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SEPTIC TANK - MANUAL FOR DESIGN

(Source: Septic Tank - Manual for Design, Construction, Installation, Operation and Maintenance in
Vietnam - Ministry of Construction)

Some main point for refering!

1. General regulations:
1.1. When constrution of septic tanks for sewage treatment, should discharge both black & grey
water into the tank, unless there are other treatment solutions. Grey water can lead to the next
compartment (2nd, 3rd compartment) of septic tanks.
1.2. The wastewater from the kitchen, food shop, small restaurant, in the case of wastewater flow
exceeding 1.5m3/day, should be pretreatment by oil/grease trap before flowing into the septic
tank.
2. Design requirements of convential septic tanks
2.1. Minimum wet volume capacity of septic tanks for treatment of gray & black water is often
taken about 3m3. Minimum wet capacity of the septic tank for treatment of only black water
often taken about 1.5m3. For septic tank connecting to drainage system in particular, the
sewage is futher treated at central sewage treatment plant (STP), may have its own rules
accordingly.
2.2. The minimum dimesion of septic tank is defined as follows:
Depth of wastewater level in the tank, calculated from the bottom of tank to wastewater
level, not less than 1.2m.
Container zone may futher deeper than sedimentation zone
The width or diameter of tank not less than 0.7m.
The ratio betwen length and width of rectangular tank with 3:1 normally.
2.3. With two-compartment septic tank, the first compartment (storage compartment) volume is
not less than 2/3 of tank volume. With three-compartment, the first compartment has a capacity
of not less than 0.5 of tank total volume, 2 next compartments with a volume of each 0.25 of
tank total olume. When wastewater flow is less than 10m3/day should be used two-
compartment; when the flow is greater than 10m3/day should be used three-compartment;
when the flow is greater than 20m3/day should be built 2 ore more units/mudules.
2.4. Septic tank volume is determined dependent structure of the tank, sewage component
properties, the number of people using the tank, the interval between desludging operation and
environmental temperature. The total capacity of the septic tank is calculated as follows:

= +
Where:
V : The total capacity/volume of septic tank, not including walls and partition
walls (m3);
V : The wet volume (effective volume) of septic tank (m3);
Vk : The volume of clear zone, calculated from the water level up to top of
tank (m3);
Wet volume (effective volume) of septic tank use the following formula:
= + + +
Where:
V : Wet volume (effective volume) of septic tank (m3);
Vn : The volume of sedimentation zone of tank (m3);
Vb : The volume of sludge digestion zone of tank (m3);
Vt : The volume of digested sludge storage zone (m3);
Vv : The volume of scum storage zone (m3).

2.4.1. The volume of sedimentation zone of tank use the following formula:

=
Trong :
Vn : The volume of sedimentation zone of tank (m3);
Q : Average wastewater flow enter to the tank per day (m3/day),
tn : The minimum HRT for sedimentation (days), determined in in
accordance with Tabel 1

Tabel 1 The minimum HRT for sedimentation zone of septic tank

Waste water flow The minimum HRT sedimentation zone


Q (m3/day) tn (days)
Septic tank for black & grey water Septic for only black water
<6 1 2
7 0.9 1.8
8 0.9 1.8
9 0.8 1.6
10 0.7 1.4
11 0.7 1.4
12 0.6 1.2
13 0.6 1.2
>14 0.5 1

2.4.2. The volume of sludge digestion zone of tank use following formula:

= . /
Where:
Vb : The volume of fresh sludge digestion zone (m3);
0.5 : The average volume of digesting sludge present during the period tb
(liter/person.day);
N : Population equivalent (persons);
tb : The time needed for anaerobic digestion (days), tb days be determined
in accordance with Tabel 2 and varies with temperature of waste water;

Tabel 2 Time needed for anaerobic digestion depend on temperate

Temperature of waste water (oC) 10 15 20 25 30 35


The time needed for sludge digestion (days) 104 63 47 40 33 28
2.4.3. The volume of digested sludge storage zone use following formula:

= /
Where:
Vt : The volume of digested storage (m3);
r : The rate of accumulation of digested sludge (liter/person.year);
r is obtained as follows

With septic tank for black & grey water combine: r = 40


liter/person.day
With septic tank only for back water: r = 30 liter/person.day

N : Population equivalent (persons);


T : The interval between desludging operations

2.4.4. Scum accumulates at ~ 40-50% the rate sludge accumulates.


2.4.5. Capacity of clear zone above water level of septic tank Vk be taken by 20% wet volume,
or composition of the tank, with a height of clear zone not less than 0.2m
2.4.6. Beside conventional septic tank, have some improved septic for higher treatment
effective:
2.4.6.1. Septic tank with aerobic filter
2.4.6.2. Septic tank with anaerobic filter
2.4.6.3. Baffled septic tank
2.4.6.4. Baffled septic tank with ananerobic filter
APPENDIX B
(For referring)
Determine the capacities and sizes of typical septic tank according to the number of full-time
and part-time users.
(See Figure B1 for the type of septic tank applied)
Table B1 The capacities and sizes of septic tank for treating combine both black & grey water
according to the number of users*
The Water The The length The length Wet volume
number level width of first of second (Effective Unit
of user height of tank chamber chamber volume) volume
N H B L1 L2 V m3/person
person m m m m m3
5 1.2 0.8 2.1 1.0 3.0 0.60
10 1.2 0.8 2.6 1.0 3.4 0.34
15 1.2 1.2 2.6 1.0 5.1 0.34
20 1.4 1.2 3.1 1.0 6.8 0.34
25 1.4 1.4 3.4 1.0 8.6 0.34
30 1.4 1.4 4.2 1.0 10.3 0.34
35 1.4 1.8 3.8 1.0 12.0 0.34
40 1.6 1.8 3.8 1.0 13.7 0.34
45 1.6 1.8 4.2 1.0 15.1 0.33
50 1.6 1.8 4.5 1.4 17.1 0.34
75 1.8 2.0 4.7 1.4 22.0 0.29
100 2.0 2.0 5.5 1.6 28.2 0.28
125 2.0 2.0 7.2 1.6 35.3 0.28
150** 1.8 2x2.0 4.5 1.4 42.5 0.28
200 2.0 2x2.0 5.1 1.6 53.6 0.27
250 2.0 2x2.0 6.7 1.6 66.4 0.27
300 2.5 2x2.0 6.0 2.0 80.0 0.27
* The size of septic tank indicated in the table is the minimum useful volume, calculated
base on the standard domestic domestic sewage is 150 liters per person per day; the
average temperature of waste water is 20oC; the interval between desludging operations
is 3 years/time.

** When the population equivalent (N) is greater than 150 person, should built 2
units/mudules working in parallel.
Table B2 The capacities and sizes of septic tank for treating only black water according to the
number of users*
The Water The The length The length Wet volume
number level width of first of second (Effective Unit
of user height of tank chamber chamber volume) volume
N H B L1 L2 V m3/person
person m m m m m3
5 1.2 0.7 1.2 0.6 1.5 0.30
10 1.2 1.0 1.6 0.7 2.8 0.28
15 1.2 1.0 2.7 0.7 4.1 0.27
20 1.4 1.0 2.9 1.0 5.4 0.27
25 1.4 1.4 2.4 1.0 6.8 0.27
30 1.4 1.4 3.1 1.0 8.1 0.27
35 1.4 1.4 3.8 1.0 9.5 0.27
40 1.6 1.4 3.4 1.4 10.9 0.27
45 1.6 1.4 4.0 1.4 12.2 0.27
50 1.6 1.8 3.3 1.4 13.5 0.27
75 1.8 2.0 3.7 1.4 18.5 0.25
100 2.0 2.0 4.4 1.6 24.0 0.24
125 2.0 2.0 5.9 1.6 30.0 0.24
150** 1.8 2x2.0 3.7 1.4 36.7 0.24
200 2.0 2x2.0 4.1 1.6 45.6 0.23
250 2.0 2x2.0 5.2 1.6 54.4 0.22
300 2.5 2x2.0 4.3 2.0 63.0 0.21
* The size of septic tank indicated in the table is the minimum useful volume, calculated
base on black water flow enter to the septic tank is 60 liters/person.day; the average
temperature of waste water is 20oC; the interval between desludging operations is 3
years/time.

** When the population equivalent (N) is greater than 150 person, should built 2
units/mudules working in parallel.

Figure B1 Calculation diagram for the the size of typical septic tank
(The type of septic tank applied for Table B1 & Table B2)
APPENDIX C
(For referring)
Determine the capacities and sizes of baffled septic tank according to the number of full-time
and part-time users.
(See Figure C1& C2 for the type of septic tank applied)
Table C1 The capacities and sizes of baffled septic tank for treating combine both black & grey
water according to the number of users1
The The The The The The Wet
The Water
width length of length of length of length of length of volume
number level
of first second third fourth fifth (Effective
of user height
tank chamber chamber chamber chamber chamber volume)
N H
B L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 V
person m
m m m m m m m3
52 1.2 0.8 1.9 0.6 0.6 - - 3.0
10 1.2 0.8 2.4 0.6 0.6 - - 3.5
15 1.2 1.2 2.4 0.6 0.6 - - 5.2
3
20 1.4 1.2 2.3 0.6 0.6 0.6 - 6.9
25 1.4 1.4 2.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 - 8.6
30 1.4 1.4 3.4 0.6 0.6 0.6 - 10.2
35 1.4 1.8 3.0 0.6 0.6 0.6 - 12.1
40 1.6 1.8 3.0 0.6 0.6 0.6 - 13.8
45 1.6 1.8 3.4 0.6 0.6 0.6 - 15.0
4
50 1.6 1.8 3.3 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 17.0
75 1.8 2.0 3.5 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 22.0
100 2.0 2.0 4.5 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 28.4
125 2.0 2.0 6.0 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 35.2
5
150 1.8 2x2.0 3.1 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 42.5
200 2.0 2x2.0 3.9 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 53.6
250 2.0 2x2.0 4.7 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 66.4
300 2.5 2x2.0 4.4 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 80.0

1
The size of septic tank indicated in the table is the minimum useful volume, calculated based on the standard
domestic sewage is 150 liters per person per day, the average temperature of wastewater is 20oC; the interval
between desludging operation is 3 years/time.
2
With N < 20 persons, the septic tank consist of one holding compartment and two baffled compartments.
3
With 20 N 50 persons, the tank consist of one holding compartment and three baffled compartments.
4
With N > 50 persons, the tank consist of one holding compartment, two baffled compartments and two
anaerobic filter compartments, working in parallel.
5
When N >150 persons, should built two units/modules working in parallel.
Figure C1 Calculation diagram for the size of baffled septic tank
(The type of septic tank applied for Table C1 & Table C2)

Figure C2 Calculation diagram for the size of baffled septic tank with anaerobic
filter
(The type of septic tank applied for Table C1 & C2)
Table C2 The capacities and sizes of baffled septic tank for treating only black water according
to the number of users1
(See Figure C1&C2 for the type of septic tank applied)
The The The The The The Wet
The Water
width length of length of length of length of length of volume
number level
of first second third fourth fifth (Effective
of user height
tank chamber chamber chamber chamber chamber volume)
N H
B L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 V
person m
m m m m m m m3
102 1.2 1.0 1.1 0.6 0.6 - - 2.8
15 1.2 1.0 2.2 0.6 0.6 - - 4.1
3
20 1.4 1.0 2.1 0.6 0.6 0.6 - 5.4
25 1.4 1.4 1.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 - 6.8
30 1.4 1.4 2.3 0.6 0.6 0.6 - 8.1
35 1.4 1.4 3.0 0.6 0.6 0.6 - 9.5
40 1.6 1.4 3.0 0.6 0.6 0.6 - 10.8
45 1.6 1.4 3.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 - 12.2
4
50 1.6 1.4 3.4 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 13.5
75 1.8 1.8 3.1 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 18.5
100 2.0 2.0 3.4 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 24.0
125 2.0 2.0 4.9 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 30.0
1505 1.8 2x1.8 3.1 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 36.9
200 2.0 2x2.0 3.1 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 45.6
250 2.0 2x2.0 4.2 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 54.0
300 2.0 2x2.0 4.7 0.7 0.7 0.9 0.9 63.0

1
The size of septic tank indicated in the table is the minimum useful volume, calculated based on black water
flow enter to septic tank is 60 liters per person per day, the average temperature of wastewater is 20oC; the
interval between desludging operation is 3 years/time.
2
With N < 20 persons, the septic tank consist of one holding compartment and two baffled compartments.
3
With 20 N 50 persons, the tank consist of one holding compartment and three baffled compartments.
4
With N > 50 persons, the tank consist of one holding compartment, two baffled compartments and two
anaerobic filter compartments, working in parallel.
5
When N >150 persons, should built two units/modules working in parallel.