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Define Nanotechnology.

Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at dimensions of roughly 1 to 100


nanometres, where unique phenomena enable novel applications. Encompassing nanoscale science,
engineering and technology, nanotechnology involves imaging, measuring, modelling, and
manipulating matter at this length scale

Synthesis of Nanomaterials

2 approaches:

1) Top down approach


2) Bottom up approach

Bottom up approach is the process of building up materials from smaller subunits, into more
complex assemblies. Using chemical and physical forces operating on a nanoscale to assemble basic
units into complex structures.

Ex:

Formation of carbon nanotubes


During formation of DNA binding of constituent molecules occurs to form the final molecule

Top down approach is the process where different kinds of lithographic techniques such as grinding,
X ray lithographic cutting, etching, ball milling, sol gel technique, etc. are used to break down a large
material into smaller ones as results

Define Nanocomposite

Nanocomposite is a multi-phase solid material in which one phase can contain one, two or three
dimensions less than 100 nm or structures having Nano-scale repeat distances between different
phases of the material.
Sol- gel method:

The term sol-gel comes from two terms, namely sol, and gel.

Sol the sol is a colloidal or a molecular suspension of solid ions in a solvent

Gel- the gel is a semi-rigid mass that forms when the solvent in the sol evaporates leaving the solid
particles or ions to join together in a continuous network.