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Fundamentals of Drilling Course Outline

(1)Basics of Rotary Drilling


(2)Rotary
(2)Operations/Coring
Rotary Operations/Coring
(3)Directional Drilling
-Drilling
(4)Fishing -Roundtrip
(5)Casing/Cementing
-Casing
(6)Well Control
-Coring
(7)Principles of Drilling Fluid Technology
(8)Principles of Borehole Stability
(9)Principles of Hydraulic Testing

B. Engeser/Fundamentals of Drilling (2)


Major Rotary Operations
Operation Result Operational Steps
Applying Weight on Bit (WOB)
Making Hole/ Rotating the Bit
Drilling/Coring
Cutting Core Circulating Fluid

Lengthening Screwing a new joint of


Adding Drillpipe drillpipe to the drillstring
the Drillstring
Circulation stopped

Pulling-Out/Running-In the
Roundtrip Changing the Bit complete Drillstring
Circulation stopped

Borehole protected Running in Casing-Pipe


Casing
by casing Joint by Joint

Sheath of Cement Pumping cement slurry in


Cementing annulus
in Annulus
B. Engeser/Fundamentals of Drilling (2)
Major Rotary Operations - Drilling
Controlling WOB by Drillometer

B. Engeser/Fundamentals of Drilling (2)


Controlling WOB with a Heave Compensation System

Floating
Drillship

B. Engeser/Fundamentals of Drilling (2)


Drillers Console

Controlling WOB manually with brake


lever Controlling WOB with Joystick

B. Engeser/Fundamentals of Drilling (2)


Major Rotary Operations Adding Drillpipe
Conventional Method
(manually)

B. Engeser/Fundamentals of Drilling (2)


Suspending the Drill String in the Rotary Table by Slips

Working Principle of
Rotary Slips

B. Engeser/Fundamentals of Drilling (2)


Screwing/Unscrewing Drillpipe

Manually by spinning chain Automatically by


and Rotary Tongs Iron Roughneck

B. Engeser/Fundamentals of Drilling (2)


Major Rotary Operations - Roundtrip
Conventional Method (manually)

B. Engeser/Fundamentals of Drilling (2)


Rig Components used for manual Pipe Handling

B. Engeser/Fundamentals of Drilling (2)


Roundtrip Operation
manually with Pipe Handling System

B. Engeser/Fundamentals of Drilling (2)


Reasons for Casing the Hole
Casing is a string of single steel
pipes with length of 8 16 m
connected by threaded couplings

Types of Casing Connections


Casing is specified by
Outer Diameter of Casing Pipe
Weight per foot (wall thickness)
After Running
Grade CasingLoss Zones
of Steel
Cement
Type ofSlurry is pumped up
Coupling
DC
Open the annulus in order to build
Hole Bit up a Cement Sheath

Bottom Cement

B. Engeser/Fundamentals of Drilling (2)


Casing Design Criteria
(1)
(2)Tension/Joint
(3) Internal
ExternalPressure
Pressure
Strength
(Burst)
(Collapse)

B. Engeser/Fundamentals of Drilling (2)


Drilling and Casing Program
20 Conductor run in andA borehole is a telescope-like
Pipe cementedconstruction
to surface while
preparing the wellsite (30
Each casing set reduces the
50 m Depth)
DC 13 3/8 Surface Casing diameter that can be drilled
Cement cemented to surface through later on Pipe
Drilling Purpose of Conductor
1717
Hole
Hole Channel for
Bit Purpose ofcirculating
Diameter reduction Surface drilling fluid
is dueCasing
to required
Prevents
Seal erosion
off surface
clearances of hole around base
freshwater
Casing 17 Drilling of the
12 Hole Provide rig
Two attachment
Types of BOPs
of Clearances
Shoe
PartialPurpose
Anchoring support
Point for of Casing
wellhead
of loadsfor
Hangers
Production
DC 12 Hole Purpose of Intermediate
Sometimes
further Casingattachment
Strings of Blowout
9 5/8 Intermediate Casing
Liner Bit Casing
Casing
Support
Preventers for further
Isolate
(BOP)Casing/Tubing
Production Reservoir
Hanger Protect borehole
BitIsolate
Diameter/Inside from
formations washouts
Diameter
containing and
of cave
Casing
high
12 Drilling Liner
-in Minimum:Strings
Protective
pressure
Housing of Tubing
3/32 or 2.38 mm
fluids
StringString of casing hung inside
Abbreviated
8 Hole Isolate drilling fluid
Attachment of loss zones
Surface Production
8 Hole theStabilize
precedingpoorlycasing string (usually
consolidated 30 -
formations
Borehole
150 m Wall/Outside
Equipment
above casing Diameter
shoe) by a of
LinerCasing
8 Hole Isolate salt formations
Coupling
DC Hanger
7 Production Casing Protection Casing in case of drilling very
DC 7 Liner Can be designed as intermediate or
deep
Bit
production string
8 Drilling Drilling
5 7/8 Hole
B. Engeser/Fundamentals of Drilling (2)
Planning Rules for Drilling and Casing Program
A good drilling and casing program is a
decisive factor for technical and
economical success of a drilling project
Planning starts with the
minimum borehole or
casing diameter required at
target depth Bit Diameters and Casing
Number of intermediate Diameters are standardized
casings and depths of They have to be selected
casing shoes are determined according to given sizes
in dependency of the
preliminary geological
profile moving up
progressively to surface
B. Engeser/Fundamentals of Drilling (2)
Pressure-Depth Diagram for Determination of Casing Shoe Depth

B. Engeser/Fundamentals of Drilling (2)


Selection Guide for Drilling and Casing Program

B. Engeser/Fundamentals of Drilling (2)


Dependency of Drilling Costs on Borehole Diameter
Conventional Slim Hole
Experiences from
Oil/Gas Exploration wells

B. Engeser/Fundamentals of Drilling (2)


Benefits of Slim Hole Drilling

!Hole Diameters reduced by 50%


!Requires smaller rigs
!Site reduced by 75%
!Overall costs reduced by 40-50%
B. Engeser/Fundamentals of Drilling (2)
Slimhole Drilling with Coiled Tubing Technology

B. Engeser/Fundamentals of Drilling (2)


Principles of Core Drilling

Instead of cutting
Area to be the total cross-
cut sectional area only
an annular ring or
kerf of rock is cut
leaving a solid
Bit Diameter cylinder of uncut
formation passing
Core into the core barrel
Barrel above the bit
Roller Cone
Bit
Core
Bit
Key Components
!Core Bit
Core !Core Barrel
Diameter !Retrieving Eqipment

B. Engeser/Fundamentals of Drilling (2)


Reasons for Core Drilling
Coring is the only way to supply intact
1 specimens of the formation anatomy

In Hard Rocks Core Drilling can be a


2 very efficient way to make a hole at
good penetration rates and low costs

Performance Parameter of Coring Operation

Length of Core
!Core Recovery (%):
Length of Core Run
!Core Quality

B. Engeser/Fundamentals of Drilling (2)


Core Drilling Techniques
Oilfield Drilling Diamond Drilling
Area to be cut

Rotary DP
Tooljoint
Internal/
External
Upset Narrow
Annular
Large Clearance Oilfield Drilling Core Bits
Annular
Clearance Area to be cut
Hole
Diameter

Oilfield
Core Bit
Diamond
Core Bit Diamond Drilling Core Bits
Thick Kerf Thin Kerf
B. Engeser/Fundamentals of Drilling (2)
Influence of Kerf Width on Performance of Diamond Core Bits

Avg. Rate of Penetration


Core Bit Life

Area Ratio Hole/Core Area Ratio Hole/Core


B. Engeser/Fundamentals of Drilling (2)
Types of Thick Kerfed Rotary Core Bits
Used in KTB-VB

4- and 6-Roller Cone Bit


Surface Set Diamond Bit PDC-Diamond Bit

B. Engeser/Fundamentals of Drilling (2)


Types of Diamond Drilling Core Bits
No Wireline
Diamond Wireline Core Bits used in KTB-VB

Surface Set Diamond Bit Impregnated Diamond Bit Thin Kerfed Impregnated
Diamond Core Bit
B. Engeser/Fundamentals of Drilling (2)
Performance of Core Bits in Crystalline Rock
6 Impregnated Diamond Core Bit 10 5/8 Roller Cone Core Bit

KTB-VB

Average Core Recovery: 97,8% Average Core Recovery: 42,9 %


B. Engeser/Fundamentals of Drilling (2)
Large Diameter Diamond Coring in KTB ultradeep Hole
12 Hole Section (6013 -8328 m)

Large Diameter Core 9 (234,7 mm)

Core from KTB Pilot Hole

B. Engeser/Fundamentals of Drilling (2)


Diamond Bits recommended for various Rock Types

B. Engeser/Fundamentals of Drilling (2)


Recommended Diamond Stone Sizes for Various Rock Types

SPC = Stone per Carat (0,2 g) Set Pattern for Diamond Stones
B. Engeser/Fundamentals of Drilling (2)
Optimal Rotational Speed for Diamond Core Drilling

Ide
a lP
e r ip
her
a lS
pee
d: 2
3
m/ s

Standardized Diamond Drilling Sizes

B. Engeser/Fundamentals of Drilling (2)


Threaded
Types of Core Barrels Head
Main Components
!Outer Core Barrel
!Inner Core Barrel
Core Barrel
!Core Lifter (Catcher)
!Thrust Bearing
Single Tube Double Tube
!Ball Valve
Rotating Stationary
Tube
Oilfield
Advantages
Advantages
Advantages
Advantages
Advantages
Advantages Diamond Drilling
veryCan
Corebeand
Recovery
rugged
Simple can
used be
Design with
ofruggedretrieved
thin
unconsolidated
Construction
Enables core orientation
kerfed
by
available wireline
formations Bits
Easy isfor
CoreOperation Rotaryby
marked Hole Sizes WL-Retrievable
Good
Very
Encloses
thin Core
kerfedefficient
and quality
Bits operation
protects
usable the core
orienting shoe with knives
Disadvantages
In a shrink
Disadvantages
Good for hardfit rubber tube rock
and compact
Disadvantages Rubber Sleeve
Not
thick available
bits for
Disadvantages
kerfed
Requires
Disadvantages
rotary hole size
Complicated thicker kerfed
operation
Bad performance
Disadvantages in Oriented
bits
Complicated operation
Crystalline hard
Poor Performance rock
in friable/fractured rock
frequent core blocks Core
Lifter

B. Engeser/Fundamentals of Drilling (2)


Bit
Schematic of Core Catcher

Spring Type
Core Catcher

Shoe of
Inner Barrel

Bit

Core is lifted after nner core barrel


is filled by lifting the outer barrel which
subsequently is transferred to the
inner barrel (force for catching the core
is supported by the outer barrel) wedging the
core in the core lifter

B. Engeser/Fundamentals of Drilling (2)


Drill Rods for Diamond Drilling
Drill Rods are standardized for
Diamond Drill Rods
Diamond Drilling Hole Sizes
are externally flush with
High Grade Hole
SteelSize
Couplings
flush coupled pin to pin
RW 1 25,4mm
EW 1 38,1 mm
AW 2 50,8
BW 2 63,5
NW 3 76,2
HW 4 101,6

Narrow Annular Clarance

KTB 5 WL-Drillpipe
B. Engeser/Fundamentals of Drilling (2)
Nesting of Casing with Standardized Diamond Drilling Sizes

B. Engeser/Fundamentals of Drilling (2)


Mechanism of Core Jamming

Consequences of Core Jamming


!premature tripout of core barrel (additional roundtrip time)
!damage of core if not recognized

Core Jamming Indicator


B. Engeser/Fundamentals of Drilling (2)
Mechanism of Core Jamming Indicator

Spring loaded
flow path open
Spring loaded
Valve Drilling Fluid flow path reduced
Spring

Bearing
Inner barrel
Inner is pushed up
Core Barrel

Bit
normal coring operation
Core jammed in inner barrel
B. Engeser/Fundamentals of Drilling (2)
Average Core Run Length in KTB-Pilothole
Core Run Length (m) 10 5/8 Roller Cone
Core Bits without Core
Length of inner Barrel: 9 m Jamming Indicator
480
6-Diamond Core Bit
Sillimanite-Gneiss with Core Jamming
Indicator
Directional Drilling
Depth (m)

(not cored)
Amphibolite

Cataclastic
Sillimanite-gneiss

Amphibolite
Length of Wireline
Core Barrel: 6 m Sillimanite-gneiss
with amphibolites

Amphibolite with
metagabbro

B. Engeser/Fundamentals of Drilling (2)


Reasons for Wireline Coring

Formation: Argillite
Time for Drilling and Retrieving Core (min/m)

Time Savings dependent on


!Bit Life of Wireline Core Bit
!Core Run Length
!Depth

NXL Double Core Barrel

Time Savings

NX Wireline Core Barrel

Depth (m)
B. Engeser/Fundamentals of Drilling (2)
Schematic of Wireline Core Barrels
Overshot
Latching Mechanism

Outer
Barrel
Bearing
Reaming Inner
Shell Barrel

Bit
B. Engeser/Fundamentals of Drilling (2)
Steps of Wireline Coring Operation

Coring Assembly Running


Inner CoreInBarrel Retrievinglatched
Overshot Inner Pumping In
on Bottom ready Overshot
filled oncore
up with WL On
Coreinner
Barrel
corebybarrel empty inner
for Core Run wireline Core Barrel
B. Engeser/Fundamentals of Drilling (2)