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Guideline for Permissible

Internal Misalignment & Root

Reliance Gap of Piping Fabrication
EPCMD-2-QM00-REC-ME001, Rev. 00 Date: 25.06.2013

The following limit of internal misalignment and root gap shall be applicable for all WPSs
(Unless otherwise different values / requirements are specified in applicable project specifications)
Internal misalignment:
(i) The internal misalignment of the ends to be joined for single sided welding shall not
exceed 1/16" (2.0 mm) for butt welds and o-let welds.
(ii) For branch made from pipes, misalignment shall be 3.2 mm or, 0.5 x Nominal thickness
of branch, whichever is less.
(Wherever, double sided welding is carried out, any exceptions to this requirement will be reviewed on
case to case basis. This will be reviewed and approved by Engineering)

Root Gap:

Carbon Steel Low Alloy Steel /

Other Branch
Stainless Steel O-let Welds Trunion Welds
Butt Welds Welds
Butt Welds

2.5 ~ 3.15 mm 3.15 ~ 4.0 mm 4.0 mm (min.) 3.15 mm (min.) 0 mm

Attachments: Annexure 1 (For back-up details)


Prepared By Reviewed By Approved By

EPCMD-2QM00RECME001, Rev.00, Date: 25.06.2013 Page 1 of 2

Annexure - 1
EPCMD-2-QM00-REC-ME-001, Rev. 00 Date: 06.06.2013

The basis for the misalignment & root gap was derived from different codes/standard and based on
the weld ability factor.
Following codes / standards are referred for basis for concluding misalignment part:

Part 1: (Misalignment) For Single V Groove Joint:

PFI standard
ASME B31.3 ASME B31.1
(As referred by engineering)

Circumferential welds
(clause 328.4.3): "Inside
surface of the components
at ends to be joined in girth
in girth or miter groove
welds shall be aligned Preparation for welding
within the dimensional (Clause 127.3):
limits in the WPS and the (Internal machining and fit up)
engineering design. "The internal misalignment
of the ends to be joined shall GTAW root pass circumferential butt
If the external surfaces of not exceed 1/16 (2.0 mm) welds (PFI standard ES-21, March
the components are not unless the piping design 1983): (Table-1): 0 to 1/16" maximum.
aligned, the weld shall be specifically states a different
tapered between them." allowable misalignment."
(Fig 328.4.4: Preparation of
branch connections): The
lesser of 3.2 mm or 0.5 x
nominal thickness of

Part 2: (Root Spacing) For Single V Groove Joint:

ASME B31.3 ASME B31.1 PFI standard

Clause 328.4.3: The root Clause 127.3: The root

opening of the joint shall be opening of the joint shall be (PFI standard ES-21, March 1983):
within the tolerance limits in as given in the WPS. (Table-1): 0 to 1/16" maximum.
the WPS.

EPCMD-2QM00RECME001, Rev.00, Date: 24.06.2013 Page 2 of 2