation only
reduces very little crop water demand and cannot bring
In order to answer the above research questions, a a balance between the crop water demand and the irri-
fieldwork was performed in the irrigation district of La gation water supply. From the study it can be seen that
Joya Antigua. During the fieldwork, the discharge and the farmers strategies have contributed to the develop-
dimension measurements of the selected irrigation ment and continuous irrigation activities in the irrigation
canals were done and the interviews were given to the district of La Joya Antigua for more than 70 years.
local farmers and authorities. With all the data from
the fieldwork, a SOBEK model was built to simulate the Suggestions are proposed to the local authorities and
irrigation water availability and an AquaCrop model was farmers to be aware of the impacts of the monocul-
built to simulate the crop water demand in the irrigation ture. Besides, it is suggested that the local authori-
district of La Joya Antigua. ties provide financial support and technical support to
the farmers who would like to change their irrigation
method. From the farmers point of view, it is suggested
that the local authorities put attention on solving the
water-related conflicts between farm neighbours and
enforce their power to the rule offenders; the treatment
of irrigation water is appealed by the local farmers and
should also be considered by the local authorities.

Student: B. Zhang
Thesis Committee: Prof.dr.ir. N.C. van de Giesen, Dr.ir. M.W. Ertsen, Dr.ir. J.S. Timmermans, Ir. C. Machicao
Pereyra

For further information please contact the section Water Management, +31 (0)15 278 1646
Email: m.a.j.hubert@tudelft.nl

88 | Masters Theses November 2012


5 Watermanagement

Struvite Crystallization and Separation in


Digested Sludge

Phosphorus depletion is an emerging and serious ration experiments have verified that separation is well
global environmental issue. At this moment, research possible in a counter-current washing set-up, separating
and policy discussion on phosphorus scarcity is still 86% of detectable struvite within 15 minutes at an
limited. This research investigates the possibilities of upflow velocity of 1.3 mm/s.
phosphorus recovery by controlled precipitation of
struvite from digested sludge. At Waternets wastewater
treatment plant Amsterdam West, plans for a struvite
reactor are scheduled. The advantage of phosphorous
recovery through struvite precipitation from digested
sludge is three-fold. First, struvite can be directly used
as fertilizer. Second, undesirable struvite precipita-
tion in the wastewater treatment plant is prevented by
reducing the phosphorus concentration in the dewa-
tering reject stream which is fed back to the inlet of the
treatment plant. Third, sludge dewaterability improves
due to the addition of MgCl2. This thesis investigates
the influence of mixing speed, aeration rate, magne-
sium dosing method and crystal recycle method on
struvite growth and phosphorus removal, as well as
separation of struvite from sludge. For that purpose,
experiments have been performed in a crystallization
reactor and a counter-current washing column at lab
scale at wastewater treatment plant Amsterdam West.
MgCl2 was added under varying reactor conditions,
struvite constituent concentrations were measured and
struvite growth was assessed. First, it is demonstrated
that struvite recovery is well possible in a stirred sludge
environment at neutral pH commonly applied in sludge
digesters (7.0 - 7.1). Phosphorous removal under these
circumstances is at least 85%. More complete mixing
by stirring at a higher speed further improves struvite
recovery by keeping supersaturation low. Secondly, a
significant difference in struvite recovery was observed
between experiments in which MgCl2 is dosed instantly
versus experiments in which MgCl2 is dosed gradually.
Gradual MgCl2 dosage, and therefore rapid mixing,
improves recovery compared to instant dosage. Mixing
at a higher stirring speed further improves recovery.
Thirdly, it is found that struvite recovery under given
circumstances is poor in a combined aerated and stirred
sludge environment. In such environment higher aera-
tion rates deteriorate struvite recovery further, while
struvite recovery improves with decreasing aeration
rates at a higher stirring speed. Fourthly, struvite sepa-

Student: W.J. de Buck


Thesis Committee: Prof.dr.ir. J.B. Van Lier, Prof.dr.ir. L.C. Rietveld

For further information please contact the section Water Management, +31 (0)15 278 1646
Email: m.a.j.hubert@tudelft.nl

89 | Masters Theses November 2012


5 Watermanagement

90 | Masters Theses November 2012


5.

Civil Engineering theses

Transport & Planning


5 Transport & Planning

Measuring the influence of congested bottlenecks


on the route choice behavior of pedestrians at
Utrecht Centraal

To make sure busy railway stations can cope with It is shown that it is in particular important to design
increasing pedestrian flows, there exists a need for the Bluetooth system in such a way that walking direc-
more knowledge about pedestrian behavior among NS tion and route alternatives are clearly distinguishable.
Stations. The goal of the present research is to design Bluetooth data can be used to find route choice differ-
and apply a methodology to use measurement equip- ences for groups of pedestrians. The combination with
ment for a combination of congestion and route choice CCTV data currently seems to be the only way to find a
measurement at railway station Utrecht Centraal. As relation between congestion and route choice. Without
techniques used for measurement are relatively new to such CCTV data, the determination of a data aggrega-
pedestrian research, a lot of attention is given to valida- tion method seems to be the most important problem to
tion and calibration. solve.

Measurement equipment consists of a photo based Analysis of origin-destination relations shows that the
Customer & Crowd Behavior Analyzer, or CCB in short, presence of the escalator significantly influences route
and a Bluetooth based route measurement system. CCB choice at the stairway bottleneck. It is furthermore
is designed to estimate local traffic states by measuring shown that approximately 15% of pedestrians choose
flow, while Bluetooth is used to detect pedestrians at their routes differently during congestion periods.
multiple locations to derive routes. The combination of Issues that explain this difference may be time related,
these data leads to route flow distributions through the such as congestion, habit, or travel purpose. To assess
station. the influence of congestion, a choice model is esti-
mated, relating waiting time measurement to route flow
The station hall at Utrecht Centraal is a location with measurement. This model predicts that 10% to 50%
very high densities and flows during peak hours. When of pedestrians change their route choice, depending
trains arrive, the formation of queues at the escalators on the severity of congestion. To estimate a relation
is common practice at platforms. In its current state of between walking time and route choice, data are aggre-
reconstruction, the station offers the unique opportu- gated per arriving train. It is expected that a different
nity to observe pedestrian traffic in (near) congested aggregation level may yield better results, but this
state. The main research question is: How to measure would require collection of more accurate train arrival
the influence of congested bottlenecks on route choice time data.
of pedestrians, and what is this influence at Utrecht
Centraal? This research shows that pedestrians change their route
choice when congestion occurs. Data suggest that part
A method is developed to measure route choice of the population has a habit to avoid bottleneck routes
behavior from a combination of CCB and Bluetooth even when no congestion is present. This effect is prob-
data. The conclusions on validity of CCB and Bluetooth ably caused by the large number of daily commuters.
are used to find a practical approach. As the CCB It is expected that station travellers in general will
technology in its current state requires manual observa- adapt their route choice behavior to daily congestion
tion, a CCTV video system is included in the approach. situations. Analysis shows that the number of pedes-
A combination of data sources enables measurement trians avoiding a bottleneck increases when congestion
of route flows, walking times and congestion. A meas- occurs. This influence was established for both an esca-
urement area with a total of four alternative platform lator and a stairway bottleneck. The thesis is concluded
access points is chosen, including an escalator and a with recommendations for further research, measure-
stairway bottleneck. ment application and design of railway stations.

Student: H.A.W. Voskamp


Thesis Committee Prof.dr.ir. S.P. Hoogendoorn, Dr.ir. W. Daamen, Dr.ir. B.G.H. Gorte, Ir. P.B.L. Wiggenraad,
Drs.ir. J. van den Heuvel MBA

For further information please contact the section Transport & Planning, 015 2789341
Email: transport.planning@citg.tudelft.nl

92 | Masters Theses November 2012


5 Transport & Planning

A Framework for the Modelling and Ex-ante


Evaluation of Coordinated Network Management

Since the second half of last century, traffic congestion The Field Test Integrated Traffic Management
on road network has become a predominant phenom- Amsterdam aims at investigating the effect and the
enon due to the rapid increases in transport demand control concept of coordinated network wide traffic
and number of vehicles. It starts to become clear until management for the implementation in 2013. The
later that century traffic congestion cannot be solved graduation project is to develop an assessment meth-
single-handedly by expansions of road network. During odology framework for modelling and ex-ante evalua-
peak hours, besides recurrent congestion caused by tion of CNM. This methodology is applied to the kidney
insatiable demand, non-recurrent congestion caused by shaped network of southern Amsterdam region in order
incidents, adverse weather conditions and work zones, to perform ex-ante evaluation on realizing and testing
are becoming more problematic with their temporary dynamic coordinated network management. Evaluations
disturbances causing traffic breakdowns. and validations of the above modelling are presented to
show the effect of individual DTM and coordinated DTM,
Developments and deployments of traffic control also known as CNM, under recurrent and non-recurrent
strategies come into effect to solve recurrent and congestions. A test solution towards advanced deploy-
non-recurrent congestions with a synthesis combining ment strategies
technologies, traffic theories, mathematics and and methodologies based on an incident-induced
kinematics. Although ITS control measures are rela- empirical case is contrived later using Matlab.
tively new, they transform into the backbones of a
prevailing type of traffic management, Dynamic Traffic Simulation results are also presented in order to assess
Management. When coordination and integration this test solution and the effect of CNM under its coor-
between DTM control measures is introduced as the dination strategies and methodologies. Finally, findings,
advanced approach to restore the utilization of road conclusions, recommendations and future directions
network, great hope is placed on Coordinated Network are drawn to bring the thesis project to completion.
Management to improve the effectiveness of traffic Hopefully, this thesis work could be referred to for the
management. future implementation of CNM in the PPA project and it
could be informative to other CNM related researches.

Student: X. Zhang
Thesis Committee: Prof.dr.ir. S. Hoogendoorn, Dr.ir. H. van Lint, Ir. P.B.L. Wiggenraad, Dr. V. Knoop, Dr.ir. H. Taale,
Dr. S. Hoogendoorn-Lanser

For further information please contact the section Transport & Planning, 015 2789341
Email: transport.planning@citg.tudelft.nl

93 | Masters Theses November 2012


5 Transport & Planning

An Assessment Framework for the Speed Policy


on Dutch Motorways

Today the Dutch cabinet provides in implementing a After finishing the research, it can be concluded in
maximum speed limit of 130 km/h on Dutch motorways general that the road authority desires lower speed
as much as possible. As a consequence, research is limits than currently applied and that the road user
needed to the circumstances where and when higher desires higher speed limits, but it is the question
speed limits (or maybe a dynamic speed limit) will be whether or not 130 km/h is the optimal speed limit for
acceptable. In other words, what speed limit is the most the road user.
optimal for a road section taking the traffic flow, the
environmental targets and the safety issues into mind?

In order to do the research, an assessment framework


for a new speed policy is developed. With an assess-
ment framework, the speed limit on a road section
can be assessed. A more optimal speed limit can be
determined, either permanent or dynamic for that road
section.

Student: J. Kuijvenhoven
Thesis Committee: Prof.dr.ir. S.P. Hoogendoorn, Dipl.-Inform. T. Schreiter, Dr.ir. H. Taale, Ir. M. Ludeking,
Dr. J.A. Annema, Ir. P.B.L. Wiggenraad

For further information please contact the section Transport & Planning, 015 2789341
Email: transport.planning@citg.tudelft.nl

94 | Masters Theses November 2012


5 Transport & Planning

Development of a prediction model for speed limit


violations on tangent roadsections.

Speeding and red light running are among the major The prediction model was based on speed and road
causes for road crashes. Respectively, speeding is more data for the N roads in the Province of Gelderland in the
crucial for rural areas, whereas red light running is Netherlands. The study was aimed at tangent sections
more frequent in urban areas where most of the traffic and considered both driving directions together. When
lights are located. calculating the percentage of offenders a speed of
87 km/h was used as a limit. It was found that the
To adequately address both issues consistent actions percentage of offenders is considerably lower in hori-
are needed in three main directions (also known as the zontal curves than on tangent sections. Additionally, it
three Es): engineering, education and enforcement. was found that the horizontal curve effect disappears
This study treated, in a way, the engineering and the about 100 m from the beginning or end of the curve.
enforcement. On the one hand, it reviewed the effect
of road design and road side environment on speed and After reduction, 64 sites were used for model calibration
red light running that was reported in previous studies. and 12 sites for validation of the resulted model coef-
On the other hand, the study aims at developing a ficients. A linear and a nonlinear model were devel-
model for prediction of the percentage of offenders oped. Tangent length, median width and the presence
depending on several road characteristics. of barriers were found to have a positive effect on the
percentage of offenders.
It was found that age and gender is an important factor
for both types of violations. The road characteristics The presence of street lighting, on the other hand, had
reported to have an influence on speed are among a negative correlation to the percentage of offenders. In
others curve radius, curvature change rate, road, lane the end, the only difference between both models was
and shoulder width, shoulder type, type of objects and the logarithmic transformation of the tangent length.
lateral distance, traffic signs and road marking, access This transformation was necessary to capture the
points density and street lighting. In regard to red effect of relatively shorter tangents. This also explains
light running the most important factors are related to the higher R2 for the nonlinear model. The R2 for the
traffic signal characteristics (control type, cycle length, linear model is 0.428 and for the nonlinear model it is
yellow interval duration), intersection characteristics 0.502. Both models were equally well validated with
(traffic volumes, grade, width, speed limit, number and the different sample of road sections. It was found
width of approach lanes) and traffic flow characteristics that both models perform better for percentages of
(percentage of trucks). offenders between 15% and 45%.

Student: M. Zamanov
Thesis Committee: Prof.ir. F.C.M. Wegman, Dr. J.A. Annema, P. Wijers, A. Dijkstra, Ir. P.B.L. Wiggenraad

For further information please contact the section Transport & Planning, 015 2789341
Email: transport.planning@citg.tudelft.nl

95 | Masters Theses November 2012


5 Transport & Planning

Realised capacity estimation with use of


vertical queuing method
Improving the method of estimating the overall effect of traffic measures
on the vehicle delay time at the Dutch national freeway network
Introduction The arrivals are determined by the demand and can
The topic at which this thesis is based on is the effect be deduced from the traffic flow. The departures are
of traffic measures at the vehicle delay time, VDT. The restricted by the number of arrivals or by the capacity.
research focused towards the capacity effect of traffic While the VDT is measured, the queue length and
measures. The effectiveness of traffic management therefore the difference between the cumulative arrivals
measures is determined by their effect on the VDT. and departures can be calculated. The total number
However, the development of the VDT is not singular of departures and arrivals before the beginning of a
influenced by the installation of measures. The chal- congestion period as well as directly after the conges-
lenge within the main topic is to unravel the total tion period are based on the measured traffic flows. The
change of VDT into the contributions of all influencing estimated realised capacity is the average traffic flow
factors. Within this thesis, the vertical queuing model during the congestion period. The estimated realised
is used to estimate the realised capacity, i.e. the actual capacity should be explained by the prevailing condi-
achieved throughput during a congestion period under tions. Regression analysis based on many records can
the prevailing conditions. Regression analysis estimates estimate the effects of all the influencing factors.
the contribution of the different individual influencing
factors, such as traffic management measures, on the So in essence, the capacity is the variable in the model
realised capacity. that is estimated based on the measured VDT and the
measured cumulative traffic volumes. The regression
Method analysis estimates effects and these effects can be
The vertical queuing model uses the principle of first-in- transferred to effects on the VDT.
first-out. Road sections are individually examined. The
model is based on the count of the number of arriving Conclusions
and departing vehicles during the day. It is assumed The main conclusion is that it is possible to implement
that the total daily demand is served, i.e. eventually the vertical queuing model and to estimate effects of
all traffic will pass the road section. All vehicles can influencing factors on the capacity. The calculation of
pass without any delay as long as the demand does not the effect on VDT is also possible, only there is need for
exceed the capacity. A queue will build up in the model further research to improve the estimation of the effect
as soon as the demand does exceed the capacity. of prevented congestion periods. There now is a direct
relation between measured traffic data and the effect
of traffic management measures. It is also possible to
unravel the effects of other factors such as adverse
weather conditions.

Student: M.J. Veenstra


Thesis Committee: Prof.dr.ir. S.P. Hoogendoorn, Prof.dr. H.J. Meurs, Dr.ir. H. Taale, Ir. P.B.L. Wiggenraad

For further information please contact the section Transport & Planning, 015 2789341
Email: transport.planning@citg.tudelft.nl

96 | Masters Theses November 2012


5 Transport & Planning

Quality assessment of an urban traffic network


Recently the importance of traffic management has increased. Expansion of the traffic network is expensive, so the
emphasis is on better usage of the network.

The city of Rotterdam is also looking for a tactical Conclusions


framework on an urban scale. A tactical framework The current GGB+ method is a good start for an urban
gives you an insight on where and when traffic prob- tactical framework. With a few adjustments its very
lems occur. Besides this, current evaluation of traffic suitable for an urban area. With the new adjustments
regulation-scenarios mainly depends on accessibility of a better insight is given into other modalities in the
the traffic network. network and their conflicts with the traffic.
The three different weighting methods all have different
Goal and research questions approaches. The equality method gives a very objec-
The goal of this research is to make a tactical frame- tive quality evaluation. The utility method uses the
work for an urban traffic network and to look at affected people, so the biggest group has the biggest
possible weighting methods for the evaluation of traffic influence on the total quality. The air quality and safety
regulation-scenarios. To reach this goal three research are big in this equation. Final the monetarization
questions have been established: method focuses more on the different modalities. The
1. How is a tactical framework for an urban traffic air quality and safety are close to zero, so they dont
network designed? have a significant effect on the total quality.
To answer this question the city of Rotterdam The total urban area of Rotterdam was too big for a
will be used as a case study to apply the GGB+ quality evaluation. Even though a lot of data is available
(Gebiedsgericht Benutten Plus) method. of the traffic network of Rotterdam, at some points and
2. How can the quality of the traffic network be times the data was invalid or missing.
defined?
Before a widely supported evaluation can be given, Recommendations
first the objects on which the network will be evalu- The datasets for the KIR are not sufficient yet. The
ated have to be determined. These will be represen- waiting times of the public transport and the bicyclists
tative for the accessibility, safety and liveability. The and pedestrians are very poor. The use of the GGB+
quality of the traffic network will be defined accor- method for the urban area isnt explored completely.
ding to the urban tactical framework. Next three The method consists on ten steps, here only five are
different weighting methods between the objects will used to make an urban tactical framework. To make a
be investigated, so a widely supported evaluation complete unban approach of the GGB+, the complete
can be given for an urban traffic network with the method should be evaluated. Finally the weighting
Kwaliteit Indicator Rotterdam (=Quality Indicator methods could use some fine-tuning. The utility method
Rotterdam). is depending on a lot of standard numbers. A better
1. What is the current performance of the urban insight in these groups can change the weighting
traffic network of the city Rotterdam, given the factors.
cities own objectives?
Now the different weighting methods will be used in
practice to see how the methods work in reality. Next
to this the quality of the traffic network of Rotterdam
can be given.

Student: T. Blanken
Thesis Committee: Prof.dr.ir. S. Hoogendoorn, Dr.ir. H. Taale, Ir. P.B.L. Wiggenraad, Dr.ir. J.H. Baggen,
Ing. R. Gilbers

For further information please contact the section Transport & Planning, 015 2789341
Email: transport.planning@citg.tudelft.nl

97 | Masters Theses November 2012


5 Transport & Planning

The Effect of Network Structure and Signal Settings


on the Macroscopic Fundamental Diagram

Introduction Method
Recently it has been proposed that the performance of a To assess the effect of the structure on the network, a tool has
complete network can be represented graphically using only been developed to automatically generate fictitious networks
aggregated data for flow and density. The resulting graph is with different structures, in which the amount of infrastructure
the macroscopic fundamental diagram (MFD), which relates and signal timings are matched dynamically to a randomly
the average flow (performance) to the number of vehicles generated OD-matrix. The resulting networks are used as a
in the network (accumulation). The resulting shape is often base for the simulations, which are done in the microscopic
concave, meaning that the performance can be maximised if a traffic simulator VISSIM.
fixed number of vehicles is maintained in the network (optimal Using various signal timings for signals located on the
accumulation). One of the most promising methods to achieve perimeter, the flow from the subnetwork to the perimeter is
this, is by adapting signal timings. restricted and vice-versa, in order to assess how the MFD of
characteristics of the roads (length, speed, capacity) and the both react to these changes.
amount and type of intersections in the underlying network.
The different factors influencing the shape of the MFD could Conclusions
not be quantified in order to construct MFDs based only on Regarding the relation between the shape of the MFD and
knowledge of the network and without the use of simulations the network structure, it is concluded that the structure of a
- as the shape of the MFD is found to differ strongly, even for network in itself does not have a strong influence on the shape
similar networks. As such it is concluded that the stochastic and of the MFD. Differences between MFDs are not caused by topo-
dynamic nature of traffic has a strong influence on the shape logical differences, but by the different
of the MFD. Especially the accumulation is highly sensitive Regarding the effect of signal settings on the shape of the
to differences in the distribution of traffic over the network, MFD of a subnetwork and its perimeter and its applicability
making the optimal accumulation particularly hard to predict. for control strategies, it is concluded that a strong relation
between the MFD of the subnetwork and its perimeter does
Objective exist, in which both react in the same way to changes in traffic
The objective of this thesis is to investigate if (1) a relationship demand and signal timings. The ratio between the perfor-
between the shape of the MFD and the structure of the under- mance of the subnetwork and perimeter is highly consistent
lying network exists and on which factors this depends and and not strongly affected by changes in the signal settings,
(2) if the shape of the MFD of a subnetwork (neighbourhood) implying that signal timings exist, which optimise the perfor-
and its perimeter (ring of higher level roads (with signalised mance of both the subnetwork and its perimeter.
intersections) around a subnetwork) are affected by different The optimal accumulation of the perimeter is found to be
signal timings and how this does affect the applicability of the highly sensitive to changes in the signal timings. As acon-
MFD for control strategies. sequence it is concluded that the MFD is difficult to usefor
control strategies aiming to adapt signal timings to maintain
the optimal accumulation in a part of the network, because
these changed signal timings result in a different optimal
accumulation.

MFD Controlled inflow: Network 3, Subnetwork 1 - Subnetwork


perimeter

Student: D. de Jong
Thesis Committee: Prof.dr.ir S.P. Hoogendoorn, Dr. V.L. Knoop, Dr.ir. J.W.C. van Lint, Dr.ir. H.Taale,
Ir. P.B.L. Wiggenraad, Ir. M. Schreuder, Ir. A. Reijneveld

For further information please contact the section Transport & Planning, 015 2789341
Email: transport.planning@citg.tudelft.nl

98 | Masters Theses November 2012


6.

Civil Engineering theses

Construction Management
Engineering
6 Construction Management Engineering

Combining Early Contractor Involvement and


Availability-Based Contracting in Complex
Infrastructure Projects

In order to terminate the malicious tradition of time All these directions are able to parry difficulties and to
and budget overruns, the construction industry is realise advantages. They are composed into a model
forced by new national policy to significantly improve that can serve as a plan of approach for future projects:
performance. Early private participation and integrated The P4 Model for Project Planning. Therefore, it is
contracts including co-financing seem to be effective recommended for the public client to identify whether a
methods to increase Value for Money in infrastructure new project is suitable for the combination of ABC and
projects. Two approaches are investigated: Availability- ECI. Subsequently the developed model can be used as
Based Contracting (ABC) in the form of DBFM contracts a guideline to actually realise added value in practice.
and Early Contractor Involvement (ECI) interpreted as
Interweaving Models 1&2. Their added value is shown
separately in projects like A12 Lunetten-Veenendaal
and A2 Maastricht, but no simultaneous application has
been executed in the Netherlands yet. This might be
a missed opportunity to increase value, therefore this
research elaborates on the implications of combining
ABC and ECI, in order to realise a successful combina-
tion in complex infrastructure projects.

Opportunities to realise added value with the combina-


tion are found in the cumulation of advantages of the
separate approaches, namely innovation, acceleration
of procedures, lifecycle optimisation, high availability
and realisation of the project within time and budget.
But difficulties have to be faced as well, these can be
expected in institutional, legal and financial issues.
This is an indication that ABC and ECI cannot easily
be combined in projects. Therefore it can be stated
that simultaneous application does not unconditionally
delivers added value. In order to do realise a successful
combination, strategic preconditions and directions
for solutions are developed. The identified precondi-
tions are institutional consensus, a certain complexity
and both a capable client and market. Only in case
all these preconditions are met in projects, a window
of opportunity for the combination of ECI and ABC
occurs. Four main solutions are developed to enable the
combination:
Maximizing Planning Solution Space
Postponed Funding
Stepwise Procurement
Provisions for Risk Settlements

Student: A. Beekers
Thesis Committee: Prof.dr.ir. A. Verbraeck, Mr. Fred Hobma, Drs. M. Leijten. P. de Wit, P. Brinkman

For further information please contact the section Construction Management Engineering, 015 2784774
Email: s.c.m.schuchmann@tudelft.nl

100 | Masters Theses November 2012


6 Construction Management Engineering

Assessing the Benefits of Construction


Site Data Management

The AEC industry suffers from chronic problems of low produc- using Vela. The difference between the two total estimates of
tivity and waste in terms of labor and materials. Furthermore, weekly hours was the average weekly time savings, from which
non-conformance of built products results in the need for efficiency gains could be calculated. This metric could be used
costly rework. These problems are well documented and are to compare the average benefits achieved by using Vela, and
a major source of cost overruns and delays on construction allowed a comparison of average results between projects. I
projects. However, a new generation of software tools has been also hypothesized that a number of independent factors could
remedying the causes of waste and inefficiency in construc- have an influence on these efficiency gains. These factors
tion by leveraging the benefits of building information models, included: learning over time and level of familiarity with the
mobile tablet devices and cloud computing. These applica- tools, amount of subcontractor, owner, designer or inspector
tions are referred to as field data management tools (FDMT) involvement with Vela, number of functionality tools used and
within the industry. These tools allow construction managers to stage of project in which Vela was introduced.
accurately record, communicate and track crucial information The study found that a total of 38 surveyed users saved on
on the construction site. The collection of reliable production average 9,1 hours a week using Vela, resulting in an average
data and tracking of project progress are key parts of lean efficiency gain of 16% while conducting typical construc-
manufacturing and has been commonplace in other industries tion management tasks. These average efficiency gains vary
for decades. This process of managing field data is primarily substantially between users and projects, due to a number
being used to track construction quality issues. QA/QC of influencing factors. The most important factor influencing
checklists can be accessed on iPads, and any non-affirmative efficiency gains identified by the quantitative research was
response prompts the automatic creation of an issue, which the involvement of non-Skanska project participants with Vela,
is added to a commonly accessible database, from where it namely subcontractors, clients and commissioning agents.
can be accessed and updated as needed. Thanks to barcodes, Another significant finding was that Vela administrators who
QR codes and RFID tags, it is also possible to automatically are also designated Vela trainers within Skanska are involved
identify building materials and equipment, allowing construc- with projects whose Vela users recorded a higher average effi-
tion teams to track components from procurement through to ciency gain, suggesting that the depth of knowledge of how to
eventual installation and commissioning on site. The resulting use an FDMT is an important factor influencing efficiency gains.
accuracy and schedule improvements allow optimization of By focusing on increasing the depth of administrator knowledge
on-site inventories and facilitate the use of prefabricated or and the involvement of subcontractors, owners and commis-
modular components. sioning agents with FDMTs, construction service providers
should be able to incrementally increase the efficiency gains
Until now there has never been a comprehensive study to iden- which they achieve through using FDMTs. The techniques used
tify what factors influence the effectiveness of using FDMTs. to measure efficiency gains fit into a fuller ROI assessment
I carried out a study on 15 individual projects being under- framework for FDMTs to include quantitative measurements of
taken by Skanska building USA, which were using an applica- quality improvements as well as costs when assessing innova-
tion called Vela (now Autodesk BIM 360 Field) to manage tive construction approaches. At best, the proper management
different types of field data. The primary goal of the research of field data can be a comprehensive method for coordinating
was to determine which factors within a project influence the supply chain management, construction activities and building
efficiency gains achieved through using FDMTs, and identify maintenance post-completion. In addition to incremental
best practices which could enable projects and construc- efficiency improvements, a thoughtful consideration of the full
tion management firms to improve their field data manage- potential use of FDMTs can help construction service providers
ment approach. After interviews with Skanska construction such as Skanska fundamentally increase the efficiency of
managers, I divided weekly activities into 17 typical tasks, their operations business processes and give them a distinct
and surveyed users of Vela on each project, asking them to competitive advantage with clients.
estimate the average hours they devoted to each task before
using Vela, and the average hours spent on each task while

Student: M.S. Moran


Thesis Committee: Prof.dr.ir H.A.J. De Ridder, Dr.ir. G.A. Sander van Neederveen, Dr.ir. A. Koutamanis.

For further information please contact the section Construction Management Engineering, 015 2784774
Email: s.c.m.schuchmann@tudelft.nl

101 | Masters Theses November 2012


6 Construction Management Engineering

Applying the Supply-driven integrated design


approach
Put into practice upon a Modular Faade company

During the past few years, academics of Building and Implementation of this approach was pursued for a
Construction have raised awareness of the inadequacies Dutch construction company, ALDOWA B.V. In order to
on the way the industry is being conducted. Complaints implement such approach two conditions were estab-
about delays, over-budgets, low quality, little variation, lished: First, the concept demands a suppliers building
and actors relationships heading into to legal battles are system (an entity enclosing a Modular Building block,
of common knowledge among practitioners. and universal parametric rules that control the block).
Second, the concept needs an enabling tool that guides
Problems have been recognized to have a frequent the clients through the suppliers building system,
origin, the supply-chain. Construction projects usually illustrating constraints and possible solutions. With this
do not belong to the realm of repetitive making, and enabling tool, a virtual market where the client can
every construction project has to deal with a frag- configure and select a building product (derived from
mented chain of work, products and information, Modular Building Blocks) is effectively set-up, triggering
resulting in reactive producers, lack of innovation, a paradigm shift for the company, and its clients.
and little standardization on elements. Fortunately,
proposals to change this industry recipe are being The work elucidates all the steps, processes, require-
developed and tested in a few projects, fueled by the ments and demonstrations of the enabling tool to
requirements of the market that claim an improved create the first time a link between scientific knowledge
service. This graduation work focuses on changing old and business implementation in a real company. The
fashion, and inefficient manners, in favor of an alterna- tools developed to implement the supply driven design
tive concept to do integrated design and delivery of approach are also expected to help reduce the effort
BC works, by assuming a more dominant role of the spent by ALDOWA B.V. in the tendering procedures and
supplier in the design process. This concept is called design and configuration procedures, leading to a more
Supply-Driven Integrated design approach. efficient and competent operation of the company.

The approach advocates for a revolutionary idea: to


make construction industry market more alike to others
industries markets, such as automotive or aerospace
market, where the clients have to select or configure a
modifiable product according to their needs, instead of
expressing their needs to have a product manufactures
exclusively for them. This change of roles has positive
impacts on many aspects of the supply-chain, because
encourages producers to specialize and develop a push
market with their own products and brands, resulting in
expertise and efficiency in the final product, promoting
innovation, and lowering time of production and the
prices for the client.

Student: M.A. Moreno Sanchez


Thesis Committee: Prof.dr.ir. H.A.J. de Ridder, Dr.ir. G.A. van Nederveen, Ir. H.R. Schipper, Allard Droste

For further information please contact the section Construction Management Engineering, 015 2784774
Email: s.c.m.schuchmann@tudelft.nl

102 | Masters Theses November 2012


7.

Last years Civil


Engineering Theses
7 Last years Theses

Masters Theses June 2012

Civil Engineering theses Tunnel induced settlement damage: A case study to


improve damage prediction for faades
Building Engineering Student: L.A.J. van Kessel

A user-centred re-design of indoor comfort Fire safety design of a high-rise timber building
Student: B.C.M. van Agtmaal Student: G. Longhi

Reusing Knowledge at Van Rossum BV In-situ fire spalling testing applying a mobile furnace 29
Student: J. van Ballegooij Student: B.I.E. Pieters

Investigation of damping in high-rise buildings Experimental and Numerical Characterization of


Student: R.L.J. van den Berg Membrane Adhesive Bonding Strength on Orthotropic
Steel Deck Bridges
Tensile-compression ring; a study for football stadia Student: Y. Yang
roof structures
Student: I. Boom Frost Salt Scaling of Blast Furnace Slag concrete
Student: S. Leurs
Heat flux roofs
Student: F.L. Gunnink Segment-joint capacity of the Kiltunnel
Student: I. Schols
Stapelen met houtskeletbouw
Student: T. Hoekstra Hydraulic Engineering

Building Envelope Refurbishment of Multi-residential Process-based modelling of the Maumusson inlet (France)
Postwar Buildings Investigation via a case study Student: E.W.J. Bergsma
Student: A. Loukopoulou
Bow Thruster Currents at Open Quay Constructions on
A building method for precast concrete high-rise Piles
buildings Student: R. van Doorn
Student: M.L. van der Meij
Nourishing intertidal foreshore: Improving safety and
Structural Engineering nature
Student: L. de Graaf
Optimisation of a high strength concrete plate bridge
Student: T.J.P.M. de Goede Flood protection and marine power in the Wash estuary,
United Kingdom
Evaluation of the structural pavement condition by Student: B. Hofschreuder
means of longitudinal profile data
Student: J.A. Alleman Impact Assessment of Extreme Storm Events Using a
Bayesian Network
2D Numerical Analysis of Settlement Damage to Student: D. Knipping
Buildings:
Student: B.W.P. Albers Ontwerp gekromde roldeur Nieuwe Zeesluis IJmuiden
Student: B.M.I. van Kortenhof
Crack width in reinforced steel fibre concrete
Student: R. Cederhout Decision alternatives for the safety of the Eastern
Scheldt
Effect of TIG-dressing on fatigue strength and weld toe Student: W.J. Leeuwdrent
geometry of butt welded connections in high strength
steel Effect of removal of the Oosterschelde storm surge
Student: S.H.J. van Es barrier
Student: P.D. de Pater

104 | Masters Theses November 2012


7 Last years Theses

Morphodynamics of mega-nourishment Validation of a practical constitutive model for


Student: T. Pekkeriet liquefaction
Student: A. Petalas
Simulating & classifying large-scale spatial sand-mud
segregation Watermanagement
Student: F. Scheel
A framework to assess the realism of model structures
Alternate-bar formation under superresonant conditions using several hydrological signatures
Student: W. Verbruggen Student: T. Euser

Nearshore currents and swimmer safety in the Stappen in de afvalwatercalculator


Netherlands Student: T.W. Padmos
Student: R.C. de Zeeuw
Enhancing the applicability of the polder concept
Impacts of waves and sea level rise on ports due to Student: E. van der Pal
climate change
Student: L.A. Pham The morphological impact of the creation of a reservoir
Student: J. van der Zwet
Hydraulic Engineering COMEM
Domain Ceramic Microfiltration
Student: M. Li
Sediment Dynamics of Beach Cells under Oblique Swell
Waves Transport & Planning
Student: M.J. Armstrong
Analysis of Pedestrian movements at Lowlands
Feasibility of a Marina port along the Buenos Aires Student: D.C.Duives
coast, Argentina
Student: R. Camarena Calderon Possibilities to implement coordination in an adaptive
traffic signal control system
Technical Feasibility and Economic Potentials of Using Student: D. Petres
LNG as Alternative Marine Fuel
Student: L. Jin Provinciale Toepassingen voor Wegverkeersgegevens:
Student: J. Vries
Mega Container Ships: Implications to Port of Singapore
Student: L. Liyenita Widjaja Paramaribo beter bereikbaar
Student: M.E. Flu
The Mekong Deltaic Coast: Past, Present and Future
Morphology To Tram or Not To Tram
Student: P.K.L. Phan Student: T. Bunschoten

Video-based nearshore bathymetry estimation for Rip


current forecasting on a macrotidal beach
Student: R. Sasso

Innovative Structure Solution for Discharge Sluice at


Vung Tau Go Cong Viet
Student: H.S. Truong

Geo-Engineering

Dimensioning of underwater concrete floors


Student: R.T. Arkesteijn

105 | Masters Theses November 2012


7 Last years Theses

Masters Theses March 2012

Civil Engineering theses Hydraulic Engineering

Building Engineering Primary dikes in Limburg


Student: L.M. Groendijk
Connecting Modular Floating Structures
Student: M.J. Koekoek Flooding and sediment management on the Koshi
alluvial fan
Adaptibility of structures Student: E.M. Hooning
Student: A.J. van Westenbrugge
Erosion in the tide-influenced Rhine-Meuse delta
Reinforcement Toolbox Student: T. Smits
Student: J. Lauppe
The Lagos coast
Timber stadium Engineering Student: K.M. van Bentum
Student: T. van den Boogaard
Impact of re-surfacing groins on hydrodynamics and
Medium rise timber buildings in the Netherlands sediment transport
Student: S. van Egmond Student: A. Hendriks

Structural feasibility of a demountable football stadium Probabistic Modelling of Extreme Beach erosion using
Student: M. Loosjes XBeach
Student: M. Riesenkamp
Prestaties van thermisch comfort installaties in NL
Student: P.C.M. Zegers Edge scour around an offshore wind turbine
Student: E. Simoons

Structural Engineering Process-based modelling of morphological response to


submerged breakwaters
Vortex-induced vibrations of suspended floating Student: R.J. Vlijm
pipelines
Student: N.E. Oikou Dune erosion near sea walls
Student: B.B. de Vries
Torsion in ZIP bridge system
Student: E. van Vliet Flexible scour protection around cylindrical piles
Student: G. van Velzen
Feasibility of using activated paper sludge recycled
minerals Pre-Posterior Bayesian Analysis
Student: M. Ahammout Student: S. Al-Baz

Progressive collapse in design of bridges Baggerpluimen Ecologische risicoanalyse


Student: S. van Wijk Student: J.H. Becker

Interaction between plate and column buckling The floating construction method
Student: A. van Ham Student: R. Hendriksen

Most cost effective connection between arches The feasibility of a commercial osmotic power plant
Blalobridge Student: R. Kleiterp
Student: H.R. van der Land
Differences between a 3 dimensional probabilistic and
Feasibility of Tall Timber Buildings the traditional method of berthing structure design
Student: S.G.C. Timmer Student: J. Kool

106 | Masters Theses November 2012


7 Last years Theses

Risk to life due to Flooding in post-Katrina New Orleans Biofouling and organic micropollutants rejection
Student: A.L. Miller Student: N.T. Quach

Rip Current Characteristics at the Dutch Coast Operationalization of SoilDTS


Student: G. Winter Student: J.H.A.M. Jansen

Port of Rotterdam Anchorages Study The worlds freshwater resources are threatened
Student: S.B. Devill Student: M. Hegnauer

Sedimentation in the Botlek Harbour Transport & Planning


Student: A. El Hamdi
Study of evacuation behaviour during a flood
Coal transport Kalimantan Student: S.L. Hek
Student: B.C. Joppe

Analyzing the hydraulic design for the new basin in the


IJmuiden outer harbor
Student: P. Kaufmann

Pump jets in inland vessels


Student: J.R.C. Manaois

Optimizing the passage of fast ferry navigation at the


Schellingwoude lock complex
Student: M.J. Rispens

Flexible Port Infrastructure on Maasvlakte 2


Student: R. Ros

Development Plan Dordrecht Seaports


Student: M.J. Verhage

Geo-Engineering

Time dependent processes on passive loaded piles


Student: K. Siderius

Modelling and Effects of Rapid Impact Compaction


Student: J. Vink

Watermanagement

Analytical Modeling of Salt Intrusion in the Kapuas


Estuary
Student: F. Gevers Deynoot

Moisture Recycling and the effect of land-use change


Student: R. Nikoli

Memstill for wastewater: Effects of surfactants in the


feed solution
Student: N.T.T. Hung

107 | Masters Theses November 2012


7 Last years Theses

Masters Theses October 2011

Civil Engineering theses Fatigue damage in the orthotropic steel deck with
respect to the trough-to-deck plate joint in between the
Building Engineering crossbeams
Student: J. Liao
Application of Higher Strength Concrete in Tubular
Structures Automatic Buckling Checks on Stiffened Panels Based
Student: H. Balbaid on Finite Element Results
Student: O. Hillers
Sustainable and Durable Redevelopment
Student: E. Bilardie Autogenous shrinkage of cementitious materials
containing blast furnace slag
Optimising the design of a steel substructure for Student: R.M. Mors
offshore wind turbines in deeper waters
Student: F.P.M. van Gerven Hydraulic Engineering

Testing the application of CFD for building design Morphological modeling of the Atrato river delta in
Student: S.R. Hunte Colombia
Student: S. Post
Ultra High Performance Concrete in Large Span Shell
Structures Navigability at an unstable bifurcation
Student: R.N. ter Maten Student: F.C.R. Melman

Glass Columns On the morphodynamics of Lagos Harbour


Student: E. Ouwerkerk Student: V. Ballendux

Fatigue Design of FSPO topside details Tidal divides


Student: B. Siegler Student: J. Vroom

Super high-rise in Rotterdam Risk-based control of salt water intrusion for the Rhine-
Student: U.M Winter Meuse Estuary
Student: M. Zethof
Triple-layer membrane structures - Sound insulation
performance and practical solutions Modelling Sediment Transport in the Swash Zone
Student: J.J.E. de Vries Student: A. van Rooijen

Structural Engineering Dune erosion near sea walls


Student: B. de vries
Shearforce in immersed tunnels
Student: D.A.W. Joosten System description Noord-Holland coast, a review of the
nourishment strategy applied.
Mega Floating Concrete Bridges Student: R. Pot
Student: A.H. Saleh
Modelling decadal barrier island behavior
Communicating structural design options Student: K.W. Pruis
Student: T.K. Uijtenhaak
Notional Permeability of breakwaters
Shear Redistribution in Solid Concrete Slabs Student: R. Kik
Student: J. Falbr
Earthquake analysis of quay walls
The effect of the increase of concrete strength in time Student: J.W. Liang
on the failure mechanism of beams and one-way slabs
Student: L.F. Soto

108 | Masters Theses November 2012


7 Last years Theses

Preparing a long term management plan for the future Rainfall fed inundation in greenhouse dominated
of the Slufter polders; Research of water system assessments
Student: R. Heerema Student: B.C. Albers

The behaviour of a moored oil tanker in the Port of Prediction of temperature distribution in a Drinking
Leixes, Portugal. Water Network Introduction
Student: M. van der Wel Student: L. Magda

Interaction between loaded barges and bed material A new suit for the IJsselmeer
Student: R. J. Lenselink Student: J. Talsma

Goederenvervoer over water A fresh-keeper for Noard Burgum


Student: R. van Liere Student: M.J.H. van der Valk

Preliminary study of the flushing operations in the Transport & Planning


Langmann reservoir, Austria
Student: V.J.E. den Boer The use of probe data from consumer GPS navigation
devices for the analysis of controlled intersections
Process-based modelling of coastal dune development Student: A.M. Meijer
Student: M.C. Muller

Modelling the interaction between morphodynamics and


vegetation in the Nisqually River estuary
Student: M. Monden

Geo-Engineering

Het opstellen van een richtlijn voor partieel funder-


ingsherstel
Student: S. De Lange

Time dependent processes on passive loaded piles


Student: K. Siderius

Watermanagement

Land classification based on hydrological landscape


units
Student: S. Gharari

Urban surface water quality enhancement.


Student: M.R. van Dieren

Unembanked Areas A risk assessment approach


Student: M. Wolthuis

Performance assessment of tree-based model predictive


control
Student: P.M. Stive

109 | Masters Theses November 2012


7 Last years Theses

Masters Theses June 2011

Civil Engineering theses Hydraulic Engineering

Building Engineering The cause of coastal erosion on a nourished beach in


Kololi,
Structural feasibility of the Rotating Tower Dubai The Gambia
Student: P. den Besten Student: E. Bijl

Double curved precast load bearing concrete elements Influence of the armour layer and core permeability on
Student: B. Janssen the wave run-up
Student: P.J.M. van Broekhoven
The effect of steel plate girders with a high slenderness
upon the fire resistance Feasibility study on the use of a floating breakwater to
Student: R. Wiersum protect a new artificial beach in Balchik, Bulgaria
Student: R. Drieman
Parkeerkelder met een pneumatisch caisson
Student: S.P. Rodrigues Monteiro Design of berth n.12 in the port of Ventspil, Latvia
Student: P. Gatta
Verlevendiging van de binnenrotte door multifunctioneel
marktsysteem Mooring facility Cruiseport The Hague
Student: M.Zoons Student: H.J. van der Giessen

Cellular beam-columns in portal frame structures Space intensification EMO-peninsula


Student: J.G. Verweij Student: T.M. Henneveld (MSc Hydraulic Engineering)

Structural Engineering Modelling the equalizing process of rockfill dumps with


a plough
Plate buckling in design codes Student: W. Kranendonk
Student: M. van der Burg
Morphodynamic analysis of the Ecobeach project
Wind load and high-rise: Student: M. de Lange
Student: N. Narain
Probabilistic design of settling basins for environmental
Loading capacity of laterally restrained prestressed compliance
concrete slabs Student: W. de Lange
Student: R.F.C. de Rooij
Verzandingsprobleem in de vluchthaven Wijdenes
The effects of the interaction between the substrate and Student: E. Lee
the superstructure of the buildings of project Erasmus-
poort Comparison of quay wall designs in concrete, steel,
Student : R. Soemeer wood and composites with regard to the CO 2-emission
and the Life Cycle Analysis
Extension and Verification of Sequentially Linear Student: T. Maas
Analysis to Solid Elements
Student: L.O. Voormeeren Providing current forecasts for the 2012 Olympic Sailing
Competition
Stability of a concrete pedestrian bridge with load Student: S. Poortman
bearing railings
Student: V.M. Weidema The Effects of The Ike Dike barriers on Galveston Bay
Student: M. Ruijs
Ultra High Performance Fibre Reinforced Concrete for
bridge constructions Relatie tussen unity check en faalkans
Student: L.W.H. Bouvy Student: J. De Vlieger

110 | Masters Theses November 2012


7 Last years Theses

Invloed van zandeigenschappen op het piping proces Integrated water management from the treasurers
Student: R. van der Zee perspective
Student: J. van Leeuwen
The morphological effects of Sediment diversions on the
Lower Mississippi River Subsurface abstraction in the Amsterdam Watersupply
Student: M.Bos Dunes
Student: R. Martens
Stroming van beton in diepwanden
Student: J. Mulder Groundwater dynamics landslides in varved clays
Student: J.E. van der Spek
Hydraulic Engineering COMEM Domain
Transport & Planning
Modeling the Evolution of the Wax Lake Delta in Atcha-
falaya Bay, Louisiana Micro dynamisch verkeersmanagement
Student: K. Hanegan Student: I. Bouma

The appraisal of climate adaptation measures and Effect van verkeerslichten op turborotondes
coastal management strategies for Durban, South Africa Student: B. Granneman
Student: M. A. Geldenhuys
Line design of the future
Impact of acces of channels geometry on wave penetra- Student: N. Guis
tion in harbours
Student: C. G. Mardones Redesign of the bus station Groningen assisted by a
new simulation tool for bus stations
Low Frequency Wave Resonance on Fringing Reefs Student: J.J.F. Hoogenboom MSc.
Student: A. W. Mackay Pomeroy
Futures of Rotterdam South
Geo-Engineering Student: R. Hoogerwerf

Experimenteel modelleren van horizontale belastingen De overgang van 80 km/uur naar 50 km/uur op de
op grote diameter monopaal fundaties in zand grens bebouwde kom
Student: A. Alderlieste Student: M. de Jong

Piled embankment with Geosynthetic Reinforcement Separation of Freeway Traffic Flows by Dynamic Lane
Student: T.J.M. den Boogert Assignment
Student: A.M.G. Soekroella
Grondvervormingen ten gevolge van het maken van
bouwputten Regional effects on road safety of the RijnlandRoute
Student: J. Kimenai Student: L.M. van Dijk

Toepassing spanningspadmethode op een horizontaal Around the metro - Research intro the potencies of the
gronddruk vraagstuk metro stops in Rotterdam
Student: G. Peeters Student: R.G. van Huet

Negative Skin Friction; Design challenges in Singapore


Student: P.J. Spruit

Watermanagement

A Decision-Support System based on Real Time Control


and Data Assimilation
Student: A.L. van Breukelen

111 | Masters Theses November 2012


7 Last years Theses

Masters Theses February 2011

Civil Engineering theses Hydraulic Engineering

Structural Engineering Integral Design of Work Channels and Basins


Student: T, IJsebeart
Living Tree Buildings Dredging history of the river Waal and expected future
Student: Anne Nuijten dredging works
Student: J.S. Bardoel
Application of Ultra High Strength Concrete in LNG Termi-
nals Numerical modeling of wave run-up on a dike
Student: Michel Kortenaar Student: I.C. van den Bosch

Mechanical behavior of bridge bearings of concrete Analysis of costs in new terminals investments
bridges Student: C. van Buuren
Student: M. de Boer
Shell factors for piles subjected to horizontal soil
Winter damage of porous asphalt displacements
Student: S.A. Mohan Student: Erik den Arend

Snap through of large shield driven tunnels A comprehensive assessment of Multilayered Safety in
Student: T.G. van der Waart van Gulik flood risk management
Student: Frouke Hoss
Traffic induced bearing loads and movements of a steel
plate-girder bridge The Gevelco quay wall
Student: V. Bos Student: D. Grotegoed

The optimization of tripod substructure and its applica- Feasibility study of a Climate Dike
tion to two different topsides Student: Larissa Smolders
Student: Wenchao Wang
Flood defence town centre Dordrecht
Human Induced Lateral Vibration of Bridges Student: M. Hinborch
Student: D. Karagiannis
Long-term morphological modelling of the mouth of the
Building Engineering Columbia River
Student: Emiel Moerman
Covering A28 highway at Amersfoort
Student: S.L. Huneker Dynamic behaviour of tunnel elements
during the immersion process
The elevated metro structure in concrete, UHPC and Student: G.W. Nagel
composite
Student: R.J.A. Kenter Stimulering provinciale binnenvaart door verkeersman-
agement en aanpak knelpunten
The sustainable refurbishment of bk city Student: C. van der Hoog
Student: M.K. Prodromou
Gaining new insights regarding traffic congestion, by
A timber bearing structure for Concept House explicitly considering the variability in traffic
Student: A.D. van Wijngaarden Student: O.M. Miete

Modelling nearshore currents driven by waves and set-up


gradients
Student: P. van de Linde

112 | Masters Theses November 2012


7 Last years Theses

Morphological Impact of Coastal Structures Transport & Planning


Student: R. van der Hoeven
Gaining new insights regarding traffic congestion, by
Post-trenching with a trailing suction hopper dredger explicitly considering the variability in traffic
Student: K. van de Leur Student: O.M. Miete

Port Design Accelerating the introduction of electric bicycles


Student: R.A.R. Heuts Student: Jeroen Loijen

Numerical modelling of turbidity currents in submarine


channels
Student: Anne Ritsema

Geo-Engineering

Laterally Loaded Piles, Models and Measurements 48


Student: J. Ruigrok

Watermanagement

Validation of SMOS satellite data over Ghana and


Burkina Faso
Student: A. Poelstra

Onderzoek naar verbrakking Polder Westzaan


Student: I. Gozuberk

Analyzing the effects of large-scale green roof


implementation in Singapore
Student: J. van Spengen

Clogging of permeable pavements in semi-arid areas


Student: M. Amirjani

Observing tidal slack in the Scheldt estuary


Student: M. Lievens

Low cost disdrometer


Student: S.A.P. de Jong

Swale filter drain system:


The inflow discharge relation.
Student: E. A. Donkers

Conditioning of aggressive water


Student: J.C.J. Gude

113 | Masters Theses November 2012


Research Groups and professors within the faculty

Research groups and professors within the


faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences

Specialisation Name Telephone 015-27. . . . .

Design and Construction

Construction Mechanics Research Group


Construction mechanics Prof.dr.ir. J.G. Rots 83799
Dynamics Prof.ir. A.C.W.M. Vrouwenvelder 84782
Structural Mechanics Prof.dr.ir. L.J. Sluys 82728

Materials Science and Sustainable Construction Research Group


Materials and Environment Prof.dr.ir. K. van Breugel 84954

Road and Rail Construction Research Group


Road and Railway Construction Prof.dr.ir. A.A.A. Molenaar 84812

Building and Civil Engineering Structures Research Group


Concrete structures Prof.dr.ir. J.C. Walraven 85452
Concrete modelling & materials Prof.ir. A.Q.C. van der Horst 87014
Timber structures Prof.dr.ir. J.W. van de Kuilen 82322
Steel structures Prof.dr.ir. J. Wardenier 82315
Structural and Building Engineering Prof.ir. F.S.K. Bijlaard 84581
Utility buildings Prof.dipl.ing. J.N.J.A. Vambersk 85488

Product Design Research Group


Methodical Design Prof.dr.ir. M.J.C.M. Hertogh 84921

Hydraulic Engineering

Fluid Mechanics Research Group


Fluid Mechanics Prof.dr.ir. G.S. Stelling 81371
Environmental hydro informatics Prof.dr.ir. W.S.J. Uijttewaal 81371
Sediment Dynamics Prof.dr.ir. J.C. Winterwerp 84582
Physical Oceanography Prof.dr. J.D. Pietrzak 89455

Hydraulic and Offshore Engineering Research Group


Probabilistic design and
Hydraulic Structures Prof.dr.ir. J.K. Vrijling 85278
Coastal Engineering Prof.dr.ir. M.J.F. Stive 84285
Ports and Inland Waterways Prof.ir. T.Vellinga 85075
River morphology & River Engineering Prof.dr.ir. H.J. de Vriend 81541
Hydraulic Engineering Prof.dr.ir. W.S.J. Uijttewaal 81371

114 | Masters Theses November 2012


Research Groups and professors within the faculty

Specialisation Name Telephone 015-27. . . . .

Water Management

Sanitary Engineering Research Group


Sewerage Dr.ir. F.H.L.R. Clemens 83347
Waste Water treatment Prof. J.H.J.M. van der Graaf 81615
Drinking Water Prof.ir. J.C. van Dijk 85227

Water Resources Research Group


Hydrology Prof.dr.ir. H.H.G. Savenije 81433
Water Resources Prof.dr.ir. N.C. van de Giesen 87180
Geohydrology Dr.ir. T.N. Olsthoorn 87346
Water Resources Management
and Earth Observations Prof.dr. W.G.M. Bastiaanssen 85717
Science System Assessement Prof.dr. W. van Vierssen 85080

Transport & Planning

Transport Planning Prof.dr.ir. B. Van Arem 86342


Traffic Safety Prof. Ir. F.C.M. Wegman
Transport and Traffic Networks Dr. R.A. Zuidwijk 83346
Traffic and Transport Facilities Prof.dr.ing. I.A. Hansen 85279
Infrastructure Planning Prof.ir. F.M. Sanders 81780
Traffic Flow Theory and Simulation Prof.dr.ir. S.P. Hoogendoorn 85475

Applied Earth Sciences

Applied Geology Research Group


General Geology Prof.dr. S.B. Kroonenberg 86025
Production Geology Prof.dr. S.M. Luthi 86019

Resource Engineering Research Group

Petroleum Engineering Research Group


Oil- and Gas production systems Prof. P.K. Currie PhD 86033
Reservoir Technology Prof. W.R. Rossen 86038
Reservoir Engineering Prof.ir. C.P.J.W. van Kruijsdijk

Applied Geophysics and Petrophysics


Geophysical Imaging Methods Dr. W.A. Mulder 83666
Technical Geophysics Prof.dr.ir. C.P.A. Wapenaar 82848

Geo Engineering Research Group


Groundwater mechanics Prof. F.B.J. Barends 85423
Foundation Engineering Prof.ir. A.F. van Tol 85478
Underground Space Technology Prof.ir. J.W. Bosch 82844
Geo environmental engineering Prof.dr. J. Bruining 86032

115 | Masters Theses November 2012


2013 Technische Universiteit Delft

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NewMedia Centre Library TU Delft

116 | Masters Theses November 2012


Collection of Masters Theses November 2012
Collection of Masters theses

November 2012

Civil Engineering and Geosciences


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Faculty of Civil Engineering


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