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YTTERBIUM SOURCES FOR

BRACHYTHERAPY
Sergey Akulinichev and Vasily Derzhiev
Institute for nuclear research of RAS (INR),
Moscow and Troitsk, Russia
Preliminary schedule of the talk:

1. Medical applications of ytterbium sources

2. Source production using laser technology

3. Conclusions
Medical applications of ytterbium
sources
In HDR Brachytherapy only 1 source of 6-20 Ci is short-
time inserted via several (or one) catheters .
Usual isotopes: Co-60, Ir-192 or Yb-169.
Main localizations: prostate, breast, lung (possibly-
vascular system).
Why ytterbium?
Soft spectrum compared to Co-60 and Ir-192 ( ~ 92 KeV ),
Reduced dose to normal tissue and easier shielding,
High radioactivity - up to 6 Ci / mg for pure Yb-169
(only 0.6 Ci/ mg for Ir-192),
Half-life 32 days.
easy shielding:
2. Source production using laser technology

3 steps:
1) Enrichment of initial isotope Yb-168
(AVLIS : Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation),

2) Production of inner and outer capsules,

3) Activation by thermal neutrons Yb-168 Yb-169,


AVLIS production of initial
isotope Yb-168

ais
Design of AVLIS facility:
= 582.79 nm

|3> = 4f13(2F7/2)6s26p(7/2,3/2)2
copper vapor lasers
120W

= 581.067 nm
3 Dye laser
|2> = 4f136s6p3P1
system

ms
= 555.648 nm
Vacuum
Chamber Control |1> = 4f136s2 1S0
With system
extractor cooling
system
3-step cascade of photo-ionization of
Yb-168 (ais-auto ionization state)
The vacuum chamber with evaporator and extractor
(the unique and most complicated part of the facility)

Symmetry
x axis

Zone of collector
selective
ionization

gap
a

Vapor
source diaphragm

y
Some methods of isotope enrichment
laser photo-ionization

AVLIS (the present technology)

centrifuges
IA VIII B
1 2
H He
II A III A IV A V A VI A VII A
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Li Be B C N O F Ne

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
III B IV B V B VI B VII B VIII I B II B
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36
K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr

37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54
Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe

55 56 57 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86
Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn

87 88 89 104 105 106 107 108 109


Fr Ra Ac Rf

Lanthanide 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71
Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu
series
90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103
Actinide series Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr
Parameters of 3- Channel Dye - Laser System for AVLIS of Ytterbium

Channel Wavelength, nm Dye Power, W Spectr.band, Pulse width,


MHz ns
1 555 R110 5 500 15
2 581 R6G 5 500 15
3 582 R6G 20 3104 20
Pumping: power 120 130W, = 510nm, f = 10kHz, =
20ns.
Output of the system: 3 g/ year
Final isotope content:
Yb 168 20.21% (only 0.14 % in natural Yb)
Yb 170 2.36%
Yb 171 18.38%
Yb 172 15.45%
Yb 173 12.1%
Yb 175 22.38%
Yb 176 9.12%
Experimental source of Yb-169 produced on our facility,
the measured activity 7 Ci
(designed by Implant Sciences, USA)

Nano-granules of ytterbium

inner capsule
The inner capsule irradiation by secondary neutrons
on INR proton linac
Measured Ytterbium Spectrum

450000

400000

350000

Number of Photons
300000

250000

200000

150000

100000

50000

0
10 47 85 122 160 197 234 272 309 347 384
Ene rgy, ke V

Spectrum of inner capsule (our result)

Neutron irradiation facility RADEX


1- protons;
2 vacuum channel
3 tungsten target;
4 - moderator;
5 irradiation channel;
Standard spectrum of Yb-169
6- loading channel;
7 iron shielding.
3. Conclusions

Titanium inner shell is unimportant for the source spectrum.


Our laser technology can provide for HDRB low cost
ytterbium sources (electricity consumption is 8 times less
compared to standard EM technology of Yb-168 extraction).
The sources with Yb-169 are less expensive than sources with
Ir-192 and do not require a heavy shielding.
The HDRB with ytterbium can be carried out in any hospital.
The sources with ytterbium have additional clinical benefits
(reduced dose to neighbor organs and normal tissue ).
Light mobile afterloaders designed for ytterbium sources are
going to appear.
2-3 facilities (as the one described above) can cover the needs
of HDR brachytherapy in whole Russia.