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Peperiksaan Pertengahan Semester Kedua

Sidang Akademik 2013/2014

April 2014

ERT 215 Mekanik Bendalir

[Fluid Mechanics]

Masa : 1 jam 30 minit

Please make sure that this question paper has TWO (2) printed pages including this front page
before you start the examination.

[Sila pastikan kertas soalan ini mengandungi DUA (2) muka surat yang bercetak termasuk muka hadapan sebelum
anda memulakan peperiksaan ini.]

Answer ALL questions.

[Jawab SEMUA soalan.]

Question 1

(a) Distinguish between closed and opened system.

Systems may be considered to be closed or open, depending on whether a fixed mass or a

volume in space is chosen for study. A closed system (also known as a control mass or
simply a system) consists of a fixed amount of mass, and no mass can cross its
boundary. An open system, or a control volume, is a selected region in space. Mass may
cross the boundary of a control volume or open system

Discussion In thermodynamics, it is more common to use the terms open system and
closed system, but in fluid mechanics, it is more common to use the terms system and
control volume to mean the same things, respectively.

[5 Marks]
(b) Explain the following terms:

I. Compressible versus incompressible flow

Incompressible flow: If the density of flowing fluid remains nearly constant
throughout (e.g., liquid flow).
Compressible flow: If the density of fluid changes during flow (e.g., high-speed
gas flow)

II. Viscous versus inviscid regions of flow

Viscous flows: Flows in which the frictional effects are significant.
Inviscid flow regions: In many flows of practical interest, there are regions
(typically regions not close to solid surfaces) where viscous forces are negligibly
small compared to inertial or pressure forces.

III. Steady versus unsteady flow

The term steady implies no change at a point with time.
The opposite of steady is unsteady.
The term uniform implies no change with location over a specified region.
The term periodic refers to the kind of unsteady flow in which the flow oscillates
about a steady mean.
Many devices such as turbines, compressors, boilers, condensers, and heat
exchangers operate for long periods of time under the same conditions, and they are
classified as steady-flow devices.

[15 Marks]

(c) Consider two tanks filled with water. The first tank is 8 m high and is stationary, while the
second tank is 2 m high and is moving upward with an acceleration of 5 m/s 2. Which tank
will have a higher pressure at bottom.

Solution Two water tanks Tank A Tank B
filled with water, one stationary
and the other moving upwards at az = 5 m/s2

constant acceleration. The tank 8

with the higher pressure at the m z 2
bottom is to be determined.
Water 2 Water g
Assumptions 1 The acceleration 1 m 1
remains constant. 2 Water is an
incompressible substance.
Properties We take the density
of water to be 1000 kg/m3.

The pressure difference between two points 1 and 2 in an incompressible fluid is given by
P2 P1 a x ( x 2 x1 ) ( g a z )( z 2 z1 ) or P1 P2 ( g a z )( z 2 z1 )

since ax = 0. Taking point 2 at the free surface and point 1 at the tank bottom, we have P2 Patm
and z 2 z1 h and thus
P1, gage Pbottom ( g a z ) h

Tank A: We have az = 0, and thus the pressure at the bottom is

1 kN
PA, bottom gh A (1000 kg/m 3 )(9.81 m/s 2 )(8 m) 2
78.5 kN/m 2

1000 kg m/s

Tank B: We have az = +5 m/s2, and thus the pressure at the bottom is

1 kN
PB , bottom ( g a z )h B (1000 kg/m 3 )(9.81 5 m/s 2 )( 2 m) 29.6 kN/m 2

1000 kg m/s 2

Therefore, tank A has a higher pressure at the bottom.

Discussion We can also solve this problem quickly by examining the relation
Pbottom ( g a z )h . Acceleration for tank B is about 1.5 times that of Tank A (14.81 vs 9.81
m/s2), but the fluid depth for tank A is 4 times that of tank B (8 m vs 2 m). Therefore, the tank
with the larger acceleration-fluid height product (tank A in this case) will have a higher pressure
at the bottom.

[30 Marks]

Question 2

(a) What is the Eulerian description of fluid motion? How does it differ from the Langrangian

In the Eulerian description of fluid motion, we are concerned with field variables, such as
velocity, pressure, temperature, etc., as functions of space and time within a flow
domain or control volume. In contrast to the Lagrangian method, fluid flows into and out
of the Eulerian flow domain, and we do not keep track of the motion of particular
identifiable fluid particles.

In the Lagrangian description of fluid motion, individual fluid particles (fluid elements
composed of a fixed, identifiable mass of fluid) are followed. The Lagrangian method of
studying fluid motion is similar to that of studying billiard balls and other solid objects in

[10 Marks]

(b) A weather ballon is launched into the atmosphere by meteorologists. When the ballon
reaches an altitude where it is neutrally buoyant, it transmits information about weather
conditions to monitoring stations on the ground. Is this a Langrangian or an Eulerian
measurement? Explain.

Since the probe moves with the flow and is neutrally buoyant, we are following individual
fluid particles as they move through the pump. Thus this is a Lagrangian measurement. If
the probe were instead fixed at one location in the flow, its results would be Eulerian

[10 Marks]

(b) Consider the following steady, two-dimentional velocity field:

i 2cby 2c xy j

V u , v a 2 b cx
2 2

Is there a stagnation point in this flow field? If so, where is it?


The velocity field is


2 r r
V u, v a 2 b cx i 2cby 2c 2 xy j (1)

At a stagnation point, both u and v must equal zero. At any point (x,y) in the flow field, the
velocity components u and v are obtained from Eq. 1,


Velocity components: u a 2 b cx
v 2cby 2c 2 xy (2)
Setting these to zero and solving simultaneously yields

0 a 2 b cx
Stagnation point: c (3)
v 2cby 2c 2 xy y0

So, yes there is a stagnation point; its location is x = (b a)/c, y = 0.

[30 Marks]