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Jeffrey Marvin E.

Villasis BSME 4

1. FACTORS AFFECTING TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT ACCURACY.

The reading accuracy of some temperature measuring devices like the thermometer are
dependent on the size of the hole, the length of the tube and the fluid inside it.
Other temperature measuring devices have bimetallic elements that can be extremely
accurate.
The actual construction of the resistor material can also influence in the accuracy of
temperature measuring devices.
Another major factor is the selection of the circuitry to read the device. If insufficient
current is flowed thru the device, external noise will be a problem because the signal
levels will be very low. If the current is too high, the probe will start dissipating heat,
artificially shifting the temperature reading.
Another significant factor is the linearization of the meter. Most meters will use some
type of polynomial curve fit algorithm to create a calibrated formula of temperature vs
resistance.
Some temperature measuring devices accuracy is influence by the purity of the wire
and the wire junctions.

2. LIQUID GLASS THERMOMETER

This thermometer uses the process known as wet viscosity. In this process it is
important to know the precise temperature of the water bath. The glass thermometer
is still used because of it extreme repeatability. These specialized thermometers have a
bore that narrows at a particular point. In this way it can expand a two degree
temperature range in the middle of its scale to approximately two inches long, allowing
readings down to a fraction of a tenth of a degree C.

3. FILLED SYSTEM THERMOMETER

The operation of a filledsystem thermometer is based on one of three principles: the th


ermal expansion of a liquid, thetemperature dependence of the pressure of a gas, or th
e temperature dependence of the saturated vapor pressure of aliquid.

4. THERMOCOUPLE

The thermocouple is an extremely versatile device. Since the measurement of the


temperature occurs only at the actual interface between the two metals, the
measurement area can be as large or as small as one chooses. Most thermocouples
today are made from two pieces of dissimilar wire, welded together in a bead. This
junction can be as large or small as desired, simply by selecting the appropriate sized
wire. Thermocouples can be created by physically connecting the two metals together
as well as welding them. The only requirement is that the two metals be in good
physical contact. If one is not careful with wire insulation, a spot of missing insulation
Jeffrey Marvin E. Villasis BSME 4

can quickly become the new thermocouple, rather than the welded thermocouple that
is inserted into the process.

5. THERMOCOUPLE EFFECTS

Seebeck coefficient is the change in material EMF with respect to a change in


temperature.
Peltier effect describes the temperature difference generated by EMF.
Thomson effectrelates the reversible thermal gradient and EMF in a homogeneous
conductor.

6. THERMOCOUPLE RANGE AND CHARACTERISTICS

Since the thermocouple is actually just a pair of wires welded together, it is possible to
use these outside the stated operating range. The physical limit is based on the melting
point of the wire. There is no calibration for values outside the operating range, and
field calibration will have to be used. Accuracy of thermocouples is based on the purity
of the wire and the wire junction. In previous years thermocouples were welded using a
mercury bath. This has been replaced with carbon block welders operating under inert
gas. Each type of wire has its own limits of error based on materials deviations. There
are also special wires available that have been manufactured and tested at much tighter
compositions.

7. RESISTANCE TEMPERATURE DTECTOR (RTD)