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1550 Espana Blvd. Cor. Lacson Ave., Sampaloc, Manila

NOTES ON CRIMINALISTICS

POLICE PHOTOGRAPHY

A. DEFINITION OF TERMS:
1. Photography = Derived from the Greek word Phos or Photos which
means light and Grapho means Writing or Graphia meaning to
Draw. Sir John F. W. Herschel coined the word photography when he first
wrote a letter to Henry Fox Talbot.
= Is the art and science of reproducing image by means of light through
some sensitized material with the aid of a camera, Lens and its accessories and
the chemical process required in order to produced a photograph.

2. Forensic = Derived from the Latin word Forum which means a market
place where people gathered for public discussion.
= When used in conjunction with other science it connotes a relationship to
the administration of justice. It is sometimes used interchangeably with the word
legal.

3. Police Photography = Is the application of the principles of photography is


relation to the police work and in the administration of justice.

4. Photograph = Is the mechanical and chemical result of Photography. Picture


and photograph are not the same for a picture is a generic term is refers to all
kinds of formed image while a photograph is an image that can only be a
product of photography.

B. USES OF PHOTOGRAPHY
1. Personal Identification
= Personal Identification is considered to be the first application of
photography is police work. Alphonse Bertillion was the first police who utilized
photography in police work as a supplementary identification in his Anthropometry
system.
2. For Communication
= Photograph is considered to be one of the most universal methods of
communication considering that no other language can be known universally than
photograph.
3. For Record Purposes
= Considered to be the utmost used of photography in police work.
Different Views in photographing
a. General View
= taking an over-all view of the scene of the crime. It shows
direction and location of the crime scene.
b. Medium View
= Is the taking of the photograph of the scene of the crime by dividing it
into section. This view will best view the nature of the crime.
c. Close-up View
= Is the taking of individual photograph of the evidence at the scene of
the crime. It is design to show the details of the crime.
d. Extreme Close-up View
= Commonly designed in laboratory photographing using some
magnification such as Photomacrography and photomicrography.

4. For Preservation
= Crime scene and other physical evidence requires photograph for
preservation purposes. Crime scene cannot be retain as is for a long period of time
but through photograph the initial condition of the scene of the crime can be
preserved properly.

5. For Discovering and Proving


= Photography can extend human vision in discovering and proving things
such as:
a. The use of Magnification
Photomicrography = Taking a magnified photograph of small object
through attaching a camera to the ocular of a compound microscope so as to
show a minute details of the physical evidence.
Photomacrogaphy = Taking a magnified (enlarged) photograph of
small object by attaching an extended tube lens (macro lens) to the camera.
Microphotography = is the process of reducing into a small strips of
film a scenario. It is first used in filmmaking.
Macrophotography = used synonymously with photomacrogaphy.
Telephotography = Is the process of taking photograph of a far object
with the aid of a long focus and Telephoto lens.

b. Used of Artificial Light such as X-ray, Ultra-violet and Infra-red rays to


show something which may not be visible with the aid of human eye alone.

6. For Court Exhibits


= Almost all evidence presented in court before formally be accepted requires
that they satisfy the basic requirements for admissibility which is relevancy and
competency. A question of relevancy is usually proved by proving the origin of the
evidence and its relation to the case and this is usually supplemented by photograph
of the evidence giving reference as to where it came from.
Evidence presented in court once accepted became known as Exhibit. Either
Exhibit 1,2,3 etc. for the defense or Exhibit A, B, C etc for the prosecution.

7. Crime Prevention
= with the used of video camera (hidden camera) and other advanced
photographic equipment crimes are being detected more easily and even to the
extent of preventing them from initially occurring.

8. Police Training
= Modern facilities are now being used as instructional material not only in
police training as well as in other agencies.

9. Reproducing and Copying


= With the use of photography any number of reproduction of the evidence
can be made those giving unlimited opportunity for its examination and even allow
other experts or person to examine the specimen without compromising the original.

C. ESSENTIALS OF PHOTOGRAPHY
1. Light = is an electromagnetic energy that travels in a form of a wave with the
speed of 186, 000 miles per second.
2. Camera = a light tight box designed to block unwanted or unnecessary light
from reaching the sensitized material.
3. Lens = is the light gathering mechanism of the camera that collect the
reflected light coming from the object to form the image.
4. Sensitized material = composed of a highly sensitized chemical compound
which is capable of being transformed into an image through the action of
light and with some chemical processes. ( Film and Photo Paper).
5. Chemical Process = is the process necessary for reducing silver halides into
a form so as a latent image and a positive image be made resulting to what
we called Photograph.

D. THEORIES OF LIGHT
1. The WAVE Theory (Huygens)
= It is the theory that was transcribed from the motion of the water that if we
observe a piece of log floating in the ocean and with the force of the air would
naturally will make the log move up and down.
2. Corpuscular theory (Newton)
= this later opposed the wave theory stating that light has its effect by the motion
of very small particles such as electrons.
3. Modified Wave theory (Maxwell and hertz)
= Based on electromagnetics.
All these theories are still considered to be of little lacking that law
enforcement need not to be very focus on this but rather go along with the
accepted conclusion that light is a form of energy, which is electromagnetic in
form.

E. LIGHT: ITS NATURE, CHARACTERISTICS, SOURCES AND CLASSIFICATION


Light is defined as an electromagnetic energy with the speed of 186,00 miles per
second. Its wave travel is said to be characterized in certain extent based on velocity,
wavelength and frequency of the number of vibration of the wave per second.
Light wavelength is the distance measured between two (2) successive crest or
through of wave and it is expressed in either Millimicron (nanometer) or Angstrom.
Millimicron is the units of light wavelength which is equivalent to one-millionth part of a
millimeter which the Angstrom is relatively smaller for it has an equivalent
measurement of ten (10) millionth part of a millimeter.
Once light hits a certain medium, its action can be characterized as either:
Reflected, Transmitted or Absorbed (RAT). Reflected once the light hits a mirror and
it bounce back. Transmitted when the light hits a transparent glass which would allow
the light to pass through its medium and Absorbed when the light hits a dark colored
object and prevents it from either bouncing or passing through.
Isaac Newton in 1666 proved that the light which men see as white light is
actually a mixture of all colors of the spectrum. This is produced when we allow light to
hit a glass prism (Sharp Edge of the Glass). A rainbow array will then be shown with
colors red, orange, yellow, green, blue and violet colors (from top to bottom). The visible
light is also said of have a wavelength of between 400-700 millimicron or nanometer.

1. Types of Light
Lights can largely be classified into visible and invisible light.
a. Visible Light
= Is the type of light that produces different sensation when reach the
human eye. It is the type of light, which is capable of exciting the retina of
the human eye.
b. Invisible Light
= lights in which their wavelength are either too short or too long to excite
the retina of the human eye i.e. X-ray, Ultrat-violet and Infra-red lights.

2. Photographic Rays
a. X-ray
=Light with the wavelength between .01 to 30 millimicrons. It is produced by
passing an electric current through a special type of vacuum tube. It was
incidentally discovered by Conrad Welhelm Roentgen. This type of light works in
the principle of shadow photography.

b. Ultra-violet ray (Before the violet)


= Radiation having a wavelength of 30 to 400 nanometers designed to photograph
fingerprints in multi colored background, documents that are altered, decipherment
of erase writing and developing invisible writing. It is commercially known as black
Light.

c. Visible Light
= It refers to the type of radiation having a wavelength of 400 to 700 millimicrons
designed for ordinary photographing purposes.

d. Infra-red (Beyond the Red)


= Considered as the photographic rays with the longest wavelength ranging from
700 to 1000 millimicrons. It is designed to take photograph of over-written
documents, obliterated writing, and charred documents or for black out photography.
It is sometimes referred to as heat rays).

3. Light Source
A. Natural Light= are those light which come to existence without the
intervention of man e.i. Sunlight, moonlight and starlight.
1. Bright Sunlight
= object in an open space casts a deep and uniform shadow and the
object appears glossy.
2. Hazy Sunlight
= object in an open space casts a transparent or bluish shadow. This is
due to thin clouds that cover the sun.
3. Dull Sunlight
= object in an open space cast no shadow due to thick clouds covering the
sun.

Daylight may still be classified as: open space bright sunlight, under
shade bright sunlight, hazy sunlight, cloudy sunlight and cloudy dull sunlight.
These conditions and their colors affect the appearance of the object
being photograph. Factors such as atmospheric vapor, atmospheric dust and
quality of the reflected light coming and not coming from the source should
likewise be considered.

B. Artificial Light = otherwise known as man-made light e.g. fluorescent bulb,


incandescent bulb and photoflood lamp.

1. Continuous radiation
Photoflood lamp= is likewise known as Reflectorized light or Spot light. It
is a light with a reflector at the back which focus the light to the object the
common wattages of this lamp is 500 watts.

Flourescent Lamp = are tube lamps in which the walls are coated with
fluorescent powders with both ends is mounted with a holder that serves as
the reflector. This is commonly used by everybody more than it is used in
photographing.

Incandescent bulb = are bulb with a wire filament connecting two wires
which sustain the electrical charge that produces the light. Everybody
likewise commonly uses this although it is more expensive in terms of
electrical consumptions.

Infra-red Lamp
Ultra-violet Lamp

2. Short Duration type


Flash bulb = are chemical lamps, as it generate lights by the rapid
combination of metal in oxygen. The bulb can be used only once as the
bulb is busted when fired electrically. There are thin filaments inside the
bulb with two electrical contacts. When the current flows through the
filament, it becomes incandescent and ignites the explosive primer that
ignites the aluminum foil that burns, giving flash of tense light.

Electronic Flash = produces light by an instantaneous electrical in


charges between two electrodes in a gas filled glass bulbs. The electrical
energy for the discharge is kept in capacitor or condenser. It usually
ranges from 1/300 second and 1/5000 second, and because of this,
subject in fast motion can be arrested or stopped in the photographs.

4. SENSITIZED MATERIAL
= It refers to the film and photographic paper that basically composed of
emulsion containing Silver Halides suspended in gelatin and coated on a transparent or
reflective support.
Parts of the Sensitized Material
1. Emulsion = is that part of the film or photographic paper which contains the
silver grains which is the one sensitive to light. In a colored film this emulsion
surface can be composed of three layers (Blue, Green and Red) with filters
intervening.
2. Anti Halation Backing = is the one designed to hold back the light and
prevents halation.
3. Base = Support the emulsion

I. Types of Film
A. According to Use
1. Black and White Film = usually represented by a prefix or a
suffix Pan or Ortho and generally used in black and white
photography. Examples are Ortholith film, Tri X-Pan and Pan
X-plus.
2. Colored Film = can be divided into two: the Negative type
and the reversal type of colored film. The former is usually
having names ending in color while the word chrome
represents the latter.
e.g. Blue sensitive film, Ultra-violet film, Infra-red film,
Orthochromatic film and Panchromatic film.
B. According to Spectral Sensitivity
Spectral sensitivity = is the responsiveness of the film emulsion to
the different wavelength of the light course.
1. Blue Sensitive film = sensitive to U.V. light and Blue Color.
2. Orthochromatic Film = Sensitive to U.V. Light up to the green.
( popular in the marker as KODALITH FILM)
3. Panchromatic film = Sensitive to U.V. Light up to red (sensitive
to all colors of the visible light)
3.1. Process Panchromatic film = permit short exposures
under average lighting condition and has the
advantage of the grain structure.
3.2. Grain Panchromatic film
3.3. High Speed Panchromatic film designed originally for
photographing object under adverse lighting
condition.
4. Infra-red Film = Sensitive to all colors and to infra-red light.

FILM SPEED (Emulsion Speed)


This refers to the degree of sensitivity of the film to light.
1. ASA (American Standards Association) = this is expressed in arithmetic
value system. The bigger the number the more sensitive the film is.
ASA 10, 20 , 30 , 40,50, 100, 200, 400, 800, 1000
2. DIN ( Deutche Industre Normen) = expressed in Logarithmic value system.
Used in the same principle as the ASA.

Din 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 33 etc.

3. ISO (International Standard Organization) expressed as combination of


ASA and DIN rating.

II. Photographic Paper


It is that sensitized material that will record the visible image in the final
development and become the photograph.

Types of Photographic Papers


A. According to Emulsion Used (Silver halides content)
1. Silver Chloride paper = used for contact printing, the size of the
positive print is the same as the size of the negative used. Sensitivity
to light is low and give blue-black tones when properly developed.
2. Silver Bromide paper = used projection, printing and enlarging process.
This is one of the most ideal photo paper used for police photography.
Will give a black tone when properly developed.
3. Silver Chlorobromide paper = used both for projection and contact
printing. Slow emulsion.
4. Variable contract paper = combines the contrast range in one paper it
uses a special chlorobromide emulsion that produces varying contrast
responses upon exposure to different colors of light.
B. According to Physical Characteristics
b.1. Weight
1. Light weight = designed for high flexibility and when paper thickness is
not of consideration. Intended for purposes, which involves folding.
2. Single Weight = papers used for small prints or which are need to be
mounted on solid and fine details necessary in the production. Used in
ordinary photographic purposes.
3. Double weight = generally used for large prints because they stand up
under rough treatment.
b.2. Surface Texture
a. Glossy paper =designed for fine details and brillant image
formation.
b. Semi-mate paper = obscure the fine details
c. Rough papers = used for large prints or where breath rather
than detail is necessary.
b.3. Color
a. White = better used in police photography.
b. Cream = preferred for pictorial effect, portraits, landscape or
when warmth effect is desired.
c. Buff papers = prepare for tone prints
C. According to Contrast (grade)
1. Velox No. 0 = used for printing extremely contrast negative or
extremely exposed film.
2. Velox No. 1 = used for high contrast negative (over exposed film)
3. Velox No. 2 = used for normal exposed film
4. Velox No. 3 = used for negative with weak contrast (under exposed)
5. Velox No. 4 = used to provide sufficient contrast to compensate for
very thin or weak negatives. It is useful imprinting which high contrast
is desired.
6. Velox No. 5 = for flat negative that are unprintable.

5. CAMERA
Is a light tight box with light gathering device and a means of blocking unwanted
or unnecessary light from reaching the sensitized material.

Basically, camera can produce image with its four-(4) basic parts such as light
tight box, lens, and shutter, Holder of sensitized material.

Essential Parts of a Camera


1. Light Tight Box a box designed to keep light out and serve as a frame to hold
other parts.
2. Lens designed to collect or to focus the reflected light from an object to form an
image on the film.
3. Shutter designed to control the time during which the light reaches the film
4. Holder of the sensitized material located at the opposite side of the lens
designed to hold firmly the sensitized material to prevent the formation of the
multiple or blurred image
5. View finder designed to determine the field of view of the camera or the extent
of the coverage of the given lens
OTHER PARTS OF A CAMERA
A. Viewing System
Is that part of the camera which provides the means of showing to the
photographer the entire scene coverage that can be recorded in the sensitized
material.
B. Film Advancer (film advance lever or knob) =designed to transfer the
exposed film to the other side or to the take up spool and the unexposed
film will be the opposite side of the lens for another exposure.
C. Shutter speed = is that part of the camera which regulates the time
exposure of the film thus, affecting the amount of light reaching the
sensitized material. It is usually expressed in a fraction of a second.

1/1 1/2 1/4 1/8 1/15 1/30 1/60 1/125 1/250 1/500 etc.

The speed number in the left is always two times powerful in terms of light
gathering than that of the right number
Using a fast shutter speed the photographer can stop or freeze the action of a
person provided that necessary adjustment on the lens opening be made in order to
maintain normal exposure.
D. Lens Aperture = the ratio between the diameter of the whole lens in
relation to the focal length of the lens. It is the light gathering power of the
lens. Otherwise known as lens opening or relative aperture and it is
expressed in F-number.

f 2.8 f-4 f-5.6 f-8 f-11 f-16

The lower the f-number, the bigger the lens opening and the bigger the lens
opening the greater the volume of air that will passed through the lends and reach the
sensitized material.

If the objective of a photographer is obtain the widest possible coverage of the


lens in which objects are all sharp, It will be advisable to used a smaller lens opening.
E. Focusing = is that mechanism of a camera designed to control the
degree of sharpness of the object to be photograph. It is usually obtained
by estimating the distance from the camera and that of the object that will
make a sharp or clear image.

Types of focusing device:


1. Range finder (Either coincidence or split image type)
Coincidence otherwise known as superimposed image focusing. In this type of
focusing a single object will appeared double once the object is not in focus,
but moving the focusing adjustment this double image will coincide or
superimposed to form a single object.
Split Image focusing on the other hand will show an image in split or two parts once
the object in not in focus once the two parts of the image has been united then
the object is already focused
2. Ground Glass
This is observed from the viewing system of the camera, once the object is not in
focused the object will be viewed to be blurred and will turn sharp and clear once
adjusted.

3. Scale Bed
Estimating the distance of the object and adjusting the camera control based on
his estimation do this.

TYPES OF THE CAMERA


1. View Finder Type it is considered as the smallest and the simplest type of
camera
2. Single Lens Reflex Camera it is a type of camera best suited for police work
due to its interchangeability of the lens
3. Twin Lens Reflex Camera A type of camera with dual lens, one for focusing
and the other for forming the image.
4. View or Press type is considered the biggest and expensive type of camera,
used for movie making
5. LENS
= It is the image-forming device of the lens that actually has a greater effect on
the quality of the image to be formed.
= a medium or system which converge or diverge light rays passing through it to
form an image.
= Can be a glass or transparent material, which permit light to pass through and
change the direction of light.

Daniel Barbaro = first to introduce the use of lens in the camera.

CLASSIFICATION OF LENSES
1. According to the type of image to be produced
a. Positive or Convex Lens (Converging Lens) Characterized by the fact that
it is thicker at the center and thinner at the side which is capable of
bending the light together and forms the image inversely.
b. Negative or Concave Lens (diverging Lens) Characterized by the fact that
it is thinner at the center and thicker at the side and forms the virtual
image on the same side of the lens.
2. According to Degree of Corrections
a. Meniscus Lens = lens that has no correction.
b. Rapid Rectilinear Lens lens corrected of distortion
c. Anastigmat Lens correcting astigmatism
d. Achromatic Lens correcting chromatic aberration
e. Apochromatic Lens correcting both astigmatism and chromatic
aberration
INHERRRENT LENS DEFECTS
1. Spherical Aberration= Inability of the lens to focus light passing the side of the
lens producing an image that is sharp in the center and blurred at the side.
2. Coma = (Also known as lateral aberration) = Inability of the lens to focus light
that travels straight or lateral, thus making it blurred while the light reaching the
lens oblique is the one the is transmitted sharp.
3. Curvature of Field = the relation of the images of the different point are incorrect
with respect to one another.
4. Distortion = Is a defect in shape not in sharpness. It can either be Pincushion
distortion (curving inward) or Barrel (curving outward).
5. Chromatic Aberration = Inability of the lens to focus light of varying wavelength.
The lens refracts rays of short wavelength more strongly than those of longer
wavelength and therefore bringing blue rays to a shorter focus than the red.
6. Astigmatism= is a form of lens defects in which the horizontal and vertical axis
are not equally magnified. Inability of the lens to focus both horizontal and
vertical lines.
7. Chromatic Difference of Magnification
8. Flares = condition of the lens producing multiple images.

LENS CHARACTERISTICS
1. Focal Length is the distance measured from the optical center of the lens is set
to focus at infinite position. As according to focal lenses may be classified as:
a. Wide Angle or Short Focus = with focal length not longer than the
diagonal half of the negative. Useful in taking photograph at short
distance with wider area coverage.
b. Normal or Medium Focus = with focal length approximately equal but not
longer than twice the diagonal half of the negative.
c. Long or Telephoto Lens = with focal length longer than twice the diagonal
half of the negative. Best used in long distance photographing but with
narrow area coverage.
d. ZOOM lens = lens with variable focal length or that which can be adjusted
continuously by the movement of one or more elements in the lens system.
2. Relative Aperture the light gathering power of the lens expressed in F-number
a. Depth of Field is the distance measured from the nearest to the farthest
object in apparent sharp focus when the lens
b. Hyperfocal distance = Is the nearest distance at which when a lens is
focused with a given particular diaphragm opening will gives the
maximum depth of field.
3. Focusing = is the setting of the proper distance in order to form a sharp image.
The one that controls the degree of sharpness of the object.

6. CHEMICAL PROCESS
The process of making the latent image visible and permanent.
a. Development (Use of either D-76, Dektol or Universal Solution)
= Is the process necessary for reducing the silver halides to form
the image.
Elon, Hydroquenone = used as main developing agents
b. Stop bath = normally composed of water with little amount of dilute acetic
acid that serves as a means to prevent contamination between the
developer and the acid fixer.
c. Fixation = Is the process by which all unexposed silver halides are
dissolved or removed from the emulsion surface and making the image
more permanent.
Sodium Thiosulfate (hypo) is the main fixing agent that dissolves
unexposed silver halides.

Other chemicals used:


Acetic Acid and Boric acid = serves as neutralizer
Sodium Sulfate = serves as the preservative
Potassium Bromide = restrainer or hardener
Sodium bicarbonate and borax powder = serves as accelerator
Dodging = is the process of eliminating unwanted portion of the negative during
enlarging.
Cropping = is the process of omitting an object during the process of enlarging
and printing.
Vignetting = is the gradual fading of the image towards the side through skillful
adjustment on the dodging board.
Dye toning = is the process designed in changing the color tone of the
photograph.
Burning-In = refers to additional exposure on a desired portion of the negative
used for purposes of making a balance exposure.

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