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Weed Biology and Management 8, 147153 (2008)

REVIEW PAPER

Distribution, biology, and agricultural importance


of Galinsoga parviflora (Asteraceae)
CHRISTOS A. DAMALAS
Department of Agricultural Development, Prefecture of Pieria, Katerini, Greece

Galinsoga parviflora, an annual dicot species of the family Asteraceae, is a common herb that is
often found in disturbed habitats and agricultural areas in many parts of the temperate and
subtropical regions of the world. It is a native of tropical America and the center of its origin
is thought to be the mountainous area of Central America. Galinsoga parviflora is considered to
be a common weed in several crops of major importance, such as wheat, corn, cotton, tobacco,
sugarbeet, tomato, pepper, potato, bean, onion, cabbage, garlic, coffee, citrus, banana, and
strawberry; it is frequently found in gardens and uncultivated areas. It succeeds particularly in
moist soils and it is favored by a long photoperiod and high light intensity. The significant
features of the plant, such as the lack of seed dormancy, rapid growth and development, early
flowering, many generations per growing season, production of a great number of seed in a
wide range of environmental circumstances, and the ability for easy vegetative reproduction
under favorable conditions predispose the plant to be a troublesome weed.These features allow
the easy distribution and rapid establishment of the weed in large populations, a fact that often
makes this weed difficult to control. Galinsoga parviflora competes strongly, particularly with
irrigated crops of short height, and it might also hinder crop harvest. The management of
G. parviflora can be achieved by manual weeding, repeated soil cultivation, crop rotation,
mulching, and herbicide application. The plant is reported to be edible and is used also for
medicinal purposes.

Keywords: gallant soldier, quickweed, small-flowered galinsoga, waterweed.

INTRODUCTION name for this species, which probably refers to its


remarkable ability to spread rapidly everywhere like
Galinsoga parviflora Cav. (small-flowered galinsoga or water (Anonymous 1999a). In Australia, G. parviflora is
gallant soldier) is an annual herb of the family Asteraceae. more widely known as yellow weed or potato weed
It is commonly found in disturbed habitats and agricul- (Pickard 1984; Webb et al. 1988).
tural areas (fields, vegetable gardens, flower beds) in many
parts of the temperate and subtropical regions of the The center of origin of G. parviflora is considered to be
world (Holm et al. 1979; Warwick & Sweet 1983). The the mountainous area of Central America (Canne 1977;
plant also can be found in uncultivated areas, wasteland, Warwick & Sweet 1983).The plant is regarded as a native
roadsides, and along railway lines. Galinsoga parviflora is species of Peru, which was transferred to Europe at the
often reported with the common name of quickweed end of the 18th century, where it eventually escaped
because of its ability to grow and mature quickly and, from botanical gardens in Paris. Its spread eastwards, at
therefore, to have many generations per growing season the beginning of the 19th century, coincided with the
(Jarvis 1999).The name waterweed is another common movement of Napoleons army towards that direction
and this is probably the reason for the name of French
Correspondence to: Christos A. Damalas, Department of Agricultural soldier, because it was carried abroad by the French
Development, Prefecture of Pieria, 28th Octovriou 40, 601 00 (Hanf 1983). The plant owes its name of Galinsoga to a
Katerini, Greece. Spanish physician and botanist called Ignacio Mariano
Email: damalas@mail.gr
Martinez de Galinsoga, superintendent of the Royal
Accepted 4 March 2008 Botanical Garden of Madrid, who maintained a great

doi:10.1111/j.1445-6664.2008.00290.x 2008 The Author


Journal compilation 2008 Weed Science Society of Japan
148 C.A. Damalas

variety of plants, including this species (Canne 1977; corn. Overall, G. parviflora was reported in the 33rd place
Simonetti & Watschinger 1997). The English name of (with Galinsoga ciliata) among the 50 most important
gallant soldier is considered to be a corruption of its weeds of the USA (Batra 1979). Galinsoga parviflora,
Latin name, probably because it sounds like the unfamil- though less common than its relative, G. ciliata, is also
iar first Latinate word (Galinsoga) of the name Galinsoga found in Canada, particularly in the areas of Ontario,
parviflora and it was given by the residents of Richmond Quebec, Manitoba, and British Columbia (Warwick &
in West London about 1860 (Quinion 1996). The Latin Sweet 1983). Galinsoga parviflora is commonly found in
word parviflora means small flower (from the word many European countries, such as Belgium, the Neth-
parvo = little, tiny and the word flor = flower) and it erlands, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Austria, Germany,
is apparently referring to the small size of its flowers. Hungary, Poland, the former Czechoslovakia, Denmark,
Finland, Norway, the UK, France, Spain, Portugal, Italy,
Although G. parviflora is common in many parts of the Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, the former Yugoslavia, and
world and it has remarkable features as a weed, limited the former Soviet Union (Tutin et al. 1980). In a weed
experimental data are available in regard to its biology survey in Israel (Dafni & Heller 1981), G. parviflora was
and significance, particularly from an agronomic point of reported as a weed with rapid distribution, particularly in
view. Previous reviews provided excellent information winter vegetables grown under cover. It was mentioned
on the taxonomy of the species of the genus Galinsoga also that, although this species was recorded only in
(Canne 1977) and on the distribution and biology of certain areas of Israel, it could be a significant problem in
G. parviflora (Warwick & Sweet 1983). However, new the future, considering its biology and the potential of its
data and recent trends about this weed from different populations. Galinsoga parviflora is considered to be an
areas of the world would be of great interest. Thus, the alien invasive species in the Czech Republic, recorded
aim of this report was to summarize the available infor- for the first time in 1867 (Pyek et al. 2002). It is found
mation and bring together new information and recent in human-made habitats, such as traditional agricultural
trends on the distribution, biology, and significance of landscapes and modern urban and industrial landscapes.
G. parviflora.
Rai & Tripathi (1983) reported that this species became
established in India, originating from tropical America,
DISTRIBUTION
and it is often found in cultivated fields and disturbed
Galinsoga parviflora is considered to be a cosmopolitan wasteland in high-altitude areas (9501850 m). Galinsoga
weed with a worldwide distribution that is mainly attrib- parviflora is regarded as a common weed in East Africa,
uted to human activity. It is reported as a weed in >32 where it was recorded before World War II, but it was
crops in 38 countries (Holm et al. 1979). In particular, mainly limited to high-altitude areas. With the increase
G. parviflora is an important weed of cotton in Uganda of human populations and the spread of intensive agri-
and wheat in Angola and it is also found in bean cultural activities (e.g. irrigation of arid areas at lower
(Canada, Colombia, Mexico), coffee (Brazil, Mexico, altitudes), this species has gradually been distributed to
South Africa,Tanzania), corn (Angola, Ethiopia, Mexico, low-altitude areas (Stadler et al. 1998). In a weed survey
Tanzania), potato (Belgium, Mozambique, Poland), and conducted in Ethiopia (Tamado & Milberg 2000),
certain vegetables (Belgium, Brazil, Hawaii, the Philip- G. parviflora was reported as a major weed in high-
pines, Zambia). Galinsoga parviflora is also a common altitude areas (>1900 m). It was found in 28% of the
weed in bean in Tanzania and in corn in Zimbabwe. fields surveyed, with a high uniformity of distribution
Moreover, this species is reported as a major weed in the compared with other species. Woldu and Saleem (2002)
following crops and countries: banana, citrus, and sugar observed that this species is present in natural grazing
cane in Mexico, onion, pea, and strawberry in Brazil, grasslands in Ethiopia regardless of the varying grazing
sugarbeet in Belgium and Germany, wheat in Ethiopia intensity. Reports from Europe affirmed G. parviflora as a
and Tanzania, strawberry in Australia, and garlic in Brazil common and serious weed in tomato crops in Poland
(Holm et al. 1979). and Slovenia (Tei et al. 1999). More recent studies men-
tioned that this species was recorded in 40% of the
Older surveys in Massachusetts (USA) reported that surveyed orchards in eastern Poland, representing 3.6%
G. parviflora was a common weed in various crops of the plot area covered by plants (Lipecki 2004). Pl
(Vengris 1953). In particular, this weed was ranked in the (2004) reported this species as the third most frequent
13th place out of 39 weeds in tobacco, in the 16th place (frequency of 62.5%) invasive weed in summer annual
out of 34 weeds in onion, in the 23rd place out of 55 crops in South Hungary, particularly in extensive fields,
weeds in potato, and in the 21st place out of 66 weeds in but it does not appear in cereals because of its summer

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Galinsoga parviflora Cav. (Asteraceae) 149

annual life form. Galinsoga parviflora is also found in to-lanceolateovate, with an acute apex and a cuneate-
Slovenia in the weed communities of small fields and to-rounded base, sparsely-to-moderately hairy on both
gardens in the vicinity of villages in the mountain belts in surfaces, with denticulate-to-coarsely serrated margins.
which potato, bean, and cabbage are normally cultivated Galinsoga parviflora has many flowers grouped together
(ilc & Carni 2007).This species is also found in the area (flower heads), with the appearance of a single flower. It
of Dalmatia, where it is spreading as a dangerous weed in has several small flower heads at the end of each branch.
the continental lowland part of Croatia and showing a There are two types of flowers: ray flowers and disk
high potential to become a widespread and dangerous flowers. The ray flowers (ranging from three-to-five
weed in the coastal region, as has already occurred in the flowers) look like a single petal each. They form a ring
continental part of Croatia (Milovic 2001). Galinsoga surrounding the disk flowers. The disk flowers (ranging
parviflora is a common species in the area of Mexico from 850 flowers) make up the central portion of the
(Vibrans 1997, 1998a). In particular, this species is found flower head. The fruit is an achene, angled or flat, dark
with a high frequency in corn-growing areas, where its brown or black, containing one seed. Galinsoga parviflora
presence was recorded in 263 out of a total of 378 areas produces capitula with two types of achenes: the ray
examined (~70%) (Vibrans 1998b, 1999), and its origin is achenes without a pappus or, less frequently, with a
thought to be Mexico and neighboring regions. Galin- rudimentary pappus formed by four-to-six readily
soga parviflora is also mentioned as a weed with rapidly falling, short-barbed bristles half as long as the scales from
increasing populations in Armenia (Anonymous 1999b). disk achenes and the disk achenes with a pappus formed
A recent survey of increasing weed problems in Europe by a crown of scales. The pappus is a modified calyx
reported this species as an increasingly spreading weed, consisting of dry scales, bristles or awns that often facili-
particularly in eastern Europe, with a high level of tate the wind dispersal of seeds. It must be noted here
weediness in cereals, grain legumes, root crops, vegetables that some plant morphologists use the term cypsella
and ornamentals, orchards, and vineyards (Weber & Gut for the seed of Asteraceae because an achene (e.g. of
2005). Ranunculus) is a true fruit, while the seed of Asteraceae is
a false fruit, whose outer surface is a calyx, not a pericarp.
In Greece, G. parviflora was first recorded as a serious The seeds are ovate or triangular and covered with small
weed in the area of Kastoria, in northern Greece, in hairs.
1980. It appeared in large populations in bean and
potato that were cultivated in high-altitude areas (700 Galinsoga parviflora is morphologically variable, as might
750 m) (Yannitsaros & Damanakis 1983). It also was be expected of a widespread weed, and superficially
reported that this species had probably come from the resembles Galinsoga quadriradiata (also mentioned as
neighboring former Yugoslavia, where it was known G. ciliata). Thus, the two species are often confused.
from 1870. Other sources support that G. parviflora was Some useful characteristics for the distinction of the two
first observed in 1976 as a major weed in the area of species are provided by Canne (1977). However, most of
Florina (northern Greece) in a potato field (Siomos these characteristics are rather technical and most prob-
A.S., personal communication, 2007).The way of intro- ably familiar only to expert botanists. In general, G. parvi-
duction of the species in the area is unknown. It is likely flora has an abundance of marginal cotyledonary hairs,
that the seeds of the species were carried with potatoes the plants are nearly glabrous or only moderately pilose,
that had been used for cropping in the field that year. the leaf blades are more lanceolate, and the achenes are
The weed is now a major problem, particularly in potato longer and more narrow that those of G. quadriradiata
and bean crops, as well as most of the summer vegetable (Braden & Cialone 1971; Canne 1977). By contrast,
crops (e.g. tomato, pepper, eggplant, squash, cabbage, G. quadriradiata has a small number of marginal cotyle-
cauliflower, carrot, onion, and leafy vegetables) cultivated donary hairs, the plants are moderately-to-densely pilose,
in the area. the leaf blades are more ovate, and the achenes are
significantly shorter and wider than those of G. parviflora
BOTANY AND DESCRIPTION (Braden & Cialone 1971; Canne 1977). It must be noted,
however, that the genus Galinsoga, particularly the weedy
Galinsoga parviflora is an annual dicot plant of the family species, is notable for the number of morphological
Asteraceae.The plant normally grows 60 cm tall.At the attributes that vary, both at the interpopulational and
seedling stage, the young plants have round cotyledons intrapopulational levels, related to high plasticity and
with a slightly indented tip. The plant has an erect and polymorphism. Thus, the distinction between the two
usually multibranched stem, nearly glabrous or sparsely species based on morphological characteristics is often
hairy.The leaves are entire, symmetrical, opposite, ovate- difficult.

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150 C.A. Damalas

Somatic and meiotic chromosomal analyses revealed that viable within the soil for >2 years and, therefore, the
G. parviflora is a diploid, with 2n = 16 chromosomes, and species shows a high potential to form a permanent soil
G. ciliata is an allopolyploid (tetraploid), with 2n = 32 seed bank (Espinosa-Garca et al. 2003). Moreover, the
chromosomes (Haskell & Marks 1952; Gopinathan & achenes can differ in their longevity and loss rate from
Babu 1982). Furthermore, the similarity in the morphol- the seed bank: the viability of the ray achenes in the soil
ogy of the somatic chromosomes between the two is longer than that of the disk achenes (Espinosa-Garca
species suggests that the diploid might be one of the et al. 2003). Long-distance dispersal is achieved by the
progenitors of the tetraploid. However, differences in the seeds.They can be transported easily with the wind and
structural rearrangement of the chromosomes, stomata, possibly with streams and contaminated soil because of
and pollen-grain sizes show that G. quadriradiata is not their small size and weight. The occurrence of append-
derived directly from G. parviflora and, thus, the taxo- ages (pappus scales) also allows easy transportation of the
nomical difficulties might be related to a possible poly- seeds with animal fur or human clothing (Vibrans 1999).
ploid series within the genus (Haskell & Marks 1952; Terzioglu and Ansin (2001), studying introduced taxa in
Gopinathan & Babu 1982). Natural hybridization the eastern Black Sea region, reported dispersal by wind
between the two species is possible, as reported by Gopi- and animals (especially by birds) as the possible ways of
nathan and Babu (1982), who found a triploid natural G. parviflora spreading from its natural habitat into the
hybrid between G. parviflora and G. ciliata and also a study area. Human activity, which can affect natural weed
putative introgressant between G. parviflora and the seed dispersal at several stages, partly through the world-
natural triploid hybrid. This is possible as both species wide commercial seed trade but primarily by crop man-
have similar ecological preferences and do not differ in agement operations, seems to play a major role in the
the timing of flower opening, dehiscence of the anthers long-distance dispersal of this species (Vibrans 1999).
or receptiveness of the stigmas. The consequence of
natural hybridization between diploid and tetraploid The seeds are not dormant and they can germinate
species, followed by introgression, is that the triploid immediately under favorable conditions of moisture,
hybrids act as a genetic bridge in the transfer of genes temperature, and light early in spring. However, the
between species differing in chromosome numbers, thus undormant character shown by unburied achenes
leading to the formation of aggressive weedy races that (Baskin & Baskin 1981) is lost once the achenes are
have the ability to colonize highly disturbed ecological buried and this acquired dormancy might last for vari-
habitats. able periods (Espinosa-Garca et al. 2003). Light seems to
be an important factor for the seed germination of this
species. Fenner (1980) found that the seed germination
ECOPHYSIOLOGY percentage was 93 1% in light (no further details are
given) and only 3 1% in dark conditions. In addition,
Galinsoga parviflora reproduces by seed during the warm the germination percentage of the seeds stored in paper
season of the year. The main period of seedling emer- bags at 22C for 1 month was 52 20%, whereas the
gence is from March to October and generally follows corresponding percentage after 5 months of storage was
soil cultivation. The seeds can germinate shortly after 93 1%. Ivany and Sweet (1973) observed seedling
shedding, even in fall, but the seedlings are frost-sensitive. emergence mostly between May and June. It also was
The new seedlings begin to flower at the fifth or sixth found that the germination ability decreased with an
node, and the cycle is repeated.The plant also can repro- increasing sowing depth. For example, the germination
duce asexually by the vegetative parts, which are able to ability decreased from 98% on the soil surface to 56%
root readily and give new plants under favorable condi- from a depth of 0.25 cm, whereas no germination
tions (Warwick & Sweet 1983). The ray achenes have occurred from a depth of 1.0 cm.
been found to be significantly heavier, higher in calorific
value, and contain more protein and carbohydrate per Seed germination occurs at temperatures between 10
seed than the disk achenes (Rai & Tripathi 1982, 1987). and 35C. The germination ability at 20C in light was
In addition, the ray achenes show earlier and better 99%, whereas the corresponding germination ability at
germination from different sowing depths than the disk the same temperature in the dark was slightly reduced
achenes, although the germination of both is substan- (7788%). The germination rate was higher under the
tially reduced when sown below a 1.5 cm depth. More- alternating temperatures of 30/20C than under the
over, the seedlings from the ray achenes grew better alternating temperatures of 20/10C. Freshly harvested
under nutrient-deficient conditions compared with seeds germinated at nearly 100% in the light at alternat-
those from the disk achenes. The achenes can remain ing temperatures of 20/30C, 25/15C, 30/15C, and

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Galinsoga parviflora Cav. (Asteraceae) 151

35/20C, whereas little or no germination occurred in Experimental data on the competition of G. parviflora
darkness at any temperature in either the fresh or strati- with crops do not exist in the literature. Observations
fied seeds (Baskin & Baskin 1981). Seed exposure at low indicate that competition with crops depends on each
temperatures (for 2, 4, and 6 weeks at 0C and -18C) specific crop. Competitive crops are not affected by com-
decreased the germination rate but did not affect the petition with G. parviflora, whereas less competitive
total germination percentage (Ivany & Sweet 1973). (short-statured) crops (e.g. bean, strawberry) have been
reported to be more sensitive to competition, with yield
The growth and development of G. parviflora is favored losses 50%.The losses are not only related to the uptake
by a long photoperiod and high light intensity. Ivany and of nutrients that are necessary for the productivity of the
Sweet (1973) observed an increase in both the height cultivated plants but also are related to the relatively high
and fresh weight of the plants grown under a photope- leaf surface area of G. parviflora, which might shade out
riod of 16 h compared with those grown under a pho- the cultivated plants. Warwick and Sweet (1983), refer-
toperiod of 8 h. Furthermore, they observed a decrease ring to older reports, mentioned that the presence of
in both the height and fresh weight of the plants when Galinsoga species is associated with yield losses of 50% in
the light intensity was reduced from 89 to 17 klx, a fact bean, 10% in cabbage, and 23% in tomato. It is worth
that explains the appearance of the weed in low crops. mentioning, however, that these reports referred to
Other studies also showed that plant survival is reduced mixed populations of the species G. parviflora and
when the plants grow under a low-light regime (Rai & G. quadriradiata; therefore, no reliable conclusions can be
Tripathi 1986, 1987). Ohtsuka (1999), studying structural drawn.
changes in plant communities in north-east Borneo,
observed that G. parviflora was established rapidly and Besides competition with crops, the presence of G. parvi-
was the dominant species early in the growing season in flora constitutes a major problem during crop harvest,
an abandoned field, whereas later in the growing season, particularly in crops such as bean and potato. Many
other species with greater height dominated.This could times, the presence of high populations of the weed in
be linked with the high demands of the plant for light, these crops late in the growing season hinder harvest
which seems to be the limiting factor for G. parviflora operations and increase harvesting and cleaning costs,
domination when it coexists with other higher species. unless the weed plants are removed (Siomos A.S., per-
However, the plant is neutral in regard to the number of sonal communication, 2007).
days that are required for flowering and it can complete
its life cycle in 4550 days. Galinsoga parviflora continues USES OF GALINSOGA PARVIFLORA
to flower throughout the warm period of the year until
frost occurs. The plant has not been reported to contain poisonous
substances and, in some areas, is considered to be edible
(Cribb & Cribb 1976; Facciola 1990). In areas of central
CROP COMPETITION AND YIELD LOSSES and Latin America (Mexico, Colombia), the plant parts
(young stems and leaves) are eaten raw or cooked. The
The growth and development of G. parviflora is affected same is reported in Tanzania, where the plant exists in
by the presence of other individuals of the same species abundance and it is consumed as a leafy vegetable
in high populations. In particular, it was observed that (Vainio-Mattila 2000). Furthermore, the plant parts can
seed germination is negatively correlated with an be dried, ground into a powder, and then used as a
increasing sowing density (Rai & Tripathi 1983). Fur- flavouring in soups.The plant is reported to be used as a
thermore, an increase in the sowing density leads to medicine for treating nettle stings by rubbing it on the
a decrease in the number of flower heads per plant, a skin (Chopra et al. 1996). In Uganda, the plant is
decrease in the number of seeds per flower head, and a reported as a traditional herbal drug used for treating
decrease in the total seed number and total biomass. It is bleeding (Hamill et al. 2000; Hamill et al. 2003). Further-
worth mentioning that all of the above are more pro- more, G. parviflora is reported to exhibit antibacterial and
nounced under dry conditions. Similar observations anti-inflammatory activities (Matu & Van Staden 2003).
were reported by Rai and Tripathi (1984) and Dostatny The leaves contain high concentrations of protein,
(1999). These data indicate that G. parviflora is quite calcium, and magnesium (Table 1). A recent report from
sensitive in competition (particularly under dry condi- South Africa, studying the mineral concentration
tions) and, therefore, is rarely present in established grass- content in local vegetables, confirmed that some indig-
lands or other dense crop stands, a fact that might be an enous leafy species, including G. parviflora, provide
important feature as regards to competition with crops. mineral concentrations of >1% of the plants dry weight,

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152 C.A. Damalas

Table 1. Nutritional value (per 100 g fresh weight) and during the growing season and prevents seed production.
mineral content (per 100 g dry weight) of Galinsoga Cleaning the equipment after working in infested fields
parviflora leaves (Odhav et al. 2007) is essential and reduces the spread of the weed.The use of
black mulch can be an effective measure of control in
Characteristic Value intensive crops (of limited area).This practise reduces the
Energy (kcal) 41
percentage of germination, which is favored by a long
Moisture (g) 89
photoperiod and high light intensity.
Protein (g) 4 Chemical control includes the use of various herbicides,
Fat (g) 0.5 such as atrazine, metribuzin, alachlor, metolachlor,
Fiber (g) 1.24 dimethenamid-P, diuron, linuron, oxyfluorfen, halosulfu-
Ash (g) 1.74 ron, mesotrione, flumioxazin, clomazone, terbacil, nor-
Carbohydrates (g) 5.29 flurazon, sulfentrazone, 2,4-D, dicamba, bentazon,
Calcium (mg) 162 bromoxynil, paraquat, glyphosate, prometryn, phenme-
Phosphorus (mg) 38 dipham, fomesafen, and clopyralid, depending on the
Sodium (mg) 36 crop in which the weed is a problem and the registered
Manganese (mg) 44 uses of each product (Zandstra 2007). Herbicide treat-
Copper (mg) 3 ments might not always provide complete control of
Zinc (mg) 14 G. parviflora populations but they can provide a consid-
Magnesium (mg) 681 erable reduction of the populations, particularly early in
Iron (mg) 27 the growing season during the critical period of com-
petition with crops.Thus, chemical control always should
be combined with additional methods of weed control,
which are much higher than the typical mineral concen- such as soil cultivation and manual weeding, until the
trations in conventional, edible leafy vegetables and, thus, end of the growing season to prevent seed production
they could be recommended for future commercial cul- and further infestation of the cultivated fields. It must be
tivation (Odhav et al. 2007). Traditional vegetables nor- noted also that, although some herbicides can be very
mally grow wild, are readily available in the field as they effective in controlling G. parviflora, they are not always
normally do not require any formal cultivation, and available because this species mainly occurs as a weed in
represent inexpensive but often high-quality nutrition fields planted with vegetables and intercrops, where her-
sources for the poor segment of the population, espe- bicide use is often limited.
cially where malnutrition is widespread.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
MANAGEMENT Special thanks are extended to Dr A. S. Siomos,Associate
Professor of Vegetable Crops, University of Thessaloniki,
Galinsoga parviflora is an annual weed that often becomes
Greece, for providing useful unpublished information
a perennial problem, particularly for vegetable-growers.
from his personal record file.
A first step in the management of G. parviflora is the
prevention of the weeds establishment in the fields.This
REFERENCES
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Anonymous. 1999b. A Country Study on the Biodiversity of Armenia.
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Journal compilation 2008 Weed Science Society of Japan
Galinsoga parviflora Cav. (Asteraceae) 153

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2008 The Author


Journal compilation 2008 Weed Science Society of Japan

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