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IMPORTANT TERMS) _______________________

Nomenclature: Nomenclature refers to the biology that deals with identification, naming
assigning of names toorganisms. (nomenclature)and classification.
Taxon: Any category or unit of classification Systematics: Systematics is the study of diversity
that represents a rank, is called a taxon. of organisms and all their comparative and
Taxonomy: Taxonomy is the branch of evolutionary relationships.
- --- --- ( iii1 7 0 -R TA N T NOTES) _ _
I. WHAT IS 'LIVING'? Organismslikemule,thesterileworker
Therearecertaindistinctivecharacteristics bees, etc. do not reproduce at all.
exhibited by living organisms. C. Metabolism
Such characteristics distinguish the living from the The sum total of all the chemical reactions
non-living; they include Growth, Reproduction, occurring in a living cell/organism, is called
Metabolism, Response to the stimuli and Self- metabolism.
organisation,Interactionandemergence. All living organisms, be they unicellular or
A. Growth multicellular, exhibit metabolism, without
Growthisdefinedasanirreversibleincrease exception; but no non-living things show
in the number of cells and/or mass of the metabolism.
livingstructure, Hence, metabolismand cellular organisation
If we consider increase in body mass as of living organisms, are considered as
growth, nonliving objects like boulders, defining characteristics of living beings.
sand mounds, etc. grow too. D. Response to Stimuli or Consciousness
Hence, growth cannot be taken as a defining It refers to the ability of all living organisms,
property of living organisms, though it is a prokaryotesoreukaryotes,simpleorcomplex
characteristic of only living organisms. in organisation, have the ability to sense
B. Reproduction the conditions in their surroundings or
environment and respond to these stimuli,
which may be physical, chemical or
by cell division.
biological; consciousness is a defining
In multicellular organisms, reproduction
property of living organisms.
mostly refers to 'sexual reproduction; some
ofthem reproduceasexuallyalso. Human being is the only organism to have
Reproductioncannot considered an all- self-consciousness, i.e., to be aware of
inclusive defining c racteristic of living himself/herself;
organisms, for the following reasons: 2. BIODIVERSITY
In single-celled organisms, growth and Biodiversityreferstothenumberandtypesof
reproductionaresynonymous,asincrease organismspresentontheEarth.
in number of cells is considered as growth Eachdifferentkindoforganismrepresentsa
as well as reproduction. species.
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Identification is to determine the correct place Taxonomy of organisms is based on the
of an organism in a previously established plan knowledge of the following:
of classification. (i) Externalformandstructure(morphology)
The characteristic features of various parts (ii) Internalstructure(anatomy)
of an organism are compared with those of (iii) Cell structure (cytology)
the already known species to determine their (iv) Developmental processes (embryology)
similarities and differences and to assign it to (v) Remnants of the past organisms (fossils)
a particular group. and
4. NOMENCLATURE (vi) Ecological relationship
It is not possible to identify the enormous Thus characterisation, identification, nomencla-
number of organisms, based on their common/ ture and classification are the processes that are
vernacular names; hence scientific names are basictotaxonomy.
given to them. The word systematics is derived from the Latin
The scientific names ensure that: word 'systema' which means the systematic
each organism has only one name; description arrangement oforganisms.
of an organism should enable the people of 7. TAXONOMIC HIERARCHY Kingdom
any part of the world to arrive at the same It is the framework in which
name. Phylum/
the taxonomic groups (taxa) are Division
such anamehasnotbeenused forany other arranged in a definite order, from
known organism. higher to lower categories.
A. Binomial Nomenclature Species is the basic unit; Kingdom
This method was introduced by Carolus is the highest category/unit in clas- Order
Linnaeus. sification.
It is a method in which every organism is In plant Kingdom, division is the
given a scientific name, which has two parts, category equivalent to phylum. Genus
the first is the name of the genus (generic All the members of a taxon have
name) and the second is the name of the similar characteristics, which are
species (specific epithet) different from that of other taxa. Fig. 1.1
e.g., Mangifera indica for mango. Homo Higher the category, lesser will be Taxonomic
sapiens for human beings. the number of similar characteristicsHierarchy
of organisms belonging to that category. Table
B. Guidelines/Principles for Nomenclature
The rules of nomenclature are provided in the 1.1 Taxonomic Hierarchy of a Few
International Code of Botanical Nomenclature Organisms
(ICBN) for plants and in the International Taxa Mango Man
Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN)
Kingdom Plantae Animalia
for animals.
Phylum/ Division Angiospermae Chordate
It is nearly impossible to study all the living Class Dicotyledonae Mamma a
organisms, but classification makes possible Orde'r, Sapindales Primata
the scientific study of such a wide variety of Family Anacardiaceae Hominidae
Organisms are grouped into categories, called Genus Mangifera Homo
taxa and representatives from each taxon is Species indica sapiens

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8. TAXONOMIC AIDS collected insects are dried and pinned in

All those collections of actual live specimens these boxes.
or preserved specimens, which help in the No Larger animals like birds and mammals are
identification or verification of a species, are usually preserved as stuffed specimens.
called taxonomic aids. .0 Skeletons of animals are also collected
Some of them are described below: in the museums.
A. Herbarium D. Zoological Parks
A herbarium is defined as a collection of These are the places where wild animals are
plants, that have been dried, pressed and protected under human care and are provided
preserved on sheets. with conditions very similar to their natural
These sheets are arranged in accordance habitats.
with any accepted system of classification. E. Keys
They form a repository for future use. A key is an analytical scheme for identification
They also serve as quick referral systems of plants and animals based on the similarities
for taxonomic studies.
and differences.
B. Botanical Gardens
The keys are based on the contrasting
These are the specialised gardens that have characters, generally given in a pair, called
collections of living plants maintained for couplet.
reference, i.e. they are meant for identification Each statement in the key, is called a
and classification of new plants. lead.
These are considered natural and economical
Separate keys are needed for each taxonomic
reference systems.
category (or a taxon).
C. Museums

F. Monographs
Museums are those places which have

Monographs give a comprehensive account of

collections of preserved animals and plants complete compilation of available information
for taxonomic studies.
of any one family or genus at a time.
The organisms are exhibited in the following G. Manuals
- Manuals contain compiled information
The plant and animal specimens are kept about the particular area, key, descriptions
in chemical solutions and are preserved of families, genus and species.
for longer duration.
No Plant and animal specimens may also be H. F l o r a
preserved as dry specimens. - A flora contains the actual description of the
goo Insects are preserved in insect boxesr; the habitat and distribution of plant species in
a given area.
1.1. Define growth.
1.8. Given below is the scientific name of Mango.
1.2. Name two animals, which do not reproduce
at all. Identify the correctly written name.
Mangifera Indica
1.3. What is metabolism?
(it) Mangifera indica [NCERT]
1.4. Define biodiversity. 1.9. What is classification?
1.5. What is meant by nomenclature in biology? 1.10. Why are living organisms classified?
1.6. Expand ICBN. [NCT 2007] [NCERT]
1.7. Name the person who proposed the system of 1.11. What is meant by taxonomic hierarchy?
binomial nomenclature. [NCT 2010, 2009] 1.12. Define the term 'species'.

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1.13. Brinjal and potato belong to the same genus, (1) Phylum(ii) Class Class, Genus,
Solanum, but to two different species. What Phylum, Order, Species,
defines them as separate species? Kingdom, Family.[NCT 2008]
[NCERT Exemplar] [HOTS] 1.18. Name the highest category in the hierarchial
1.14. What is the scientific name of human beings? system of classification. [NCT 2012)
1.15. Name the order which includes Solanaceae
and Convolvulaceae. 1.19. Can you identify the correct sequence of
taxonomical categories? [NCER11
1.16. Fill in the blanks (A) and (B):
Species -4 (A) .4 Family -4 Order (B) (i) Order -4 Species Phylum -4 Kingdom
-4 Phylum. [NCT 2009] (ii) Genus -+ Species -4 Order Kingdom
1.17. Rearrange the following taxonomic categories (iii) Species -4 Genus --> Order -4 Phylum
in a proper sequence from smaller taxon to 1.20. How does a manual differ from a flora?
higher one: 1.21. What is a monograph?
2.1. When we try to define 'living', we look for
certain distinctive characteristics of living 2.6. Name the four processes that are basic to
organisms. Mention four such features. taxonomy.
2.2. Plants and animals grow by mitotic cell 2.7. What do we learn from identification of
divisions. What differences do they exhibit individuals and populations? [NCERTir
in their growth? [HOTS] 2.8. Match the items of column A with those of
column B.
2.3. Amoeba multiplies by mitotic cell division.
Is this phenomenon growth or reproduction? Column A Column B
Explain. [NCERT Exemplar] [HOTS] A. Family (i) tuberosum
2.4. How do the following reproduce asexually? B. Order (ii) Polemoniales
C. Species (iii) Solanum
(a) Hydra (b) Protonema of moss
D. Genus (iv) Solanaceae
(c) Planaria (d) Fungi
[NCERT Exemplar]
2.5. A plant may have different names in different
2.9. Museums and Zoological parks (Zoos) are
regions of the country or world. How do
both taxonomical aids; yet, how do they
botanists solve this problem?
differ from each other?
[NCERT Exemplar] 2.10. How is a key helpful in identification and
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS-II classification of an organism? [NCERT]

3.1. Describe binomial nomenclature with an 3 MARKS

example. classify people that you meet often?
3.2. Define a taxon. Give some examples [NCERT]
of taxi at different hierarchial levels. 3.4. Write a short account on herbarium as a
[NCERT] taxonomic aid.
3.3. What different criteria would you choose to 3.5. List the information that should be shown
LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS on the label of a herbarium sheet.
5.1. Explain the guidelines/principles for 5 MARKS
(iii) Family (iv) Order
5.2. Define and understand the following terms: (v) Genus [NCERT]
t:3. Illustrate the taxonomical hierarchy with suitable
examples of a plant and an animal. [NCER71
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I. There are millions of plants and animals in (a) Name any four forms of taxonomic
the world and they have local names which aids. Of these, where can you find live
vary from place to place and country to specimens?
country, in different languages. In a need to (b) What are taxonomic keys?
standardise the naming of living organisms (c) Indicate the value learnt from such
such that a particular organism is known aids.
by the same name all over the world, the
4. When we try to define 'living' we look
scientists have established procedures and
for certain distinctive characters exhibited
principles to assign scientific names.
by living organisms; they include growth,
(a) What is nomenclature? reproduction, ability to sense the environment
(b) Expand ICBN and ICZN. and respond, interact, metabolism, etc.
(c) Indicate the value learnt from this (a) Certain properties like growth and
concept. reproduction can not be taken as overall
2. If you look around, you will see a large defining characters of living organisms.
variety of living organismsplants and animals Give reasons.
with your naked eyes and the microbes with (b) Mention two characters that can be the
the help of microscopes. Classification of defining properties of life forms.
all these, is not a single step process, but (c) What value do you attach to 'living'?
involves a hierarchy of steps where each
5. Taxonomy is not something new, human
step represents a rank/category.
beings are interested in knowing more and
(a) What is a taxonomic hierarchy? more about the various kinds of organisms,
(b) Name the lowest category and the highest especially with reference to their own use;
category in the hierarchy. hence\the earliest classifications were based
(c) What is the value shown 'by arranging on the uses of various organisms.
the organisms into these categories? (a) What is systematics?
3. Taxonomists have developed a variety of (b) What is the scope of systematics as of
taxonomic aids to facilitate identification, today?
naming and classification of organisms. (c) What forms the basis of modern
These studies are carried out from the actual taxonomy?
specimens collected from the field or those (d) Indicate the value shown by this branch
preserved as referrals. of biology.

(ANSWERS _ _ _ _ _


1.1. Growth is defined as an irreversible increase in 1.6. International Code of Botanical Nomenclature
the number of cells and/or mass of the living 1.7. Carolus Linnaeus
structure. 1.8. (ii) Mangifera indica,
1.2. Mule and worker honey bees. 1.9. Classification is the art of identifying distinctions
1.3. Metabolism refers to the sum total of all the among organisms and placing them into groups
chemical reactions occurring in a living body. that reflect their most significant features and
1.4. Biodiversity refers to the number and types of relationships.
organisms present on the earth. 1.10. Since the known organisms are classified into
1.5. Nomenclature refers to the assigning of names to groups, the study of one/two organisms in a group
organisms. gives us the idea about the rest of the members of

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that group; thus the study of the enormous number (A) Genus; (B) Class
of organisms (biodiversity) is made easy. Species)Genus+Family)Order)Class-+
1.11. Toxonomic hierarchy is the framework in 1.16. Phylum ) Kingdom.
which the taxonomic groups (taxa) are arranged Kingdom
in a definite order, from higher to lower (iii) Species ) Genus ).Order ) Phylum.
categories. A manual is a taxonomic aid, that contains the
1.12. A species is a group of individual organisms which compiled information about plants and animals
have fundamental similarities and can interbreed of the area covered, while floras give information
among themselves in nature. about plants only.
1.13. They are reproductively isolated and do not A monograph is a taxonomic aid which gives a
interbreed in nature. comprehensive account of the complete compilation
1.14. Homo sapiens. of available information of any one taxon (a family/
1.15. Polemoniales 1.21. genus/species) at a given time.
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS-I has two parts (words); the first is the name of
the genus (generic name) and the second part is
2.1. (1) Growth, (ii) Reproduction, (iii) Metabolism and the name of the species (specific epithet). e.g.,
(iv) Sensitivity to their environment and responding Mangifera indica.
to the stimulus.
Growth In Plants Growth in Animals 2.6. 2 MARKS
(i) Characterisation (ii) Identification
2.7. (iii) Classification (iv) Nomenclature
2.2. Identification of an organism referstotheassigning
of the organisms to a particular group.
features of various parts of the organism.
These features are compared with those of
the already known species to determine their
similarities and differences.
Growth occurs in Growth occurs all
certain regions, called All individuals belonging to one species and
over the body.
mcristems. 2.8. occupying a given area, constitute a population.
A(iv); B(ii), C-(i); D(iii)
Growthoccursthrou- Growthstopsaftera 2.9.
certain period. Museums Zoological Parks
ghout their life.
These are the places, These are the places
23. Increase in number of cells is considered as
which have collec- where wild animals
tions of preserved are protected under
Being unicellular, increase in number of cells
animalsandplantsfor human care and are
represents reproduction too.
taxonomic studies. provided with condi-
In unicellular organisms, we are not clear about
these two words. tions very similar to
their natural habitats.
2.4. (a) Hydra Budding
(b) ProtonemaofmossVegetativereproduction 2.10. A key is an analytical scheme for identification of
by fragmentation and by budding. organisms based on similarities and differences.
(c) Planaria Regeneration from any fragment. Since each couplet represents a pair of contrasting
(d) Fungi Vegetatively by fragmentation and characters, there is option to select/classify the
Asexually by spore formation. organism into a group.
2.5. Botanists assign a scientific name to the plant, Eachlead describesthe characteristic of the organ-
based on certain principles and criteria. ism, and the group into which it is classified.
The Scientific name ensures that the plant has
only one name, in any part of the world; it also 3 MARKS
ensures that such a name has not been used for In this, Mangifera is the name of the genus
any other known plant. while indica is the name of the species (specific
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS-II epithet) belonging to the genus Mangifera.
3.2. A taxon represents any category or unit of
3.1. It is a method of naming the organisms, in which
every organism is given a scientific name, which classification.
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e.g., Kingdom : Plantae, Animalia These sheets are arranged according to an

Phylum : Annelida, Chordata accepted system of classification.
Class : Insecta They form a repository for future use and serve as
Order : Diptera, Poales quick referral systems for taxonomic studies.
Family : Solanaceae, Felidae 3.5. A label on the herbarium sheet must have the
Genus : Solanum, Felix. following information:
(1) Locality/Place (Habitat)
3.3. (i) The states of India to which they belong.
(ii) Name of the collector
(ii) The Professions like Lawyer, Engineers, (iii) Date and time of collection
teachers, etc. (iv) Common English name
3.4. A herbarium is defined as collection of plants (v) Vernacular name
which have been dried, pressed and preserved (vi) Scientific name with the author's name
on sheets. (vii) Name of the family.
5.1. (i) Scientific or biological names are generally e.g., Family Solanaceae includes genera
in Latin; they are derived from Latin or are Solanum, Petunia, etc.
Latinised irrespective of their origin. (iv) An order is an assemblage of families related
(ii) Both the words in a biological name are written to one another in a few characters.
in Italics or, are separately underlined. e.g., Order Polemoniales includes families
(iii) The first word in a biological name denotes Solanaceae and Convolvulaceo.
the name of the genus and the second word (v) A genus is a group of related species, which
denotes the specific epithet. have many characters in common.
(iv) The first word or the generic name starts with e.g., Genus Solanum includes species,
a capital letter, while the specific epithet starts tuberosum (potato) and melongena
with a small letter.
(v) The name of the author is written in an
abbreviated form after the specific epithet. e.g., 5.3. Taxa Wheat Housefly
Mangifera indica Linn. it indicates that this
species was first described by Linnaeus. Kingdom Plantae Animalia
5.2. (i) A phylum is a taxon that includes all organisms Phylum/ Angiospermae Arthropoda
belonging to different classes having a few Division
characters in common.
e.g., Phylum Chordata includes classes like Class Monocotyledonae Insecta
Osteichthyes, Amphibia, etc. Order Poales Diptera
(ii) A class includes organisms of the related orders.
e.g., Class Mammalia includes orders Family Poaceae Muscidae
Carnivora and Primata. Genus Triticum Musca
(iii) A family is a group of related genera which
are more similar in characters. Species aestivum domestica


1. (a) Nomenclature refers to the assigning of names arranged in a definite order, from higher to
to organisms. lower categories.
(b) 1CBN International Code of Botanical (b) Species is the lowest category.
Nomenclature. Kingdom is the highest category.
ICZN International Code of Zoological (c) Step by step improvement/progress will help
Nomenclature. to achieve the goal.
(c) If everyone works in the same direction in 3. (a) (i) Herbarium (ii) Botanical gardens
an organisation, it is easy to succeed. (iii) Zoological parks (iv) Museums.
2. (a) Taxonomic hierarchy is the framework in Live specimens can be found in Botanical
which the taxonomic groups (taxa) are. gardens and Zoological parks.

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(b) A taxonomic key is an aid used for identification (c) Don't harm any other living being as life is
of plants and animals, based on similarities precious.
and dissimilarities. 5. (a) Systematics is the study of diversity of
(c) Help comes in many forms; use them wisely. organisms and all their comparative and
4. (a) Growth cannot be taken as a defining evolutionary relationships.
property of living because non-living (b) The scope of systematics is to identify, name
objects also grow and increase their mass by and classify organisms.
accumulation of materials on the surface. (c) Modern taxonomy is based on
Reproduction cannot be taken as a defining (1) the external structure
property of living because there are many (ii) the internal structure
living organisms, which do not reproduce (iii) structure of cell
at all, e.g., mule, the sterile worker bees, (iv) developmental process
etc. (v) ecological information of the organisms.
(b) Cellular organisation and consciousness (about (d) It indicates organised/systematic approach and
environment). integration.
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