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Vidita Imroatus Sholeha (161710101105)

Muyassarotul Athiyah (161710101013)


Muhammad Naufal Hilmi (161710101037)
Brilyan Raditia Pratamayuda (161710101040)
Kelas : THP C

THE EFFORTS OF INDONESIAN YOUTH


IN REDUCING SOYBEAN

Indonesia is one of an agricultural country that produce local wisdom and


culture of the people. One of Indonesias agricultural products are food crops. Food
security in a country said to be good when all the inhabitants in these countries can
be met his needs. Any individual or community has the right to obtain food and it is
an essential right. Food security made the Government to become one of the
important indicators for the success of a country's national development. Food
security is also used as an indicator of economic growth and the distributin of income
for the population.
According to Act no. 7 0f 1996, food plant is one of the most important
commodities because food is one of the basic necessities of the community that its
fulfillment became Indonesia community, and one of the commodities of the most
important food plants consumed is soy.
Soy is a strategic commodity that is unique in the system of farmer Indonesia.
Soybeans are included in the big three major food commodities in Indonesia in
addition rice and corn. Soy has a very important role on the development of the
population of Indonesia(Sumarno et al, 1989).
In addition to soy as a food of the people, is also the most healthy vegetable
source of protein. Soy is known for cheap and very affordable in terms of price and
quality by the majority of Indonesias people. Soybean demand continues to increase
each year in line with the increase of the population. Nutrient content contained
within is very high, especially soy protein levels. Soy protein levels reached 34%.
The price of soybeans are relatively cheaper soy couses as the source for the
community of vegetable protein Indonesia(Sastrahidajat and Sumarno, 1991).
Soybean in Indonesia was more widely used as industrial raw materials. Soy
can also be processed into soy sauce, tofu, tempeh, douche, and soy milk.
Processed soy products is one of the important menu in the consumption patterns of
society Indonesia, especially in Java. Processed ingredients such as tofu, tempeh,
and soy sauce is very dominate the soy for food in Indonesia, while the rest is used
for the processing of soy milk, douche, flour, and other raw materials processed. It
makes soy as one of important commodities in Indonesia(Ministry of Agriculture,
2005).
Need of soybean in Indonesia each year continues to increase. Noted that
the need of soybeans by 2012 amounted to 2,2 million tons compared with the year
2011 just of 2,16 million tons. From the results of the needs of the average that is
able to be filled by domestic production of about 25-30%, of which the rest is
obtained through imports. Based on the data of the Central Bureauof statistics
(BPS), the lcal soy production in 2011 only 851,286 tons or 29% of total needs, so
Indonesia must do soy imports as much as 2.087.986 tons to meet the 71% soy
needs within the country(Ministry of Agriculture, 2005).
The lack of results of soybean caused by several factors, one of which,
namely the soy plants more prone to fsiling crop if compared with rice or corn. This
makes the farmers dont want to plant soybeans. It takes intensive training related to
the care and palnting of soy crops.
The second reason, namely the price of imported soybeans are cheaper
when compared to local soybean. This is because soy farmers there get subsidies
from the local government. Government subsidies could hit production coats.
The lack of land to plant soybeans is also one of the factors of the low
production of soybean in Indonesia. Deputy Minister of Agriculture Rusman
Heriawan acknowledged that one of the triggers of the low production of local
soybean is a soybean farm in the land of the scarcity of water. For example in the
period 2010-2011 soybean crop land decline to more than 29.000 hectares.
Addressing this problem, the government has actually set a policy of expansion of
land for planting soybeans up to 500 thousand hectares. But outside the land already
planted with soybeans. The goal of land can add up to 1 million acres of land. But
until now, the effort is the expansion of land for planting soybeans failed. However,
the Ministry of Agriculture has continued to strive in order for soybean self-sufficiency
can be achieved, e.g. By developing superior seed varieties that can boost yields.
The only way is indeed with the seed in order for maximum results. Therefore, we
encourage the growth of manufacture seed despite his investment is huge.
In addition to the land factor, low productivity of local soybean be other
reasons. The Ministry of Agriculture seeks to improve the productivity of the land of
soy. The average per hectare of land for soybean in Indonesia is currently only
capable of producing 1,5 tons. In addition to local production in the future should be
more dominant can 1,5 up to 1,7 million. The current production of soybean land only
1,5 tons per hectare. We also persue productivity up to 1,2 tons per hectare. S dont
talk to 2013, 2014 if we have 1 million acres of land, multiplied 1,7 ton so 1,7 million
tons of soybeans, its okay, said Deputi Minister of Agriculture Rusman Heriawan.
One of the causes of the low produvivity of local soybean is less serious in soybean
farmers and the lack of availability of seed soybeans varieties excel at the level of
farmers or markets.
The price of soybeans low. The price of soybeans when harvesting local
farmers at levels low enough. This makes the farmers get lazy and not passionate
local soybean planting. Farmers prefer planting rice or corn rather than soybeans.
Until the end, Minister of Trade, Gita Wirjawan issues the government purchase
price policies (HPP) of soybeans by 2013. The price is set bythe Ministry of Trade is
$7.000/kg.
The palnt is harvested. In some areas, farmers are accustomed to harvest
soybean in condition in young to make biled peanuts, this happens because farm
need money immediately and it is more economical than in the old harvest that will
add to the burden of costs in prosen harvest and post harvest. Behavior such as this
will have an effect on the availability of soybeans and soybean production
nationwide, so the import of soybeans will continue to run.
Local soy has advantages and disadvantages. Gorkopindos chairman,
Syarifuddin Aip explain the local sy can actually be a solution because the local soy
has athinner skin. So at a time when cooked it tastes more fresh. the second it had
a fragrant, it is more fragrant than soybean imports. Is seened any more sweet. The
final moisture content of many more. If contrived know local soy much better than
imports, said Sharif after the originator Industry Minister Saleh Husin, Jakarta,
Monday (31/8/2015).
Aip also said local soy has some drawbacks, namely the first local soybeans
have a non-standard size, so there is a great small seeds. Both the local soy
farmers are still uneducated. That is, pasca panen is still plenty of material washed in
soybeans there are branches, twigs. Sometimes a mixture of soil, we must continue
to take it, he explains. If the imported soybeans are already in a state of packaged
we just accept it. But if for good quality, keep it local he added. However, Syarif
spare production f local soybean only 500.000 tons. According to him, this is due to
the constraints of limited land. But we are ready to absorb local soybeans he
added.
Like a local soybean, imported soybeans also has advantages and
disadvantages. The advantages of soy imports is prices of imported soybeans are
cheaper, standard size that is between soy has relatively the same size. Soybean
imports are sent to Indonesia in a clean condition and without twigs. Shortage of
soybean imports, namely the peel is thicker.
Government policies in reducing the soybean import. The first is basic price
policy. In order to protect producers of food crops, the government set the price of
basic commodities like rice, maize, soybeans, green beans, and peanuts. The
government initially set a base price for grain since 1969, then followed the basic
pricing corn in 1977/1978. Since 1979/19780 simultaneously set a price floor for
soybean commodity.
Soy base price policy started in 1979/1980 unti the end of 1991 and annually
set the through presidential instruction on 1st November, except for the 1991 set out
a month earlier. Soy base price starts at the level of Rp 210/kg ended up at a rate Rp
500/kg during the past 12 years. Although the nominal value of the soy base price
increases, the ratio or ratio base price of soybeans against the base price of the
dried milled grain (GKG) only increased during the first three years only, i.e. from
2,47 to 2.57. then the value of that ratio decreased to 1,43 in 1987 but after that it
becomes unclear until 1991.
Basic pricing warrant to soybean farmers in Indonesia so the farmers dont
have to worry about selling price plummeted during the harvest of kingdom come.
Guaranteed prices, farmers will increasingly being motivated to plant soybeans, thus
will encourage domestic production increased so that imports can be reduced. Soy
production is currently our farmers only about 400 tons each year, was only able to
fill 20 percent of the total needs of national sybean reached 2,2 million ton each year.
As much as 1,8 million tonnes are still filled with soy imports from some countries
like the United Statesto meet the national soybean consumption continues to rise
along with population growth faster. Soybean prices in domestic market currently
from Rp 6.600 to Rp 6.700 each kg, improved when compared to the middle of 2008
which had surged past 8.000-10.000 US$ each kg.
As youth, we are obligated to charge with contributed as well as help the
government suppresses imports of soybeans. Some action that can be done we do
include provide agricultural research and development in science and technology on
farmers. Done by holding agricultural studies with invited experts of the country, the
student, other students as well as the general public. In this study deals with the
response of pest problems, problems over land function as an inhibitor of factor
farms as well as other fields.
Keep an eye on government policy. Some government policy on food security
has been provided for in the Act. The reality in the filed was often the case of abuse
or violation of this policy by the community shall not be liable. Youth are able to act
as an independent supervisory institutions active against such issues.
The founders of agricultural innovation. Brilliant ideas of youth is very limited
not included in the power system that allows to improve the morale of farmers in its
activities. For example give the reward on farmers who are attracted the attention of
other farmers to participate in the activities of overachievers who closely with the
increased strength of the food.
Food security is a dynamic consept which in a sense can be used to measure
directly the quality of resources by means of measuring the adequacy of food and its
nutrition value. Due to its dynamic, thickness of food in a country heavily influenced
at least only from production and system but also by socio-economic conditions that
occur the country.
The concept of food thickness, can be seen in terms of individual and
national. The concept of food security at the individual level refers to a state that can
guarantee any individual anywhere, anytime to obtain food in order to sustain a
healthy life. While the concept of a national level from time to time. To guarantee
national food security to the individual level, food availability and affordability off
access by all are the two important terms. Imbalances between availability and
access to food security threats can cause. Empirical evidence shows that national
food security vulnerable a country can trigger the onset of the economic shake-up
and the increasing criminality (Suryana, 2001).
A steady food security will be able to create an environment conducive to
development. Without steady food security then there may be available high-quality
resources that are needed as its driving force of development. A steady fod
thickness, is a prerequisite for the implementation of the development.
Indonesias dependence on imports of soybeans, increase the value as well
as volume improves good, very dangerous against on imports of soybeans, increase
the value as well as volume improves good, very dangerous against a national food
security. Empirical evidence of the existence of a surge in the ational food security.
Empirical evidence of the existence of a surge in the ational food security. Empirical
evidence of the existence of a surge in the price of soybeans above the
psychological threshold has been made difficult because of the many people price of
soybeans above the psychological threshold has been made difficult because of the
many people multiplyer effect of the presence of these symptoms.
The presence of imported soybeans can actually be produced domestically,
farmers make the descent of the spirit of the farmers to increase production. In this
case the Government should be brave and able to provide price protection to
farmers so that the farmers will be encouraged to increase production of soy in the
country. The increase in domestic soybean production to be vital in order to
strengthen food security.
DAFTAR PUSTAKA

Departemen Pertanian,2005.Prospek dan Arah Pengembangan Agribisnis Kedelai.


Jakarta: Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian.

Arsyad, MA dan M.Syam.1995.Kedelai Sumber Pertumbuhan Produksi dan Teknik


Budidaya. Badan Litbang Pertanian: Puslitbang Tanaman Pangan.

Sastrahidajat, HIR. Dan Soemarno DS.1991. Budaya Tanaman Tropika. Surabaya: .


Penerbit Usaha Nasional.