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PLCopen - IEC 61131 - 3


Overview
There are three classes of people: those who see.
Those who see when they are shown.
Those who do not see.
Leonardo da Vinci (Italian draftsman, Painter, Sculptor, Architect and Engineer
whose genius epitomized the Renaissance humanist ideal. 1452-1519)

"Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic.


Arthur Charles Clarke

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IEC 61131.3 the Industrial Programming Standard www.PLCopen.org

The goal of this presentation is to provide the attendees with


information and a review of the IEC 61131-3 control system
automation software standard which is an open (non-
propriety) based standard applicable to the implementation
of a PLC Open system including the application of Field Bus
technology. The attendees will gain knowledge involving the
IEC 61131-3 software standard utilizing RTU/PLC/DCS.

IEC = International Electro-technical Commission


A World organization that prepares and publishes international standards
for all electrical and electronic related technologies
Founded in 1906 * Over 50 participating countries * Different levels of membership

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What is the IEC 61131 standard ?


IEC 61131 is an international standard for
programmable controllers consisting of 5
parts:
Part 1: General information
Part 2: Equipment characteristics
Part 3: Programming languages
Part 4: User guidelines
Part 5: Communication

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IEC 61131 and PLC Open Mission


PLC Open is a vendor and product
independent world-wide organization
that brings greater value to users of
Industrial Control Systems through
the pursuit of the IEC 61131-3
software development standard
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Goals of IEC 61131.3 and PLC Open


PLC Open Certification and compliance testing
Definition of several levels of IEC 61131-3 compliance
(Base Level, Portability Level, Full compliance Level)
Establish strict test procedures
Establish certification tests at independent test institutes

Ultimate Goal: Portability of PLC programs


Program once run on any hardware platform
not hardware specific or dependent
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Table of contents
Advantages of IEC61131-3 for programmers
History and international standards 1970 to 1995
7 parts of the IEC 61131 standard
IEC 61131-3 software models
the 5 languages of the IEC 61131-3
FBs (Function blocks) and POUs (Programmable Organizational Units)
IEC data types, standard functions and standard function blocks
PLCopen certification

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Table of contents - continued

PLCopen compliance levels


PLCopen training logo
PLCopen address

"Concern for man himself and his fate must always form the chief interest of all
technical endeavors, concern for the great unsolved problems of the organization of
labor and the distribution of goods--in order that the creations of our mind shall be a
blessing and not a curse to mankind.
Never forget this in the midst of your diagrams and equations." Albert Einstein

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Advantages of IEC 61131-3


International accepted standard
Step by step all suppliers will support it
Uniform structures, languages, and the way of handling
It saves you time
Unique software model and data/ type concept
You only have to learn it once for different controller types
Reduced misunderstandings and errors
Standard functions and function blocks
Reusability of tested software

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Advantages of IEC 61131-3


Supports safety and quality programming
Easy and comfortable structuring
Data typing prohibits programming errors
Provides the best language for each problem
Consistent specifications of 5 languages
Two textual and two graphical languages
One structuring language, providing an overview
Availability of high level language
Possibility to mix different languages

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International Language Standardization


NEMA Programmable Controllers Committee formed (USA)
GRAFCET (France)
DIN 40719, Function Charts (Germany)
NEMA ICS-3-304, Programmable Controllers (USA)
IEC SC65A/WG6 formed
DIN 19 239, Programmable Controller (Germany)
IEC 65A(Sec)38, Programmable Controllers
MIL-STD-1815 Ada (USA)
IEC SC65A(Sec)49, PC Languages
IEC SC65A(Sec)67
IEC 848, Function Charts
IEC 64A(Sec)90
IEC 1131-3
Type 3 report
recommendation

IEC 61131-3
name change
70 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96

Source: Dr. J. Christensen


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The 7 Parts of The IEC 61131 Standard


Part 1 General overview, definitions IS
Part 2 Hardware IS
Part 3 Programming Languages IS
Part 4 User Guidelines IS
Part 5 Communication IS
Part 7 Fuzzy Logic IS
Part 8 Technical Report

IS = International Standard
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IEC 61131 - Part 1 - General Overview

Definitions and glossary of terms used in the standard

List of related / referenced IEC standards

Principal functional characteristics of programmable


controller systems

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IEC 61131 - Part 2 - Hardware

Electrical, mechanical and functional requirements for


Programmable Controllers and associated peripherals

Service, storage and transportation conditions

Information to be supplied by manufacturer

Test methods and procedures for verification of compliance


of programmable controllers and associated peripherals

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IEC 61131 - Part 3 - Programming


Languages

Software-, communication- and programming-model


Definition of five interlinked programming languages
Syntax and semantics of two textual and two graphical
languages: Instruction List (IL), Structured Text (ST), Ladder
Diagram (LD) and Function Block Diagram (FBD)
Sequential Function Chart (SFC) for program structuring

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IEC 61131 - Part 4 User Guidelines

Assists the user in:


Utilizing the other parts of the programmable controller
standard
Specifying the requirements for applications
Selecting and implementing systems

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IEC 61131 - Part 5 Communication

Based on MMS (Manufacturing Message Specifications)


(still in progress)

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IEC 61131 - Part 7 Fuzzy Logic


Provides the definition of fuzzy control sets

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IEC 61131 - Part 8 Technical Report

Provides guidelines for the application and implementation


of programming languages for programmable controller

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IEC 61131-3 Software Model


Configuration A
Resource L Resource L

Task1 Task2 Task3 Task4

Program P1 Program P2 Program P3 Program P4

FB1 FB2 FB3 FB4

global and direct addressed variables

access paths

Task association
Access path association
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FC FB
OB1

FB FC
Operating System

FC
OB - Organization Block
FC - Function
FB - Function Block
FB

Other Memory
OBs

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Definition of Software Model Terms


Configuration
A language element corresponding to a programmable controller system
Resource
A language element corresponding to a signal processing function and its human-
machine interface and sensor actuator functions, like a CPU in your system
Task
An execution control element providing for periodic or triggered execution of a group
of associated program organization units
Program
Highest level program organization unit, several in - and outputs possible, can call
FBs and Functions
FB
Program organization unit Function Block, several in - and outputs possible, can call
other FBs and Functions

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IEC 61131-3: The Common Elements

Character set (English.........)

Data types (BOOL, WORD, INTEGER.................)

Variables (VAR, VAR_input, VAR_output..........)

POUs, Program Organisation Units (Function, Function Block...)

SFC Elements (Steps, Transitions.................................)

Configuration elements: (Tasks)

Basis for software re-use

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No. Keyword Data Type Bits


IEC 61131-3 Elementary Data Types

1 BOOL Boolean 1
2 SINT Short integer 8
3 INT Integer 16
4 DINT Double integer 32
5 LINT Long integer 64
6 USINT Unsigned short integer 8

7 UINT Unsigned integer 16


8 UDINT Unsigned double integer 32
9 ULINT Unsigned long integer 64
10 REAL Real numbers 32
11 LREAL Long reals 64
12 TIME Duration
13 DATE Date (only)
14 TIME_OF_DAY Time of day (only)
or TOD
15 DATE_AND_TIME Date and time of day
or DT
16 STRING Character string
17 BYTE Bit string of length 8 8
18 WORD Bit string of length 16 16
19 DWORD Bit string of length 32 32
20 LWORD Bit string of length 64 64
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Directly represented variables Hardware Addressable Inputs and Outputs


The identifier of a directly represented variable always begins with "%" character.
Below are the naming conventions of a directly represented variable for a channel of a single board. "s" is
the slot number of the board. "c" is the number of the channel.
%IXs.c free channel of a Boolean input
%IDs.c free channel of an integer input
%ISs.c free channel of a message input
%QXs.c free channel of a Boolean output
%QDs.c free channel of an integer output
%QSs.c free channel of a message output
Below are the naming conventions of a directly represented variable for a channel of a complex equipment.
"s" is the slot number of the equipment. "b" is the index of the single board within the complex equipment.
"c" is the number of the channel.
%IXs.b.c free channel of a Boolean input
%IDs.b.c free channel of an integer input
%ISs.b.c free channel of a message input
%QXs.b.c free channel of a Boolean output
%QDs.b.c free channel of an integer output
%QSs.b.c free channel of a message output
Below are examples:
%QX1.6 is the 6th channel of the board #1 (Boolean output)
%ID2.1.7 is the 7th channel of the board #1 in the equipment #2 (integer input)

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The 5 Languages of IEC 61131-3


Instruction List Structured Text Sequential Function Chart
LD A
ANDN B C:= A AND NOT B Step 1 N FILL

ST C
Transition 1

Function Block Diagram Ladder Diagram Step 2 S Empty

AND A B C Transition 2
A C -| |--|/|----------------( )
Step 3
B

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Ladder Diagram (LD)


Standardized, rationalized set of relay ladder programming
symbols
Based on well-known US-style of programming, resembling
electrical drawing standard

A B C
-| |--|/|----------------( )

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Ladder Diagram (LD)


Ladder Diagram (LD) is a graphic representation of Boolean equations,
combining contacts (input arguments) with coils (output results). The LD
language enables the description of tests and modifications of Boolean
data by placing graphic symbols into the program chart. LD graphic
symbols are organized within the chart exactly as an electric contact
diagram. LD diagrams are connected on the left side and on the right side
to vertical power rails.
A and not B equals C
-| |--|/|----------------( )

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Instruction List (IL)


Single Accumulator based execution model
Based upon the German Anweisungsliste, AWL
Only one operation such as storing a value in the
accumulator register, is allowed per line

LD A
ANDN B
ST C

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Instruction List (IL)


Instruction List, or IL is a low level language. It is highly effective
for smaller applications or for optimizing parts of an
application. Instructions always relate to the current result (or
IL register).
The processor indicates the operation that must be made
between the current value and the operand. The result of the
operation is stored again in the current result.

LD IX1 (* push button *)


ANDN MX5 (* command is not forbidden *)
ST QX2 (* start motor *)

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Structured Text (ST)


High level language, block structured
Syntax resembles PASCAL
Complex statements and nested instructions possible
Support for
Iteration loops (REPEAT-UNTIL; WHILE-DO)
Conditional execution (IF-THEN-ELSE; CASE)
Functions (SQRT(), SIN())

C:= A AND NOT B

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High level language, Syntaxed structured


Syntax resembles traditional programming code
such as C++, JAVA, PASCAL
Complex statements and nested instructions possible
Support for
Iteration loops (REPEAT-UNTIL; WHILE-DO)
Conditional execution (IF-THEN-ELSE; CASE)
Advanced Math Functions (SQRT(), SIN())

Applications with complex calculations and data C:= A AND NOT B


processing examples would involve two phase
flow calculations, gas calculations, etc.

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Function Block Diagram (FBD)


Graphical language, widely used in Europe
Allows program elements which appear as blocks to be
"wired" together in a form analogous to a circuit diagram
Used in many applications that involve the flow of
information or data between control components

AND
A C
B

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Graphical language, widely used in Distributed


Control Systems (DCS) and Analog intensive
control systems
Allows program elements which appear as AND
blocks (Function Blocks) to be connected
A C
together in a form analogous to a circuit
diagram B
Most applications apply to analog control
Used in many applications that involve the flow
of information or data between control
component
Examples include PID and analog scaling

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Sequential Function Chart (SFC)


Graphical language which provides a
diagrammatic representation of program
sequences --> flowchart Step 1 N FILL
Based on the French Grafcet (IEC 848)
Main structure and suitable for rapid diagnostics Transition 1
The basic elements are steps with action blocks
and transitions Step 2 S Empty
Steps consist of a piece of program that is
carried out until a condition specified in the
transition is met Transition 2
Programming of complex tasks by dividing in
smaller parts Step 3
Each element can be programmed in any of the
IEC- languages such as LD or ST or IL or FB mix
or match any of the languages

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Technological programming language for Step 1 Action 1


Sequential
describing Action 2

Controls Transition
Structured program draft
Description of the process with steps
and transitions
Clear, easy to understand by the process, Step 2 Action 1
production and operations staff
Application examples
Presses and Packaging technology
Production lines
Transition
Process technology (start up shutdown)
OEM equipment machinery technology
Rotating Machinery e.g. compressors, pumps

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POU = Program Organization Unit


POUs enable re-use of software from macro level (Programs)
to micro level (FB and Functions).
A POU consists of a header (variable declaration) and the
body (instructions).

POU Type Replicated as: Comments


Program Program instance Main program
Function Block FB instance Subroutine with own
memory, several in -
and outputs possible
Function Function Subroutine without
memory

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IEC 61131-3 Standard Datatypes


Bit string types (BOOL, BYTE, WORD, DWORD, LWORD)
Integer types (SINT, INT, DINT, LINT)
Unsigned integer types (USINT, UINT, UDINT, ULINT)
Real types (REAL, LREAL)
Time types (TIME, DATE, TIME_OF_DAY, DATE_AND_TIME)
Character types (STRING)

Vendor and user defined data types are possible


Direct derived, sub range, enumeration
Array, structure

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IEC 61131-3 Standard Functions


Bit string functions (AND, OR, XOR, NOT, SHL, SHR, ROL, ROR)
Numerical functions (ADD, SUB, MUL, DIV, MOD, EXPT, ABS,
SQRT, LN, LOG, EXP, SIN, COS, TAN, ASIN,
ACOS, ATAN)
Type conversions (e.g. USINT_TO_DINT, BOOL_TO_BYTE)
Selection functions (SEL, MIN, MAX, LIMIT, MUX)
Comparison functions (GT, GE, EQ, LT, LE, NE)
String functions (LEN, LEFT, RIGHT, MID, CONCAT,
INSERT, DELETE, REPLACE, FIND)

Vendor and user defined functions are possible


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IEC 61131-3 Standard Function Blocks


Bitable (SR, RS, SEMA)
Edge detection (R_TRIG, F_TRIG)
Counters (CTU, CTD, CTUD)
Timers (TP, TON, TOF, RTC)

Vendor and user defined function blocks are possible

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PLCopen

Mission
We want to be the leading association
resolving topics related to
control programming
to support the use of
international standards in this field.

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PLCopen was founded on June 15, 1992 in Giessen, Germany.


Target was to promote IEC 61131-3, inform customers and give
more weight to the IEC 61131-3 standard.

PLCopen
Standardization in Industrial
Control programming

TC6
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The Essence of Compliance


without testing there is no standard

The IEC 61131 standard gives rules for compliancy


Certification gives guidance for users towards real IEC
61131-3 programming systems (e.g. PLCopen certified list
shows compliant products)

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PLCopen Compliance Level


To take away the confusion, PLCopen....
.... has defined 2 levels of compliance with a defined set
of features
.... has defined an accreditation procedure
.... has accredited test institutes
.... developed test software, shared amongst members
.... has defined a certification procedure
.... and has members with certified products

This assures compliance now, and in the future.


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PLCopen Compliance Levels

Application Application
Program Program
Conformity Level &
Reusability Level
FB FB Re-usability of Function (Block) FB
FB FB
libraries FB
Variable Variable Variable
Variable Base Level
Variable
Variable
Code Code Portability of minimal systems Code
Code Code
Body Body CodeBody
Body Body
Body

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Compliance
Certified products
can use these logos

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PLCopen Training Logo

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PLCopen

www.plcopen.org

P.O. Box 2015


NL 5300 CA Zaltbommel
The Netherlands

Tel: +31-418-541139
Fax: +31-418-516336

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