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BIO121 CHAPTER 5:

BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES II
by SITI SARAH AZMAN
adapted from Nur Hazirah Azmis

BIO121_SitiSarahAzman
QUIZ 2 (WEEK OF 1 st FEB 2016)
TIME: DURING TUTORIAL
DURATION: 20 MINUTES
TOPICS COVERED:
CHAPTER 4 CHEMICAL BONDS & WATER
PROPERTIES
CHAPTER 5 BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES
DOA PENERANG HATI

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PROTEIN
AMINO ACIDS
DIPEPTIDE
POLYPEPTIDE
PROTEIN

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PROTEIN
From Greek word, Proteios , meaning Primary

Composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and


sometimes contain sulfur, phosphorus and iron.

Monomer of proteins = amino acids

Polymer of proteins = polypeptides

Polypeptides folded and coiled into specific conformation


protein
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From monomers polymers

Amino acid Dipeptides Polypeptides Protein

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AMINO ACIDS
An organic What is an Contains:
compound amino acid? 4) A side chain
(R group)
Contains:
1) A carbon atom Contains: Contains:
2) An amino 3) A carboxyl
group group

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AMINO ACIDS
The simplest amino acid = Glycine
The R group is hydrogen

The R group differs among amino acids and gives


each its distinctive properties

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AMINO ACIDS

Amino acids are grouped according to the properties


of their side chains (R groups)
Group of amino acids:
i. Non-polar side chains (hydrophobic)
ii. Polar side chains (hydrophilic, soluble in water)
iii. Electrically charged:
a) Negatively charged (acidic, hydrophilic)
b) Positively charged (basic, hydrophilic)
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AMINO ACIDS

20 Amino
acids

Non-polar Polar Electrically


(9) (6) charged

Acidic (negatively Basic (positively


charged) charged)
(2) (3)

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R GROUPS OF
AMINO ACID

What you need


to know:

20 R Groups
=
20 amino acids

Different amino
acid
=
Different properties
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AMINO ACIDS

Dissolve in water to form dipolar ions in aqueous


solution
Have both basic & acidic groups = amphoteric
(capable of reacting either as acid or base)
Two groups of amino acids
Essential = cannot be synthesized by cells (obtain
from diet)
Non-essential = can be synthesized by our body

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DIPEPTIDES

Amino acid 1 + amino acid 2 dipeptide + water


The resulting covalent bond = peptide bond
Peptidase = enzyme that breakdown polypeptide
amino acid
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POLYPEPTIDES
Amino acid polymers
Hundred of monomer join together through peptide
bond by the condensation process

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PROTEIN STRUCTURE
& FUNCTION
A functional protein is not just a
polypeptide chain
polypeptides that were twisted,
folded and coiled into a
molecule of unique shape.
Proteins share three levels of
structure: primary, secondary
and tertiary structure
A fourth level, quaternary
structure arises when a protein
consists of two or more
polypeptide chains BIO121_SitiSarahAzman
PRIMARY STRUCTURE
Primary structure = sequence of
amino acids
Structure is determined by
inherited genetic information

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SECONDARY STRUCTURE
Most proteins have segments of their polypeptide
chains repeatedly coiled or folded in a pattern that
contribute to the proteins overall shape

The secondary structure results from hydrogen bonds


between atoms of the polypeptide backbone

Two types of secondary structure: -helix and -


pleated sheets

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SECONDARY STRUCTURE
ALPHA-HELIX BETA-PLEATED SHEETS
Coil held together by H-bond 2 or more segments of polypeptide
between every 4th amino acid chain lying side by side
Connected by H-bonds between
parts of the two parallel segments

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TERTIARY STRUCTURE
Overall shape of a
polypeptide that results
from interactions between
side chains (R groups) of
the various amino acids
Interactions between R
groups:
Hydrophobic interaction
Hydrogen bonds
Disulfide bridges

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QUATERNARY STRUCTURE
Some proteins have two or more polypeptide chains
aggregated into one macromolecule
Eg:
Transthyretin protein Hemoglobin

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PROTEIN STRUCTURE

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PROTEIN STRUCTURE

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HOW PROTEIN GOT ITS
STRUCTURE? SELF STUDY
Denaturation of protein
Renaturation of protein

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FUNCTIONS OF PROTEIN
FUNCTION EXAMPLE

1.STRUCTURE Collagen in skin, keratin in hair, nails,

2.MOVEMENT Actin & myosin in muscle.

3.DEFENSE Antibodies in bloodstream.

4.STORAGE Zeatin in corn seeds.

5.SIGNALS Growth hormone in bloodstream.


6.CATALYSIS Enzymes : Catalyze nearly every
chemical reaction in our cells
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FUNCTIONS OF PROTEIN

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FUNCTIONS OF PROTEIN

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NUCLEIC ACID
NUCLEOTIDE
POLYNUCLEOTIDE
TYPES OF NUCLEIC ACID
RNA
DNA

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NUCLEIC ACID
A nucleic acid is a macromolecule
composed of chains of monomer
called nucleotides

The two class of nucleic acids are


deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and
ribonucleic acid (RNA).

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NUCLEOTIDE STRUCTURE
Nucleic acids are built from
subunits called nucleotides.
Have three main
components:
i. 5-carbon /pentose sugar
(ribose or deoxyribose)
ii. Nitrogenous base :
purine or pyrimidine
iii. Phosphate groups

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PENTOSE SUGAR
Deoxyribose
Found in Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), is
a modified sugar,
Hydrogen atom (H) at carbon no 2
lacking one oxygen atom (hence the
name "de-oxy")
Ribose
Found in Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
Hydroxyl group (OH) at carbon no 2 is a
"normal" sugar, with one oxygen atom
attached to each carbon atom.
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NITROGENOUS BASE
PURINE
Double rings structure
Adenine (A)
Guanine (G)

PYRIMIDINES
Single ring structure
Cytosine (C)
Thymine (T)
Uracil (U)
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NUCLEOTIDE
The phosphate group joins to the 5th carbon of
pentose sugar

The nitrogenous bases (A,T,C,G) are attached to the


1st carbon
P
G

Pentose
sugar
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POLYNUCLEOTIDES
Different nucleotides are joined P
G
by phosphodiester bonds to
Phosphodiester
form a polynucleotide bond
P
C

Process that takes place: P


condensation process C

P
A

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TYPE OF NUCLEIC ACID - DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
Function: These molecules carry genetic
information
Found in nucleus
polynucleotide strands = Long
Double-helix (Two polynucleotide
strand joined by hydrogen bonding)
Pentose sugar = Deoxyribose
Nitrogenous base = Adenine, Thymine,
Cytosine, Guanine (A, T, C, G)
Adenine with Thymine (A-T pairs) and
Cytosine with Guanine (C-G pairs)
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STRUCTURE OF
DNA

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SELF STUDY
Watson-Crick model of DNA

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TYPE OF NUCLEIC ACID - RNA
Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
Function: important in protein
synthesis
Found mainly in cytoplasm
Polynucleotide strands = short
Single polynucleotide strand (No
double helix)
Pentose sugar = Ribose
Nitrogenous base = Adenine,
Uracil, Cytosine, Guanine (A, U, C,
G)
Three types: (mRNA, rRNA, tRNA)
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Types of RNA
Messenger RNA (mRNA)
Long, single strands of RNA
Transcript the genetic code/carry instructions on sequence
of amino acids from DNA in nucleus to the ribosome in
cytoplasm

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)


Structural component of ribosome
Provide site for polypeptide is assembled

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Types of RNA
Transfer RNA (tRNA)
Smallest RNA
convert DNA information into
polypeptide sequences (protein)
/picks up the necessary amino
acid in the cytoplasm and carries
it to the surface of the ribosomes
for use in building the
polypeptides.

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SUMMARY OF ORGANIC COMPOUND

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REFERENCES
Campbell, Biology 10th Ed (chapter 4 and chapter 5)

http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/guides/z8wsgk7/r
evision

http://alevelnotes.com/Biological-
Molecules/49#/?id=49

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THANK
YOU

Prague, Czech Republic BIO121_SitiSarahAzman