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GAMMA RAY LOGS

Assoc. Prof. Issham Ismail


Universiti Teknologi Malaysia,
Johor Bahru
WHAT IS GAMMA RAY LOG?

- Measurements of natural gamma rays in the formation as a


function depth.

- The reservoir type rocks can be located more precisely before


perforating the well.

- Shales are more radioactive that sandstones, limestones,


dolomites, anhydrites, salts, etc.

- Anomallies for high radioactive sandstones, limestones,


dolomites, anhydrites, salts, etc.

- Deepwater deposits are more radioactive than shallow water


due to the presence of organic materials in the rock.
LOGGING OPERATION
LOGGING OPERATION
LOGGING OPERATION
WHAT IS GAMMA RAYS?

- Electromagnetic waves or as particles known as photons.

- Like light but are more energetic.

- Radiation comes from potassium-40, elements of uranium-


radium series (U series) and elements from thorium series (TH
series).
SOURCES OF GAMMA RAY

- Radioactivity comes from adsorbed materials on grains or materials


which make up formation.

- Adsorption depends on cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the


materials.

- See table for CEC of materials.

- Illite contains potassium.

- Gamma rays associated with clay comes from illite.


CEC OF MATERIALS
SOURCES OF GAMMA RAY

- Other potassium bearing materials are potassium feldspar,


glauconite, mica and muscovite.

- Organic materials can also increase radioactivity of a formation.

- Many uranium based salts are easily dissolved in water.

- Higher radioactivity recorded from illite and smectites (i.e.,


montmorillonite and bentonite).

- Kaolinites and chlorites give lower radioactivity same as


sandstones, limestones and dolomites.
SOURCES OF GAMMA RAY

- Fine clay materials has higher radioactivity due to the increase in


CEC.

- The least radioactive materials are anhydrite, halite, bitumen, and


bituminous coal.

- Lignite has about the same radioactivity as a very clean sandstone.


EFFECT OF GRAIN SIZE ON GAMMA RAY

Measured mean grain size vs. gamma-ray levels (calibrated to API value)
for clastic samples. The rough correspondence of gamma ray value can
be seen, but relationship is not simple (data from Georgi et al.).
DISTRIBUTION OF RELATIVE RADIOACTIVITY
LEVEL FOR VARIOUS ROCK TYPES
MEASUREMENT

- Tool uses scintillation counters.

- Scintillation crystals (i.e., gamma ray detectors) scintillate


(gives off light flashes) when hit by gamma rays.

- These light flashes are converted to electrical pulses and


multiplied by a photomultiplier until the pulses have sufficient
voltage to be counted by a conventional electronic circuit.

- Geiger-muller counters may be used in high temperature


boreholes.
SCINTILLATION COUNTER
MEASUREMENT (CONTD)

- Emitting of gamma rays by materials and counting of gamma rays


are statistical processes.

- Tool needs over one minute or two average to get a constant


number of detected gamma rays.

- Impossible to remain opposite any depth for more than one minute.

- Tool must average the gamma rays that are being detected and
present a useable average value of the log.

- A time constant of 3 seconds and a logging speed of 20 ft per


minutes will create a good log.
MEASUREMENT (CONTD)

- The vertical resolution of the gamma ray is 2 feet and depth of


investigation is 6 inches.

- 13 or larger borehole, heavy mud, and KCl mud will affect


readings.

- No quantitative method to correct the effect of KCl mud.

- Located at Track 1 and uses API units.


GAMMA RAY INDEX, Igr, CAN BE USED TO
DETERMINE SHALE VOLUME, Vsh

where R is the measured radiation level, Rcleansand is the baseline level


through a reference sand, and Rshale is the baseline through a
representative shale.

Or
GAMMA RAY INDEX CAN BE USED TO
DETERMINE SHALE VOLUME, Vsh
COMPARISON BETWEEN GAMMA
RAY AND SP LOGS
ANOTHER GAMMA RAY LOG
SPECTRAL GAMMA RAY LOG
SOLVE THE PROBLEMS

Find Igr and Vsh