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RESERVOIR ENGINEERING LAB

MANUAL

2016-2017

UNIVERSITY OF PETROLEUM & ENERGY STUDIES

DEHRADUN

DEPARTMENT OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERING & EARTH SCIENCES

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

UPES Campus Tel: +91-135-2776092-94


Energy Acres Fax: +91 135- 27760904
P.O. Bidholi, Via Prem Nagar Web: www.upes.ac.in
Dehradun -248 007 (U K)

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Reservoir Rock Properties Analysis
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

COURSE OVERVIEW

INTRODUCTION

EXPERIMENT NO. 1:- To Plug a Core Sample from a Rock Block using Plugging
machine and measure diameter of the core sample plugged.

EXPERIMENT NO. 2:- To Trim a Core sample (obtained from plugging machine) using
Trim Saw machine and measure its length.

EXPERIMENT NO. 3: - To Cleaning of core sample in Soxhletion Extraction Unit.

EXPERIMENT NO. 4:- To find the Porosity of given core sample using Helium
Porosimeter.

EXPERIMENT NO. 5:- To find the Permeability of given core sample using Liquid
Permeameter.

EXPERIMENT NO. 6:- To find the Permeability of given core sample using Gas
Permeameter.

EXPERIMENT NO. 7:- To find out Resistivity, formation factor and cementation exponent
of given core sample in (EPSA) Resistivity Meter.

EXPERIMENT NO. 8:- These experiments will be carried out with the given- Graphs so as
. to solve particular Numerical Problems having related to specific
. Objectives on various topics given below:-
1. Reservoir Modeling & Simulation
2. Basic Reservoir Engineering
3. Production Engineering
4. Drilling Engineering
5. Well Stimulation

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Course Overview
This course provides an introduction to reservoir rock properties determination by core
analysis. Part of this course introduces the laboratory equipments as well as the procedures
used for the core analysis. Moreover, the theoretical aspects of the parameters used in the
core analysis are briefly described.
Hence, the aim of this is to get familiar with of the main rock properties parameters, the way
they can be measured and the sources of errors in the results obtained from the laboratory
measurements. At the end of the course, one will learn about the main properties of rocks are
and also you will learn how to measure them and how to analyze the range of the uncertainty
in the results.

Introduction
Knowledge of the physical properties of the rock and interaction between hydrocarbon
system and the formation rock is crucial in understanding and evaluating the performance of
a given reservoir. These data are usually obtained from two main sources: core analysis and
well logging. In this Manual we describe the analysis of cores. A core which is a solid
cylinder of rock about 1, 1.5 & 3 inches in diameter and would usually be about 30 feet long
is taken by replacing the drill bit by a core bit which is capable of grinding out and
retrieving the heavy cylinder rock. Once the cores are retrieved it is crucial to properly handle
(avoid damaging) and preserve them by avoiding exposure to air. When the core arrives in
the laboratory plugs are usually drilled 20-30 cm apart throughout the reservoir interval. Then
the plugs are analyzed with respect to porosity, permeability, saturation, grain density and
lithology. This analysis, which is performed at high sampling frequency and low cost, is
called routine core analysis. The results from routine core analysis are used in interpretation
and evaluation of the reservoir. Examples are prediction of gas, oil and water production,
definition of fluid contacts and volume in place, definition of completion intervals. There are
other important measurements with the aim of obtaining the detailed information about the
multiphase flow behavior. This analysis, which is performed at low sampling frequency due
to high cost and more time due to gathering the data, is called special core analysis. Special
core analysis gives information about the rock wettability, the distribution of oil, gas, and
water in the reservoir (capillary pressure data), residual oil saturation and multiphase flow
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characteristics (such as capillary pressure and relative permeability). Measurements of
electrical and acoustic properties, which are mainly used in the interpretation of well logs, are
occasionally included in special core analysis.
The outline of this handout is organized as follows: We first describe the main pre-processing
steps that are considered on the core samples to be prepared before experiments. In
Experiment three we describe the core cleaning methods, which are required before core
analysis tests, as well as the saturation determination methods. In the next Experiment, the
porosity measurement techniques are described and the instruments available in the
laboratory for the determination of the core porosity are described. In subsequent chapters we
then describe the techniques to measure and the available machines to determine respectively
the core sample resistivity, and permeability. The instruments available in the reservoir
laboratory and their capabilities are presented below:

Existing Laboratory Facilities

List of Equipments and their application in Reservoir Engineering

No. Name of Equipment Application


1 Plugging Machine To plug a core sample from core specimens
of different diameters or from blocks of a
similar size.
2 Trim saw This machine is a bench model designed to
produce fast, high quality sliced samples
from all materials without disturbing the
structure of the sample.
3 Helium Porosimeter To find porosity of core sample using Helium
Porosimeter
To find the permeability of given core sample
4 Liquid Permeameter using Liquid Permeameter
5 Gas Permeameter To find the permeability of given core sample
using Gas Permeameter
6 Centrifuge Determination of capillary pressure at
various fluid saturations.
7 Electrical Properties To find resistivity, formation factor and
system Atmospheric cementation exponent of core sample.

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EXPERIMENT NO. 1
Aim/ Objective:- To Plug a Core Sample from a Rock Block using Plugging machine and
measure diameter of the core sample plugged.
Apparatus Used:- Plugging Machine.
Description of Machine
The machine can accommodate cores measuring from 1 to 1.5. A swivel joint with a tap
allow internal irrigation of the core drill and a hose fitted with a tap allows external irrigation
of the core drill.
The speed can be adjusted by repositioning the belt (1800 rpm 2500 rpm 3500 rpm) like
core slabbing machine.
The machine comprises of:
clamping stand
column
Spindle-Motor unit
adjustable tilting table
protective housing
clamping unit
recycling tank
Table of machine has a rotating capability up to 45. This capability causes that user can
make plugs from any part of slab even deviated sides.

Specifications
Features Value
Drilling Capacity (mm) 23
Tapping Capacity (mm) 14
Spindle nose CM2
Quick stoke (mm) 110
Spindle Speeds Variable
Speeds (rd/min) 250-4000
Spindle Motor KW .66/1.1
Column diameter (mm) 100
Distance spindle to Column (mm) 235
Distance spindle to table maxi (mm) 823
Distance spindle to table mini (mm) 110
Distance spindle to ground table (mm) 1225
Table surface 300300

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Figure 1: Core plugging machine

Maintenance of Machine:-

1. Core plug unit


keep the unit and the protective housings clean
remove debris and core particles
remove sludge
clean all moving parts
2. Recycling Tank
change the cooling fluid as soon as it is dirty
make sure that the machine is disconnected
remove the pump and the waste pipe from the recycling tank
empty the tanks
clean the tanks and the separators
fill the tank with cooling fluid
refit the pump and the waste pipe to the recycling tank
3. Changing the Belt
Make sure that the machine is disconnected

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Open the pulley cover
Loosen the 2 clamping screws and the belt tensioning lever
Pinch together the 2 sides of the spindle belt
Change the belts
Tighten the belts with the lever and lock the 2 screws
Close the cover
4. Disassembly of quill spindle
Remove the lowering shaft
Loosen the collar 1
Undo both screws and remove guide pin 3. Hold the quill during this operation
Remove the quill-spindle from its bore
Unscrew and remove the cap 4
Remove nut 5, washer 6 and drive out spindle 8 downwards using a wooden mallet
If necessary, pull out ball bearings 7

T slots (number- dimension- distance) 2/14-200
Height (mm) 1800
Surface on ground 410820
Weight (Kg) 210
Noise level Under 70db (A)

Experiment operation

First Use:-
Check the tension on the pulleys
Check the direction of the spindle
Fill the recycling tank
Screw down the core drill and lock it in place
Mount a core sample and lock it firmly in the clamping unit
Adjust the lower stop on the core drill. 1-2 mm before the end of slab is sufficient for
Prevention of plugging the sample in plug driller. Touching of the driller with table
causes severe damage to the driller.
Close the core drill protective housing
Press the Start button
Open the irrigation taps
Check the flows
Cut the core sample
Press the Stop button
Unclamp the core sample

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Speed Selection:-
Speed of rotation can be adjusted by changing pulleys. The procedure for this operation is as:
open the pulley cover
loosen the 2 locking screws and pulley tension lever
pinch together the two sides of the spindle belt
change the position of the belt
tighten the belts with the lever and lock the two screws in place
close the cover
If the tension of pulleys is not sufficient then the belt should be changed. The procedure for
changing the belt is as follow:
make sure that the machine is disconnected
open the pulley cover
loosen the two clamping screws and the belt tensioning lever
pinch together the two sides of the spindle belt
change the belts
tighten the belts with the lever and lock the two screws
close the cover

Figure-2:- Plugged Core Sample

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EXPERIMENT NO. 2

Aim/ Objective: - To Trim a Core sample (obtained from plugging machine) using Trim
Saw machine and measure its length.

Apparatus Used: - Trim Saw Machine

Introduction
After preparing plugs in core drill machine, all of them should be cut into desired size. This
can be done by trimming machine. Trimming machine is a bench model designed to produce
fast, high quality thin sliced samples from all materials without disturbing the structure of the
sample (Fig. 2).
However, students should considered the following safety notices:
Touching any resinous cutting wheel can be dangerous.
The machine is fitted with safety devices which prevent the wheel from turning when
the hood is open
This machine must only be used by a qualified person who has received the proper
training
required to achieve the quality of cut and the high standard of safety envisaged by the
manufacturer.

Figure 3: Trimming core plug machine

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Machine Description:-

The basic model can work either in manual feed or with an optional hydraulic automatic feed
which is driven by the domestic water supply (Minimum pressure 1.5 bars). In the automatic
mode, user can determine the speed of rotation of saws. The machine consists of two radial
saw that can work together and cut both end of pugs simultaneously. Each cuts needs nearly
0.2 litter cooling water. This machine is designed to work with all types of cutting wheel
(resinous - diamond - boron carbide) and various accessories and adaptations enable samples
or core sections to be cut lengthways. These include cradles or devices for holding the
samples configurations using two wheels which allow parallel-sided sections of continuous
length to be cut in a single operation. The machine is fitted with a safety cut-out switch which
can be reset, or rewound should there be no power, as well as a gradual starting device. When
the cover is open this safety switch open the electric current and the machine dont work. The
use of passivated water is strongly recommended to avoid corrosion.

Experiment operation:-

The machine can work in both manual and automatic mode. By setting two lever taps on the
body of machine, three situations are achieved. The lever taps allow the wheel (saw) to
advance or return.
Quick back mode: in this mode the saws go back quickly and positioned at the start
point. This mode can be achieved by setting both taps down.
Stop manual: in this mode user should handle the position of saws for trimming the
plug manually and can be achieved by setting top tap to up and bottom tap to dawn
Automatic feed: in this situation samples are trimmed automatically by the machine.
The rotational speed of the saws can be adjusted by the Movement regulator beside
the lever taps.
Manual mode:- Steps for operating in manual mode are as follows:
Press the start bottom
Set the taps to " Quick back " position, at the end of the race, the lever is
independent of jack,
Set the taps to the "Manual stop" position.
Adjust the direction of water line on saw and sample
Check water tanks and fill them if they are empty
Start the water pump and check the direction of water and check the flow
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Close the protective housing of machine
By moving the saws to front start trimming of the sample
Press the Start button
Press the Stop button
Unclamp the core sample
Automatic feed (optional):-
Steps for operating in automatic feed mode are as follows:
Press the start bottom
Set the taps to the " Automatic feed " position
Adjust the direction of water line on saw and sample
Check water tanks and fill them if they are empty
Start the water pump and check the direction of water and check the flow
Close the protective housing of machine
Gradually open the movement regulator until the required feed rate is obtained.
At the end of the cut, turn the taps to the "Rapid return position.
Press the Stop button
Unclamp the core sample

Maintenance:-

Apart from keeping the machine properly clean, no specific maintenance is required. Make
sure that any sediment or waste matter is removed from the tank before starting. Change the
fluid according to the frequency of use and its deterioration over time (shelf life).
Tools:-

2 Pin wrench (50 mm)


1 Allen key set

Figure-4:- Trimmed Core plug Sample

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EXPERIMENT NO. 3

Aim/ Objective:- To Cleaning of core sample in Soxhletion Extraction Unit.


Apparatus Used:- Heater, Soxhletion Unit & Rubber pipes
Chemical Used:- Methanol Liquid
Cleaning of core sample
After preparing the core plugs samples, the core samples must be cleaned of residual fluids
and thoroughly dried.

Method of Soxhlet Extraction:-

A Soxhlet extraction apparatus is the most common method for cleaning sample, and is
routinely used by most laboratories. As shown in Fig. 3, Methanol is brought into a slow boil
in a Pyrex flask, its vapors move upwards and the core becomes engulfed in the methanol
vapors (at approximately 65 C). Eventually the amount of water within the core sample in
the thimble will be vaporized. The methanol and water vapors enter the inner chamber of the
condenser; the cold water circulating around the inner chamber condenses both vapors to
immiscible liquids. Recondensed methanol together with liquid water falls from the base of
the condenser onto the core sample in the thimble; the methanol soaks the core sample and
dissolves any oil with which it conic into contact. When the liquid level within the Soxhlet
tube reaches the top of the siphon tube arrangement, the liquids within the Soxhlet tube are
automatically emptied by a siphon effect and flow into the boiling flask. The methanol is then
ready to start another cycle. A complete extraction may take several days to several weeks in
the case of low API gravity crude or presence of heavy residual hydrocarbon deposit within
the core. Low permeability rock may also require a long extraction time

Parts of Soxhlet Unit:-


1: Stirrer bar/anti-bumping granules

2: Still pot (extraction pot) - still pot should not be overfilled and the volume of solvent in the
still pot should be 3 to 4 times the volume of the soxhlet chamber.

3: Distillation path

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4: Soxhlet Thimble

5: Extraction solid (residue solid)

6: Syphon arm inlet

7: Syphon arm outlet

8: Reduction adapter

9: Condenser

10: Cooling water in

11: Cooling water out

Figure- 5:- Parts of Soxhlet Extraction Unit.

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Figure- 6:- The sample is placed in the thimble.

Results

Weight of core sample before experiment= x gms

Weight of core sample after experiment= y gms

Net Weight change_(x-y) gms or ----%

Fluid Saturation = ----%

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EXPERIMENT NO. 4
Aim/ Objective:- To find the Porosity of given core sample using Helium Porosimeter.
Apparatus Used:- Porosity meter, Steel Billets, Helium Gas Cylinder & Software loaded
computer.

Theory:-
From the viewpoint of petroleum engineers one of the most important property of a reservoir
rock is porosity. Porosity is a measure of storage capacity of a reservoir. It is defined as the
ratio of the pore volume to bulk volume, and it may be expressed as either a percent or a
fraction,
= Pore Volume / Bulk Volume= Bulk Volume- Grain Volume/ Bulk Volume
Two types of porosity are total or absolute porosity and effective porosity. Total porosity is
the ratio of all the pore spaces in a rock to the bulk volume of the rock while the effective
porosity e is the ratio of interconnected void spaces to the bulk volume. Thus, only the
effective porosity contains fluids that can be produced from wells. For granular materials
such as sandstone, the effective porosity may approach the total porosity, however, for shale
and for highly cemented or vugular rocks such as some limestone, large variations may exist
between effective and total porosity. Porosity may be classified according to its origin as
either primary or secondary. Primary or original porosity developed during deposition of
the sediment. Secondary porosity is caused by some geologic process subsequent to
formation of the deposit. These changes in the original pore spaces may be created by ground
stresses, water movement, or various types of geological activities after the original
sediments were deposited. Fracturing or formation of solution cavities often will increase the
original porosity of the rock.

Figure- 7:- Cubic packing (a), rhombohedral (b), cubic packing with two grain sizes (c),
and Typical sand with irregular grain shape (d).

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Porosity measurement on core plugs:-
The porosity of reservoir rock may be determined by using core analysis, well logging
technique or well testing. The question of which source of porosity data is more reliable can
not be answered without reference to a specific interpretation problem. These techniques can
all give correct porosity values under favorable conditions. The porosity determined from
core analysis has the advantage that no assumption needs to be made as to mineral
composition, borehole effects, etc. However, since the volume of the core is less than the
rock volume which is investigated by a logging device, porosity values derived from logs are
frequently more accurate in the case of heterogeneous reservoirs.
From the definition of porosity, it is evident that the porosity of a sample of porous material
can be determined by measuring any two of the three quantities: bulk volume, pore volume
or grain volume from core plugs (Fig. 6).

Figure 8:- Representation of the different volumes in a plug

i) Bulk volume:-

Although the bulk volume may be computed from measurements of the dimensions of a
uniformly shaped sample, the usual procedure utilizes the observation of the volume of fluid
displaced by the sample. The fluid displaced by a sample can be observed either
volumetrically or gravimetrically. In either procedure it is necessary to prevent the fluid
penetration into the pore space of the rock. This can be accomplished by:
(1) Coating the sample with paraffin or a similar substance,
(2) Saturating the core with the fluid into which it is to be immersed, or
(3) Using mercury.
Gravimetric determinations of bulk volume can be accomplished by observing the loss in the
weight of the sample when immersed in a fluid or by change in weight of a pycnometer with
and without the core sample.

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ii) Pore volume:-
All the methods measuring pore volume yield effective porosity. The methods are based on
either the extraction of a fluid from the rock or the introduction of a fluid into the pore spaces
of the rock. One of the commonly used methods is the helium technique, which employs
Boyle's law. The helium gas in the reference cell isothermally expands into a sample cell.
After expansion, the resultant equilibrium pressure is measured. The Helium Porosimeter
apparatus is shown schematically in (Fig.- 7).

Figure-9:- Helium Porosimeter apparatus is shown schematically

Helium has the following advantages over other gases:


(1) Its small molecules rapidly penetrate into small pores.
(2) It is an inert gas and does not adsorb on rock surfaces (air may do),
(3) It can be an ideal gas (i.e., z = 1.0) for pressures and temperatures usually used in the test,
(4) It has a high diffusivity so affords a useful mean for determining porosity of low
permeability rocks.

Specifications:-
Working Pressure 90- 110 psi
Working temperature Ambient 25 - 40C
Gas Helium
Connections 1/8" Swagelok type
Transducers Range 16 bar (230 psi)
Power supply 1 Phase 220 VAC +/- VAC. Frequency 50 Hz.

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Installation:-
Connect the Console to:-
Suitable Helium facility, rating up to 100 psi approximately
To the matrix cup.
With Optional PC interface:-
Plug the communication cable to the Pc and the consol
Plug the console to the power supply
Switch on the console and the PC
Start the PC and run application
Check the there is no communication error between the PC and the Console
Calculation
The ratio of Pore volume to the bulk volume is Porosity
Porosity = (Pore Volume) / (Bulk Volume.1
For Sharp cylinders, the bulk volume can be determined from geometrical measurement. The
matrix cup can accommodate irregular core sample. In this case the bulk volume must be
determined from mercury immersion for instance.
Pore volume and grain volume can be determined as follows
Core Samples- any shape. Unconsolidated acceptable
Pore volume- from relation 2
Grain volume- directly
Porosity- from the relation 3
Pore volume = Bulk volume Grain volume.2
Porosity = (Bulk volume Grain volume) / Bulk volume3
Boyle- Mariottes law is used to determine grain and Pore volume from the expansion of a
known mass of helium into a matrix cup.
(Pref*Vref)/Tref = (Pexp*Vexp)/Texp Boyle- Mariottes law
Where:-
Pref = Reference Pressure (initial pressure)
Vref = Reference volume (initial volume)
Tref = Reference absolute temperature (initial temperature)
Pexp = Expended Pressure (final pressure)
Vexp = Expended Volume (final volume)
Texp = Expended Absolute temperature (final temperature)

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The reference cell is pressured to 100 psi.
Vref = Volume of the reference cell and associated piping volume.
At a given moment, the valve H-V02 is opened Expand and then the gas expends into the
matrix cup containing the sample to analyze.
We assume that the temperature remains constant during a series of measurements:
Texp = Tref to simplify the boyle- mariottes law.
The gas expends in the volume Vref and the volume of the matrix cup, reduced by the
volume of the solid (Vgrain):-
Vexp = Vref + (Vmatrix Vgrain)..a
It comes-
PrefVref = Pexp*(Vref + Vmatrix Vgrain).b
In the matrix cup, the gas volume gathers the volume surrounding the core (also named Vdead)
and the Pore volume:
Pref*Vref = Pexp*(Vdead+Vpore) ..c
From relation c we get
Vpore = (Pref/Pexp)*(Vref - Vdead).d
Relation a can be written as
Vgrain = Vref + Vmatrix - Vexp .e
Replacing Vexp from Boyle mariotte's law, it comes
Vgrain = (Vmatrix + Vref). (Pref/Pexp)*Vref .f
Pref and Pexp measured with the Porosimeter. Vref, and
Vmatrix and Vdead are determined using the calibration method provide with the
machine.
Procedure
Initial pressure setting
To set 100 psi accurately:-
Proceed to the following instructions only after a successful tightness test
Switch on the console
Dont connect the matrix cup
Wait for half an hour to get transducer stability
Reset the control valve on the console
Connect the console to the helium facility
Set at 120-150 psi at the facility

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Check that HV01 is open and HV02 is switched to Exaust
Adjust the control valve until getting 100 psi sharp on the application display
In case pressure is too high
a. Close HV01
b. Switch HV02 to expand for 1 second
c. Turn the control valve anticlockwise
d. Open HV01
e. Adjust the control valve to get 100 psi sharp
Watch 2-3 minutes to check that the pressure is OK
Operation
A measurement campaign must follow a calibration sequence. The calibration procedure
exploits the relation f in the reverse way. We have:-
a = - Pref*Vref
x = 1/ Pexp
b = Vmatrix + Vref
We get a linear relation: Vgrain = ax + b where a and b are unknown and x is determined
from the expended pressure measured with the apparatus.
We can generate calibrated grain volumes with reference billits introduced sequentially in the
matrix cup. By running (a minimum of) 2 measures with calibrated billets (Vgrain), we can
determine a and b;espectively the slope and the intercept of the line obtained by plotting
Vgrain versus1/P. for better accuracy it is recommended to run at least 4 experiments.
Shut of Procedure
Bleed off the pressure of Helium at the gas supply
Close HV01
Switch HV02 to exhaust
Set back the billets in the solid case
Result
The Porosity of given core Sample isX %.
Maintenance
Leak Test
1. Switch on the console for 1 hour minimum to get stability
2. Close all the electro valves via APPLILAB interface
3. Set an upstream helium pressure of 120 psi from the facility
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4. Open the manual valve at the console
5. Open the electro valves EV1
6. Adjust the pressure control valve to get exactly 100 psi at the pressure display
7. Close the electro valve EV1
8. Run history to log the pressure and the temperature
9. Wait for half an hour. The pressure reading should be higher than 99 psi for a constant
temperature.
If the Pressure has dropped
10. Switch off the console
11. Unplug the Console from the power supply
12. Proceed to leak detection with an helium detector
13. Fix the leaks
14. Proceed to an new leak test (step 1 to 9) until getting satisfaction.

Figure- 10:- Setup of Porosimeter.

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EXPERIMENT NO. 5
Aim/Objective: - To find the Liquid Permeability of the given core sample using Liquid
Permeameter.
Apparatus Used: - Liquid Permeameter, Brine Saturated Core Plug and 2-Nitrogen
Cylinder.
Theory:-
Permeability is a property of a porous medium which shows the ability of porous media to
transmit fluids. The reciprocal of permeability represents the viscous resistivity. The effective
Permeability of a porous medium is a measure of the rock conductivity to a particular phase
of a multiphase fluid system residing within the porous medium, where the saturation of each
phase is specified. Relative permeability is the ratio of the effective permeability of a
particular fluid phase to some arbitrary reference permeability (i.e. absolute permeability).
Permeability has the unit of m2 in SI system or Darcy in field unit with a conversion factor of
1D 0.98692310-12 m2. Note that a rock sample has a permeability of one meter squared
when it permits 1 m3/s of fluid of 1 Pa.s viscosity through an area of 1 m2 under a pressure
gradient of 1 Pa/m. Permeability' can be calculated by Darcy's Law, which for liquids under
steady state conditions of viscous or laminar flow may be expressed as:-

QL
K = . .
AP
Where,
K = liquid permeability (Darcies or md)
= viscosity of saturating liquid (Cp)
Q = liquid flow rate (ml/s)
L = length of right cylinder porous medium (cm)
A = cross sectional area of cylinder (cm2)
P = pressure differential across cylinder (Atm)

Calculation

Core dimension: length (cm) is written at column C and D for each sample.
Area (cm2) is obtained from diameter written at column D for each sample.
Viscosity default value for test brine is set to 1. Read the temperature and adjust

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Viscosity by reading Handbook of Chemistry.
Flow rate: Q (ml/s) is calculated time (minutes and seconds) at column F and G to fill
the flask volume (column E).
Differential pressure P (psi) is obtained from direct reading at the console of
upstream pressure P1 because outlet pressure is atmospheric :
P = P1- P2 (atm) = P1 (atm)
The unit conversion (psi to Atm) is automatically made in XLS report.

Figure- 11:- Injection System

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Procedure:-
1. Connect to main supply and Power up the instrument at main switch on the rear panel.
The pressure transducers require an warm up period of about one hour before use.
2. Switch the Source value ON / OFF to OFF position.
3. Ensure that regulators are fully turned anticlockwise initially.
4. Connect two regulated nitrogen supply at the appropriate ports on the rear of the
instrument, i.e. confining pressure supply at valve PRESSURE / VENT (1/8" OD) and
core nitrogen supply at valve on/off (1/8" OD).
5. Initialize the system by filling the dead volume with brine by proceeding without core
in place at first step (confining pressure should NOT be applied)
6. Load the core holder. Different core holders are available for sample diameter of 1",
1.5", 30 mm etc.
7. Regulate confining pressure supply to desired value with out exceeding 400 psi.
Regulate core nitrogen supply without exceeding 100 psi.
8. Turn confining valve PRESSURE / VENT to PRESSURE. Gas at desired pressure is
now applied to the core holder sleeve. This pressure is now displayed on confining
pressure gauge.
MEASUREMENT OF CONSOLIDATED CORES SAMPLE
9. Sample Name/No :
10. Length, L :
11. Diameter, d :
12. Liquid Viscosity; :
P Duration, t Volume of Liquid Flow rate
(psi) (sec) collected (cc/sec)
(ml)

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Calculation Sheet
q/A P/L K

Result:-
The Liquid Permeability of Given Core Sample is .md.

Maintenance:-
1. Leak test:-
Before starting the unit, a leak test must be performed. PCV cannot be tested because
a built-in vent releases the pressure in absence of flow. For this reason, disconnect the
2 Pressure control valve and plug the downstream the PCV.
2. Instrument calibration:-
For optimum accuracy, pressure transmitter must be calibrated on a regular basis.

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EXPERIMENT NO. 6
Aim/ Objective: - To find the Permeability of given core sample using Gas Permeameter.

Apparatus Used: - Nitrogen Gas, Permeameter.

Introduction:-
The Gas perm is a research quality instrument but it can be used for routine core analysis
when rapid sample turnaround and throughput is desirable. A mass flow meter of range 0-500
cc/min with a 0-29 psi relative pressure transmitter are used to sense gas flow and pressure
drop across the sample and therefore provides an accurate determination of permeability,
when the transmitters have been correctly calibrated.
General specification
Max. pressure 100 psig (line pressure)
400 psig (confining)
Operating temperature Room temperature 18- 28 C
DP transducer range 0 8 psid
Flow range (low)- 0 20 cc/min
(high) 0 2,000 cc/min
Connection 1/4 and 1/8 SWAGELOK type
Sample size Dia (according to model) 30 mm 1 11/2
Length 1 to 3
Facility required
Power supply 240- VAC 1 phase + ground 50 Hz / 60 Hz 200 W
Nitrogen supply adjustable up to- 100 psig (line pressure) 400 psig (confining)

Miscellaneous accessories required


Gas operated pressure calibrator (0-100 psig) with small increments.
Soap film flow meters (eg.G.C. accessory) or reference flow meter.
To fit 0 20 cc/min and 0 2,000 cc/min ranges
Stop watch
Caliper
Thermometer- optional
Barometer

26
Theory, Calculation and interpretation of steady state results
Theory:-
Darcy's law is used for the calculation of permeability, which under steady state conditions
for viscous or laminar flow is:
k = QL/ AP ... (1)

Where:

k = liquid permeability (D standing for Darcies)

= viscosity of saturating liquid (Cp)

Q = liquid flow rate (ml/s)

L = Length of right cylinder porous medium (cm)

A = cross sectional area of cylinder (cm2)

The expression for determining the permeability of porous medium to gas is of different from
to that of liquid because of the fact that gas is compressible whereas liquid is not. Gas flows
towards the downstream end of core sample, its pressure decrease, the gas expands and so its
velocity will increase.
The Darcy equation for ideal horizontal laminar flow of gas under steady state isothermal
condition is given by:
kgas = [2ZT (Pb) L (Qb)] / [A(Tb) (P12 P22)].(2)
Where as:-
kgas = permeability to gas (mD)
= gas viscosity (Cp)
Z = mean gas compressibility factor
T = mean temperature of flowing gas
Pb = base or atmospheric pressure (absolute Atm)
L = length of sample (cm)
Qb = atmospheric gas flow rate (cm/s) at base pressure Pb
A = cross sectional area of cylinder (cm2)
Tb = base temperature (ambient)
P1, P2 = upstream and downstream absolute pressure respectively.
Now, if the base temperature equals the mean temperature of the flowing gas and Z is taken
as the unity, which is approximately true for nitrogen under typical operating ambient

27
conditions, and since core pressure drop p = P1 P2;and core mean pressure Pm=(P1 + P2)/2
then the equation (2) can be reduced to the less unwieldy expression:
kgas = [(Qb) L (Pb)] / [AP (Pm)]..(3)
Where as:
= gas viscosity (Cp)
Qb = atmospheric gas flow rate (cm/s)
Pb = base or atmospheric pressure (absolute Atm)
P = differential pressure (Atm)
Pm = mean core gas pressure (Atm)
L = length of sample (cm)
A = cross sectional area of cylinder (cm2)
This equation is therefore used to calculate core permeability to nitrogen, under laminar flow
conditions.
Calculation:-
Viscosity for nitrogen is calculated automatically from Sutherlands formula in the
XLS report, depending on temperature during the test.
= o * (a/b) * [(T / To) raised to power 3/2]
Flow rate: Q (ml/s) can be obtained from direct reading at the console.
Core dimension: length (cm) and area (cm2) are obtained form measurements made on
core plug and reported on the XLS report tab INFO respectively at column C and D
for each sample.
Ambient pressure: Pb (atm) can be obtained from measurement of the atmospheric
pressure on a barometer (psi) and reported on XLS report tab CONTROL at line 5,
column B.
Differential pressure DP (psid) is the difference between core upstream P1 and
downstream P2 pressure across the core.
P = P1-P2 (atm)
For P less than 8 psid, differential pressure is given directly from the DP transducer suitably
corrected for any zero shifts. Unit conversion (psi Atm) is automatically made in the XLS
report.
If no back pressure is used, then: P1 = P (psid) / 14.695949 + Pb (atm) and
P2 = Pb (atm), this takes advantage that DP reading is more accurate than
P1 = reading (3 decimals instead of 2).

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If back pressure is used, then P1 = [P1(psig)/140695949] + Pb(atm) and
P2 = [P1(psig) P (psid)]/ 14.695949 + Pb(atm).

Core mean pressure Pm is found from Pm = (P1 + P2) /2 (atm) where P1 and P2 are
calculated as in stage above.
Interpretation of results:-
Klikenberg (1) noted that gas permeability decreased as the mean gas pressure in cores
increased, and found that the gas permeability of a core was always higher than its
permeability to a single saturating inert liquid.
If the gas permeabilities obtained at different mean core pressures are plotted against
reciprocal mean pressure (1/Pm), a straight line should be able to be drawn through the
points. Extrapolation of this line to infinite mean pressure (i.e. zero reciprocal pressure)
intersects the gad permeability axis. The intersections points correspond to the liquid
permeability and may be found from:
KL = Kg/ [1+ (b/ Pm)]
Where-
KL = theoretical liquid permeability
b = Klikenberg correction factor. The slope of the line is given by bKL
The factor b is different for different gases and decreases as the liquid permeability increases.

Sample operation:-
Sample selection
The core sample used in the Gas perm must be right cylinder with end faces perpendicular to
the core axis with a diameter close to 25 (1) or 38 mm (1") according to version in use.
Core with uneven or irregular ends or with diameter significantly less than nominal might
cause the sleeve to rupture when confining pressure is applied.

Core holder selection


Check that the sample is of suitable diameter 1 or 1.5" according to core holder installed. To
change the core holder, release the overburden pressure, then disconnect the confining SS
tubing from the core holder. Disconnect and remove the inlet and outlet flexible tubing.
Installing core holder is reverse procedure.

29
Removing a core sample
To remove the core sample, firstly ensure that the flow system and confining system has been
depressurised: switch the valve ON OFF to OFF position, switch the valve DP ON / DP OFF
to OFF. Release the confining pressure by switching PRESSURE / VENT to VENT.
Slacken the adjustment screw slightly turning the screw anti-clockwise about a quarter turn,
and pull back the SS connection tube from the core face.
Pull on the outer knurled ring then rotate a quarter turn until the end platen component is
freed. The quick release end should be able to be easily removed. If the core does not come
on the bottom platen, help by pushing the top platen. Be careful not to use too much force
initially just sufficient to free the core from the sleeve.

Loading a core sample


Place the core in the core holder and push it with the quick release end plug until it
butts against the adjusting platen.
Replace the quick release en platen by lining up the male clover leaf component with
the corresponding female component.
Now, push the inner knurled ring forward and rotate the ring clockwise until it locates
in position
If the length of the sample is longer than the previous sample, you may encounter resistance
when inserting the end platen. Turn the adjusting screw anticlockwise, and pull back on the
SS junction tube until the quick release en platen ca be easily inserted. The adjusting screw
should now be turned clockwise until the other end platen contact the core face. This is all
that is required to ensure a pressure seal. Never attempt to over tighten the adjustment screw.
When properly engaged, the quick release end neither this platen nor the adjustable end
platen will be able to be moved. In case the platen can be moved, dismount the adjusting
platen and insert the bronze spacer provided with the core holder.
Note: the adjusting screw thread should be totally engaged in the body. If is not the case, the
sample is too long and not acceptable for test in the Gas perm.
Do not attempt to finally, switch the valve PRESSURE / VENT to PRESSURE to set the
confining pressure.

30
Instrument operation procedures:-
Initial procedure

Connect to main supply and power up the instrument at main switch on the rear panel.
The pressure transducers require a warm up period of about one hour before use.
Switch the source valve ON / OFF to OFF position.
Ensure that regulators are fully turned anticlockwise initially.
Connect two regulated nitrogen supply to the appropriate ports on the rear of the
instrument, i.e. confining pressure supply at valve PRESSURE / VENT (1/8" OD) and
core nitrogen supply at valve ON / OFF (1/4 OD). 100 psig connection for flowing
gas. Fitting " OD.
Set the valve to OFF position before connection.
Load the core holder. Different core holders are available for sample dia. of 1, 1 ,
30 mm etc.
Regulate confining pressure nitrogen supply to desired value registered on supply
cylinder gauge. Regulate core nitrogen supply using cylinder regulator to just above
desired maximum test pressure (without exceeding 220 psi).
Turn confining valve PRESSURE / VENT to PRESSURE. Nitrogen at desired
pressure is now applied to the core holder sleeve. This pressure is now displayed on
confining pressure gauge.

Result
The Gas Permeability of given Core Sample ism Darcy.

Maintenance
Leak test
Before starting the unit, a leak test must be performed. PCV cannot be tested because a built-
in vent releases the pressure in absence of flow. For this reason, disconnect the 2 Pressure
Control Valves and plug the unit downstream the PCV.
When the second stage leak test is OK rotate the switch valves to check all sections. In the
above illustration, we display a satisfactory pressure ramp (the scales are magnified to check
the leak rate.

31
EXPERIMENT NO. 7
Aim/ Objective: - To find out Resistivity, formation factor and cementation exponent of
given core sample in (EPSA) Resistivity Meter.
Apparatus Used: - Resistivity Meter, Compressor or Air Cylinder

Introduction
Core Resistivity measurements, together with porosity and resistivity of connate water is
used for calculation of water saturation, in porous volume of reservoirs; consequently
hydrocarbon content can be calculated by difference. This information is essential for proper
management of reservoir.

Machine Description:
The system includes:
An atmospheric Electrical Core Holder
An ambient Brine Resistivity cell
A RFL meter (Fluke make)
The apparatus consists of:
1. A plastic cover which contains the electrodes and the sample during
measurement.
2. Two electrodes, one fixed, one movable to enable measurements on cores of
size 2" to 3".
3. A piston and integral valve to facilitate the movement and ensure repeatable
contact pressure on the electrodes.
4. Connectors and cables for connection to the RFL measuring device.
5. A special plug for connection trimming (for 1" and 1" diameter samples)

Figure-12:- Illustration of core sample loading

32
Figure 13: Illustration of system under locked pin and tighten the knob
Theory and Calculation
1. Phenomenon involved
In brine, the electrical conduction relies on the transport of ions, predominantly sodium, Na
f- , and chloride, (1- , ions. The core samples saturated or partially saturated with brine are
conductive through the connate brine
In rock with open, well connected pore paths filled with brine, ion flow occurs easily
and resistivity (Rw) is low.
Rocks with sinuous, constricted pore paths hinder ion transport and have higher
resistivity.
2. Resistivity (Ro)
Ro = R. (A/L) = (V /I).(A/L)
Where:-
R is the core resistance (Ohm or n)
A is the core cross section (m2)
L is the core length (m)
V is the potential (Volt) between the 2 electrodes
I is the current (Amp) going through the core.
3. Formation Factor (Fr)
Fr = Ro/Rw
Where:
Ro is the core resistivity (Ohm. m or n. m) at 100% brine
saturation and Rw is the brine resistivity (Ohm. m or n. m)

33
4. Cementation Exponent (m)
Fr = a(<D raised to power (-m))
Where:
A is the Archie's coefficient (unit less)
<l> is the core porosity (unit less)
M is the cementation exponent (unit less)
For a tank of water, Ro = Rw. Therefore Fr = 1.
If porosity is zero, Fr is 00 and both a and m can have any value.
However, for real rocks, both a and m vary with grain size, sorting, and rock texture. The
normal range of a is.5 tol.5 and for mis 1.71:0 about 3.2.
Finally, a is commonly taken equal to 1 and ma can be expressed as:

m = -[In(Fr)/Ln(<l>)]

5.Determination of Archie constant a


Most of time Archie constant is taken as equal to one. When you have samples of various
porosity from the same field formation, it is possible to determine accurately the value of a.
For each sample, measure Fr = Ro/Rw and then plot the Fr versus porosity obtained from he
same field formation.

Using XLS trend facility (add trend line/Power/ display equation) fit this data with a curve of
type Fr = a (<l> raised to power -m)

6.Resistivity Index (Ir), Saturation

Ir = Rt/Ro = Sw raised to power -n


Where
Rt is the core resistivity (ohm. m or n. m)
Ro is the core resistivity (ohm. m or n. m) at 100% brine
saturation
Sw is the core saturation (unit less)
n is the saturation exponent (unit less)
And then, Saturation Exponent can be expressed as:
n == - [Ln (lr) / Ln (Sw)]

34
Procedure
Sample loading
1. Ensure the piston is fully retracted. Wet 2 pads with test brine.
2. Stick them on the electrode plates respectively.
3. Take a core sample from the brine and roll it once over paper towel to
remove surface brine.
4. Lie and balance the core sample on the seat.
5. Rotate the piston switch to actuate the cylinder; this will cause the core
sample to be firmly held between the 2 pads.
6. Topple the electrode set on the sample and dose the lid over the sample to
prevent evaporation of the liquid from the sample.
7. Close-up for correct loading.

Adjustment for small length sample


1. For small length samples, lift one of the cradles and insert back in order
to reduce the supports distance.
2. If the pins are not on the 'sample because the sample is too short; then we
can use the 2 leads pattern.
Sample unloading
After measurement, retract the cylinder by rotating the valve command in
the appropriate direction. Open the lid and the electrode. In case that the
measure series is completed or in case that the next measurement
concerns different brine, carefully dry the electrode and operate with new
wet pads.

Dip Cell

Description: The dip cell consists of a probe with electrodes embedded.


It must be completed with a thermometer to dip close to the Dip Cell in
a beaker.
Connection: Plug the connector to the RCL meter in respect of the red dot
orientation (on top of the connector).
Calibration and measure
Result
The value of Archie's constant is. .

35
Maintenance

As with most systems operated with brines the most important consideration is ensuring
the brine doesn't corrode the metals or crystallize in the apparatus. Therefore all the cells
which have been in contact with brine should be flushed thoroughly with distilled water
and then dried with a cloth after use.

EPSA
If the electrode plate is partially covered with old pad deposit then remove
the pad and rub it with new wet pad.
Dip cell-
If the measure is not possible, check the junction cable. For this purpose,
disconnect the cable from the RCL meter. Now, check each of the 4 leads.
Repair or order another cable.

36
EXPERIMENT NO. 8

Aim/ Objective:-

These experiment will be carried out with the given- Graphs so as to solve particular
Numerical Problems having related to specific objectives on various topics given below:-

1. Reservoir Modeling & Simulation


2. Basic Reservoir Engineering
3. Production Engineering
4. Drilling Engineering
5. Well Stimulation

37