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food intake according to williams (1995), nutrition is a study of nutrients and other substances found in
foods, how the human body uses nutrients for growth and maintenance; and the relation ship between
foods, food components, dietary patterns and health.
adequate status and dietary intake are indispensable conditions for physical activity and performance,
however, both have been quite rarely examined together, in a mutual relationship. (pariskova, 2004)
the nutrients take indicate imbalance in their food intake thus, greatly affect their weight, which is an
indicator of how healthy an individual is. weight can be described as a percentage of ideal or diserable
weight or can be categorized as healthy, underweight, overweight and obese which is called the body
mass index.
Body mass index is a number that correlates individual's weight and height to lean body mass. It is
useful tool for diagnosing obesity and malnutrition. It also provides an indication of the appropriateness
of a persons' weight relative to height.
BMI or Quetelet index is a statistical measure of the weight of a person scaled according to height. It
provides a simple measurement of a persons' fatness or thinness allowing health professionals to
identify over-under weight problems more objectively. It is also a tool used to assess overweight and
obesity and monitor changes in the body weight. It is calculated by dividing the weight in kilograms
(kg) to height in meter squared. ( batayola, 2004) according to world health organization WHO, based
on the formula given, a score of >18.4 is categorized as underweight, 18.5-24.9 is ideal or normal, 25-
29.9 overweight, 30-39.9 obese,>40 is a severely obese.
Underweight is defined as weight for height is below 10% from normal weight, overweight in the other
hand refers to an excessive amount of body weight that includes muscle, bone, fat and water. Obesity
specifically refers to excessive amount of body fat or weight is more than 20% excess from the normal
weight for height. The scores does not account for the body frame, age, or any medical conditions
because BMI is derived from the equation using weight and height.
the National Institute for Health (NIH) had released several reports that described
obesity as one of the larger health concerns for the aging population (NIH, 1996; 1995;
1994; 1992). Both athletes and the general public were interested in body composition
because of the health risks associated with high levels of body fat. Individuals were
interested for reasons of self-esteem and visual appearance. High levels of body fat were
thought to be caused by sedentary lifestyles and improper nutrition (Alekel et al., 1995;
NIH). Excessive body fat was shown to increase risks for diseases such as diabetes and
coronary artery disease (Alekel et al.; NIH). Athletic performance was compromised with
high levels of body fat for many sports (Albanes, 1987). Healthy levels of body fat were
associated with an active lifestyle, proper nutrition, decreased risk for diseases, and
improved athletic performance (Albanes; NIH). Current methods for determining body
composition varied in levels of accuracy, cost, and methodology

Body Mass Index

Body mass index was used in studies of risk factors and disease in association with stature
(Lohman, et al. 1997). The main problem with body mass index occurs when used for
estimation of body fat. The measure had a standard error of estimate (SEE) of +/-5%
(Lohman, et al.). There was a moderate correlation with hydrostatic weight (r = 70),
which produced a higher accuracy rating than that of height and weight tables (Revicki &
Israel, 1986). Because of the error rate associated with body mass index, many individuals
were misclassified (Lohman, et al.).

Body Mass Index (BMI) was considered a measurement of weight status by the
American College of Sports Medicine (1993). The technique of BMI uses an individuals
body weight in kilograms divided by the height in meters squared. It was understood that
as BMI increases, mortality rates from heart disease, cancer, and diabetes also increased
(Nieman, 1990).

Quetelet index was considered the most popular form of body mass index
(Nieman, 1990). The index is the result of weight in kilograms divided by height in meters
squared (Kg/m2). Quetelet index is commonly used in studies of disease and risk factors
within a population due to the simplicity of measurement, calculations and low cost
(Nieman; and Lohman, et al., 1997).
Weight divided by height was considered a simple ratio for the determination of
obesity (Keys, Fidansa, & Karvonen 1972). The simple ratio eliminated the need for
squaring or taking the cube root of an individuals weight as did the Ponderal index
(Zeman, 1991). Zeman reported that all measures of height to weight ratios lack the
insight of the individuals actual body composition.

accountid=139409Validation of the relationship between muscle contractibility and human body

North, William JohnAuthor Information . United States Sports Academy, ProQuest Dissertations
Publishing, 1998. 1390359.