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Overstreet, R. M., J. O. Cook, and R. W. Heard. 2009. Trematoda (Platyhelminthes) of the Gulf of Mexico, Pp.

486 in Felder, D.L. and D.K. Camp (eds.), Gulf of MexicoOrigins, Waters, and Biota. Biodiversity. Texas A&M
University Press, College Station, Texas.

Trematoda (Platyhelminthes)
of the Gulf of Mexico
Robin M.Overstreet, Joshua O.Cook, and Richard W.Heard

The platyhelminth class Trematoda, consisting of the sub-

classes Aspidogastrea and Digenea, contains individuals
referred to as digeneans, trematodes, or flukes. Aspido-
gastreans, not digeneans in the strict sense, number about
80 species in total (Rohde 2005), but adults in the Gulf of
Mexico of 4 species have been reported from teleost and
chondrichthyan fishes (Hendrix and Overstreet 1977)
and one from a turtle (Wharton 1939). Consequently, this
chapter deals with trematodes rather than just digeneans,
even though all the records but the 5 refer to digeneans.
Trematoda is the largest group of platyhelminths, and
trematode adults, other than exceptional cases in both
Aspidogastrea and Digenea, occur in vertebrates. Rather
than being totally restricted to a lumen like members of
its sister group Eucestoda (tapeworms), trematode species Trematoda. After Overstreet 1973.
occur in a variety of sites, exhibiting rather restricted site
specificity for each species or higher group. The intrigu-
ing situation about trematodes is that they have a mollus- trematode species worldwide, including well over 5000 of
can first intermediate host. The larval stage of the aspi- those from fishes alone (Cribb 2005b), perhaps the largest
dogastreans (cotylocidium) does not undergo asexual group of internal metazoan parasites (Cribb etal. 2001),
replication in the mollusk like it does for the digenean almost all are highly specific for at least the first, second,
counterparts. Digeneans have a series of asexual stages or final host. On the other hand, at one or more of those
reproducing large numbers of individuals originating as 3 stages many digenean species infect several different
the larva (miracidium) from a single egg that assure trans- species of hosts. The number of named or accepted spe-
mission and dispersal to a series of one to 3 different, nec- cies is low, primarily because of the lack of attention paid
essary intermediate hosts. With the exception of a few to this difficult group of mostly tiny soft-bodied worms.
aporocotylids (fish blood flukes) that have larvae devel- This chapter provides an initial attempt to document
oping in polychaetes and maturing in fish, all species in records. We do not agree with all, are sure several have
the approximately 175 families require the molluscan first been unintentionally omitted, and are sure the lists pres-
intermediate host. Of the approximately 18,000 nominal ent a woefully incomplete record because of a paucity of

420 ~ Trematoda (Platyhelminthes)

Overstreet 1981) reported the presence of over 6000 het-

erophyid metacercarial cysts per gram of mullet flesh for
an estimated total number of 582,000 cysts in the single
specimen of Liza ramado (Risso, 1810). Each of those
cysts has the potential to produce one adult in its human
or other mammalian final host. Most humans in fishing
communities where uncooked or inadequately cooked
seafood products are routinely eaten each harbor thou-
sands of individual adults in the intestine, often causing
considerable discomfort and even death (Deardorff and
Overstreet 1991). Some public health literature implies
that most digeneans cause harm or death in their final
host, but the fact remains that the great majority of dige-
nean species produce very little pathological response in
Trematoda. After Overstreet 1973. the final definitive host. Occasionally a metacercaria will
infect a fish host normally infected by an adult and pro-
collections and the fact that we have many new records duce lesions (e.g., Raptopoulou and Lambertsen 1987).
that are not included for lack of time at present. Of those trematodes that produce disease in people, most
develop into pathogenic adults in those people; how-
ever, the cercariae of several avian and mammalian blood
Biology of Trematodes
flukes can produce a severe dermatitis in those people
This chapter concerns adult trematodes only. Initiating (accidental abnormal hosts) penetrated by a challenge of
the digenean life cycle, the adult, depending on the spe- cercariae (e.g., Penner 1953, Leigh 1955). Adults or lar-
cies, produces from one to thousands of eggs daily that vae of several species cause economic or environmental
usually are shed into the host feces for as long as that adult losses resulting from public health aspects (loss of host
worm survives, which can be days or years, depending on groups/pods/schools of marine mammals and fishes as
the species. Each species has a unique life history, but a well as flocks of bird hosts from infections by both adults
generalization follows. These eggs are either eaten, per- and juveniles; aesthetic appearance of the seafood prod-
mitting the enclosed ciliated miracidium to hatch and ucts, usually comprising the first or second intermediate
penetrate into the appropriate mollusks gut, or hatch, bivalve or fish hosts; castration of first intermediate mol-
allowing the miracidium to locate and penetrate the spe- luscan hosts; and behavioral modifications in the first or
cific molluscan host. The miracidium then produces a second intermediate host and the accidental final host). As
sporocyst, an asexual sac with more germ cells producing an example of pathological changes, disease, normal and
large numbers of a second generation stage, usually in the accidental hosts, and potential public health risk, Crypto
gonads or digestive gland. These produce further genera- cotyle lingua (Creplin, 1825), a listed heterophyid from
tions of sporocysts or rediae, and ultimately cercariae, the a gull but also commonly observed in terns elsewhere,
free-living stage shed from the mollusk that typically has has been shown experimentally to infect some mam-
a tail and penetrates or is eaten by the second intermedi- mals, and to be refractory in ducks (Willey and Stunkard
ate host. Blood fluke cercariae enter the definitive, or final, 1942). A somewhat emaciated but not healthy rat pro-
host, as do some exceptions in a few other families. The duced mature worms. When the terna good host in the
redia is similar to a sporocyst, but it has a birth pore as northeast United Statesand dogs were infected with a
well as a pharynx and mouth, allowing it to feed directly heavy dose of worms, they exhibited an extensive inflam-
on tissues of the molluscan host rather than gain its nutri- matory response, with the dogs showing the greatest dis-
tion indirectly through the tegument. In some cases, one tress. After a period of acute catarrhal enteritis, if the ani-
egg from an individual worm can produce many thou- mal survived the initial infection, most of the worms were
sand cercariae infective to the intermediate host and one voided, the mucosa repaired itself, and an immunity to
individual second intermediate host can harbor thou- further infection occurred. These signs developed more
sands of metacercariae, cysts in specific tissues, infective slowly in dogs than in terns (Willey and Stunkard 1942).
to the final host. For example, Paperna (1975, Paperna and In general, since digeneans reflect the hosts dietary
Overstreet, Cook, and Heard ~ 421

input, habitat, and associations, they often provide rela- Overstreet/Stephen Curran/Stephen Bullard; and Don-
tively inexpensive and informative biological tags, or indi- ald Forrester/Mike Kinsella/ Marilyn Spalding). Many of
cators, of both acute and chronic aspects of the biology these reported species still require reevaluation in regard
and environmental health of corresponding hosts and to synonyms and generic affiliation.
ecosystem. They provide this indication of the unique- Difficulty exists in documenting Gulf material because
ness or health of an environment or host by the parasite the definitive fish hosts swim to and from fresh water, bird
richness (biodiversity), food webs and feeding behav- hosts fly to and from coastal or marine areas or freshwater
ior, intensity and abundance of infections (see terms by habitats, and other migratory aspects that result in both
Bush etal. 1997), stock separation, migratory behavior, freshwater and marine parasites in the same individual
and pathological alterations (e.g., Overstreet 1997). If the (e.g., Overstreet and Curran 2005a). In the true sense, for
trematodes and other parasites are evaluated on a spe- a trematode to be a Gulf species, its molluscan host has to
cies by species basis, this indication can provide valuable be a Gulf resident, but even that creates confusion because
input for management of stocks (e.g., Overstreet 1993, there are seasonal and yearly dynamics of the infection
Overstreet and Curran 2005a) or habitats. On the basis involving salinity and details of life history are usually
of an endemic Gulf of Mexico (GMx) bucephalid, we lacking. Some mollusks require salt but may tolerate or
have helped state and U.S.Customs officials make a case thrive in as little as 1 to 2 ppt, or the second intermediate
against some fishermen, who illegally caught red drum host may be marine, while the counterpart first intermedi-
(Sciaenops ocellatus (Linnaeus, 1766)) in Gulf waters but ate is freshwater or vice versa. Also, the intermediate hosts
were selling them on the basis of being caught from the for only a small percentage of the digeneans are known,
Atlantic coast, where they would be legal. even though a general idea resulting from near relatives or
incomplete evidence could provide a subjective opinion
on what is marine for many species.
Recent GMx Literature
The aspect of whether a trematode is accurately a marine
Manter (1954) treated the trematodes in the Gulf of Mex- species is minor compared with other aspects involv-
ico, Its Origin, Waters, and Marine Life and listed the ing checklists 15 (this chapter) when one considers the
known species at that time from fishes, mammals, the log- incomplete list of Gulf trematode species and their associ-
gerhead turtle, Caretta caretta (Linnaeus, 1758), and mol- ated geographic ranges. Nevertheless, we removed a third
lusks (Taxon Summary of numbers of trematodes from of the potential records from our initial draft lists because
the Gulf of Mexico and their hosts). We did not include we doubted they involved a true estuarine or marine spe-
comparative data on records of cercariae from mollusks cies; we still question some. Most important is the paucity
(Yamaguti 1975) because most reports of cercariae are of marine records. Relatively few hosts have been exam-
also treated as an adult stage, are not identified relative to ined, and, of those that have, they have been examined
the corresponding adult, are problematical, or are from from few geographic areas. As apparent from examination
the same geographic area within the known range of of our checklists, many species are the result of a single
the adult. Most of those adult records by Manter (1954) report. We know that our checklists greatly underestimate
resulted from his own survey (e.g., Manter 1947) of spe- the number of species. Based on lack of time, we did not
cies from the Dry Tortugas. Since that time, numerous include our additional species records, new host-records
records of species have been added to the list, includ- and range extensions from the Gulf, many new species,
ing several forms from deepwater fishes and a variety of or all the records from the literature. Also, some listed
other vertebrate hosts. Nevertheless, numerous potential digenean species actually represent 2 species, and, to reit-
hosts still have not been examined for trematodes or other erate, a large number of hosts and geographic localities
parasites. Most records result from specimens collected have not been sampled or reported. For example, there
by relatively few researchers, usually with their graduate is a strong Caribbean influence for fish and avian dige-
students and colleagues (as indicated by a slash mark) neans in South Florida and Mexico, even though many of
from near their home institution (e.g., Edwin Linton; the records would be confusing or not be included unless
Harold Manter/Frank Sogandares-Bernal/Robert Hut- South Florida was extended to cover Biscayne Bay. Mexi-
ton; Albert Sparks/Vernon Thatcher; Kenneth Corkum; can workers are now intensifying examinations of their
Sewell Hopkins/Norm Dronen/Charles Blend; Raymond coastal and marine Gulf fauna (e.g., Salgado-Maldonado
Cable/Robert Short/Fuad Nahhas/Edwin Powell; Robin etal. 1997, Vidal-Martnez etal. 1998, 2001). A large an-
422 ~ Trematoda (Platyhelminthes)

notated list of trematodes of wildlife vertebrates in Mexico host groups. For purposes of this chapter, we are ignoring
was just received from Gerardo Prez-Ponce de Len, Luis trematode orders and suborders and listing infections by
Garca-Prieto, and Berenit Mendoza-Garfias, but time family as covered in Keys to the Trematoda (Gibson, Jones,
does not allow us to add the many informative records and Bray 2002, Jones, Bray, and Gibson 2005; Bray, Gib-
and citations (Zootaxa 1534: 1247 [2007]), nor to factor son, and Jones, personal communication).
them into the numerical counts in the table. Recent books Soft-bodied hermaphroditic trematodes, all consid-
such as one listing metazoan parasites of deepwater fishes ered parasites, are characterized primarily by the male
(Klimpel etal. 2001) and one listing trematodes of South and female reproductive systems, including the terminal
American fishes (Kohn, Fernandes, and Cohen 2007) also genitalia, but also by the position and nature of the suckers
made this chapter more informative. A discussion on the and alimentary tract, features of the tegument, and pat-
number of potential hosts in the different groups occurs tern and nature of the excretory system, including the pat-
below. tern of flame cells and the shape of the excretory vesicle.

Systematics Comparative Assessment of Digeneans in

Recent molecular studies (Littlewood, Rohde, and Clough
1999, Cribb etal. 2001, Olson etal. 2003, Nolan and Cribb The table lists the number of hosts as 430 and of trem-
2005, Olson and Tkach 2005) have started to make sense atodes as 577, as well as the number of potential hosts
of the digenean superfamilies, supporting the phylogeny as 1976. The table indicates the number of trematodes
proposed by Cable (1974), based largely on cercariae more listed as endemic to the Gulf as 186 (32%) compared
so than the scheme produced by phylogenetic assessments with 80 percent (173/216) indicated by Manter (1954)
based on morphological features of adults and larvae in the original Gulf list. It does this according to major
(e.g., Brooks, OGrady, and Glen 1985, Brooks etal. 1989). subdivisionsof the 4 basic vertebrate host groups, with
Much of the difficulty in resolving the interrelationships an emphasis on fishes. For example, 36% (133/374) of
of higher-level taxa has resulted from the extraordinary the trematode species based on reported ranges in 2007
diversity of trematodes (Olson and Tkach 2005). The new contrasts dramatically with 83% (164/198) reported by
classification, consisting of just two primary branches or Manter. Even though there is a relative paucity of reports
orders, consists of 14 suborders, with just one of those of trematodes from the Gulf, there is also a paucity of
not including marine members (Olson etal. 2003). This reports from both the Southeast United States and west-
previous problem of assigning or aligning families can be ern Caribbean Sea for most coastal and offshore verte-
explained partially by unrecognized presumed second- brates as well as questionable identifications of many
ary loss of structures (e.g., Curran, Tkach, and Overstreet species that are listed as occurring in the Pacific and
2006), the wide variation in character states within pre- other disjunct regions, making the geographic distri-
sumed families, and the lack of knowledge of life cycles in bution for the listed endemic species highly uncertain.
several groups. Groups like the Haploporidae (see recent Nevertheless, the percentage of species presently reported
classification based on morphological features by Over- as endemic to the Gulf, a percentage mostly based on
street and Curran [2005b]) differ from the similar Hap- one or few records, is based on 23% (351/1541) of the
losplanchnidae (see DNA sequencing study by Olson reported fishes, 89% (8/9) of the reptiles, 14% (57/395)
etal. [2003]), even though Haplosplanchnidae had been of the birds, and 19% of the marine mammals (terres-
placed in the order Haploporiformes erected by Brooks trial mammalian hosts were, of course, not listed in this
at al. (1985), supported by Brooks and McLennan (1993), volume as Gulf species). The reported percentage of
and considered a logical order in most earlier studies by trematode species endemic to the Gulf has been greatly
various taxonomists on the basis of morphological fea- reduced since 1954 because more animals from more
tures, life cycles, and hosts. The library of gene sequences localities are being examined for trematodes. This per-
is still small and not all comparable but is rapidly increas- centage should become even smaller as more animals
ing and being perfected so that future studies will slowly are surveyed; however, in conjunction with the use of
allow a progressively better appreciation of interrelation- molecular techniques to distinguish similar appearing
ships among families, what genera occur in what fami- species from different geographic areas as separate spe-
lies, and relationships of trematodes with their specific cies, this should considerably increase both the number
Overstreet, Cook, and Heard ~ 423

and percentage of actual endemic trematode species in and second intermediate hosts, usually much more so
the Gulf. than that of the vertebrate definitive host as well as being
The number of nonindigenous species is unknown, but dependent on the migratory nature of those hosts. The
presumably very low. Most reported nonindigenous dige- known and undocumented migratory patterns of some
neans throughout the world have been introduced into coastal host species and most pelagic hosts involve sea-
the freshwater habitats with the introduction of infected sons, reproduction, and maturation. Moreover, the lon-
snails associated with ornamental fish and plants (e.g., gevity of the trematode affects the apparent pattern of dis-
Centrocestus cf. formosanus into the United States, along tribution because a worm reported from one geographic
with Melanoides tuberculatus (Mller, 1774), from which location does not necessarily reflect the accurate location,
the cercariae infect fishes, that in turn are eaten by birds that location where the species was acquired in the final
in which the worm matures and sheds eggs that are dis- host. Also, ill marine mammals and marine turtles from
seminated to other geographic regions, including coastal central Gulf of Mexico often migrate to nearshore to recu-
habitats as reviewed by Mitchell etal. [2005]). Establish- perate or die. Ill fishes and birds are usually eaten before
ment of marine-introduced trematodes is more difficult reaching coastlines. Also, every few years the currents
than Monogenoidea (parasitic platyhelminths) and other shift for a short period of time, allowing pelagic fishes
invertebrate groups because there have to be at least 2 to and other animals to locate near areas where they seldom
3 additional acceptable hosts to complete the cycle. Typi- occupy and where few animals are periodically exam-
cally, the molluscan host is relatively specific to a trema- ined for parasites, once again providing misleading data
tode, and the free-living cercaria usually remains infec- on Gulf trematodes. Because of the lack of the necessary
tive for only a couple of days, making establishment of a intermediate hosts, eggs from such species cannot pro-
trematode population very difficult. Moreover, molecu- duce an established population in the coastal region. Con-
lar studies are now showing that some purportedly intro- sequently, the digeneans in many cases for many reasons
duced freshwater digeneans (e.g., Hoffman 1970) such do not represent coastal or possibly quadrant locations.
as Bolbophorus confusus (Krause, 1914) are actually Studies on trematodes and other parasites in the Gulf
indigenous cryptic species (e.g., Bolbophorus damnifi- of Mexico deserve more attention than some other taxa.
cus Overstreet and Curran, 2002 and Bolbophorus sp. of Seldom are parasite surveys funded in the United States,
Overstreet etal. [2002]) and not an introduced species. but they are needed for examination of all groups of ver-
The marine heterophyid Cryptocotyle lingua, one of sev- tebrate potential host species along the entire coastline
eral digeneans that produce black spot disease in some of the Gulf as well as the deepwater, midwater, and aerial
host fishes, was suspected of being introduced into the habitats to understand the biodiversity, range of the spe-
United States from Europe in the common periwinkle cies, and misidentification of cryptic species. Presently,
snail Littorina littorea (Linnaeus, 1758) in the middle of only dead stranded marine mammals can be examined,
the 19th century and then to the West Coast of the United and that requires a permit; even then, most offshore spe-
States (Hoffman 1970). Whether that nonindigenous spe- cies are unavailable for examination until several days
cies, which is listed from Florida in the Gulf (see check- after death of a host when its digeneans are decomposed.
list 3), is presently established in the Gulf has not been Like with marine mammals, marine turtles cannot be
determined. Because the southern range of L.littorea, the examined for parasites unless they are dead or dying and
only known snail host, has apparently not reached below permitted personnel in a federal network are involved.
Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, the West Florida record Recently, Ernest Williams and colleagues (e.g., Dyer,
may represent a non-Gulf infection from a migrating her- Williams, and Bunkley-Williams 1995a) in a network
ring gull. from Puerto Rico have made the most extensive exami-
As with other symbiotic and free-living invertebrates, nations, but those turtles from and passing through the
the presence of some trematode species occurs uncom- Puerto Rico-Caribbean Region presumably have many
monly because of natural and anthropogenic perturba- of the same trematodes as in the Gulf of Mexico because
tions, abnormal influences, and long-term (multiyear) of host migratory patterns. Moreover, most living dige-
climate/salinity dynamics. Consequently, the rare sam- neans, regardless of the host, have to be specially fixed and
pling of most hosts for parasites leaves little opportunity prepared to obtain material acceptable for precise iden-
to collect those irregularly occurring trematodes. The dis- tification or morphological descriptions and molecular
tribution of trematodes depends on the range of their first sequencing. Life cycle studies should be conducted for
424 ~ Trematoda (Platyhelminthes)

many species, especially avian species for which a marine ing sequence data to clarify many identifications. Bray and
or salt-influenced cycle is uncertain. Cribb (2003) provided diagnostic features of 112 nomi-
Fish trematodes (checklist 1). The checklists for trem- nal species, including 15 considered species inquirendae,
atodes from all host groups contain many cases involv- plus others considered junior synonyms by some authors.
ing known or suspected inaccuracies in identifications Variable members of 2 large opecoelid genera, Opecoelus
and generic placement. Most of these would ultimately and Opegaster, are difficult to identify and to distinguish
increase the number of species listed. Examples from but have been kept separate (e.g., Cribb 2005a). However,
fish include the hemiuroids. Hirudinella ventricosa (Pal- AkenOva (2007) has followed some other workers and
las, 1774) is considered the only accepted species in considered Opegaster a junior synonym. For purposes
Hirudinella by Gibson and Bray (1977). Watertor (1973, of checklist 1, we have kept the two genera separate and
personal communication) examined material from 4 tuna predict genetic sequences will detect at least 3 naturally
species from 2 regions in the Atlantic Ocean and one in occurring genera.
the Pacific Ocean, and she considered it to represent one Sequencing data are also helping determine famil-
species but referred to it as Hirudinella marina, a pre- ial affiliations, some already published and included
Linnaean name. However, we suspect genetic sequences in the checklists, some in progress, and some requiring
will reveal at least 3 relatively host-group specific species more data. For example, a group of species were recently
in the Gulf (e.g., separate species at least in tunas, wahoo, removed from the Fellodistomidae by Hall, Cribb, and
and dolphinfishes). Confusion has also focused on the Barker (1999) into Faustulidae, which they gave familial
complex of Stomachicola magnus (Manter, 1931), Sto- ranking. Perhaps Acanthocolpidae, including all mem-
machicola rubeus (Linton, 1910), Tubulovisicula pinguis bers of Stephanostomum, will become a junior synonym
(Linton, 1940), and others. Sinclair, Smith, and Sullivan of Brachycladiidae (previously considered Nasitremati-
(1972), who listed 25 fish species hosting metacercariae dae and Campulidae); the sister group to the genus Steph-
in paratenic hosts (transfer hosts), and others consider anostomum has been shown to include the clade of Tor-
the 3 mentioned species all conspecific, with T.pinguis mopsolus and Pleorchis from fishes as well as the marine
representing a less mature stage. Stunkard (1973) agreed mammal-infecting Zalophotrema spp. (see Bray et al.
that S.magnus and S.rubeus were synonyms, but accepted 2005). Families containing trematodes that infect fishes
T.pinguis. We suspect, based on living and fixed adults usually are restricted to fish or to poikilotherms. Brachy-
examined by RMO in South Florida, that sequences will cladiidae is one exception and Microphallidae is another.
corroborate the report by Overstreet (1968) that S.mag- Most microphallids infect birds or mammals, but we list
nus is the species that matures in the inshore lizardfish, Levinseniella capitanea Overstreet and Perry, 1972, and
Synodus foetens (Linnaeus, 1776), and is different from Megalophallus diodontis Siddiqi and Cable, 1960, both
the species collected by RMO from West and South Flor- of which infect both specific fishes and the raccoon in
ida as adult specimens and reported here from the tar- the Gulf of Mexico (Overstreet and Heard 1995; Rich-
pon, Megalops atlantica Valenciennes, 1847, and recog- ard Semes, Heard, and Overstreet, personal communi-
nized as S.rubeus. Some haploporids as well as members cations). Other microphallids infect both freshwater and
of other families also seem to form species-complexes. marine fishes in Mississippi, but are not listed.
The haplosplanchnid Hymenocotta manteri Overstreet, Reptilian trematodes (checklist 2). The number of
1969, placed as the type species of Hymenocottoides by endemic species for sea turtles is less than that for most
Yamaguti (1971) but not accepted by Madhavi (2005), other host groups because some individual turtles migrate
occurs abundantly from at least Georgia to Louisiana, but throughout much of the world. This is expressed by the
also has been reported from Peru (Tantalean etal. 1982, wide geographic range of most of the digenean species.
Fernndez and Bendezu 1986, Tantalean, Sarmiento, and Critical examination of specimens from worldwide col-
Huiza 1992) and Chile (Bariega 1987). We assume genetic lections by Blair and colleagues (e.g., Blair and Limpus
sequences of the material from Peru and Chile will reveal 1982) reveal this conclusion and show that some species
a separate new species. The same can be said for many of have several junior synonyms. Careful examination of
the species listed from coastal rather than pelagic hosts in more freshly dead marine turtles from the Gulf of Mex-
the Pacific or Indian ocean regions; based on descriptive ico will increase the number of species occurring in, but
data, we omitted some locations reported for select spe- not necessarily originating from, the Gulf. The American
cies. Members of Stephanostomum require work, includ- alligator, Alligator mississippiensis (Daudin, 1801), has
Overstreet, Cook, and Heard ~ 425

numerous digeneans as do coastal marsh snakes, but most those that have, few good preparations of specimens exist
of those digeneans have a freshwater origin. The coastal and species differentiation is difficult or impossible. For
American crocodile, Crocodylus acutus (Cuvier, 1807), example, the status of species of the branchycladiid Nasi-
and Morelets crocodile, Crocodylus moreletii (Bibron trema, common species of the pterygoid air sinuses, can
and Dumeril, 1851), which like the alligator occupy both migrate into the cetacean host brain. Whether they cause
freshwater and brackish habitats, occur in the Gulf and stranding and death is uncertain (OShea et al. 1991).
have some brackish water digeneans. Overstreet (1978) Nasitrema sp., when with the bacterium Photobacterium
reported a metacercariae with a 24 oral spined acanthos- damselae (as Vibrio damsela) in the striped dolphin, and
tome from Menidia conchorum Hildebrand and Ginsburg, Stenella coeruleoalba (Meyen, 1833) from the Gulf, has
1927, key silverside in a pond in the Florida Keys contain- been associated with mortality. Dailey and Walker (1978)
ing C.acutus. Even though sea-snakes do not occur in examined 40 cetaceans comprising 5 species that had
the Gulf of Mexico, several snakes from tidelands acquire stranded in California and found adult Nasitrema spp. in
marine digeneans by feeding on intermediate and final the brain of 26 of them. Neiland, Rice, and Holden (1970)
hosts infected with estuarine or marine species. These are provided a key for 9 species, including 5 new species, but
not included in this chapter. all the species occur in the Pacific Ocean and none or few
Bird digeneans (checklist 3). The avian digeneans appear conspecific with Atlantic/Gulf of Mexico speci-
are especially difficult to assess because most bird hosts mens. Sequence data should provide a means to distin-
migrate and many feed in freshwater habitats, acquiring guish species just as it has been used to determine rela-
freshwater trematodes, as well as estuarine and marine tionships among genera (Fernndez etal. 1998).
ones. The origin of many of these has not been estab- Several terrestrial mammals such as the northern
lished. For example, the diplostomoid Bursacetabulus racoon, Procyon lotor (Linnaeus, 1758), and the marsh
morus Tehrany, Dronen, and Wardle, 1999, is related to rice rat, Oryzomys palustris (Harlan, 1837), feed along
Bursacetabulus pelecanus Dronen, Tehrany, and Wardle, the littoral zone and acquire true marine digeneans, but
1999, which occurs in the freshwater planorbid snail first the same individuals also may feed away from the shore
intermediate host, Gyraulus parvus (Say, 1817) (Over- where they acquire freshwater digeneans. Some, but not
street and Curran 2004), suggesting a freshwater cycle all, of the marine digeneans are listed, and examination
for it, even though it infects the northern gannet, Morus of additional potential host species should produce many
bassanus Linnaeus, 1758, a marine bird, even though col- more marine digeneans.
lected around Galveston, Texas. Most diplostomoids we In summary, the checklists are based on adults of spe-
have encountered in Mississippi are transmitted by fresh- cies reported in the literature (some questionable), our
water snails; however, several marine forms occur there, unpublished or literature records of corresponding infor-
where we have seen mostly unidentified metacercariae in mation on intermediate hosts, and our assumptions as to
estuarine or marine fishes. More important, many truly marine origin. Clearly, we have not included all reported
marine birds have not been examined. marine digeneans, we have included a few freshwater
Examples of avian digeneans also reflect taxonomic ones, and the list is woefully incomplete in expressing
problems that influence the checklists. Parorchis acan- total Gulf of Mexico biodiversity.
thus (Nicoll, 1906) in the United States actually consists
of at least 4 morphologically similar species (Huspeni,
Explanation and Caveats of Checklist
Jacobs, and Staton 2001), with the complex presumably
much larger when genetic sequences of worldwide popu- We have chosen to present separate checklists for each
lations are evaluated. Based on our unpublished studies, general host group rather than by digenean family because
we know other species-complexes exist, such as the het- that will make the lists more helpful for most readers,
erophyid Ascocotyle angrense Travassos, 1916. Misidenti- readers with an interest in specific hosts, host groups, or
fications based on poorly prepared specimens and species host-parasite relationships, rather than the trematode spe-
that may or may not have the wide distribution indicated cies per se. We recognize the phylogenetic relationships
provide more problems requiring attention. among the higher levels of host animals as used by Tudge
Mammalian trematodes (checklist 4). As indicated (2000) and indicated by the phylogenetic relationships of
above, the great majority of Gulf of Mexico marine mam- many parasite groups, but we refer to the major groups in
mal species have not been examined for digeneans. Of the text as fishes, reptiles, birds, and mammals so that they
426 ~ Trematoda (Platyhelminthes)

can be more easily indexed, will correspond to the other System (ITIS) ( Bird names followed those
chapters on the hosts, and will allow those interested in presented by Sibley (2000) and were verified using Inte-
the trematodes to look up records more easily. We also grated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) (www.itis
include a single host-parasite list (checklist 5) to aid those .gov) and USGS, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center web-
unfamiliar with digeneans to have a starting place from site ( Mammalian names
which to identify specimens collected from a specifically were verified using Integrated Taxonomic Information
listed host or related host. This list includes records of System (ITIS) (
hosts from the Gulf of Mexico only; additional hosts from Digenean and aspidogastrean names usually followed
other geographic areas are infected by many of the same those listed by ZooBank, International Commission on
species, but those uncited records are useful for the overall Zoological Nomenclature ( In the
distributions and should encourage researchers to more case of subjective junior synonyms of trematodes, we usu-
critically investigate those species with unseemly broad ally include the presently accepted name in the checklists.
distributions. When a species is placed in a genus not used in the Gulf of
The families and genera of trematodes in the checklists Mexico references, we additionally include the reference
agree with those used in the recent series of keys to genera to the article in which the combination was made. End-
of trematodes (Gibson, Jones, and Bray 2002, Jones, Bray, notes are used when information is not readily available,
and Gibson 2005; Bray, Gibson, and Jones, personal com- not commonly used in the literature, or recent. Because
munication). The families are listed alphabetically rather the trematode species are listed by family and the reader
than phylogenetically, and the genera within each family would have difficulty determining what other trematodes
are in turn listed alphabetically, as are the species within infect the same host species, we have cross-referenced
each genus. the infections with a host-trematode checklist. That list
Because relatively few collections of trematodes have provides for most users of the chapter a place to start the
been made in the Gulf of Mexico from the Caribbean-like identification process.
fauna (e.g., Siddiqi and Cable 1960, Nahhas and Cable
1964) with the exceptions of material from South Florida,
including Biscayne Bay, the Everglades, and the Florida
Keys, including records from the Dry Tortugas as well Sites in the host are abbreviated alphabetically as the fol-
as from Cuba, near Havana, and from the Mexican Gulf lowing: asc = air sacs; bcv = body cavity; bdt = bile duct;
of Mexico region, and because the Biscayne Bay fauna is bfb = bursa of Fabricius; blv = blood vessels; cec = cecum
mostly Caribbean in character, we include species from (birds); clo = cloaca; dud = duodenum; eye = eye; fin =
fish in Biscayne Bay as part of the Gulf of Mexico (e.g., fins; gbd = gallbladder; gil = gills; giz = gizzard; hrt =
Ward 1954, Overstreet 1969, Skinner 1975). Moreover, heart; int = intestine; kid = kidney; lin = large intestine;
many individual fish move into and out of Gulf loca- liv = liver; lng = lung; ovi = oviduct; pan = pancreas; pcc =
tions, and the divisions are arbitrary from most biological pyloric ceca (fishes); pro = proventriculus; rec = rectum;
points of view for some members of all host groups. For sbd = swim bladder; sin = small intestine; sto = stomach;
that reason, we also included a few migratory fish hosts tra = trachea; ubd = urinary bladder; urt = urethra; and
located off Cancun and Cozumel (slightly south of Cabo wvs = wall of viscera.
Catoche, Yucatn, Mexico) for digeneans already known Abbreviations used under the heading Overall Geo-
for the Gulf but added no new digenean record from that graphic range are as follows: AO = Arctic Ocean; BE =
Yucatn region. Bermuda; CA = Caribbean Sea; EA = eastern Atlantic
Host names do not always conform to those in the par- Ocean; EP = eastern Pacific Ocean; GO = known from the
asitological literature. The names of many of the fish hosts Gulf of Mexico only; GMx = Gulf of Mexico, IO = Indian
were reported originally as junior synonyms or misiden- Ocean; IUS = inland United States (birds); NE = north-
tifications. Rather than use an endnote for each case in eastern United States and Atlantic Canada; SA = Atlantic
the checklist, we use the fish name and spelling that con- coast of South America; SE = southeastern United States
forms to that by Eschmeyer (1998), from FishBase, www and the Bahamas; and WP = western Pacific Ocean. These (Froese and Pauly 2007), or by the Ameri- general areas also include adjacent seas even if not con-
can Fisheries Society (Nelson etal. 2004). Reptile names nected.
were verified using Integrated Taxonomic Information Abbreviations for locations in the shallow waters of the
Overstreet, Cook, and Heard ~ 427

Gulf of Mexico (GMx) occur as the following in alpha- Pelecanus occidentalis (brown pelican) in the Boca Ciega
betical order: al = Alabama; cu = Cuba (GMx); fl = exact Bay. Suncoast Seabird Sanctuary, Redington Beach,
locality in Florida unknown; la = Louisiana; ms = Missis- Florida.
sippi; mx = Mexico (GMx); sfl = Monroe and Dade coun- 6. Anonymous. Integrated Taxonomic Information System
ties, the Florida Keys, and the Tortugas; tx = Texas; and (ITIS). [Internet]. [cited 15 March 2007]. Available from
wfl = the panhandle and west coast of Florida (exclud-
ing Monroe County in the south). States or countries 7. Anonymous. International Commission on Zoological
rather than quadrants are generally used because the few Nomenclature: ZooBank. [Internet]. [cited 1 March
reports for most species presumably do not provide real- 2007]. Available from
istic ranges, but they do serve to show areas sampled so 8. Bariega, J.B.1987. The parasites of the Lisa Mugil
that present and future readers will understand better cephalus Chile: systematic and population features
the listed ranges and their potential degree of accuracy. (Perciformes: Mugilidae). Gayana Zoologica, Universidad
Organisms reported from deep or open water localities de Concepcin, Chile 51: 358.
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intestine of stray cats in the Republic of Korea. Journal of cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) in Florida. Proceed-
Parasitology 89: 154158. ings of the Helminthological Society of Washington 49:
315. Sparks, A.1954. A new species of Multitestis (Trematoda, 103108.
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the American Microscopical Society 73: 3638. thesis.] University of Florida, Gainesville.
316. Sparks, A.K.1958. Some digenetic trematodes of fishes of 328. Thul, J.E., D.J.Forrester, and C.L.Abercrombie. 1985.
Grand Isle, Louisiana. Proceedings of the Louisiana Ecology of parasitic helminths of wood ducks, Aix sponsa,
Academy of Sciences 20: 7183. in the Atlantic flyway. Proceedings of the Helminthologi-
317. Sparks, A.K.1960. Some aspects of the zoogeography of cal Society of Washington 52: 297310.
the digenetic trematodes of shallow-water fishes of the 329. Tkach, V.V., T.J.Littlewood, P.D.Olson, J.M.Kinsella,
Gulf of Mexico. Libro Homenaje al Doctor Eduardo and Z.Swiderski. 2003. Molecular phylogenetic analysis
Caballero y Caballero: Jubileo 19301960: 285298. of the Microphalloidea Ward, 1901 (Trematoda: Digenea).
318. Sparks, A.K., and V.E.Thatcher. 1958. A new species of Systematic Parasitology 56: 115.
Stephanostomum (Trematoda, Acanthocolpidae) from 330. Tudge, C.2000. The Variety of Life: A Survey and a
marine fishes of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Transac- Celebration of all the Creatures that Have Ever Lived.
tions of the American Microscopical Society 77: 287290. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 684 pp.
319. Sparks, A.K., and V.E.Thatcher. 1960. A new species of 331. Underwood, H.T., and N.O.Dronen. 1986. Neocyclustera
Crassicutis (Trematoda, Allocreadiidae) from a sparid fish ralli gen. et sp. n. (Cestoidea: Dilepididae) and other
Overstreet, Cook, and Heard ~ 441

endohelminths from clapper rails, Rallus longirostris, fauna helmintholgica Cubana (continuacin). Memorias
from a marsh in Galveston County, Texas. Proceedings of de la Sociedad Cubana de Historia Natural 22: 195233.
the Helminthological Society of Washington 53: 5962. 343. Vigueras, I.P.1955d. Descripcin de seis especies nuevas
332. Vidal-Martnez, V.M., M.L.Aguirre-Macedo, de tremtodes de la familia Acanthocolpidae y divisin
C.M.Vivas-Rodriguez, and F.Moravec. 1998. Las del gnero Stephanostomum en sub-gneros. Revista
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Mxico. Proceedings of the Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries 344. Vigueras, I.P.1956. Contribucin al conocimento de la
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D.Gonzlez-Solis, E.F.Mendoza-Franco. 2001. Atlas of 345. Vigueras, I.P.1958. Contribucin al conocimento de la
the Helminth Parasites of Cichlid Fish of Mexico. fauna helmintholgica Cubana. Memorias de la Sociedad
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335. Vigueras, I.P.1940a. Prosogonotremidae n. fam. y 347. Ward, J.W.1962. Helminth parasites of some marine
Prosogonotrema bilabiatum n. gen., n. sp. (Trematoda, animals, with special reference to those from the
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(Pisces). Memorias de la Sociedad Cubana de Histria of Parasitology 48: 155.
Natural 14: 249252. 348. Watertor, J.L.1973. Incidence of Hirudinella marina
336. Vigueras, I.P.1940b. Notas sobre algunas especies nuevas Garcin 1730 (Trematoda: Hirudinellidae) in tunas from
de tremtodes y sobre otras poco conocidas. Revista the Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Parasitology 59: 207208.
Universidad de la Habana 5: 128. 349. Wharton, G.W.1939. Studies of Lophotaspis vallei
337. Vigueras, I.P.1940c. Macrorchitrema havanensis, n. gen. (Stossich, 1899) (Trematoda: Aspidogastridae). Journal of
n. sp., (Trematoda, Paramphistomidae) parsito del Parasitology 25: 8386.
intestino de Holacanthus tricolor Bloch (Pisces). Annales 350. Willey, C.H., and H.W.Stunkard. 1942. Studies on
del Instituto de Biologia 11: 197207. pathology and resistance in terns and dogs infected with
338. Vigueras, I.P.1941. Nota sobre varios vermes encontra- the heterophyid trematode, Cryptocotyle lingua. Transac-
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339. Vigueras, I.P.1942. Notas Helmintholgicas. Revista Uni- Vertebrates. Keigaku Publishing Company, Tokyo. Vol. I,
versidad de la Habana 7: 193223. 1074 pp.; Vol. II, 349 pls.
340. Vigueras, I.P.1955a. Contribucin al conocimiento de la 352. Yamaguti, S.1975. A Synoptical Review of Life Histories
fauna helmintholgica Cubana. Memorias de la Sociedad of Digenetic Trematodes of Vertebrates. Keigaku
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341. Vigueras, I.P.1955b. Descripcin de Bianium lecanoceph- 353. Zam, S.G., D.K.Caldwell, and M.C.Caldwell. 1971.
alum n. sp. (Trematoda, Lepocreadiidae), parsito de Some endoparasites from small odontocete cetaceans
Osbeckia scripta (Pisces). Memorias de la Sociedad collected in Florida and Georgia. Cetology 2: 111.
Cubana de Historia Natural 22: 191194. 354. Zhukov, E.V.1983. New members of fish trematodes in
342. Vigueras, I.P.1955c. Contribucin al conocimiento de la the Gulf of Mexico. Parazitologiya 17: 112117.

Submitted: March 2007

Accepted: June 2007
442 ~ Trematoda (Platyhelminthes)

Numbers of trematodes from the Gulf of Mexico and their hosts, including one possible nonindigenous
species from a bird.

Potential host Reported Trematodes

Trematodes listed asendemic
species listed in Reported trematodes by Manter
Vertebrate host group other chapters hosts in 2007 in 1954 2007 1954

Fishes 1541 351 374 198 133 164

Chondrichthyes 128 4 3 0 3
Actinopterygii 1409 347 371 198 130 164
Reptiles 9 8 40 15 6 7
Crocodylotarsi clade 1 4 5 0 0
Testudines 6 4 35 15 6 7
Aves 395 57 122 3 38 2
Mammals 31 14 41 0 9
Marine mammals 31 6 9 0 2
Terrestrial entering aquatic habitats 0 8 32 0 7

Totals 1976 430 577 216 186 173

Checklist 1. Trematoda in fishes from the Gulf of Mexico.

Taxon Site in Overall References/

Hosts host geographic range GMx range Endnotes

Phylum: Platyhelminthes
Class: Trematoda
Subclass: Aspidogastrea
Family: Aspidogastridae
Cotylogaster basiri Siddiqi & Cable, 1960 Archosargus probatocephalus, Menticirrhus americanus, Microp- int, rec GMx, CA ms, la, tx 143, 144, 3011
ogonias undulatus, Pogonias cromis, Trachinotus carolinus,
Cotylogaster dinosoides Hendrix & Overstreet, Pogonias cromis int GO ms, tx, mx 143, 144, 3012
Lobatostoma kemostoma (MacCallum & Trachinotus carolinus int GMx, CA, SA, EP mx 178, 285
MacCallum, 1913)
Lobatostoma ringens (Linton, 1907) Chaetodipterus faber, Calamus bajonado, Calamus calamus, int, pcc GMx, SE, BE, CA, sfl, wfl, al, ms, 43, 52, 87, 143,
Hali-hoeres radiatus, Hyporhamphus roberti, Menticirrhus SA la, mx 208, 2853
americanus, Micropogonias undulatus, Oncopterus darwini,
Pomatomus saltatrix, Stenotomus chrysops, Trachinotus caro-
linus, T.falcatus
Family: Multicalycidae
Multicalyx cristata (Faust & Tang, 1936) Cephaloscyllium ventriosum, Dasyatis say, Pristis pectinata, Rhi- bdt GMx, NE, EA, SA, ms 112, 1434
noptera bonasus EP
Subclass: Digenea
Family: Acanthocolpidae
Manteria brachyderus (Manter, 1940) Holacanthus ciliaris, Oligoplites saurus int, rec, GMx, CA, SA, EP sfl, wfl, mx 2, 24, 50, 151, 154,
pcc 235, 267, 308
Pleorchis americanus (Lhe, 1906) Cynoscion arenarius, C.nebulosus int, pcc GMx, NE, SA, EP sfl, wfl, ms, la, 17, 151, 154, 186,
mx 224, 225, 246,
310, 316
Pleorchis magniporus Arai, 1963 Eugerres plumieri int GMx, EP mx 267
Stephanostomum admicrostephanum Vigueras, Epinephelus mystacinus int GO cu 343
Stephanostomum casum (Linton, 1910) Lutjanus analis, L.griseus, L.synagris, Ocyurus chrysurus int, rec GMx, SE, BE, CA, sfl, cu, mx 183, 208, 235, 289,
SA, EA, EP, WP, 343
Stephanostomum coryphaenae Manter, 1947 Coryphaena hippurus int GMx, SE, CA, SA sfl 208
Stephanostomum cubanum Vigueras, 1955 Carangoides ruber int GO cu 343
Stephanostomum dentatum (Linton, 1900) Epinephelus adscensionis, Epinephelus morio, Mycteroperca int GMx, SE, NE, CA, sfl, mx 208, 220, 332
venenosa EP

(continued )
Checklist 1. Trematoda in fishes from the Gulf of Mexico. (continued )

Site Overall References/
Taxon Hosts in host geographic range GMx range Endnotes

Stephanostomum ditrematis (Yamaguti, 1939) Caranx crysos, C.hippos, C.latus, Carangoides ruber int, rec GMx, SE, CA, SA, sfl, wfl, la, mx 151, 154, 208, 225,
EP, WP, IO 235, 311, 316
Stephanostomum ghanensis Fischtal & Thomas, Trachinotus carolinus int, pcc, GMx, EA, SA mx 285
1968 sto
Stephanostomum gracile (Vigueras, 1942) Sphyraena barracuda int GO cu 210, 339, 343
Stephanostomum imparaspine (Linton, 1905) Rachycentron canadum rec GMx, SE wfl 151, 154, 308
Stephanostomum interruptum Sparks & Bairdiella chrysoura, Cynoscion arenarius, C.nebulosus, Microp- int, rec GO wfl, ms, la, tx, 30, 225, 245, 316,
Thatcher, 1958 ogonias undulatus, Ocyurus chrysurus mx 317, 318
Stephanostomum lineatum Manter, 1934 Laemonema barbatulum, Urophycis cirrata, U.regia int GMx, SA sflben, 202, 208
Stephanostomum lopezneyrai Vigueras, 1955 Anisotremus virginicus rec GO wfl, cu 343
Stephanostomum manteri Vigueras, 1955 Carangoides ruber int GO cu 3435
Stephanostomum megacephalum Manter, 1940 Caranx hippos, C.latus int, rec GMx, CA, EA, EP sfl, wfl, la, mx 208, 224, 225, 235,
Stephanostomum microcephalum Vigueras, Elagatis bipinnulata int GO cu 343
Stephanostomum microstephanum Manter, Epinephelus niveatus int GO sflben, 208
1934 164291m
Stephanostomum promicropsi Manter, 1947 Epinephelus itajara int, rec GO sfl, wfl 151, 154, 208, 311
Stephanostomum sentum (Linton, 1910) Calamus bajonado, C.calamus, Haemulon carbonarium, int, rec GMx, CA sfl, wfl, cu 183, 208, 225, 235,
H.plumierii, H.sciurus, Menticirrhus americanus, Ogcocepha- 310, 3436
lus cubifrons
Stephanostomum tenue (Linton, 1898) Lutjanus apodus, L.mahogoni, Trachinotus falcatus rec GMx, SE, NE, EP sfl 235
Stephanostomum trompeteri Zhukov, 1983 Fistularia tabacaria int GO mx 354
Tormopsolus filiformis Sogandares-Bernal & Rachycentron canadum rec GMx, IO wfl 151, 154, 308
Hutton, 1958
Family: Accacoeliidae
Tetrochetus coryphaenae Yamaguti, 1934 Coryphaena hippurus int GMx, CA, SA, EP, sfl, la 208, 316, 317
Family: Angiodictydae
Cichlasotrema ujati Pineda-Lpez & Andrade- Cichlasoma geddesi, Herichthys pearsei, Petenia splendida, int, rec GO mx 266, 284
Salas, 1989 Thorichthys helleri, Vieja fenestrata, V.intermedia, V.synspila
Family: Apocreadiidae
Barbulostomum cupuloris Ramsey, 1965 Lepomis microlophus, L.puctatus int GO la 2777
Crassicutis archosargi Sparks & Thatcher, 1960 Archosargus probatocephalus int GO ms, la 242, 319
Crassicutis cichlasomae Manter, 1936 Cichlasoma urophthalmus int GMx, SA, EP mx 283
Crassicutis marina Manter, 1947 Eucinostomus gula, E.lefroyi, Gerres cinereus int GMx, SE, CA, EP sfl 208, 210, 235
Homalometron balistis (Manter, 1947) Balistes vetula int GMx, SE, CA sfl, wfl 75, 208, 224
Homalometron cryptum (Overstreet, 1969) Anisotremus virginicus, Haemulon parra, H.plumierii, H.sciurus int, pcc GMx, CA sfl 75, 235
Homalometron elongatum Manter, 1947 Gerres cinereus int GMx, CA, EP sfl 208
Homalometron foliatum (Siddiqi & Cable, Haemulon aurolineatum, H.carbonarium, H.parra int GMx, CA, SA sfl 75, 235
Homalometron manteri Overstreet, 1970 Leiostomus xanthurus int GO ms 75, 236
Homalometron mexicanum Manter, 1937 Balistes capriscus, Stephanolepis hispidus int GMx, CA, EP sfl, wfl 75, 225, 235
Homalometron pallidum Stafford, 1904 Cichlasoma urophthalmus, Fundulus sp., Leiostomus xanthurus, int GMx, SE, NE, IUS, wfl, la, mx 225, 283, 316
Pogonias cromis SA, EP
Neoapocreadium viguerasi Zhukov, 1983 Balistes vetula int GO cu 3, 75, 354
Family: Aporocotylidae
Cardicola cardiocola (Manter, 1947) Calamus bajonado hrt GO sfl 208
Cardicola currani Bullard & Overstreet, 2004 Sciaenops ocellatus hrt GO ms 39
Cardicola laruei Short, 1953 Cynoscion arenarius, C.nebulosus hrt GO wfl 210, 225, 296
Cardicola palmeri Bullard & Overstreet, 2004 Pogonias cromis hrt GO ms 39
Deontacylix ovalis Linton, 1910 Kyphosus incisor, K.sectator bcv GO sfl 183, 208, 235
Elaphrobates euzeti Bullard & Overstreet, 2003 Lutjanus campechanus, L.griseus blv, hrt GO wfl, al, ms 38
Psettarium anthicum Bullard & Overstreet, Rachycentron canadum hrt GO ms 41
Selachohemecus benzi Bullard & Overstreet, Carcharhinus limbatus hrt, kid GO wfl, ms 40
Selachohemecus olsoni Short, 1954 Rhizoprionodon terraenovae hrt GO wfl 225
Family: Bathcotylidae
Bathycotyle coryphaenae Yamaguti, 1938 Coryphaena hippurus gil GMx, SE, CA, EP sfl, sepel, la, tx 44, 316, 3178
Family: Bivesiculidae
Bivesicula hepsetiae Manter, 1947 Atherinomorus stipes int GMx, SE, CA sfl 208
Bivesicula tarponis Sogandares-Bernal & Megalops atlanticus int, pcc GO wfl 151, 154, 309
Hutton, 1959
Family: Botulisaccidae
Botulisaccus pisceus Caballero, Bravo-Hollis, & Albula vulpes int, pcc GMx, EP sfl 235
Grocott, 1955
Family: Bucephalidae
Alcicornis carangis MacCallum, 1917 Carangoides ruber pcc GMx, CA cu 340
Bucephaloides callicotyle (Kohn, 1962) Pomatomus saltatrix int GMx, SA la 71, 249
Bucephaloides longoviferous (Manter, 1940) Sphyraena barracuda int, pcc GMx, CA sfl, la 71, 205, 249
Bucephaloides megacirrus Riggin & Sparks, Sciaenops ocellatus int, pcc GO wfl, ms, la, tx 71, 151, 186, 225,
1962 246, 249, 279,
300, 316
Bucephaloides paralichthydis Corkum, 1961 Paralichthys lethostigma int GO ms, la 67, 69, 249
Bucephaloides scomberomorus Corkum, 1968 Scomberomorus cavalla, S.maculatus pcc GO la, mx 71, 249
Bucephaloides strongylurae Hopkins, 1954 Strongylura marina int GO la, tx, mx 249, 316, 317

(continued )
Checklist 1. Trematoda in fishes from the Gulf of Mexico. (continued )

Site Overall References/
Taxon Hosts in host geographic range GMx range Endnotes

Bucephaloides trichiuri Sogandares-Bernal, Trichiurus lepturus int, pcc GO ms, la 71, 249, 304, 316
Bucephalus brevitentaculatus Corkum, 1967 Trichiurus lepturus pcc GO wfl, la 70, 224
Bucephalus cynoscion Hopkins, 1956 Bairdiella chrysoura, Cynoscion arenarius, C.nebulosus int, pcc, GO ms, la, tx 17, 70, 147, 245,
rec 316, 317
Bucephalus gorgon (Linton, 1905) Seriola dumerili, S.zonata int, pcc GMx, SE, EA, EP wfl, la 70, 224
Bucephalus kathetostomae (Manter, 1934) Kathetostoma albigutta int, pcc GO sflben, 202, 205
Bucephalus priacanthi Manter, 1940 Priacanthus arenatus int, pcc GO sfl 205
Bucephalus scorpaenae Manter, 1940 Scorpaena grandicornis, S.plumieri int, pcc GMx, CA, EP sfl, la 70, 205, 235
Bucephalus varicus Manter, 1940 Carangoides bartholomaei, C.ruber, Caranx crysos, C.hippos, int, pcc, GMx, CA, SA, EA, sfl, wfl, la 70, 151, 154, 175,
C.latus, Scomberomorus cavalla sto WP, IO 205, 224, 225,
235, 310
Dollfustrema gravidum Manter, 1940 Gymnothorax moringa int, pcc GO sfl, cu 205, 249, 340
Prosorhynchoides arcuatus (Linton, 1900) Pomatomus saltatrix, Scomberomorus cavalla, S.maculatus, int, pcc GMx, SE, NE, CA, sfl, wfl 71, 225, 235, 346
S.regalis, Sphyraena barracuda SA, WP
Prosorhynchoides bennetti (Hopkins & Sparks, Paralichthys albigutta, P.lethostigma int, pcc GO sfl, wfl, ms, la, 69, 71, 148, 151,
1958) mx 154, 210, 225,
235, 249, 208,
Prosorhynchoides caecorum Hopkins, 1956 Bairdiella chrysoura, Cynoscion arenarius, C.nebulosus, Microp- int, pcc GO wfl, ms, la, tx 17, 22, 71, 147,
ogonias undulatus, Sciaenops ocellatus 151, 154, 225,
246, 249, 300,
308, 316, 317
Prosorhynchus aguayoi Vigueras, 1955 Rypticus saponaceus int GMx, CA cu 340
Prosorhynchus atlanticus Manter, 1940 Mycteroperca bonaci, M.microlepis, M.venenosa int, pcc GMx, CA, SA sfl, wfl 205, 225
Prosorhynchus ozakii Manter, 1934 Epinephelus niveatus int, pcc GMx, CA, SA, EP sflben, 202, 205
Prosorhynchus pacificus Manter, 1940 Mycteroperca bonaci, M.microlepis int, pcc GMx, EP sfl, cu 235, 340
Prosorhynchus promicropsi Manter, 1940 Epinephelus itajara int, pcc GMx, CA sfl 205
Rhipidocotyle adbaculum Manter, 1940 Scomberomorus maculatus, S.regalis int, pcc GMx, EP sfl, la 205, 235
Rhipidocotyle angusticolle Chandler, 1941 Euthynnus alletteratus, Sarda sarda, Scomberomorus cavalla int GMx, EA, SA la, tx, mx 59, 71, 317
Rhipidocotyle baculum (Linton, 1905) Scomberomorus maculatus, S.regalis int, pcc GMx, SE sfl, wfl 205, 225
Rhipidocotyle barracudae Manter, 1940 Sphyraena barracuda int, pcc GO sfl, mx, cu 205, 317, 340
Rhipidocotyle capitatum (Linton, 1940) Euthynnus alletteratus pcc GO la 316
Rhipidocotyle lepisostei Hopkins, 1954 Atractosteus spatula, Mugil cephalus, M.curema int GO la 71, 316
Rhipidocotyle lintoni Hopkins, 1954 Cyprinodon variegatus, Fundulus grandis, Menidia beryllina, int GO la, tx 71, 316, 317
Poecilia latipinna, Strongylura marina
Rhipidocotyle longicirrus (Nagaty, 1937) Sphyraena barracuda int, pcc GMx, CA, IO sfl, la 9, 71, 205, 210,
Rhipidocotyle longleyi Manter, 1934 Sphyraena barracuda, Synagrops bellus int, pcc GO sfl, nepel-ben, 71, 202, 205, 346
Rhipidocotyle megagaster Corkum, 1968 Lophius americanus pcc GO neben 71
Rhipidocotyle nagatyi Manter, 1940 Euthynnus alletteratus int GO sfl, la 71, 205
Rhipidocotyle transversale Chandler, 1935 Membras vagrans, Menidia menidia, Strongylura marina, int GO wfl, la, tx, mx 57, 71, 151, 154,
S.notata, S.timucu 225, 308, 316,
Family: Callodistomidae
Prosthenhystera obesa (Diesing, 1856) Petenia splendida, Thorichthys helleri gbd GMx, CA, SA, EP mx 284
Family: Cladorchiidae
Cleptodiscus reticulatus Linton, 1910 Pomacanthus arcuatus rec GMx, SE, CA sfl, cu 208, 235, 342
Macrorchitrema havanense Vigueras, 1940 Holacanthus tricolor int GMx, CA cu 210, 337, 342
Family: Cryptogonimidae
Campechetrema herrerai Lamothe-Argumedo, Petenia splendida int GO mx 178, 284
Salgado-Maldonado, & Pineda-Lpez, 1989
Metadena adglobosa Manter, 1947 Lutjanus apodus, L.griseus, Paralichthys albigutta int, pcc GMx, BE, CA, SA sfl, wfl, mx 208, 225, 235, 289
Metadena brotulae (Manter, 1934) Brotula barbata, Lophius piscatorius int GO sfl 202, 208
Metadena crassulata Linton, 1910 Lutjanus analis int GMx, SE, CA sfl 183, 208
Metadena globosa (Linton, 1910) Cynoscion acoupa, Lutjanus griseus, L.mahogoni, L.synagris, int GMx, CA, EP sfl, la 208, 235, 289, 316
Ocyurus chrysurus
Metadena spectanda Travassos, Freitas, & Bairdiella chrysoura, Cynoscion arenarius, Micropogonias undu- int, pcc GMx, SA ms, la, tx 238, 245
Buhrnheim, 1967 latus, Sciaenops ocellatus
Metadena obscura Schroeder, 1971 Lutjanus griseus int, pcc GO sfl 289
Neochasmus olmecus Lamothe-Argumedo, Centropomus parallelus int GO mx 176
Pineda-Lpez, & Andrade-Salas, 1989
Neochasmus sogandaresi Overstreet, 1971 Morone saxatilis int, pcc GO ms, la 237
Oligogonotylus manteri Watson, 1976 Cichlasoma urophthalmus, Parachromis friedrichsthali, Thorich- int, rec GMx, CA, EP mx 283, 284
thys meeki, Vieja synspila
Paracryptogonimus americanus Manter, 1940 Lutjanus griseus, Ocyurus chrysurus int, pcc GMx, SE, CA, EP sfl 235, 289
Pseudoacanthostomum floridensis (Nahhas & Ariopsis felis, Hexanematichthys assimilis int GMx, SA wfl, ms, mx 2, 66, 22510
Short, 1965)
Pseudocaecincola batallae Lamothe-Argumedo, Petenia splendida int GO mx 177, 284
Salgado, & Pineda-Lpez, 1991
Siphodera vinaledwardsii (Linton, 1901) Bairdiella chrysoura, Lutjanus mahogoni, Ocyurus chrysurus, int, pcc GMx, SE, CA, SA, sfl, wfl, ms, mx 66, 151, 154, 208,
Opsanus beta EP 224, 225, 235,

(continued )
Checklist 1. Trematoda in fishes from the Gulf of Mexico. (continued )

Site Overall References/
Taxon Hosts in host geographic range GMx range Endnotes

Tabascotrema verai Lamothe-Argumedo & Petenia splendida gbd, int GO mx 284

Pineda-Lpez, 1990
Family: Derogenidae
Derogenes crassus Manter, 1934 Foetorepus agassizii sto GMx, EP, WP sfl 202, 208
Derogenes varicus (Mueller, 1784) Helicolenus dactylopterus, Merluccius sp., Scorpaena maderensis, sto GMx, NE, SA, EP, sfl 202, 208
Setarches guentheri, Trachyscorpia cristulata, Urophycis regia AO, WP
Genarchella isabellae (Lamothe-Argumedo, Cichlasoma geddesi, C.octofasciatum, C.urophthalmus, Heri- int, sto GMx, CA, EP mx 156, 173, 283, 284
1977) chthys cyanoguttatus, H.pearsei, Parachromis friedrichsthali,
P.managuensis, Petenia splendida, Rhamdia guatemalensis,
Thorichthys helleri, T.meeki, Vieja fenestrata, V.synspila
Gonocerca crassa Manter, 1934 Ancylopsetta dilecta, Brotula barbata, Caelorinchus carmina- sto GMx, EA, SA, WP sfl, la 202, 208, 316
tus, Hippoglossina oblonga, Lophius piscatorius, Merluccius
bilinearis, Paralichthys sp., P.squamilentus, Saurida normani,
Setarches guentheri, Synodus intermedius, Urophyciscirrata,
U.regia, unknown synodontid
Gonocerca phycidis Manter, 1925 Bathygadus macrops, Caelorinchus carminatus, Coryphaenoides sto GMx, SA, EP sfl, neben, 18, 202, 208
mexicanus, C.zaniophorus, Malacocephalus laevis, M.occi- 4731170m
dentalis, Merluccius sp., Urophycis regia
Gonocercella atlantica Manter, 1940 Stephanolepis hispidus int GMx, SE sfl 208
Gonocercella trachinoti (MacCallum, 1913) Albula vulpes int, sto GMx, SE sfl 235
Hemipera nicolli (Manter, 1934) Chaunax pictus, Dibranchus atlanticus, Diplacanthopoma sto GO sfl 202, 208
Leurodera decora Linton, 1910 Anisotremus virginicus, Haemulon aurolineatum, H.carbonar- pcc, sto GMx, SE, CA, SA sfl, cu 208, 235, 345
ium, H.chrysargyreum, H.flavolineatum, H.parra, H.plumi-
erii, H.sciurus, Holocanthus tricolor, Lutjanus griseus, Para-
canthurus hepatus
Thometrema lotzi (Curran, Overstreet, & Font, Micropogonias undulatus sto GO ms, la 77
Family: Dictysarcidae
Dictysarca virens Linton, 1910 Gymnothorax funebris, Hippocampus erectus sbd GMx, CA sfl, cu 183, 208, 235, 345
Family: Didymozoidae
Allonematobothrium yucatanense Moravec, Epinephelus morio fin GO mx 220
Vidal-Martnez, Vargas-Vzquez, Vivas-
Rodrguez, Gonzlez-Sols, Mendoza-
Franco, Sim-Alvarez, & Gemez-Ricalde,
Didymocystis scomberomori (MacCallum & Scomberomorus maculatus, S. regalis wvs GMx, SE, NE, CA sfl, mx 2, 235
MacCallum, 1916)
Epithelionematobothrium fragile Skinner, 1975 Mugil cephalus bcv GO sfl 303
Family: Faustulidae
Antorchis urna (Linton, 1910) Holacanthus ciliaris, H.isabelita, Pomacanthus arcuatus, P.paru int, pcc GMx, SE, CA sfl, mx, cu 54, 210, 235, 342
Pseudobacciger harengulae Yamaguti, 1938 Clupeonella grimmi, Harengula clupeola int GMx, WP, IO sfl 86, 208, 210
Family: Fellodistomidae
Benthotrema plenum Manter, 1934 Unidentified lizard fish bcv, int GMx, SE sflben, 1064m 208
Claribulla longula Overstreet, 1969 Albula vulpes, Sphyraena barracuda int, pcc GO sfl 235
Echinobreviceca coelorhynchae Dronen, Blend, Caelorinchus caelorhincus int GO neben, 18, 98
& McEachran, 1994 448491m
Fellodistomum magnum (Manter, 1934) Unidentified eel int GO sflben, 548m 202, 208
Fellodistomum profundum (Manter, 1934) Argentina striata int GO sflben, 202, 208
Hypertrema ambovatum Manter, 1960 Synaphobranchus oregoni int, sto GMx, EA, WP ne, swben, 255
Infundibulostomum spinatum Siddiqi & Cable, Haemulon sciurus int GMx, CA sfl 235
Lissoloma brotulae Manter, 1934 Brotula barbata int GO sflben, 202, 208
Lomasoma gracilis (Manter, 1934) Peristedion miniatum int GO sflben, 202, 208
Lomasoma monolenei (Manter, 1934) Monolene antillarum int GO sflben, 202, 208
Lomasoma wardi (Manter, 1934) Caelorinchus carminatus, Urophycis regia int GO sflben, 202, 208
Megalomyzon robustum Manter, 1947 Lachnolaimus maximus sto GMx, CA sfl 208
Megenteron crassum Manter, 1934 Diplacanthopoma brachysoma int GMx, EA, NE sflben, 27, 202, 208
Megenteron manteri Harris & Dronen, 1999 Monomitopus agassizii int GO neben, 135
Mesolecitha linearis Linton, 1910 Acanthurus coeruleus int GMx, CA sfl 183, 208
Monascus filiformis (Rudolphi, 1819) Decapterus punctatus int GMx, EA wfl 224
Proctoeces lintoni Siddiqi & Cable, 1960 Lagodon rhomboides rec GMx, CA sfl 235
Proctoeces maculatus (Looss, 1901) Calamus bajonado, C.calamus, Mycteroperca venenosa int, rec GMx, CA, EA, WP, sfl 208, 235
Pycnadena lata (Linton, 1910) Calamus calamus int GO sfl 183, 208
Pycnadenoides calami Manter, 1947 Calamus bajonado gil GO sfl 20811
Steringotrema corpulentum (Linton, 1905) Archosargus rhomboidalis, Lagodon rhomboides int, pcc GMx, SE, EA sfl, wfl 151, 154, 225, 235,

(continued )
Checklist 1. Trematoda in fishes from the Gulf of Mexico. (continued )

Site Overall References/
Taxon Hosts in host geographic range GMx range Endnotes

Tergestia acuta Manter, 1947 Carangoides bartholomaei int GMx, CA sfl 208
Tergestia laticollis (Rudolphi, 1819) Auxis thazard, Euthynnus alletteratus, Thunnus albacares int GMx, CA, SA, EA, sfl, mx 208, 317
Tegestia pauca Texeira de Freitas & Kohn, 1965 Caranx sp. int GMx, SA mx 267
Tergestia pectinata (Linton, 1905) Bairdiella chrysoura, Caranx crysos, C.hippos, Oligoplites saurus, int, rec GMx, SE, NE, CA, sfl, wfl 151, 154, 208, 225,
Priacanthus arenatus, Selarcrumenophthalmus SA 235, 310
Family: Gorgocephalidae
Gorgocephalus manteri Zhukov, 1983 Kyphosus sectator int GO cu 354
Family: Gorgoderidae
Nagmia floridensis Markell, 1953 Dasyatis americana, D.sabina bcv GO wfl, ms, la 30, 34, 78, 212,
225, 316
Phyllodistomum carangis Manter, 1947 Carangoides ruber bcv, ubd GMx, EP sfl 208
Phyllodistomum lacustris (Loewen, 1929) Cichlasoma geddesi, C.urophthalmus, Gobiomorus dormitor, int, ubd GMx, IUS, EP mx 56, 283, 284
Vieja synspila
Phyllodistomum trinectes Corkum, 1961 Trinectes maculatus ubd GO la 68, 69
Xystretrum solidum Linton, 1910 Balistes capriscus, Lactophrys triqueter, Sphoeroides spengleri, kid, ubd GMx, BE, CA, SA sfl 183, 208, 235
S.testudineus, Stephanolepis hispidus
Family: Haploporidae
Culuwiya beauforti (Hunter & Thomas, 1961) Mugil cephalus int, pcc GMx, SE, SA sfl, al, ms, la 239, 259, 303
Culuwiya cichlidorum Aguirre-Macedo & Cichlasoma urophthalmus, Herichthys minckleyi, Oreochromis int GMx, CA mx 1
Scholz, 2005 aureus, O.mossambicus, O.niloticus, Parachromis managuen-
sis, Petenia splendida, Theraps coeruleus, Tomocichla tuba,
Vieja maculicauda, V.synspilum
Dicrogaster fastigata Thatcher & Sparks, 1958 Mugil cephalus int, pcc GMx, SE, SA, EP sfl, ms, la 238, 259, 303, 325
Hapladena invaginata Caballero, 1987 Paracanthurus hepatus int GMx, CA mx 54, 178
Hapladena leptotelea Manter, 1947 Pomacanthus arcuatus int GMx, WP sfl 208
Hapladena ovalis (Linton, 1910) Scarus coelestinus, Sparisoma rubripinne int GMx, CA sfl 183, 208
Hapladena varia Linton, 1910 Acanthurus coeruleus, Paracanthurus hepatus int GMx, CA sfl, cu 183, 206, 208,
Intromugil mugilicolus (Shireman, 1964) Mugil cephalus int GMx, SA sfl, ms, la 252, 294, 30313
Megasolena hysterospina (Manter, 1931) Archosargus probatocephalus, A.rhomboidalis, Lagodon rhom- int GMx, SE, SA sfl, wfl, tx 151, 154, 199, 235,
boides 310, 317
Megasolena estrix Linton, 1910 Kyphosus incisor, K.sectator int GO sfl 183, 203, 208
Saccocoeloides sogandaresi Lumsden, 1963 Poecilia latipinna, P.reticulata int GMx, CA tx 190
Vitellibaculum spinosum (Siddiqi & Cable, Chaetodipterus faber int GMx, CA, SA sfl 235
Family: Haplosplanchnidae
Haplosplanchnus adacutus Manter, 1937 Abudefduf saxatilis, Halichoeres bivittatus, H.maculipinna int GMx, CA sfl 204, 208
Haplosplanchnus brachyurus Manter, 1937 Calotomus spinidens, Nicholsina usta, Scarus coelestinus, S.gua- int GO sfl 204, 208
camaia, Sparisoma aurofrenatum, S.viride
Haplosplanchnus mugilis Nahhas & Cable, 1964 Mugil cephalus int, pcc GMx, CA sfl 303
Hymenocotta manteri Overstreet, 1969 Mugil cephalus int, pcc GMx, SE, SA, EP sfl, ms, la 235, 239, 303
Schikhobalotrema acutum (Linton, 1910) Strongylura marina, S.timucu, Tylosurus crocodilus int, rec GMx, SE, CA, EP sfl, wfl 183, 208, 225, 235
Schikhobalotrema elongatum Nahhas & Cable, Mugil cephalus int, pcc GMx, CA sfl 303
Schikhobalotrema kyphosi (Manter, 1947) Kyphosus incisor, K.sectator int, pcc GO sfl 208, 235
Schikhobalotrema magnum Skinner, 1975 Mugil cephalus int GMx, CA, SA sfl 303
Schikhobalotrema obtusum (Linton, 1910) Acanthurus coeruleus, Paracanthurus hepatus int GMx, CA sfl 183, 204, 208
Schikhobalotrema pomacentri (Manter, 1937) Stegastes leucostictus, S.rectifraenum, S.variabilis int GMx, CA, EP, WP sfl 204, 208
Schikhobalotrema sparisomae (Manter, 1937) Gymnothorax funebris, Sparisoma chrysopterum, S.rubripinne, int GMx, CA, EP, EA sfl 204, 235
Family: Hemiuridae
Adinosoma robustum (Manter, 1934) Bathygadus macrops, Chaunax pictus, Hippoglossina oblonga, sto GO sfl, neben, 18, 204, 208
Merluccius sp., Parasudis truculenta, Phycischesteri, Urophycis 473491m
Anahemiurus microcercus Manter, 1947 Calamus bajonado, C.calamus, Eucinostomus lefroyi int, sto GO sfl 208
Dinosoma rubrum Manter, 1934 Urophycis regia, unknown synodontid sto GO sfl 204, 208
Dinurus barbatus (Cohn, 1902) Coryphaena equiselis, C.hippurus, Sarda sarda sto GMx, SE, CA, EP sfl, cu 208, 345
Dinurus breviductus Looss, 1907 Coryphaena equiselis, C.hippurus sto GMx, SE, CA, SA sfl, la, cu 208, 316, 345
Dinurus longisinus Looss, 1907 Coryphaena equiselis, C.hippurus sto GMx, CA, EP, WP, sfl, wfl, la 151, 154, 208, 316
Dinurus scombri Yamaguti, 1934 Euthynnus alletteratus sto GMx, WP sfl, la 208, 316
Dinurus tornatus (Rudolphi, 1819) Coryphaena equiselis, C.hippurus sto GMx, SE, CA, IO sfl, wfl, la, cu 151, 154, 208, 308,
316, 345, 346
Dissosaccus laevis (Linton, 1898) Bathygadus macrops, Helicolenus dactylopterus, Nezumia cyrano, bcv, sto GMx, NE sfl, sw, neben, 18, 204, 208
Peristedion brevirostre, P.longispatha, P.miniatum, Scorpaena 2011170m
Ectenurus americanus (Manter, 1947) Carangoides bartholomaei, Caranx crysos, Synodus foetens gil, sto GMx, CA sfl, mx 208, 235, 299
Ectenurus virgulus Linton, 1910 Bothus ocellatus, Carangoides bartholomaei, Caranx crysos, int, sto GMx, SE, NE, CA sfl, wfl 183, 208, 210, 224,
C.hippos, Clupeonella grimmi, Harengula clupeola, Ocyurus 235
chrysurus, Sardinella aurita, Selar crumenophthalma
Ectenurus yamagutii Nahhas & Powell, 1971 Caranx crysos, C.hippos, Lagodon rhomboides sto GMx, SA wfl 224
Genolinea anura (Manter, 1934) Argentina striata sto GO sfl 204, 208
Glomericirrus macrouri (Gaevskaya, 1975) Caelorinchus caelorhincus, C.caribbaeus, Malacocephalus occi- bcv, int, GMx, NE, EA, SA neben, 534m 18
dentalis, Nezumia aequalis sto

(continued )
Checklist 1. Trematoda in fishes from the Gulf of Mexico. (continued )

Site Overall References/
Taxon Hosts in host geographic range GMx range Endnotes

Lecithochirium floridense (Manter, 1934) Ancylopsetta dilecta, Antennarius radiosus, A.striatus, Bembrops int, sto GMx, SA ms, sflben, 66, 204, 220, 283,
gobioides, Brotula barbata, Calamus bajonado, Caranx latus, 73548m, 284, 332
Centropristis ocyurus, Chaunax pictus, Cichlasoma urophthal- mx
mus, Coryphaena hippurus, Cyclopsetta fimbriata, Diplectrum
bivittatum, D.formosum, Echeneis naucrates, Epinephelus
striatus, E.morio, Equetus lanceolatus, Euthynnus allettera-
tus, Haemulon album, H. aurolineatum, H.flavolineatum,
H.plumierii, H.sciurus, Halieutichthys aculeatus, Holocentrus
adscensionis, Heteropriacanthus cruentatus, Ptereleotris cal-
liura, Lonchopisthus micrognathus, Lophius piscatorius, Lut-
janus apodus, L.griseus, L.synagris, L.vivanus, Mycteroperca
microlepis, Ocyurus chrysurus, Ogcocephalus cubifrons, Per-
istedion imberbe, Polymixia lowei, Pontinus longispinis, Pria-
canthus arenatus, Prionotus stearnsi, Prionotus sp., Pseudupe-
neus maculatus, Scorpaena agassizii, S.brasiliensis, S.plumieri,
Selar crumenophthalmus, Syacium micrurum, S.papillosum,
Synodus foetens, S.poeyi, Trichopsetta ventralis, Tylosurus
crocodilus, Urophycis cirrata
Lecithochirium mecosaccum Manter, 1947 Sciaenops ocellatus, Synodus foetens, S.poeyi sto GO sfl, wfl 208, 224, 225
Lecithochirium microstomum Chandler, 1935 Ancylopsetta dilecta, Anguilla rostrata, Centropomus undeci- sto GMx, SA, EP sfl, wfl, ms, 57, 151, 154, 208,
malis, Coryphaena equiselis, Epinephelus itajara, E.striatus, la, tx 224, 225, 235,
Lutjanus synagris, Megalops atlanticus, Mycteroperca bonaci, 254, 308, 316,
Oligoplites saurus, Pomatomus saltatrix, Synodus foetens, 317
Trichiurus lepturus
Lecithochirium parvum Manter, 1947 Archosargus rhomboidalis, Auxis thazard, Bairdiella chrysoura, sto GMx, CA sfl, wfl, la 69, 208, 224, 225,
Bathygobius soporator, Caranx crysos, Diplectrum formosum, 235, 316
Elops saurus, Epinephelus striatus, Eucinostomus gula, Euthyn-
nus alletteratus, Haemulon flavolineatum, Heteropriacan-
thus cruentatus, Lagodon rhomboides, Leiostomus xanthurus,
Lutjanus synagris, Micropogonias undulatus, Mycteroperca
bonaci, M.microlepis, Paralichthys albigutta, P.lethostigma,
Polymixia lowei, Priacanthus arenatus, Prionotus sp.,
Pseudupeneus maculatus, Scorpaena grandicornis, Synodus
foetens, Thunnus albacares
Lecithochirium synodi Manter, 1931 Opsanus beta, Paralichthys lethostigma, Synodus foetens int, sto GMx, SE sfl, wfl, la 69, 199, 208, 224,
235, 316
Lecithochirium texanum (Chandler, 1941) Euthynnus alletteratus, Sarda sarda, Selene vomer sto GMx, SA sfl, wfl, la, tx 208, 210, 225, 316,
Lecithocladium excisum (Rudolphi, 1819) Peprilus alepidotus, P.burti sto GMx, SA, EP, WP wfl 224, 225
Lethadena profunda (Manter, 1934) Bathygadus macrops, Hemanthias aureorubens, Xenodermich- sto GO sfl, neben, 18, 202, 208
thys copei 491m
Merlucciotrema praeclarum (Manter, 1934) Merluccius bilinearis, Merluccius sp. sto GMx, SE, EA sfl 25, 202, 208
Myosaccium opisthonemae (Siddiqi & Cable, Sardinellaaurita sto GMx, CA, SA sfl 235
Opisthadena dimidia Linton, 1910 Kyphosus incisor, K.sectator sto GMx, CA, SE, EP, sfl 208, 235
Paradinurus manteri Vigueras, 1958 Sphyraena barracuda sto GO cu 345
Parahemiurus anchoviae Pereira & Vaz, 1930 Anchoa lyolepis sto GMx, SA sfl 235
Parahemiurus merus (Linton, 1910) Abudefduf saxatilis, Bairdiella chrysoura, Brevoortia patronus, sto GMx, CA, SA, EP sfl, wfl, la 17, 151, 154, 183,
Caranx crysos, C.hippos, Cynoscion nebulosus, Harengula clu- 208, 224, 225,
peola, H.jaguana, Lagodon rhomboides, Ocyurus chrysurus, 235, 310, 316
Sardinellaaurita, Selarcrumenophthalmus, Synodus foetens,
Urophycis floridana
Saturnius maurepasi Overstreet, 1977 Mugil cephalus int, pcc GMx, CA, SA ms 243
Sterrhurus fusiformis (Lhe, 1901) Conger conger, Gymnothorax funebris, G.moringa, Muraena int, sto GMx, CA, EA, EP, sfl, la, cu 208, 316, 345
clepsydra WP
Sterrhurus havanensis Vigueras, 1958 Gymnothorax funebris sto GO cu 345
Sterrhurus latus Vigueras, 1958 Halichoeres bivittatus int GO cu 345
Sterrhurus loossi Vigueras, 1958 Gymnothorax funebris sto GO cu 345
Sterrhurus microcercus Manter, 1947 Fistularia tabacaria sto GO sfl 208
Sterrhurus monticelli (Linton, 1898) Pomatomus saltatrix, Prionotus scitulus int, sto GMx, SE wfl, ms 66, 225
Sterrhurus musculus Looss, 1907 Achirus lineatus, Ancylopsetta ommata, Anguilla rostrata, Aniso- int, pcc, GMx, CA, EA, WP sfl, wfl, mx, cu 208, 224, 225, 234,
tremus virginicus, Antennarius radiosus, Antennarius striatus, sto 235, 316, 319,
Bairdiella chrysoura, Bembrops gobioides, Brotula barbata, 345
Caranx hippos, Centropristis striata, Cyclopsetta fimbriata,
Diplectrum formosum, Echeneis naucrates, Epinephelus stria-
tus, Eucinostomus gula, Haemulon aurolineatum, H.parra,
Leiostomus xanthurus, Lepophidium profundorum, Lophius
piscatorius, Lutjanus apodus, L.campechanus, L.griseus, Men-
ticirrhus americanus, Micropogonias undulatus, Ogcocephalus
cubifrons, O.radiatus, Ophidion welshi, Opsanus beta, Orthop-
ristis chrysoptera, Paralichthys albigutta, Pontinus longispinis,
Porichthys porosissimus, Prionotus stearnsi, Prionotus sp.,
Scorpaena brasiliensis, S.plumieri, Sphyraena barracuda, Sya-
cium micrurum, S.papillosum, Synodus sp., S.foetens, S.inter-
medius, Urophyciscirrata, U.floridana
Sterrhurus ryptici Vigueras, 1958 Rypticus saponaceus sto GO cu 345
Sterrhurus texanus Chandler, 1941 Sarda sarda sto GO tx 59

(continued )
Checklist 1. Trematoda in fishes from the Gulf of Mexico. (continued )

Site Overall References/
Taxon Hosts in host geographic range GMx range Endnotes

Stomachicola magnus (Manter, 1931) Cynoscion arenarius, Menidia beryllina, Paralichthys lethostigma, int, sto GMx, SE sfl, wfl, ms, 66, 69, 183, 186,
Synodus foetens la, tx 199, 225, 234,
244, 245, 316,
Stomachicola rubeus (Linton, 1910) Gymnothorax funebris, G.moringa, Megalops atlantica, Synodus int, sto GMx, SE, BE, CA sfl, la, wfl 183, 208, 210,
foetens 31615
Theletrum fustiforme Linton, 1910 Pomacanthus arcuatus, P.paru sto GMx, CA sfl, cu 208, 210, 336, 345
Family: Hirudinellidae
Botulus microporus (Monticelli, 1899) Alepisaurus ferox sto GMx, EA, EP, WP, sfl 129
Hirudinella ventricosa (Pallas, 1774) Acanthocybium solandri, Coryphaena hippurus, Cynoscion are- bcv, sto GMx, SE, CA, SA, sfl, ms, la 58, 129, 208, 229,
narius, Euthynnus sp., E.alletteratus, Istiophorus americanus EA, EP, IO 244, 317, 34616
Family: Lecithasteridae
Aponurus elongates Siddiqi & Cable, 1960 Chaetodipterus faber sto GMx, CA sfl, wfl 225, 235
Aponurus intermedius Manter, 1934 Chaunax pictus, unidentifed eel, unidentified sole sto GO sfl 202, 208
Aponurus laguncula Looss, 1907 Centropristis striata, Lagocephalus laevigatus, Membras vagrans, sto GMx, SA, EA, EP, sfl, wfl, la, tx 208, 225, 317, 319
Ocyurus chrysurus, Paralichthys albigutta WP, IO
Aponurus pyriformis (Linton, 1910) Anisotremus virginicus, Calamus bajonado, C.calamus, Haemu- sto GMx, SE, CA, SA sfl, ms 183, 241
lon carbonarium, H.macrostomum, H.parra, H.plumierii,
H.sciurus, Leiostomus xanthurus, Micropogonias undulatus
Dichadena acuta (Linton, 1910) Acanthurus coeruleus, Paracanthurus hepatus int GMx, CA sfl 183, 208
Hysterolecitha elongata Manter, 1931 Mugil cephalus sto GMx, SE, SA sfl, ms 199, 241, 303
Hysterolecitha rosea Linton, 1910 Acanthurus bahianus, A.coeruleus, Paracanthurus hepatus sto GMx, SE, CA sfl, cu 183, 208, 345
Lecithaster confusus Odhner, 1905 Alosa chrysochloris, Bairdiella chrysoura, Brevoortia patronus, int GMx, IO wfl, ms, la, tx 225, 241, 300
Lagodon rhomboides, Micropogonias undulatus, Morone mis-
sissippiensis, Sciaenops ocellatus, Urophycis floridana
Lecithaster helodes Overstreet, 1973 Mugil cephalus, M.curema int, pcc GMx, SA sfl, ms 241, 303
Lecithaster leiostomi Overstreet, 1970 Leiostomus xanthurus, Menidia beryllina, Urophycis floridana int, pcc, GMx, SE ms 236, 241
Lecithophyllum pyriforme (Linton, 1910) Anisotremus virginicus, Calamus bajonado, C.calamus, Chaet- int, sto GMx, SE, NE, CA, sfl, ms, cu 66, 208, 235, 345
odon ocellatus, C.sedentarius, Haemulon album, H.carbonar- EP
ium, H.chrysargyreum, H.macrostomum, H.parra, H.plumi-
erii, H.striatum, Micropogonias undulatus, Ogcocephalus
cubifrons, O.radiatus, Orthopristis chrysoptera, Paralichthys
dentatus, Prognathodes aya, Sphyraena guachancho
Macradena perfecta Linton, 1910 Acanthurus coeruleus int GMx, CA sfl 183, 208
Macradenina acanthuri Manter, 1947 Acanthurus coeruleus int GMx, CA sfl 208
Family: Lepocreadiidae
Bianium lecanocephalum Vigueras, 1955 Aluterusscriptus int GMx, CA cu 341
Bianium plicitum (Linton, 1928) Chilomycterus schoepfii, Lagocephalus laevigatus, Sphaeroides int GMx, SE, CA, SA, sfl, wfl, ms 66, 151, 154, 208,
sp., S.spengleri, S.testudineus, Stephanolepis hispidus EP 210, 225, 235,
Bianium vitellosum (Sogandares-Bernal & Chilomycterus schoepfii, Lagocephalus laevigatus int GO sfl, wfl 151, 154, 235, 311
Hutton, 1959)
Cadenatella americana Manter, 1949 Kyphosus incisor, K.sectator int GO sfl, mx 178, 209, 210, 235
Cadenatella floridae Overstreet, 1969 Kyphosus sectator int, pcc GO sfl 235
Dermadena lactophrysi Manter, 1946 Acanthostracion quadricornis, Lactophrys triqueter int GMx, SE, BE, CA sfl, wfl 207, 208, 210, 225,
Enenterum aureum Linton, 1910 Kyphosus incisor, K.sectator int, rec GMx, SE, EP sfl 208, 235
Lepidapedoides nicolli (Manter, 1934) Epinephelus niveatus int GMx, CA, EA, EP sflben, 164m 202, 208
Lepidapedon caribbaei Blend, Dronen, & Caelorinchus caribbaeus int GO ne, nwben, 19
Armstrong, 2000 329393m
Lepidapedon desotoensis Blend, Dronen, & Coryphaenoides sp., C.zaniophorus int, pcc GO neben, 19
Armstrong, 2000 585732m
Lepidapedon elongatum (Lebour, 1908) Caelorinchus carminatus, Epigonus occidentalis, Laemonema int GMx, NE, EP sflben, 202, 208
barbatulum, Phycis chesteri 256671m
Lepidapedon lebouri Manter, 1934 Unidentified macrourid int GO sflben, 208
Lepidapedon levenseni (Linton, 1907) Epinephelus morio int, pcc GMx, SE, CA, SA, sfl, mx 208, 220, 332
Lepidapedon longivesicula Blend, Dronen, & Caelorinchus caribbaeus int GO nw, neben, 19
Armstrong, 2000 329393m
Lepidapedon mexicanensis Blend, Dronen, & Caelorinchus caelorhincus, Coryphaenoides carminifer, C.zanio- int GO neben, 19
Armstrong, 2000 phorus 436655m
Lepidapedon nezumiatis Blend, Dronen, & Nezumia aequalis, N.cyrano int GO neben, 19
Armstrong, 2000 6551170m
Lepidapedon rachion (Cobbold, 1858) Caelorinchus carminatus int GMx, NE sflben, 208
Lepidapedon zaniophori Blend, Dronen, & Coryphaenoides zaniophorus int GO neben, 19
Armstrong, 2000 586710m
Lepocreadium archosargi Pearse, 1949 Archosargus probatocephalus int GMx, SE ms 66
Lepocreadium brevoortiae Nahas & Short, 1965 Brevoortia patronus int GO wfl 225
Lepocreadium bimarinum Manter, 1940 Lachnolaimus maximus int GMx, CA, SA, EP sfl 208
Lepocreadium floridanus Sogandares-Bernal & Lagodon rhomboides int, pcc GMx, EA sfl, wfl, tx 154, 225, 235, 310,
Hutton, 1959 311, 319
Lepocreadium opsanusi Sogandares & Hutton, Opsanus beta int GMx, CA wfl 151, 154
Lepocreadium pyriforme (Linton, 1900) Peprilus alepidotus, P.triacanthus, Sardinellaaurita int, pcc GMx, NE, CA sfl, ms 66, 235

(continued )
Checklist 1. Trematoda in fishes from the Gulf of Mexico. (continued )

Site Overall References/
Taxon Hosts in host geographic range GMx range Endnotes

Lepocreadium sogandaresi Nahhas & Powell, Stegastes leucostictus int GO wfl 224
Lepocreadium trulla (Linton, 1907) Cynoscion acoupa, Lutjanus campechanus, Ocyurus chrysurus int GMx, SE, BE, CA sfl, wfl, la 206, 208, 224, 235,
Multitestis chaetodoni Manter, 1947 Chaetodon capistratus, C.ocellatus int, pcc GMx, SE, BE, CA sfl 26, 208, 210
Multitestis inconstans (Linton, 1905) Chaetodipterus faber int, pcc GMx, SE, CA, SA sfl, wfl 26, 225, 235
Multitestis rotundus Sparks, 1954 Archosargus probatocephalus int, pcc GMx, CA, SA wfl, la, tx 151, 154, 311, 315,
316, 317
Myzoxenus lachnolaimi Manter, 1947 Caelorinchus carminatus, Lachnolaimus maximus int GMx, CA, SA sfl 208, 210
Myzoxenus vittellosus Manter, 1934 Calamus calamus, Decodon puellaris int GO sflben, 208
Neoapocreadium coili (Sogandares-Bernal, 1959) Balistes capriscus int GMx, SE, CA sfl, wfl 224, 235
Neolepidapedoides macrum (Overstreet, 1969) Mycteroperca microlepis int GO sfl 29, 235
Opechona gracilis (Linton, 1910) Clupeonella grimmi, Peprilus alepidotus int GMx, SE sfl 183, 208, 225
Opechona menidiae Manter, 1947 Menidia beryllina, Membras vagrans int GMx, SE tx 317
Postporus epinepheli (Manter, 1947) Epinephelus morio, Mycteroperca bonaci int GMx, CA sfl, mx 208, 209, 210, 220,
235, 332
Postporus mycteropercae Manter, 1947 Mycteroperca venenosa int GMx, BE sfl 208
Pseudocreadium anandrum Manter, 1947 Calamus calamus int, pcc GMx, CA sfl 208
Pseudocreadium lamelliforme (Linton, 1907) Balistes capriscus int GMx, BE, CA sfl 207, 235
Pseudocreadium scaphosomum Manter, 1940 Stephanolepis hispidus int GMx, EP sfl 235
Rhagorchis odhneri Manter, 1931 Aluterus schoepfii, Monacanthus ciliatus int GMx, SE, NE, CA sfl 199, 208
Family: Megaperidae
Megapera gyrina (Linton, 1907) Acanthostracion quadricornis, Lactophrys trigonus GMx, BE, CA sfl 183, 201, 208
Megapera orbicularis (Manter, 1933) Acanthostracion quadricornis int GO sfl 201, 208
Megapera ovalis (Manter, 1933) Stephanolepis hispidus int GO sfl 201, 208
Megapera pseudura (Manter, 1933) Acanthostracion quadricornis int GO sfl 201, 208
Thysanopharynx elongatus Manter, 1933 Acanthostracion quadricornis int GMx, SE, CA sfl 201, 235
Family: Microphallidae
Levinseniella capitanea Overstreet & Perry, Opsanus beta int GO al, ms 256, present study
Megalophallus diodontis Siddiqi & Cable, 1960 Sphoeroides testudineus int GMx, CA sfl 253, present study
Family: Microscaphidiidae
Hexangitrema pomacanthi Price, 1937 Pomacanthus arcuatus int, rec GMx, CA sfl 235
Family: Monorchiidae
Chrisomom albulae (Overstreet, 1969) Albula vulpes int, pcc GO sfl 89, 235
Diplomonorchis floridensis Nahhas & Powell, Symphurus plagiusa int GMx, SE, SA wfl 223, 224
Diplomonorchis leiostomi Hopkins, 1941 Archosargus rhomboidalis, Bairdiella chrysoura, Chasmodes int, pcc GMx, SE, SA sfl, wfl, ms, 69, 78, 146, 151,
saburrae, Gobiosoma robustum, Lagodon rhomboides, Leios- la, tx 154, 158, 223,
tomus xanthurus, Micropogonias undulatus, Orthopristis 224, 235, 300,
chrysoptera, Pogonias cromis, Stephanolepis hispidus, Sciaen- 310, 31617
ops ocellatus, Trinectes maculatus
Diplomonorchis sphaerovarium Nahhas & Ophichthus gomesi int GMx, CA, SA sfl 235
Cable, 1964
Genolopa ampullacea Linton, 1910 Anisotremus virginicus, Haemulon album, H.aurolineatum, int, pcc, GMx, SE, CA, SA sfl 183, 206, 208, 210,
H.carbonarium, H.chrysargyreum, H.flavolineatum, H.mac- sto 235
rostomum, H.parra, H.plumierii, H.sciurus, H.striatum,
Synodus foetens
Hurleytrematoides chaetodoni (Manter, 1942) Chaetodon capistratus, C.ocellatus int GMx, CA sfl 206, 208
Hurleytrema catarinensis Amato, 1982 Trachinotus carolinus int, pcc, GMx, SA mx 285
Hurleytrema pyriforme Overstreet, 1969 Trachinotus carolinus, T.falcatus int, pcc, GO sfl, mx 235, 285
Hurleytrema shorti (Nahhas & Powell, 1965) Selene vomer int, pcc, GMx, SA sfl, wfl 223, 224, 235
Lasiotocus beauforti (Hopkins, 1941) Lagodon rhomboides, Orthopristis chrysoptera int GMx, SE, SA wfl 146, 223
Lasiotocus glebulentus Overstreet, 1971 Mugil cephalus int GMx, SA sfl, al, ms 239, 303
Lasiotocus haemuli Overstreet, 1969 Haemulon plumierii, H.sciurus int, pcc GO sfl 235
Lasiotocus lintoni (Manter, 1931) Lagodon rhomboides, Orthopristis chrysoptera int GMx, SE wfl 199, 223, 224
Lasiotocus longicaecum (Manter, 1940) Anisotremus interruptus, A.virginicus int, rec GMx, SE, EP sfl 206, 208, 235
Lasiotocus longovatus (Hopkins, 1941) Anisotremus virginicus, Haemulon aurolineatum, H.parra, int, pcc GMx, SE, CA, SA sfl 146, 235
H.sciurus, Orthopristis chrysoptera
Lasiotocus minutum (Manter, 1931) Fundulus similis int GMx, SE wfl 151, 154, 199, 311
Lasiotocus mugilis Overstreet, 1969 Mugil cephalus int GMx, SE sfl 235, 303
Lasiotocus truncatus (Linton, 1910) Haemulon flavolineatum, H.plumierii, H.sciurus int, pcc GMx, CA sfl 235
Monorchis latus Manter, 1942 Anisotremus virginicus, Haemulon plumierii int GMx, EP sfl 206, 208
Paraproctotrema brevicaecum Manter, 1942 Carangoides bartholomaei int GMx, CA sfl 206, 208
Postmonorchis orthopristis Hopkins, 1941 Anisotremus virginicus, Haemulon aurolineatum, H.flavolinea- int, sto GMx, SE, CA, SA sfl 206, 208, 235
tum, H.parra, H.plumierii, H.sciurus
Proctotrema parvum Manter, 1942 Haemulon flavolineatum int GO sfl 206, 208
Proctotrema truncatum (Linton, 1910) Haemulon album, H.flavolineatum, H.plumierii, H.sciurus int, pcc GO sfl 206, 208
Pseudohurleytrema eucinostomi (Manter, 1942) Eucinostomus gula, E.lefroyi int, rec GMx, CA sfl 206, 208, 235
Zhukovtrema cabelleroi (Zhukov, 1983) Syacium sp. int GO mx 354
Family: Opecoelidae
Apertile holocentri (Manter, 1947) Sargocentron coruscum int GMx, SE sfl 208, 235
Bathycreadium nanaflexicollis Dronen, Rubec, Urophycis cirrata int GO nwben 101
& Underwood, 1977

(continued )
Checklist 1. Trematoda in fishes from the Gulf of Mexico. (continued )

Site Overall References/
Taxon Hosts in host geographic range GMx range Endnotes

Buticulotrema stenauchenus Blend, Dronen, & Hymenocephalus italicus, Malacocephalus occidentalis, Nezumia int, pcc GO neben, 18, 21
McEachran, 1993 aequalis 364585m
Cainocreadium consuetum (Linton, 1910) Haemulon plumierii int GO sfl 183, 208
Cainocreadium gulella (Linton, 1910) Lutjanus analis, L.griseus int GMx, WP sfl 208, 28918
Cainocreadium lintoni (Siddiqi & Cable, 1960) Epinephelus striatus int, sto GMx, CA mx 299
Cainocreadium oscitans (Linton, 1910) Anisotremus virginicus, Archosargus rhomboidalis, Haemulon int, pcc GMx, CA, SA, EP sfl 73, 183, 208, 23519
carbonarium, H.chrysargyreum, H.plumierii, H.sciurus
Eurycreadium vitellosum Manter, 1934 Laemonema barbatulum int GO sflben, 455+m 202, 208
Genitocotyle atlantica Manter, 1947 Carapus bermudensis, Carapus sp., Haemulon flavolineatum, int GMx, CA sfl 208, 21020
Malacoctenus macropus, Opisthognathus sp., Syngnathus sp.
Genitocotyle cablei Nahhas & Short, 1965 Ancylopsetta ommata, Hippocampus erectus int GO sfl, wfl 225, 235
Hamacreadium confusum Overstreet, 1969 Lutjanus griseus, Ocyurus chrysurus pcc GMx, CA sfl 235, 289
Hamacreadium mutabile Linton, 1910 Anisotremus virginicus, Lutjanus analis, L.apodus, L.campechanus, int, pcc, GMx, SE, EP, WP, sfl, mx 53, 183, 208, 235,
L.griseus, L.jocu, L.synagris, Ocyurus chrysurus sto IO 282, 299
Helicometra equilata Manter, 1933 Holocentrus adscensionis int GMx, CA, SE sfl 200, 208
Helicometra fasciata (Rudolphi, 1819) Bellator militaris, Prionotus alatus, P.carolinus int GMx, SE, EA, EP, sflben, 200, 208
WP 91110m
Helicometra robinsorum Overstreet & Martin, Ilyophis brunneus, Synaphobranchus oregoni int, sto GO ne, se, swben, 255
1974 8051134m
Helicometra torta Linton, 1910 Epinephelus adscensionis, E.morio, E.striatus int, pcc GMx, SE, CA, EP sfl, mx 200, 208, 220, 235,
Helicometrina execta (Linton, 1910) Anisotremus virginicus, Bathygobius soporator, Doratonotus int, pcc, GMx, SE, CA sfl 183, 200, 208, 235,
megalepis, Haemulon plumierii, H.sciurus, Halichoeres bivit- rec 289
tatus, H.pictus, H.poeyi, H.radiatus, Labrisomus bucciferus,
L.haitensis, L.kalisherae, Lachnolaimus maximus, Lutjanus
griseus, Mycteroperca bonaci, M.venenosa, Pareques umbro-
sus, Scartella cristata, Thalassoma bifasciatum, Trachinotus
Helicometrina mirzai Siddiqi & Cable, 1960 Labrisomus nuchipinnis, Ogcocephalus cubifrons, Opsanus beta int, rec GMx, CA, EP sfl 235
Helicometrina nimia Linton, 1910 Apogon maculatus, A.pseudomaculatus, Balistes vetula, Cala- int, pcc , GMx, SE, CA, SA, sflben, 110m, 183, 200, 208, 235,
mus calamus, Cichlasoma urophthalmus, Epinephelus morio, rec EP mx 283, 284, 289,
Lutjanus apodus, L.griseus, L.mahogoni, L.synagris, Ocyurus 332
chrysurus, Opisthognathus maxillosus, Opsanus beta, Scor-
paena agassizii, S.brasiliensis, S.grandicornis, S.plumieri, Ste-
gastes leucostictus, Syacium papillosum
Helicometrina parva Manter, 1933 Halichoeres bivittatus int GO sfl 200, 208
Macrourimegatrema gadoma Blend, Dronen, & Gadomus arcuatus int, pcc GMx, CA neben, 20
Armstrong, 2007 6371115m
Manteriella crassa (Manter, 1947) Equetus lanceolatus, Haemulon carbonarium, Odontoscion den- bdt, int, GMx, CA sfl 208, 23521
tex, Pareques umbrosus sto
Neonotoporus yamagutii Manter, 1947 Selar crumenophthalmus int GO sfl 208
Nicolla halichoeri Overstreet, 1969 Halichoeres bivittatus, H.radiatus int GO sfl 235
Opecoelina helicoleni Manter, 1934 Helicolenus dactylopterus, Scorpaena maderensis int GO sflben, 202, 208
Opecoelina scorpaenae Manter, 1934 Trachyscorpia cristulata int GO sflben, 457m 208
Opecoeloides brachyteleus Manter, 1947 Upeneus martinicus int GMx, CA sfl 208
Opecoeloides elongatus Manter, 1947 Pseudupeneus maculatus int GMx, CA sfl 208
Opecoeloides fimbriatus (Linton, 1934) Bairdiella chrysoura, Menticirrhus americanus, M.littoralis, int, pcc, GMx, SE, NE, SA wfl, ms, la, tx 151, 154, 224, 225,
M.saxatilis, Micropogonias undulatus, Sciaenops ocellatus sto 241, 308, 311,
316, 317
Opecoeloides polynemi von Wicklen, 1946 Polydactylus octonemus int, sto GMx, SA tx 210, 317
Opecoeloides vitellosus (Linton, 1900) Micropogonias undulatus, Sciaenops ocellatus rec GMx, SE wfl, ms 246
Opecoelus atlanticus Zhukov, 1983 Pempheris klunzingeri int GO cu 354
Opegaster pritchardae Overstreet, 1969 Bathygobius soporator rec GMx, CA, SA sfl 23522
Opegaster synodi Manter, 1947 Synodus foetens int GO sfl 208
Podocotyle pearsei Manter, 1934 Malacocephalus occidentalis, Phycischesteri int GO sflben, 18, 202, 208
Pseudopecoeloides carangis (Yamaguti, 1938) Carangoides bartholomaei, C.ruber int GMx, CA, SA, EP, sfl 208
Pseudopecoeloides equesi Manter, 1947 Equetus lanceolatus, Pareques umbrosus int GMx, CA sfl 208, 210, 235
Pseudopecoeloides gracilis Manter, 1947 Selar crumenophthalmus int GMx, SE, CA sfl 208
Pseudopecoelus manteri Sogandares & Hutton, Bairdiella chrysoura pcc GO wfl 151, 154, 308
Pseudopecoelus priacanthi (MacCallum, 1921) Heteropriacanthus cruentatus, Priacanthus arenatus int GMx, EP, SA sfl 208
Pseudopecoelus scorpaenae (Manter, 1947) Scorpaena brasiliensis, S.grandicornis, S.plumieri int, rec GMx, SE sfl 208, 235
Pseudopecoelus tortugae von Wicklen, 1946 Caelorinchus carminatus int GMx, CA, EA sfl 208
Pseudopecoelus vulgaris (Manter, 1934) Ancylopsetta dilecta, Bellator militaris, Bembrops gobioides, int, sto GMx, WP se, swben, 202, 208, 255
Benthodesmus simonyi, Brotula barbata, Helicolenus dacty- 686699m,
lopterus, Laemonema barbatulum, Peristedion brevirostre, sflben,
P.miniatum, P.imberbe, Pontinus longispinis, Prionotus alatus, 91591m
P.stearnsi, Pronotogrammus sp., Synaphobranchus affinis, Tra-
chyscorpia cristulata
Tellervotrema armstrongi Gibson & Bray, 1982 Nezumia aequalis, N.cyrano bcv, int, GMx, EA neben, 18
liv, pcc 5341170m
Family: Opistholebetidae
Opistholebes adcotylophorus Manter, 1947 Diodon holocanthus int GO sfl 208
Pachycreadium crassigulum (Linton, 1910) Calamus bajonado, C.calamus, Decodon puellaris, Diplodus hol- int GMx, CA sfl 183, 208, 235

(continued )
Checklist 1. Trematoda in fishes from the Gulf of Mexico. (continued )

Site Overall References/
Taxon Hosts in host geographic range GMx range Endnotes

Family: Pronocephalidae
Barisomum erubescens Linton, 1910 Epinephelus morio, Holacanthus ciliaris, H.isabelita, Pomacan- int GMx, CA sfl, mx, cu 178, 183, 208, 210,
thus arcuatus, Scarus iseri 235, 332, 340
Pleurogonius candidulus (Linton, 1910) Holacanthus ciliaris, Pomacanthus arcuatus int GMx, CA sfl, cu 208, 210, 340
Family: Prosogonotrematidae
Prosogonotrema bilabiatum Vigueras, 1940 Ocyurus chrysurus sto GMx, CA cu 210, 335
Family: Sclerodistomidae
Sclerodistomum sphoeroidis Manter, 1947 Chilomycterus schoepfii, Sphoeroides spengleri, S.testudineus bcv, sto GMx, CA sfl, wfl 151, 154, 208, 225,
235, 310
Family: Zoogonidae
Brachyenteron parexocoeti Manter 1947 Parexocoetus hillianus int GO sfl 208
Brachyenteron peristedioni Manter, 1934 Peristedion brevirostre int GO sflben, 202, 208
Deretrema fusillus Linton, 1910 Abudefduf saxatilis, Decodon puellaris, Haemulon macrostomum, int GMx, SE, NE, CA sfl 183, 208
Ocyurus chrysurus, Priacanthus arenatus, Upeneus parvus
Diphtherostomum albulae Overstreet, 1969 Albula vulpes int, pcc GO sfl 235
Diphtherostomum americanum Manter, 1947 Archosargus rhomboidalis, Chasmodes saburrae, Gobiosoma int, rec GMx, SA sfl, wfl 151, 154, 208, 235,
robustum, Haemulon chrysargyreum, Lagodon rhomboides, 311
Opsanus beta, Stegastes leucostictus
Diphtherostomum anisotremi Nahhas & Cable, Acanthostracion quadricornis, Anisotremus virginicus, Haemulon int, rec GMx, CA sfl, wfl 224, 235
1964 plumierii, H.sciurus
Diphtherostomum brusinae (Stossich, 1889) Cichlasoma urophthalmus, Haemulon parra int GMx, SA, EP, WP, sfl, mx 208, 283, 284
Diplangus parvus Manter, 1947 Anisotremus virginicus, Haemulon carbonarium, H.flavolinea- int, pcc GMx, CA sfl 208, 235
tum, H.parra, H.plumierii, H.sciurus
Diplangus paxillus Linton, 1910 Anisotremus virginicus, Archosargus probatocephalus, Balistes int, rec GMx, CA sfl, tx 183, 208, 235,
vetula, Calamus calamus, Haemulon carbonarium, H.chrys- 31723
argyreum, H.flavolineatum, H.macrostomum, H.parra,
H.plumierii, H.sciurus
Glaucivermis spinosus Overstreet, 1971 Menticirrhus americanus int, pcc GO ms 240
Steganoderma hemiramphi Manter, 1947 Hemiramphus brasiliensis int GMx, CA sfl 208
Steganoderma nitens (Linton, 1898) Strongylura timucu, Tylosurus crocodilus int GMx, CA sfl 208, 235
Steganoderma parexocoeti Manter, 1947 Parexocoetus hillianus int GO sfl 208
Reported as the junior synonym Texanocotyle pogoniae by Simpson and McGraw (1979).
Reported as the junior synonym Laterocotyle padreinsulae by Simpson and McGraw (1979).
We consider the report of Lobatostoma kemostoma by Bunkley-Williams, Dyer, and Williams (1996) to be L.ringens, which we also have commonly observed in the north-central GMx.
Potentially also in SFL (immature specimens) (Hendrix and Overstreet 1977).
May be conspecific with GMx material reported as Stephanostomum ditrematis.
Stephanostomum mediovitellarium reported by Vigueras (1955d) is considered a junior synonym of S.sentum by Sogandares-Bernal (1959).
Cribb and Bray (1999) suggested that this taxon belonged in Homalometron.
Considered a junior synonym of Bathycotyle branchialis by Gibson (2002).
Bartoli and Bray (2005) considered the species in Rhipidocotyle with Bucephaloides arcuatus of Manter (1940) as a junior synonym. Rhipidocotyle longicirrus reported as Bucephaloides longicirrus and Bucephalus longicirrus.
We consider all GMx references to Pseudoacanthostomum panamenense to refer to P.floridensis.
Perhaps an abnormal site for infection.
Nahhas and Carlson (1994) suggested that Hapladena megatyphion Vigueras, 1956 from GMx was a junior synonym.
Originally reported as Carassotrema mugilicolum.
Sparks (1958) suggested that this taxon also probably presents from Lepisosteus osseus.
New record for adults collected from Megalops atlantica from West and South Florida by R.Overstreet.
Ward (1954) reported the species as the pre-Linnaean name Hirudinella marina Garcin, 1730.
Nahhas and Powell (1965) stated that Stephanolepis hispidus (as Monacanthus hispidus) may be an accidental host.
Durio and Manter (1968) transfered Hamacreadium gulella to Cainocreadium.
Most recently, Cribb (2005a) considered Hamacreadium oscitans as a member of Cainocreadium; previously, Pritchard (1966) had considered the species the type species of Apopodocotyle, which Cribb (2005a) considered a
synonym of Cainocreadium.
Syngnathus sp. is the host species reported by Manter (1947) (Syngnathus robertsi).
Manter (1947) suggested that Haemulon carbonarium may not be a natural host.
AkenOva (2007) considered Opegaster pritchardae a junior synonym of Opecoelus pritchardae; however, we follow Cribb (2005a) and tentatively accept both genera.
Manter (1947) suggested that the host record in Calamus calamus may be an error.

462 ~ Trematoda (Platyhelminthes)

Checklist 2. Trematoda in reptiles from the Gulf of Mexico.

Site in Overall GMx References/

Taxon Hosts host geographic range range Endnotes

Phylum: Platyhelminthes
Class: Trematoda
Subclass: Aspidogastrea
Family: Aspidogastridae
Lophotaspis vallei (Stossich, 1899) Caretta caretta sto GMx, SA, EA wfl 349
Subclass: Digenea
Family: Brachycoeliidae
Cymatocarpus solearis (Braun, 1899) Caretta caretta int GMx, EA, EP, WP, sfl, wfl 16, 183, 188,
IO 210, 269 1
Family: Cladorchiidae
Schizamphistomoides spinulosus Chelonia mydas lin GMx, EA, EP, IO fl 13, 228 2
(Looss, 1901)
Schizamphistomum scleroporum Chelonia mydas lin GMx, CA, EA, WP cu 13, 131
(Creplin, 1844)
Family: Cryptogonimidae
Acanthostomum americanum Crocodylus acutus, int GMx, CA mx, cu 219
(Vigueras, 1956) C.moreletii, C.rhombifer
Caimanicola pavidus (Brooks & Alligator mississippiensis int GMx, IUS ms, la 31, 33, 37 3
Overstreet, 1977)
Timoniella loossi (Vigueras, 1956) Alligator mississippiensis, int GMx, CA la, mx, cu 31, 33, 37,
Crocodylus acutus, 219 4
C.moreletii, C.rhombifer
Protocaecum coronarium (Cobbold, Alligator mississippiensis sin GMx, IUS ms, la 31, 33, 37 5
Family: Gorgoderidae
Plesiochorus cymbiformis (Rudolphi, Caretta caretta clo, liv, rec, GMx, CA, SA, EA, sfl 16, 183, 210,
1819) sin, urt EP, WP, IO 269 6
Family: Microscaphidiidae
Angiodictyum parallelum (Looss, Chelonia mydas lin GMx, CA, EA fl 14, 228
Deuterobaris proteus (Brandes, 1891) Chelonia mydas lin GMx, CA, EA fl 108, 228
Microscaphidium reticulare (van Chelonia mydas int, lin GMx, CA, EA, WP cu 14, 131
Beneden, 1859)
Octangium sagitta (Looss, 1899) Chelonia mydas lin, sin GMx, CA, EA, fl 15, 108, 228
Polyangium linguatula (Looss, 1899) Chelonia mydas lin GMx, CA, SA, EA, sfl, fl, cu 14, 108, 131,
WP, IO 210, 228
Family: Pachypsolidae
Pachypsolus irroratus (Rudolphi, Caretta caretta int, sto GMx, BE, CA, EA, sfl, wfl 16, 183, 210,
1819) EP, WP, IO 269 7
Family: Plagiorchiidae
Enodiotrema megachondrus (Looss, Chelonia mydas int GMx, EA fl, cu 131, 228
Styphlotrema solitarius (Looss, 1899) Caretta caretta int GMx, EA sfl 188, 210
Family: Pronocephalidae
Adenogaster serialis Looss, 1901 Eretmochelys imbricata int GMx, EP cu 340
Cricocephalus albus (Kuhl & van Caretta caretta, Chelonia sto GMx, CA, EA, sfl, fl 183, 210,
Hasselt, 1822) mydas WP, IO 215, 228
Cricocephalus americanus Vigueras, Eretmochelys imbricata sto GO cu 340
Cricocephalus megastomus Looss, Chelonia mydas sto GMx, CA, EA fl 228
Desmogonius desmogonius Stephens, Chelonia mydas GMx, CA sfl 210
Overstreet, Cook, and Heard ~ 463

Checklist 2. Trematoda in reptiles from the Gulf of Mexico. (continued )

Site in Overall GMx References/

Taxon Hosts host geographic range range Endnotes

Diaschistorchis pandus (Braun, 1901) Caretta caretta, Chelonia sto GMx, CA, IO cu, sfl 14, 210,
mydas, Eretmochelys 340 8
Glyphicephalus lobatus Looss, 1901 Chelonia mydas int GMx, EA fl 228
Glyphicephalus solidus Looss, 1901 Chelonia mydas, Eretmochelys int GMx, EA cu 340
Pleurogonius longibursatus Vigueras, Eretmochelys imbricata int GO cu 340
Pleurogonius trigonocephalus Caretta caretta, Chelonia int GMx, EA, WP sfl, cu 188, 210,
(Rudolphi, 1809) mydas, Eretmochelys 340
Pyelosomum cochlear Looss, 1899 Chelonia mydas clo, ubd GMx, EA, EP fl 108, 228
Pyelosomum longicaecum Luhman, Caretta caretta GO sfl 188, 210
Pyelosomum renicapite (Leidy, 1856) Dermochelys coriacea GMx, NE, EA tx 210
Family: Proterodiplostomidae
Pseudoneodiplostomum groschafti Crocodylus rhombifer sin GMx, EP mx, cu 219
Moravec, 2001
Family: Rhytidodidae
Rhytidodes gelatinosus (Rudolphi, Caretta caretta, Eretmochelys int GMx, CA, EA, EP, sfl, cu 16, 188, 210,
1819) imbricata WP, IO 269, 340 9
Rhytidodoides intestinalis Price, 1939 Chelonia mydas gbd, int GMx, EP fl 228
Rhytidodoides similis Price, 1939 Chelonia mydas gbd GMx, WP fl 228
Family: Spirorchiidae
Carettacola bipora Manter & Larson, Caretta caretta blv, hrt GO sfl 188, 210
Hapalotrema synorchis Luhman, Caretta caretta hrt GO sfl 188, 210
Learedius learedi Price, 1934 Chelonia mydas blv, hrt GMx, BE, CA, EP fl 108, 228
Learedius similis Price, 1934 Chelonia mydas blv, hrt GMx, BE, CA fl 228
Neospirorchis pricei Manter & Caretta caretta hrt GO sfl 210, 211
Larson, 1950
Family: Telorchiidae
Orchidasma amphiorchis (Braun, Caretta caretta int, sto GMx, SE, CA, SA, sfl, wfl, 51, 183, 188,
1899) EA, EP, WP, IO mx 199, 210,
Also reported as the junior synonym Cymatocarpus undulatus.
The collection locality of material reported by Nigrelli (1941) is Florida, according to Dyer, Williams, and Bunkley-Williams (1991, 1995), Dyer etal. (1995)
and Dyer (1995). This comment applies to the following trematodes: Angiodictyum parallelum, Octangium sagitta, Polyangium linguatula, Schizamphisto-
moides spinulosus, Enodiotrema megachondrus, Cricocephalus albus, Cricocephalus megastomus, Glyphicephalus lobatus, Pyelosomum cochlear.
Reported by some as Acanthostomum pavidum. IUS report from Alachua County, Florida.
Acanthochasmus loossi was considered Acanthostomum loossi by Brooks and Overstreet (1977), Timoniella loossi by Brooks (1980) and in the checklist, Timo-
nella (Maillardiella) loossi by Brooks and Holcman (1993), and Pelaezia loossi by Moravec (2001).
Also reported as the junior synonym Acanthostomum coronarium. IUS report from Alachua County, Florida.
Also reported as the junior synonym Phyllodistomum cymbiforme.
Also reported as the junior synonyms Pachypsolus ovalis and Pachypsolus tertius.
Also reported as the synonym Wilderina elliptica Pratt, 1914 by Mehra (1932).
Also reported as the junior synonyms Rhytidoes gelatinosum and R.secundus.
Checklist 3. Digenea in birds from the Gulf of Mexico.

Site Overall References/
Taxon Hosts in host geographic range GMx range Endnotes

Phylum: Platyhelminthes
Class: Trematoda
Subclass: Digenea
Family: Cyathocotylidae
Mesostephanus appendiculatoides (Price, 1934) Ardea alba, A.herodias, Gavia immer, Haliaeetus leucocephalus, bfb, cec, clo, GMx, SE, CA sfl, wfl, ms, la 5, 72, 126, 151,
Nycticorax nycticorax, Pandion haliaetus, Pelecanus erythro- lin, sin 152, 154, 167,
rhynchos, P.occidentalis, Phalacrocorax auritus 210, 251, 273,
Mesostephanus cubaensis Alegrat, 1941 Phalacrocorax auritus int GO cu 342
Mesostephanus fajardensis (Price, 1934) Sterna maxima int GO tx 97
Mesostephanus microbursa Caballero, Grocott, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, P.occidentalis cec, clo, lin, GMx, SE, EP wfl, la, tx 72, 95, 126, 170
& Zerecero, 1953 sin
Mesostephanus yedeae Dennis & Penner, 1971 Pelecanus occidentalis sin GO wfl 84
Neogogatea pandionis Chandler & Rausch, 1948 Pandion haliaetus sin GMx, IUS wfl 126, 163
Family: Cyclocoelidae
Cyclocoelum obscurum (Leidy, 1887) Aythya collaris, Calidris canutus, Catoptrophorus semipalmatus, asc, bcv, int GMx, EP, WP wfl, tx 10, 91, 103, 126,
Limnodromus griseus, Numenius americanus, Rallus elegans 187, 196
Neoallopyge americanensis Dronen & Blend, Himantopus mexicanus asc, lng GO tx 94
Family: Dicrocoeliidae
Lyperosomum oswaldoi (Travassos, 1920) Numenius americanus bdt, liv GMx, SA tx 91
Lyperosomum sinuosum Travassos, 1917 Eudocimus albus, Numenius americanus, Rallus longirostris pan GMx, SE, CA, SA sfl, wfl, al, la, tx 46, 91, 136, 139,
Family: Diplostomidae
Bursacetabulus morus Tehrany, Dronen, & Morus bassanus sin GO tx 324
Wardle, 1999
Bursatintinnabulus bassanus Tehrany, Dronen, Morus bassanus, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos sin GO wfl, tx 95, 324
& Wardle, 1999
Family: Echinostomatidae
Acanthoparyphium spinulosum Johnston, 1917 Haematopus palliatus GMx, EP, WP tx 102
Drepanocephalus spathans (Dietz, 1909) Phalacrocorax auritus sin GMx, SE, CA, SA wfl 326
Echinochasmus dietzevi Issaitschikoff, 1927 Ajaia ajaja, Anhinga anhinga, Ardea alba, A.herodias, Egretta sin, sto GMx, SE sfl, wfl, ms, la 126, 170, 251, 291,
thula, Mycteria americana, Pandion haliaetus, Pelecanus 293
erythrorhynchos, P.occidentalis
Echinochasmus donaldsoni Beaver, 1941 Egretta caerulea, Mycteria americana, Pelecanus occidentalis clo, lin, sin GMx, IUS sfl, tx 95, 99,174, 216,
Echinochasmus schwartzi Price, 1931 Rallus elegans, R.longirostris cec, lin, sin GMx, SE, NE wfl, al, ms, la, tx 10, 136, 139, 331
Echinochasmus skrjabini Oschmarin, 1947 Gavia immer sin GMx, SE wfl 126, 167
Euparyphium anhingae Premvati, 1968 Anhinga anhinga int GO wfl 270
Euparyphium capitaneum Dietz, 1909 Anhinga anhinga dud, sin GMx, SE, SA wfl 126
Himasthla alincia Dietz, 1909 Calidris canutus, Gavia immer, Tringa flavipes sin GMx, SE, NE, SA wfl, la 126, 176, 189
Himasthla catoptrophori Dronen, Badley, & Catoptrophorus semipalmatus sin GO tx 93, 103
Wardle, 1998
Himasthla quissetensis Miller & Northup, 1926 Catoptrophorus semipalmatus sin GMx, SE, NE wfl 45
Himasthla rhigedana Dietz, 1909 Numenius americanus int GMx, EA, IO tx 91
Ignavia venusta Freitas, 1948 Ardea alba, A.herodias, Mycteria americana, Nyctanassa viola- kid, urt GMx, CA, SA sfl, wfl, la 126, 194, 293
Microparyphium facetum Dietz, 1909 Ajaia ajaja, Ardea alba, A.herodias, Buteo lineatus, Caracara clo, lin, sin GMx, SE, SA sfl, wfl 46, 72, 119, 126,
cheriway, Egretta thula, Eudocimus albus, Gavia immer, Hali- 163, 167, 170,
aeetus leucocephalus, Mycteria americana, Pandion haliaee- 291, 293
tus, Pelecanus occidentalis
Stephanoprora conciliate (Dietz, 1909) Sterna maxima int GMx, SA tx 97
Stephanoprora denticulata (Rudolphi, 1802) Ajaia ajaja, Ardea alba, A.herodias, Egretta thula, Gavia immer, cec, clo, lin, GMx, SE, EA sfl, wfl, la, tx 72, 95, 126, 151,
Larus argentatus, Mycteria americana, Pandion haliaetus, sin 153, 163, 167,
Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, P.occidentalis, Rynchops niger, 189, 291, 293,
Sterna maxima 305
Family: Gymnophallidae
Gymnophallus deliciosus (Olsson, 1893) Larus argentatus GO wfl 151
Paragymnophallus kinsellai Ching, 1995 Catoptrophorus semipalmatus cec, lin GO wfl 62
Parvatrema borinquenae Cable, 1953 Catoptrophorus semipalmatus GMx, SE, CA wfl 45, 62
Family: Heterophyidae
Acanthotrema cursitans (Holliman, 1961) Catoptrophorus semipalmatus sin GO sfl, wfl 45, 169, 314 1
Acanthotrema hancocki (Martin, 1950) Catoptrophorus semipalmatus sin GMx, SE wfl 45, 169
Acanthotrema martini Sogandares-Bernal, 1959 Rynchops niger int GO wfl 305, 314
Ascocotyle angrense Travassos, 1916 Aix sponsa, Ardea alba, Butorides striatus, B.virescens, Cas- sin GMx, NE, SA wfl, ms, la, mx 126, 293, 312
merodias albus, Egretta thula, E.tricolor, Nyctanassa violacea,
Nycticorax nycticorax, Pandion haliaetus
Ascocotyle ampullacea Miller & Harkema, 1962 Eudocimus albus sin GMx, SE wfl, mx 46, 286
Ascocotyle chandleri Lumsden, 1963 Ajaia ajaja, Egretta caerulea sin GO sfl, tx, mx 90, 191, 286, 287,
Ascocotyle gemina Font, Overstreet, & Heard, Ardea alba, A.herodias, Egretta caerulea, E.rufescens, E.thula, cec, clo, lin, GMx, SE sfl, wfl, ms, la, 99, 120, 126, 170,
1984 Nyctanassa violacea, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, Rallus lon- pro, sin tx, mx 286, 292, 293
Ascocotyle leighi Burton, 1956 Butorides virescens, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos cec, lin, sin GMx, SE, EP wfl, la, tx, ms, 126, 151, 170, 286
Ascocotyle mcintoshi Price, 1936 Ajaia ajaja, Ardea alba, Egretta caerulea, Eudocimus albus sin GMx, IUS sfl, wfl, mx 46, 274, 286, 291,
Ascocotyle megalocephala Price, 1932 Ardea alba, A.herodias sin GMx, CA sfl, mx 286

(continued )
Checklist 3. Digenea in birds from the Gulf of Mexico. (continued )

Site Overall References/
Taxon Hosts in host geographic range GMx range Endnotes

Ascocotyle nunezae Scholz, Vargas-Vzquez, Ardea alba int GMx, CA, EP mx 286, 288
Vidal-Martnez, & Aquirre-Macedo, 1997
Ascocotyle pachycystis Schroeder & Leigh, 1965 Rallus elegans, R.longirostris cec, sin GMx, SE sfl, wfl, al, ms, tx 10, 63, 139, 331
Ascocotyle sesquiordoi Mellen & Dronen, 1987 Mycteria americana cec, lin GO tx 216
Ascocotyle tenuicollis Price, 1935 Ardea alba, A.herodias, Buteogallus anthracinus, Egretta caeru- lin, liv, sin GMx, SE, NE, CA, sfl, wfl, tx, mx 96, 126, 180, 286,
lea, E.thula, E.tricolor, Phalacrocorax brasilianus SA 288, 293
Caiguiria himantopae Dronen, Blend, & Davis, Himantopus mexicanus int GO tx 96
Cercarioides cochleariformis (Rudolphi, 1819) Sterna maxima int GMx, SA tx 97, 260 2
Cryptocotyle lingua (Creplin, 1825) Larus argentatus sin GMx, NE, EA, AO, wfl 117, 151, 153
Galactosomum cochleariformum (Rudolphi, Fregata magnificens, F.minor, Morus bassanus int GMx, SE, CA, SA sfl, wfl 126, 151, 154, 184,
1819) 198, 210, 260,
268 3
Galactosomum darbyi Price, 1934 Pelecanus occidentalis cec, clo, lin, GMx, SE, CA sfl, wfl, la, tx 72, 95, 210, 260
Galactosomum fregatae Prudhoe, 1949 Fregata magnificens, F.minor, Larus atricilla, Pelecanus occiden- clo, rec, sin GMx, SE, CA, EP, wfl, la, tx 72, 95, 151, 153,
talis WP 194, 210, 260
Galactosomum puffini Yamaguti, 1941 Pelecanus occidentalis sin GMx, CA, EP, WP tx 95
Galactosomum spinetum Braun, 1901 Larus atricilla, Rynchops niger, Sterna nilotica asc, bcv, sin GMx, CA, SA sfl, wfl 187, 196, 210, 260,
Neostictodora huttoni Sogandares-Bernal, 1959 Rynchops niger GO wfl 210, 305
Phagicola diminuta (Stunkard & Haviland, Ardea alba, A.herodias, Egretta caerulea, E.tricolor, Hydranassa sin GMx, SE, CA sfl, wfl, la, tx, 139, 153, 210, 268,
1924) tricolor, Nycticorax nycticorax, Phalacrocorax auritus, Rallus mx 287, 292, 293,
longirostris 308, 321, 331
Phagicola longa (Ransom, 1920) Ajaia ajaja, Ardea alba, A.herodias, Buteo jamaicensis, Egretta cec, clo, lin, GMx, NE, EP sfl, wfl, ms, la, 5, 72, 95, 99, 126,
caerulea, Gavia immer, Haliaeetus leucocephalus, Mycteria sin tx, mx 151, 153, 154,
americana, Nycticorax nycticorax, Pandion haliaetus, Pele- 167, 170, 244,
canus erythrorhynchos, P.occidentalis, Phalacrocorax auritus 251, 272, 286,
291, 326
Phagicola macrostomus Robinson, 1956 Ajaia ajaja, Cathartes aura, Mycteria americana, Pelecanus occi- cec, lin, sin GMx, SE, EP sfl, wfl, tx, mx 90, 95, 126, 280,
dentalis 286, 287, 291
Phagicola mollienesicola (Sogandares-Bernal & Nycticorax nycticorax cec, sin GO wfl, la 126, 307
Bridgman, 1960)
Phagicola nana Ransom, 1920 Ardea alba, A.herodias, Buteogallus anthracinus, Egretta caeru- clo, lin, sin GMx, SE sfl, wfl, ms, tx, 99, 121, 126, 170,
lea, E.thula, Haliaeetus leucocephalus, Ixobrychus exilis, mx 286, 287, 292,
Morus bassanus, Mycteria americana, Pelecanus erythrorhyn- 293
chos, P.occidentalis
Phocitremoides butionis Cable, Conner, & Ball- Ajaia ajaja, Phalacrocorax auritus, P.brasilianus GMx, CA tx 90, 113
ing, 1960
Pholeter anterouterus Fischthal & Nasir, 1974 Ardea alba, Egretta caerulea, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, P.occi- sin GMx, CA sfl, wfl 95, 118, 170, 261,
dentalis 292, 293
Pygidiopsis pindoramensis Travassos, 1929 Ajaia ajaja, Ardea herodias, Nyctanassa violacea, Nycticorax lin, sin GMx, CA, SA, EP sfl, wfl 126, 291
nycticorax, Pandion haliaetus
Scaphanocephalus expansus (Creplin, 1842) Pandion haliaetus sin GMx, SE, IO wfl 126, 163
Stictodora cablei Dronen, Blend, Gardner, & Sterna maxima int CA, GMx tx 97
Jimnez, 2007
Stictodora lariformicola Sogandares-Bernal & Gavia immer, Larus argentatus, L.atricilla, L.delawarensis, lin, sin GMx, CA wfl 126, 167, 313
Walton, 1965 Sterna maxima
Family: Microphallidae
Androcotyla arenariae Deblock & Heard, 1970 Arenaria interpres sin GO sfl 83
Diacetabulum riggini (Dery, 1958) Arenaria interpres, Catoptrophorus semipalmatus, Rallus longi- liv, sin GMx, SE sfl, wfl 45, 85, 136, 151,
rostris 187, 196
Endocotyle bushi Kinsella & Deblock, 1997 Catoptrophorus semipalmatus int GO wfl, tx 92, 103, 165
Gynaecotyla adunca (Linton, 1905) Catoptrophorus semipalmatus, Eudocimus albus, Larus atricilla, sin GMx, SE, NE, CA sfl, wfl, la 45, 46, 136, 139,
Rallus longirostris 149, 210
Levinseniella byrdi Heard, 1968 Ammodramus maritimus, Catoptrophorus semipalmatus, Rallus cec, clo, lin, GMx, SE wfl, al, ms, tx 10, 23, 136, 137,
elegans, R.longirostris rec, sin 139, 331
Levinseniella deblocki Heard & Kinsella, 1995 Rallus longirostris cec GO wfl, al, ms 140
Levinseniella hunteri Heard, 1968 Catoptrophorus semipalmatus, Charadrius wilsonia cec GO wfl, la, tx 45, 103, 138
Longiductotrema floridensis (Deblock & Heard, Rallus longirostris sin GO sfl 82
Maritrema patulus Coil, 1955 Athene cunicularia, Catoptrophorus semipalmatus, Rallus lon- sin GMx, SE sfl, wfl 45, 126, 136
Maritrema prosthometra Deblock & Heard, 1969 Rallus longirostris sin GMx, SE, NE al, ms, la, tx 139, 331
Megalophallus pentadactylus Cable, Connor, & Rallus longirostris sin GMx, CA sfl 136
Balling, 1960
Megalophallus reamesi Overstreet & Heard, 1995 Arenaria interpres, Pluvialis squatarola, Rallus longirostris cec, sin GMx, SE, NE, CA sfl 136, 253
Metamaritrema ammospizae (Hunter & Vern- Ammospiza maritima GMx, SE ms 23, 149
berg, 1953)
Microphallus nicolli (Cable & Hunninen, 1938) Catoptrophorus semipalmatus, Larus delawarensis sin GMx, SE wfl 45, 151
Microphallus turgidus (Leigh, 1958) Ajaia ajaja, Bucephala albeola, B.clangula, Butorides virescens, cec, lin, sin GMx, SE sfl, wfl, al, ms, 45, 46, 72, 95, 126,
Catoptrophorus semipalmatus, Egretta caerulea, Eudocimus la, tx 139, 141, 291,
albus, Mergus serrator, Nyctanassa violacea, Pelecanus occi- 292
dentalis, Rallus longirostris
Numeniotrema kinsellai Bush & Threlfall, 1984 Catoptrophorus semipalmatus sin GO wfl 45, 48
Odhneria odhneri Travassos, 1921 Calidris canutus, Catoptrophorus semipalmatus, Gavia immer cec, lin, sin GMx, SE, SA, CA wfl, tx 45, 103, 126, 165,
Odhneria raminellae (Dery, 1958) Rallus longirostris cec GMx, SE, NE sfl 136, 139

(continued )
Checklist 3. Digenea in birds from the Gulf of Mexico. (continued )

Site Overall References/
Taxon Hosts in host geographic range GMx range Endnotes

Probolocoryphe glandulosa (Coil, 1955) Arenaria interpres, Catoptrophorus semipalmatus, Eudocimus sin GMx, SE, CA sfl, wfl, tx 46, 91, 103, 136,
albus, Numenius americanus, Rallus longirostris 142, 331
Testiculoporus cedarkeyensis Kinsella & Deblock, Catoptrophorus semipalmatus sin GO wfl 165
Family: Opisthorchiidae
Erschoviorchis lintoni (Gower, 1939) Gavia immer, Mycteria americana liv, pan GMx, SE, NE, AO wfl 126, 167
Pachytrema sanguineum (Linton, 1928) Larus atricilla, Rallus longirostris, Sterna maxima gbd, sin GMx, NE sfl, wfl 136, 151, 153, 184,
187, 196
Plotnikovia fodiens (Linton, 1928) Gavia immer liv, pan GMx, SE wfl 126, 167
Family: Philophthalmidae
Natterophthalmus andersoni (Dronen & Penner, Sterna maxima eye GO wfl, tx 97, 100
Parorchis numenii (Dronen & Badley, 1979) Numenius americanus bfb, lin GO tx 91 4
Parorchis acanthus (Nicoll, 1906) Arenaria interpres, Calidris canutus, Catoptrophorus semipalma- clo, lin, rec GMx, SE, NE sfl, wfl, al, ms, 45, 46, 91, 97, 103,
tus, Eudocimus albus, Gavia immer, Larus argentatus, Limno- la, tx, cu 126, 136, 139,
dromus griseus, Numenius americanus, Nyctanassa violacea, 150, 151, 187,
Nycticorax nycticorax, Phalacrocorax auritus, Phoenicopterus 194, 326, 331,
ruber, Rallus longirostris, Sterna maxima 336, 338
Philophthalmus larsoni Penner & Trimble, 1970 Larus atricilla eye GO wfl 265
Pygorchis americanus Dronen, 1985 Ajaia ajaja clo GO tx 90
Family: Prosthogonimidae
Prosthogonimus ovatus (Rudolphi, 1803) Aix sponsa, Anas fulvigula, Ardea herodias, Athene cunicu- bfb, clo, lin, GMx, SE, NE, EA, sfl, wfl, ms, tx 10, 103, 123, 126,
laria, Aythya collaris, Caracara cheriway, Catoptrophorus ovi, sin SA, AO 166, 167, 168,
semipalmatus, Dendrocygna bicolor, Egretta caerulea, Falco 170, 251, 292,
sparverius, Gavia immer, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, Porzana 327, 328, 331
carolina, Rallus elegans, R.longirostris
Family: Psilostomidae
Psilochasmus oxyurus (Creplin, 1825) Anas fulvigula, A.platyrhynchos, Aythya marila sin GMx, SE, EA, AO, wfl 126, 166, 271
Trifolium travossosi Vigueras, 1940 Anhinga anhinga giz GO cu 336
Family: Renicolidae
Renicola glandoloba Witenberg, 1929 Larus atricilla, Sterna hirundo, S.maxima, S.nilotica kid GMx, EA wfl 151, 187, 196
Renicola glandoloboides Byrd & Heard, 1970 Catoptrophorus semipalmatus, Rallus longirostris int, kid GO wfl, tx 49, 103
Renicola hydranassae Lumsden & Zischke, 1963 Hydranassa tricolor, Rallus longirostris kid GO sfl, wfl, la, tx 136, 194, 331
Renicola pollaris Kontrimavichus & Gavia immer kid GMx, SE wfl 126, 167
Bakhmeteva, 1960
Renicola ralli Byrd & Heard, 1970 Ajaia ajaja, Pandion haliaetus, Rallus longirostris bcv, clo, kid, GMx, SE sfl, wfl 49, 126, 136, 163,
lin 291
Renicola thapari Caballero, 1953 Haliaeetus leucocephalus, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, P.occiden- kid GMx, SE, CA wfl, ms, tx 72, 95, 126, 251
Family: Schistosomatidae
Austrobilharzia terrigalensis Johnston, 1917 Gavia immer blv GMx, SE, WP wfl 126, 167
Austrobilharzia penneri Short & Holliman, 1961 Rallus longirostris blv GMx, NE, EP wfl, tx 331
Austrobilharzia variglandis (Miller & Northup, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos blv GMx, NE, EA, EP ms 251
Gigantobilharzia huttoni (Leigh, 1953) Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, P.occidentalis blv GO sfl 179, 181
Family: Strigeidae
Apharyngostrigea cornu (Zeder, 1800) Ardea herodias, Nycticorax nycticorax int GMx, SE, EA, AO, wfl, cu 126, 342
Apharyngostrigea duboisi Vigueras, 1944 Butorides virescens int GO cu 342 5
Apharyngostrigea multiovata (Vigueras, 1944) Ajaia ajaja, Egretta caerulea, E.rufescens, E.thula lin, sin, pro GO sfl, tx, cu 64, 99, 291, 292,
Apharyngostrigea pipientis (Faust, 1918) Ardea alba, Botaurus lentiginosus, Hydranassa tricolor clo, lin, sin GMx, WP sfl, wfl, la 126, 194, 293
Apharyngostrigea simplex (Johnston, 1904) Ardea herodias, Egretta caerulea lin, sin GMx, WP, IO sfl, wfl, tx 99, 126, 292
Cardiocephalus brandesii (Szidat, 1928) Thallasseus maximus, Sterna maxima int GMx, CA, SA la, tx 97, 194
Cardiocephalus medioconiger Dubois & Larus argentatus, L.atricilla, Sterna forsteri, S.maxima sin GO cu 342
Vigueras, 1949
Cardiocephalus megaloconus Cable, Connor, & Larus argentatus, L.atricilla, Sterna forsteri, S.maxima sin GMx, CA wfl, cu 104, 194, 196, 187 6
Balling, 1960
Cotylurus aquavis (Guberlet, 1922) Larus atricilla int GMx, SE, NE wfl 187
Parastrigea brasiliana (Szidat, 1928) Ardea herodias sin GMx, SA sfl, wfl 126
Parastrigea diovadena Dubois & Macko, 1972 Eudocimus albus sin GMx, CA wfl, cu 46, 105
Strigea gracilis (Rudolphi, 1819) Butorides virescens int GMx, NE, AO, SA, cu 334
Strigea strigis (Schrank, 1788) Ajaia ajaja GMx, IUS, CA, EA tx 90
Schwartzitrema schwartzi (Vigueras, 1940) Anhinga anhinga, Fregata magnificens int GO tx, cu 336, 342
Swartzitrema seamsteri Chandler, 1951 Fregata magnificens GO tx 61
Family: Typhlocoelidae
Polycyclorchis eudocimi Pence & Bush, 1973 Eudocimus albus tra GO wfl 46, 262
The species Stictodora cursitans and S.martini were transferred to Acanthotrema by Sohn, Han, and Chai (2003).
Pearson (1973) discussed the status of Galactosomum cochleariformum from frigate birds and terns and indicated that some authors considered those from the two hosts as separate species; consequently, we tentatively are
keeping those from the two different host groups separate. We follow Dronen etal. (2007) and list specimens from a tern as Cercarioides cochlariformes, even though the species is probably not correct.
Manter (1930) reported the host as Fregata aquila, which is probably F.magnificens.
Dronen and Badley (1979) established a new species in a new genus as Paratrema numenii. Kanev, Radev, and Fried (2005) considered Paratrema a junior synonym of Parorchis and did not accept P.numenii because it was
similar to P.asiaticus Strom, 1927. This problem requires additional study, so we consider Parorchis numenii (Dronen and Badley, 1979) a new combination until the status is confirmed.
Dubois (1966) considered Apharyngostrigea duboisi a junior synonym of A.pipientis.
MacInnis (1959, 1966), after examining loaned specimens of Cardiocephalus brandesii reported by Lumsden and Zischke (1963), considered those specimens as C.megaloconus. Considering that the Cuban specimens of
C.medioconiger infect the same birds reported from Puerto Rico and the GMx and the recent reports of C.brandesii by Dronen etal. (2007) and others, we suggest the entire Cardiocephalus complex in the region be reevalu-

Checklist 4. Digenea in mammals from the Gulf of Mexico.

Site Overall References/

Taxon Hosts in host geographic range GMx range Endnotes

Phylum: Platyhelminthes
Class: Trematoda
Subclass: Digenea
Family: Brachycladiidae
Campula palliata (Looss, 1885) Grampus griseus, Stenella attenuata, Steno bredanen- bdt, liv, GMx, SE, EA wfl 125, 353
sis, Tursiops truncatus pan
Hadwenius tursionis (Marchi, 1873) Grampus griseus, Steno bredanensis int GMx, CA, SE, EA, IO wfl 125, 353 1
Nasitrema lanceolata Neiland, Rice, & Holden, 1970 Feresa attenuata sin GMx, SE wfl 124
Family: Brauninidae
Braunina cordiformis Wolfe, 1903 Stenella attenuata, Tursiops truncatus dud, sto GMx, SE wfl, ms 122, 151, 154, 155,
213, 244, 347, 353
Family: Cladorchiidae
Chiorchis fabaceus (Diesing, 1838) Trichechus manatus cec, lin GMx, CA, NE, SA, wfl 122, 151, 154 2
Family: Cyathocotylidae
Linstowiella szidati (Anderson, 1944) Didelphis virginiana, Procyon lotor sin GMx, IUS la 192, 295
Mesostephanus appendiculatoides (Price, 1934) Didelphis virginiana, Procyon lotor sin GMx, SE wfl 151
Family: Echinostomatidae
Baschkirovitrema incrassatum (Diesing, 1850) Lontra canadensis, Mustela vison sin GMx, SE, SA, EA wfl, al, la 122, 295 3
Echinochasmus schwartzi Price, 1931 Ondatra zibethicus, Oryzomys palustris sin GMx, SE wfl, la, tx 60, 88, 161, 263
Euparyphium beaveri Yamaguti, 1958 Mustela vison dud GMx, NE la 193
Isthmiophora melis (Schrank, 1788) Mustela vison, Procyon lotor sin GMx, EA, AO, WP la 295
Family: Gymnophallidae
Gymnophalloides heardi Ching, 1995 Oryzomys palustris sin GO wfl 62
Family: Heterophyidae
Acanthotrema cursitans (Holliman, 1961) Didelphis virginiana, Oryzomys palustris, Procyon sin GO sfl, wfl 169, 161
Ascocotyle angrense Travassos, 1916 (complex) Ondatra zibethicus, Oryzomys palustris, Procyon lotor sin GMx, SE, NE wfl, la 122, 161, 307, 312
Ascocotyle mollienisicola (Sogandares-Bernal & Bridg- Oryzomys palustris sin GO wfl 161
man, 1960)
Ascocotyle pachycystis Schroeder & Leigh, 1965 Procyon lotor sin GMx, SE sfl, wfl, ms 42, 63, 290
Cryptocotyle concava (Creplin, 1825) Mustela vison sin GMx, EA la 295
Phagicola diminuta (Stunkard & Haviland, 1924) Ondatra zibethicus, Procyon lotor sin GMx, SE, NE wfl, tx, mx 60, 133, 151, 287 4
Phagicola longa (Ransom, 1920) Didelphis virginiana, Procyon lotor sin GMx, SE ms 133, 151, 244 5
Pholeter gastrophilus (Kossack, 1910) Feresa attenuata, Grampus griseus, Stenella attenuata, bcv, sto, GMx, SE, EA wfl, ms 65, 125, 155, 244, 353
Steno bredanensis, Tursiops truncatus wvs
Family: Microphallidae
Carneophallus bilobatus Cable, Connor, & Balling, 1960 Procyon lotor sin GMx, CA wfl 122
Gynaecotyla adunca (Linton, 1905) Oryzomys palustris, Procyon lotor, Sigmodon hispidus sin GMx, SE wfl 122, 133, 149, 151,
161, 160
Levinseniella deblocki Heard & Kinsella, 1995 Oryzomys palustris, Procyon lotor lin GO wfl, al, ms 140
Maritrema heardi (Kinsella & Deblock, 1994) Oryzomys palustris sin GO wfl 164, 329
Maritrema prosthometra Deblock & Heard, 1969 Oryzomys palustris, Procyon lotor sin GMx, SE wfl, la 82, 122, 161, 329
Microphallus basodactylophallus (Bridgman, 1969) Oryzomys palustris, Procyon lotor, Sigmodon hispidus sin GMx, SE wfl, ms, la 122, 141, 160, 161,
244, 295, 329 6
Microphallus nicolli (Cable & Hunninen, 1938) Oryzomys palustris sin GMx, NE wfl 161
Microphallus turgidus (Leigh, 1958) Procyon lotor sin GMx, SE sfl, ms 133, 141, 182, 244 7
Odhneria odhneri Travassos, 1921 Oryzomys palustris sin GMx, SE, NE, SA wfl 161
Probolocoryphe glandulosa (Coil, 1955) Oryzomys palustris, Procyon lotor, Sigmodon hispidus sin GMx, SE sfl, wfl 122, 131, 142, 160,
Family: Notocotylidae
Catatropis johnstoni Martin, 1956 Oryzomys palustris cec GO wfl 161, 162
Paramonostomum pseudalveatum Price, 1931 Ondatra zibethicus cec GMx, EA la 263
Quinqueserialis quinqueserialis (Barker & Laughlin, Ondatra zibethicus cec GMx, EA la 295
Family: Nudacotylidae
Nudacotyle novicia Barker, 1916 Sigmodon hispidus sin GMx, SE wfl 160
Nudacotyle undicola Dailey, Vogelbein, & Forrester, 1988 Trichechus manatus sin GO wfl 11, 79, 122
Family: Opisthorchiidae
Amphimerus speciosus (Stiles & Hassal, 1896) Procyon lotor bdt, liv GMx, IUS la 295
Family: Opisthotrematidae
Cochleotrema cochleotrema Travassos & Vogelsang, 1931 Trichechus manatus lng GMx, NE, SA wfl 11, 12, 122, 274 8
Moniligerum blairi Dailey, Vogelbein, & Forrester, 1988 Trichechus manatus sin GO wfl 11, 79, 122
Family: Plagiorchiidae
Plagiorchis muris Tanabe, 1922 Sigmodon hispidus sin GMx, SE wfl 160
Family: Schistosomatidae
Heterobilharzia americana Price, 1929 Lynx rufus, Mustela vison, Procyon lotor blv GMx, SE wfl, la, tx 122, 134, 275, 295
Family: Troglotrematidae
Sellacotyle vitellosa Sogandares-Bernal, 1961 Mustela vison sin GO la 295, 306
Fernndez, Balbuena, and Raga (1994) transferred Synthesium tursionis to the genus Hadwenius.
Mora-Pinto in an unpublished thesis considered records of Chiorchis fabaceus by Mignucci-Giannoni etal. (1999) from Puerto Rico to represent Chiorchis groshafti.
Because Baschkirovitrema incrassatum is reported from Africa and South America from inland, terrestrial mammals, it is probably not an estuarine species.
Experimental infection reported by Hutton (1964) in Mesocricetus auritus.
Experimental infection reported by Hutton (1964) in Mesocricetus auritus, Rattus norvegicus, Felis catus, and Didelphis virginiana.
Reported as Carneophallus basodactylophallus by Shoop and Corkum (1982).
Reported as Carneophallus turgidus by Leigh (1958) and Harkema and Miller (1962).
Also found in the nares of Trichechus manatus. Price (1932) reported as Opisthotrema cochleotrema from tropical America; exact location unknown.

472 ~ Trematoda (Platyhelminthes)

Checklist 5. Gulf of Mexico host-trematode list in alphabetical order for families in major groups and
species in families.

Host taxon Trematode

Phylum: Chordata (Craniata)

Class: Actinopterygii
Family: Acanthuridae
Acanthurus bahianus Castelnau, 1855 Hysterolecitha rosea
Acanthurus coeruleus Bloch & Schneider, 1801 Dichadena acuta, Hapladena varia, Hysterolecitha rosea, Macradena perfecta, Mac-
radenina acanthuri, Mesolecitha linearis, Schikhobalotrema obtusum
Paracanthurus hepatus (Linnaeus, 1766) Dichadena acuta, Hapladena invaginata, H.varia, Hysterolecitha rosea, Leurodera
decora, Schikhobalotrema obtusum
Prionurus punctatus Gill, 1862 Ichthyotrema vogelsangi
Family: Achiridae
Achirus lineatus (Linnaeus, 1758) Sterrhurus musculus
Trinectes maculatus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) Diplomonorchis leiostomi, Phyllodistomum trinectes
Family: Acropomatidae
Synagrops bellus (Goode & Bean, 1896) Rhipidocotyle longleyi
Family: Albulidae
Albula vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758) Botulisaccus pisceus, Chrisomom albulae, Claribulla longula Diphtherostomum albulae,
Gonocercella trachinoti
Family: Alepisauridae
Alepisaurus ferox Lowe, 1833 Botulus microporus
Family: Alepocephalidae
Xenodermichthys copei (Gill, 1884) Lethadena profunda
Family: Anguillidae
Anguilla rostrata (Lesueur, 1817) Lecithochirium microstomum, Sterrhurus musculus
Family: Antennariidae
Antennarius radiosus Garman, 1896 Lecithochirium floridense, Sterrhurus musculus
Antennarius striatus (Shaw, 1794) Lecithochirium floridense, Sterrhurus musculus
Family: Atherinidae
Atherinomorus stipes (Mller & Troschel, 1848) Bivesicula hepsetiae
Family: Apogonidae
Apogon maculatus (Poey, 1860) Helicometrina nimia
Apogon pseudomaculatus Longley, 1932 Helicometrina nimia
Family: Argentinidae
Argentina striata Goode & Bean, 1896 Fellodistomum profundum, Genolinea anura
Family: Ariidae
Ariopsis felis (Linnaeus, 1766) Pseudoacanthostomum floridensis
Hexanematichthys assimilis (Gnther, 1864) Pseudoacanthostomum floridensis
Family: Atherinopsidae
Membras vagrans (Goode & Bean, 1879) Aponurus laguncula, Opechona menidiae, Rhipidocotyle transversale
Menidia beryllina (Cope, 1867) Lecithaster leiostomi, Opechona menidiae, Rhipidocotyle lintoni , Stomachicola magnus
Menidia menidia (Linnaeus, 1766) Rhipidocotyle transversale
Family: Balistidae
Balistes capriscus Gmelin, 1789 Homalometron mexicanum, Neoapocreadium coili, Pseudocreadium lamelliforme,
Xystretrum solidum
Balistes vetula Linnaeus, 1758 Diplangus paxillus, Helicometrina nimia, Homalometron balistis
Family: Batrachoididae
Opsanus beta (Goode & Bean, 1880) Diphtherostomum americanum, Helicometrina mirzai, H.nimia, Lecithochirium
synodi, Lepocreadium opsanusi, Levinseniella capitanea, Siphodera vinaledwardsii,
Sterrhurus musculus
Porichthys porosissimus (Cuvier, 1829) Sterrhurus musculus
Family: Belonidae
Strongylura marina (Walbaum, 1792) Bucephaloides strongylurae, Rhipidocotyle lintoni, R.transversale, Schikhobalotrema
Strongylura notata (Poey, 1860) Rhipidocotyle transversale
Overstreet, Cook, and Heard ~ 473

Checklist 5. Gulf of Mexico host-trematode list. (continued )

Host taxon Trematode

Strongylura timucu (Walbaum, 1792) Rhipidocotyle transversale, Schikhobalotrema acutum, Steganoderma nitens
Tylosurus crocodilus (Pron & Lesueur, 1821) Lecithochirium floridense, Schikhobalotrema acutum
Family: Blenniidae
Chasmodes saburrae Jordan & Gilbert, 1882 Diplomonorchis leiostomi, Diphtherostomum americanum

Scartella cristata (Linnaeus, 1758) Helicometrina execta

Family: Bothidae
Bothus ocellatus (Agassiz, 1831) Ectenurus virgulus
Monolene antillarum Norman, 1933 Lomasoma monolenei
Trichopsetta ventralis (Goode & Bean, 1885) Lecithochirium floridense
Family: Bythitidae
Diplacanthopoma brachysoma Gnther, 1887 Hemipera nicolli, Megenteron crassum
Family: Callionymidae
Foetorepus agassizii (Goode & Bean, 1888) Derogenes crassus
Family: Carangidae
Carangoides bartholomaei (Cuvier, 1833) Bucephalus varicus, Ectenurus americanus, E.virgulus, Paraproctotrema brevicaecum,
Pseudopecoeloides carangis, Tergestia acuta
Carangoides ruber (Bloch, 1793) Alcicornis carangis, Bucephalus varicus, Phyllodistomum carangis, Pseudopecoeloides
carangis, Stephanostomum cubanum, S.ditrematis, S.manteri
Caranx crysos (Mitchill, 1815) Bucephalus varicus, Ectenurus americanus, E.virgulus, E.yamagutii, Lecithochirium
parvum, Parahemiurus merus, Stephanostomum ditrematis, Tergestia pectinata
Caranx hippos (Linnaeus, 1766) Bucephalus varicus, Ectenurus virgulus, E.yamagutii, Parahemiurus merus, Stephano
stomum ditrematis, S.megacephalum, Sterrhurus musculus, Tergestia pectinata
Caranx latus Agassiz, 1831 Bucephalus varicus, Lecithochirium floridense, Stephanostomum ditrematis, S.mega-
Caranx sp. Tergestia pauca
Decapterus punctatus (Cuvier, 1829) Monascus filiformis
Elagatis bipinnulata (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825) Stephanostomum microcephalum
Oligoplites saurus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) Lecithochirium microstomum, Manteria brachyderus, Tergestia pectinata
Selarcrumenophthalmus (Bloch, 1793) Ectenurus virgulus, Lecithochirium floridense, Parahemiurus merus, Tergestia pectinata
Selene vomer (Linnaeus, 1758) Hurleytrema shorti, Lecithochirium texanum
Seriola dumerili (Risso, 1810) Bucephalus gorgon
Seriola zonata (Mitchill, 1815) Bucephalus gorgon
Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus, 1766) Cotylogaster basiri, Hurleytrema catarinensis, H.pyriforme, Lobatostoma kemostoma,
L.ringens, Stephanostomum ghanensis
Trachinotus falcatus (Linnaeus, 1758) Cotylogaster basiri, Helicometrina execta, Hurleytrema pyriforme, Lobatostoma rin-
gens, Stephanostomum tenue
Carapus bermudensis (Jones, 1874) Genitocotyle atlantica
Carapus sp. Genitocotyle atlantica
Family: Centrarchidae
Lepomis microlophus (Gnther, 1859) Barbulostomum cupuloris
Lepomis punctatus (Valenciennes, 1831) Barbulostomum cupuloris
Family: Centropomidae
Centropomus parallelus Poey, 1860 Neochasmus olmecus
Centropomus undecimalis (Bloch, 1792) Lecithochirium microstomum
Family: Chaetodontidae
Chaetodon capistratus Linnaeus, 1758 Hurleytrematoides chaetodoni, Multitestis chaetodoni
Chaetodon ocellatus Bloch, 1787 Hurleytrematoides chaetodoni, Lecithophyllum pyriforme, Multitestis chaetodoni
Chaetodon sedentarius Poey, 1860 Lecithophyllum pyriforme
Prognathodes aya (Jordan, 1886) Lecithophyllum pyriforme
Family: Chaunacidae
Chaunax pictus Lowe, 1846 Adinosoma robustum, Aponurus intermedius, Hemipera nicolli, Lecithochirium
(continued )
474 ~ Trematoda (Platyhelminthes)

Checklist 5. Gulf of Mexico host-trematode list. (continued)

Host taxon Trematode

Family: Chlorophthalmidae
Parasudis truculenta (Goode & Bean, 1896) Adinosoma robustum
Family: Cichlidae
Cichlasoma geddesi (Regan, 1905) Cichlasotrema ujati, Genarchella isabellae, Phyllosdistomum lacustris
Cichlasoma octofasciatum (Regan, 1903) Genarchella isabellae
Cichlasoma urophthalmus (Gnther, 1862) Crassicutis cichlasomae, Culuwiya cichlidorum, Diphtherostomum brusinae, Genar-
chella isabellae, Helicometrina nimia, Homalometron pallidum, Lecithochirium
floridense, Oligogonotylus manteri, Phyllosdistomum lacustris
Herichthys cyanoguttatus Baird & Girard, 1854 Genarchella isabellae
Herichthys minckleyi (Kornfield & Taylor, 1983) Culuwiya cichlidorum
Herichthys pearsei Hubbs, 1936 Cichlasotrema ujati, Genarchella isabellae
Oreochromis aureus (Steindachner, 1864) Culuwiya cichlidorum
Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters, 1852) Culuwiya cichlidorum
Oreochromis niloticus niloticus (Linnaeus, Culuwiya cichlidorum
Parachromis friedrichsthali (Heckel, 1840) Genarchella isabellae, Oligogonotylus manteri
Parachromis managuensis (Gnther, 1867) Culuwiya cichlidorum, Genarchella isabellae
Petenia splendida Gnther, 1862 Campechetrema herrerai, Cichlasotrema ujati, Culuwiya cichlidorum, Prosthenhystera
obesa, Pseudocaecincola batallae, Tabascotrema verai
Theraps coeruleus Stawikowski & Werner, 1987 Culuwiya cichlidorum
Thorichthys helleri (Steindachner, 1864) Cichlasotrema ujati, Genarchella isabellae, Prosthenhystera obesa
Thorichthys meeki Brind, 1918 Genarchella isabellae, Oligogonotylus manteri
Tomocichla tuba (Meek, 1912) Culuwiya cichlidorum
Vieja fenestrata (Gnther, 1860) Cichlasotrema ujati, Genarchella isabellae
Vieja intermedia (Gnther, 1862) Cichlasotrema ujati
Vieja maculicauda (Regan, 1905) Culuwiya cichlidorum
Vieja synspila (Hubbs, 1935) Cichlasotrema ujati, Culuwiya cichlidorum, Genarchella isabellae, Oligogonotylus man-
teri, Phyllosdistomum lacustris
Family: Clupeidae
Alosa chrysochloris (Rafinesque, 1820) Lecithaster confusus
Brevoortia patronus Goode, 1878 Lecithaster confusus, Lepocreadium brevoortiae, Parahemiurus merus
Clupeonella grimmi Kessler, 1877 Ectenurus virgulus, Opechona gracilis, Pseudobacciger harengulae
Harengula clupeola (Cuvier, 1829) Ectenurus virgulus, Parahemiurus merus, Pseudobacciger harengulae
Harengula jaguana Poey, 1865 Parahemiurus merus
Sardinellaaurita Valenciennes, 1847 Ectenurus virgulus, Lepocreadium pyriforme, Myosaccium opisthonemae, Parahemiu-
rus merus
Family: Congridae
Conger conger (Linnaeus, 1758)1 Sterrhurus fusiformis
Family: Coryphaenidae
Coryphaena equiselis Linnaeus, 1758 Dinurus barbatus, D.breviductus, D.longisinus, D.tornatus, Lecithochirium microsto-
Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus, 1758 Bathycotyle coryphaenae, Dinurus barbatus, D.breviductus, D.longisinus, D.tornatus,
Hirudinella ventricosa, Lecithochirium floridense, Stephanostomum coryphaenae,
Tetrochetus coryphaenae
Family: Cynoglossidae
Symphurus plagiusa (Linnaeus, 1766) Diplomonorchis floridensis
Family: Cyprinodontidae
Cyprinodon variegatus Lacepde, 1803 Rhipidocotyle lintoni
Family: Dasyatidae
Dasyatis say (Lesueur, 1817) Multicalyx cristata
Family: Diodontidae
Chilomycterus schoepfii (Walbaum, 1792) Bianium plicitum, B.vitellosum, Sclerodistomum sphoeroidis
Diodon holocanthus Linnaeus, 1758 Opistholebes adcotylophorus
Family: Echeneidae
Echeneis naucrates Linnaeus, 1758 Lecithochirium floridense, Sterrhurus musculus
Overstreet, Cook, and Heard ~ 475

Checklist 5. Gulf of Mexico host-trematode list. (continued )

Host taxon Trematode

Family: Eleotridae
Gobiomorus dormitor Lacepede, 1800 Phyllodistomum lacustris
Family: Elopidae
Elops saurus Linnaeus, 1766 Lecithochirium parvum
Family: Engraulidae
Anchoa lyolepis (Evermann & Marsh, 1900) Parahemiurus anchoviae
Family: Ephippidae
Chaetodipterus faber (Broussonet, 1782) Aponurus elongatus, Lobatostoma ringens, Multitestis inconstans, Vitellibaculum spino-
Family: Epigonidae
Epigonus occidentalis Goode & Bean, 1896 Lepidapedon elongatum
Family: Exocoetidae
Parexocoetushillianus(Gosse, 1851) Brachyenteron parexocoeti, Steganoderma parexocoeti
Family: Fistulariidae
Fistularia tabacaria Linnaeus, 1758 Stephanostomum trompeteri, Sterrhurus microcercus
Family: Fundulidae
Fundulus grandis Baird & Girard, 1853 Rhipidocotyle lintoni
Fundulus similis (Baird & Girard, 1853) Lasiotocus minutum
Fundulus sp. Homalometron pallidum
Family: Gerreidae
Eucinostomus gula (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) Crassicutis marina, Lecithochirium parvum, Pseudohurleytrema eucinostomi, Sterrhu-
rus musculus
Eucinostomus lefroyi (Goode, 1874) Anahemiurus microcercus, Crassicutis marina, Pseudohurleytrema eucinostomi
Eugerres plumieri Cuvier, 1830 Pleorchis magniporus
Gerres cinereus (Walbaum, 1792) Crassicutis marina, Homalometron elongatum
Family: Gobiidae
Bathygobius soporator (Valenciennes, 1837) Helicometrina execta, Lecithochirium parvum, Opegaster pritchardae
Gobiosoma robustum Ginsburg, 1933 Diplomonorchis leiostomi, Diphtherostomum americanum
Family: Haemulidae
Anisotremus interruptus (Gill, 1862) Lasiotocus longicaecum
Anisotremus virginicus (Linnaeus, 1758) Aponurus pyriformis, Cainocreadium oscitans, Diphtherostomum anisotremi, Dip-
langus parvus, D.paxillus, Genolopa ampullacea, Hamacreadium mutabile, Heli-
cometrina execta, Homalometron cryptum, Lasiotocus longicaecum, L.longovatus,
Lecithophyllum pyriforme, Leurodera decora, Monorchis latus, Postmonorchis orthop-
ristis, Stephanostomum lopezneyrai, Sterrhurus musculus
Haemulon album Cuvier, 1830 Genolopa ampullacea, Lecithochirium floridense, Lecithophyllum pyriforme, Procto-
trema truncatum
Haemulon aurolineatum Cuvier, 1830 Genolopa ampullacea, Homalometron foliatum, Lasiotocus longovatus, Lecithochirium
floridense, Leurodera decora, Postmonorchis orthopristis, Sterrhurus musculus
Haemulon carbonarium Poey, 1860 Aponurus pyriformis,Cainocreadium oscitans, Diplangus parvus, D.paxillus, Genolopa
ampullacea, Homalometron foliatum, Lecithophyllum pyriforme, Leurodera decora,
Manteriella crassa, Stephanostomum sentum
Haemulon chrysargyreum Gnther, 1859 Cainocreadium oscitans, Diphtherostomum americanum, Diplangus paxillus, Genolopa
ampullacea, Lecithophyllum pyriforme, Leurodera decora
Haemulon flavolineatum (Desmarest, 1823) Diplangus parvus, D.paxillus, Genitocotyle atlantica, Genolopa ampullacea, Lasiotocus
truncatus, Lecithochirium floridense, L.parvum, Leurodera decora, Postmonorchis
orthopristis, Proctotrema parvum, P.truncatum
Haemulon macrostomum Gnther, 1859 Aponurus pyriformis, Deretrema fusillus, Diplangus paxillus, Genolopa ampullacea,
Lecithophyllum pyriforme
Haemulon parra (Desmarest, 1823) Aponurus pyriformis, Diphtherostomum brusinae, Diplangus parvus, D.paxillus,
Genolopa ampullacea, Homalometron cryptum, H.foliatum, Lasiotocus longovatus,
Lecithophyllum pyriforme, Leurodera decora, Postmonorchis orthopristis, Sterrhurus
(continued )
476 ~ Trematoda (Platyhelminthes)

Checklist 5. Gulf of Mexico host-trematode list. (continued)

Host taxon Trematode

Haemulon plumierii (Lacepde, 1801) Aponurus pyriformis, Cainocreadium consuetum, C.oscitans, Diphtherostomum aniso-
tremi, Diplangus parvus, D.paxillus, Genolopa ampullacea, Helicometrina execta,
Homalometron cryptum, Lasiotocus haemuli, L.truncatus, Lecithochirium floridense,
Lecithophyllum pyriforme, Leurodera decora, Monorchis latus, Postmonorchis ortho
pristis, Proctotrema truncatum, Stephanostomum sentum
Haemulon sciurus (Shaw, 1803) Aponurus pyriformis, Cainocreadium oscitans, Diphtherostomum anisotremi, Diplan-
gus parvus, D.paxillus, Genolopa ampullacea, Helicometrina execta, Homalometron
cryptum, Infundibulostomum spinatum, Lasiotocus haemuli, L.longovatus, L.trun-
catus, Lecithochirium floridense, Leurodera decora, Postmonorchis orthopristis, Proc-
totrema truncatum, Stephanostomum sentum
Haemulon striatum (Linnaeus, 1758) Genolopa ampullacea, Lecithophyllum pyriforme
Orthopristis chrysoptera (Linnaeus, 1766) Diplomonorchis leiostomi, Lasiotocus beauforti, L.lintoni, L.longovatus, Lecithophyl-
lum pyriforme, Sterrhurus musculus
Family: Hemiramphidae
Hemiramphus brasiliensis (Linnaeus, 1758) Steganoderma hemiramphi
Hyporhamphus roberti (Valenciennes, 1847) Lobatostoma ringens
Family: Heptapteridae
Rhamdia guatemalensis (Gnther, 1864) Genarchella isabellae
Family: Holocentridae
Holocentrus adscensionis (Osbeck, 1765) Helicometra equilata, Lecithochirium floridense
Sargocentron coruscum (Poey, 1860) Apertile holocentri
Family: Istiophoridae
Istiophorus americanus (Latreille, 1804) Hirudinella ventricosa
Family: Kyphosidae
Kyphosus incisor (Cuvier, 1831) Cadenatella americana, Deontacylix ovalis, Enenterum aureum, Megasolena estrix,
Opisthadena dimidia, Schikhobalotrema kyphosi
Kyphosus sectator (Linnaeus, 1758) Cadenatella americana, C.floridae, Deontacylix ovalis, Enenterum aureum, Gorgoceph-
alus manter, Megasolena estrix, Opisthadena dimidia, Schikhobalotrema kyphosi
Family: Labridae
Decodon puellaris (Poey, 1860) Deretrema fusillus, Myzoxenus vittellosus, Pachycreadium crassigulum
Doratonotus megalepis Gnther, 1862 Helicometrina execta
Halichoeres bivittatus (Bloch, 1791) Haplosplanchnus adacutus, Helicometrina execta, H.parva, Nicolla halichoeri, Ster-
rhurus latus
Halichoeres maculipinna (Mller & Troschel, Haplosplanchnus adacutus
Halichoeres pictus (Poey, 1860) Helicometrina execta
Halichoeres poeyi (Steindachner, 1867) Helicometrina execta
Halichoeres radiatus (Linnaeus, 1758) Helicometrina execta, Lobatostoma ringens, Nicolla halichoeri
Lachnolaimus maximus (Walbaum, 1792) Helicometrina execta, Lepocreadium bimarinum, Megalomyzon robustum, Myzoxenus
Thalassoma bifasciatum (Bloch, 1791) Helicometrina execta
Family: Labrisomidae
Labrisomus bucciferus (Poey, 1868) Helicometrina execta
Labrisomus haitensis (Beebe & Tee-Van, 1928) Helicometrina execta
Labrisomus kalisherae (Jordan, 1904) Helicometrina execta
Labrisomus nuchipinnis (Quoy & Gaimard, Helicometrina mirzai
Malacoctenus macropus (Poey, 1868) Genitocotyle atlantica
Family: Lepisosteidae
Atractosteus spatula (Lacepde, 1803) Rhipidocotyle lepisostei
Family: Lophiidae
Lophius americanus (Valenciennes, 1837) Rhipidocotyle megagaster
Lophius piscatorius Linnaeus, 1758 Gonocerca crassa, Lecithochirium floridense, Metadena brotulae, Sterrhurus musculus
Overstreet, Cook, and Heard ~ 477

Checklist 5. Gulf of Mexico host-trematode list. (continued )

Host taxon Trematode

Family: Lutjanidae
Lutjanus analis (Cuvier, 1828) Hamacreadium gulella, H.mutabile, Metadena crassulata, Stephanostomum casum
Lutjanus apodus (Walbaum, 1792) Hamacreadium mutabile, Helicometrina nimia, Lecithochirium floridense, Metadena
adglobosa, Stephanostomum tenue, Sterrhurus musculus
Lutjanus campechanus (Poey, 1860) Elaphrobates euzeti, Hamacreadium mutabile, Lepocreadium trulla, Sterrhurus muscu-
Lutjanus griseus (Linnaeus, 1758) Elaphrobates euzeti, Hamacreadium confusum, H.gulella, H.mutabile, Helicometrina
execta, H.nimia, Lecithochirium floridense, Leurodera decora, Metadena adglobosa,
M.globosa, M.obscura, Paracryptogonimus americanus, Stephanostomum casum,
Sterrhurus musculus
Lutjanus jocu (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) Hamacreadium mutabile
Lutjanus mahogoni (Cuvier, 1828) Helicometrina nimia, Metadena globosa, Siphodera vinaledwardsii, Stephanostomum
Lutjanus synagris (Linnaeus, 1758) Hamacreadium mutabile, Helicometrina nimia, Lecithochirium floridense, L.microsto-
mum, L.parvum, Metadena globosa, Stephanostomum casum
Lutjanus vivanus (Cuvier, 1828) Lecithochirium floridense
Ocyurus chrysurus (Bloch, 1791) Aponurus laguncula, Deretrema fusillus, Ectenurus virgulus, Hamacreadium confusum,
H.mutabile, Helicometrina nimia, Lecithochirium floridense, Lepocreadium trulla,
Metadena globosa, Paracryptogonimus americanus, Parahemiurus merus, Proso-
gonotrema bilabiatum, Siphodera vinaledwardsii, Stephanostomum casum, S.inter-
Family: Macrouridae
Bathygadus macrops Goode & Bean, 1885 Adinosoma robustum, Dissosaccus laevis, Goncerca phycidis, Lethadena profunda
Caelorinchus carminatus (Goode, 1880) Gonocerca crassa, G.phycidis, Lomasoma wardi, Lepidapedon elongatum, L.rachion,
Myzoxenus lachnolaimi, Pseudopecoelus tortugae
Caelorinchus caelorhincus (Risso, 1810) Glomericirrus macrouri, Lepidapedon mexicanensis
Caelorinchus caribbaeus (Goode & Bean, 1885) Glomericirrus macrouri, Lepidapedon caribbaei, L.longivesicula
Coryphaenoides carminifer (Garman, 1899) Lepidapedon mexicanensis
Coryphaenoides mexicanus (Parr, 1946) Gonocerca phycidis
Coryphaenoides sp. Lepidapedon desotoensis
Coryphaenoides zaniophorus (Vaillant, 1888) Gonocerca phycidis, Lepidapedon desotoensis, L.mexicanensis, L.zaniophori
Gadomus arcuatus (Goode & Bean, 1886) Macrourimegatrema gadoma
Hymenocephalus italicus Giglioli, 1884 Buticulotrema stenauchenus
Malacocephalus laevis (Lowe, 1843) Gonocerca phycidis
Malacocephalus occidentalis (Goode & Bean, Buticulotrema stenauchenus, Glomericirrus macrouri, Gonocerca phycidis, Podocotyle
1885) pearsei
Nezumia aequalis (Gnther, 1878) Buticulotrema stenauchenus, Glomericirrus macrouri, Lepidapedon nezumiatis, Teller-
votrema armstrongi
Nezumia cyrano Marshall & Iwamoto, 1973 Dissosaccus laevis, Lepidapedon nezumiatis, Tellervotrema armstrongi
Family: Megalopidae
Megalops atlanticus Valenciennes, 1847 Bivesicula tarponis, Lecithochirium microstomum
Family: Merlucciidae
Merluccius bilinearis (Mitchill, 1814) Gonocerca crassa, Merlucciotrema praeclarum
Merluccius sp. Adinosoma robustum, Derogenes varicus, Gonocerca phycidis, Merlucciotrema prae-
Family: Monacanthidae
Aluterus schoepfii (Walbaum, 1792) Rhagorchis odhneri
Aluterusscriptus (Osbeck, 1765) Bianium lecanocephalum
Monacanthus ciliatus (Mitchill, 1818) Rhagorchis odhneri
Stephanolepishispidus (Linnaeus, 1766) Bianium plicitum, Diplomonorchis leiostomi, Goncercella atlantica, Homalometron
mexicanum, Megapera oralis, Pseudocreadium scaphosomum, Xystretrum solidum

(continued )
478 ~ Trematoda (Platyhelminthes)

Checklist 5. Gulf of Mexico host-trematode list. (continued)

Host taxon Trematode

Family: Moridae
Laemonema barbatulum Goode and Bean, Eurycreadium vitellosum, Lepidapedon elongatum, Pseudopecoelus vulgaris, Stephano
1883 stomum lineatum
Family: Moronidae
Morone mississippiensis Jordan & Eigenmann, Lecithaster confusus
Morone saxatilis (Walbaum, 1792) Neochasmus sogandaresi
Family: Mugilidae
Mugil cephalus Linnaeus, 1758 Culuwiya beauforti, Dicrogaster fastigata, Epithelionematobothrium fragile, Haplos-
planchnus mugilis, Hymenocotta manteri, Hysterolecitha elongata, Intromugil mugili-
colus, Lasiotocus glebulentus, L.mugilis, Lecithaster helodes, Rhipidocotyle lepisostei,
Saturnius maurepasi, Schikhobalotrema elongatum, S.magnum
Mugil curema Valenciennes, 1836 Lecithaster helodes, Rhipidocotyle lepisostei
Family: Mullidae
Pseudupeneus maculatus (Bloch, 1793) Lecithochirium floridense, L.parvum, Opecoeloides elongatus
Upeneus martinicus (Cuvier, 1829) Opecoeloides brachyteleus
Upeneus parvus Poey, 1852 Deretrema fusillus
Family: Muraenidae
Gymnothorax funebris Ranzani, 1840 Dictysarca virens, Schikhobalotrema sparisomae, Sterrhurus fusiformis, S.havanensis,
S.loossi, Stomachicola rubeus
Gymnothorax moringa (Cuvier, 1829) Dollfustrema gravidum, Sterrhurus fusiformis, Stomachicola rubeus
Muraena clepsydra Gilbert, 1898 Sterrhurus fusiformis
Family: Myliobatidae
Rhinoptera bonasus (Mitchill, 1815) Multicalyx cristata
Family: Ogcocephalidae
Dibranchus atlanticus Peters, 1876 Hemipera nicolli
Halieutichthys aculeatus (Mitchell, 1818) Lecithochirium floridense
Ogcocephalus cubifrons (Richardson, 1836) Helicometrina mirzai, Lecithochirium floridense, Lecithophyllum pyriforme, Stephano
stomum sentum, Sterrhurus musculus
Ogcocephalus radiatus (Mitchill, 1818) Lecithophyllum pyriforme, Sterrhurus musculus
Family: Ophichthidae
Ophichthus gomesi (Castelnau, 1855) Diplomonorchis sphaerovarium
Family: Ophidiidae
Brotula barbata (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) Gonocerca crassa, Lecithochirium floridense, Lissoloma brotulae, Metadena brotulae,
Pseudopecoelus vulgaris, Sterrhurus musculus
Lepophidium profundorum (Gill, 1863) Sterrhurus musculus
Monomitopus agassizi (Goode & Bean, 1896) Megenteron manteri
Ophidion welshi (Nichols & Breder, 1922) Sterrhurus musculus
Family: Opistognathidae
Lonchopisthus micrognathus (Poey, 1860) Lecithochirium floridense
Opisthognathus maxillosus Poey, 1860 Helicometrina nimia
Opisthognathus sp. Genitocotyle atlantica
Family: Ostraciidae
Acanthostracion quadricornis (Linnaeus, 1758) Dermadena lactophrysi, Diphtherostomum anisotremi, Megapera gyrina, M.orbicu-
laris, M.pseudura, Thysanopharynx elongatus
Lactophrys trigonus (Linnaeus, 1758) Megapera gyrina
Lactophrys triqueter (Linnaeus, 1758) Dermadena lactophrysi, Xystretrum solidum
Family: Paralichthyidae
Ancylopsetta dilecta (Goode & Bean, 1883) Gonocerca crassa, Lecithochirium floridense, L.microstomum, Pseudopecoelus dilecta
Ancylopsetta ommata (Jordan & Gilbert, 1883) Genitocotyle cablei, Sterrhurus musculus
Cyclopsetta fimbriata (Goode & Bean, 1885) Lecithochirium floridense, Sterrhurus musculus
Hippoglossina oblonga(Mitchill, 1815) Adinosoma robustum, Gonocerca crassa
Paralichthys albigutta Jordan & Gilbert, 1882 Aponurus laguncula, Lecithochirium parvum, Metadena adglobosa, Prosorhynchoides
bennetti, Sterrhurus musculus
Overstreet, Cook, and Heard ~ 479

Checklist 5. Gulf of Mexico host-trematode list. (continued )

Host taxon Trematode

Paralichthys dentatus (Linnaeus, 1766) Lecithophyllum pyriforme

Paralichthys lethostigma Jordan & Gilbert, 1884 Bucephaloides paralichthydis, Lecithochirium parvum, L.synodi, Prosorhynchoides ben-
netti, Stomachicola magnus
Paralichthys sp. Gonocerca crassa
Paralichthys squamilentus Jordan & Gilbert, 1882 Gonocerca crassa
Syacium micrurum Ranzani, 1842 Lecithochirium floridense, Sterrhurus musculus
Syacium papillosum (Linnaeus, 1758) Helicometrina nimia, Lecithochirium floridense, Sterrhurus musculus
Syacium sp. Zhukotrema cabelleroi
Family: Pempheridae
Pempheris klunzingeriMcCulloch, 1911 Opecoelus atlanticus
Family: Percophidae
Bembrops gobioides (Goode, 1880) Lecithochirium floridense, Pseudopecoulus vulgaris, Sterrhurus musculus
Family: Peristediidae
Peristedion brevirostre (Gnther, 1860) Brachyenteron peristedioni, Dissosaccus laevis, Pseudopecoelus vulgaris
Peristedion imberbe (Poey, 1861) Lecithochirium floridense, Pseudopecoelus vulgaris
Peristedion longispatha (Goode & Bean, 1886) Dissosaccus laevis
Peristedion miniatum (Goode, 1880) Dissosaccus laevis, Lomasoma gracilis, Pseudopecoelus vulgaris
Family: Phycidae
Phycischesteri Goode & Bean, 1879 Adinosoma robustum, Lepidapedon elongatum, Podocotyle pearsei
Urophyciscirrata(Goode & Bean, 1896) Gonocerca crassa, Lecithochirium floridense, Stephanostomum lineatum, Sterrhurus
Urophycis floridana (Bean & Dresel, 1884) Lecithaster confusus, L.leiostomi, Parahemiurus merus, Sterrhurus musculus
Urophycis regia (Walbaum, 1792) Adinosoma robustum, Derogenes varicus, Dinosoma rubrum, Gonocerca crassa, G.phy-
cidis, Lomasoma wardi, Stephanostomum lineatum
Family: Pleuronectidae
Oncopterus darwini Steindachner, 1874 Lobatostoma ringens
Family: Poeciliidae
Poecilia latipinna(Lesueur, 1821) Rhipidocotyle lintoni, Saccocoeloides soganderesi
Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859 Saccocoeloides sogandaresi
Family: Polymixiidae
Polymixia lowei Gnther, 1859 Lecithochirium floridense, L.parvum
Family: Polynemidae
Polydactylus octonemus (Girard, 1858) Opecoeloides polynemi
Family: Pomacanthidae
Holacanthus ciliaris (Linnaeus, 1758) Antorchis urna, Barisomum erubescens, Manteria brachyderus, Pleurogonius candidulus
Holacanthus isabelita (Jordan & Rutter, 1898) Antorchis urna, Barisomum erubescens
Holacanthus tricolor (Bloch, 1795) Leurodera decora, Macrorchitrema havanense
Pomacanthus arcuatus (Linnaeus, 1758) Antorchis urna, Barisomum erubescens, Cleptodiscus reticulatus, Hapladena leptotelea,
Hexangitrema pomacanthi, Pleurogonius candidulus, Theletrum fustiforme
Pomacanthus paru (Bloch, 1787) Antorchis urna, Theletrum fustiforme
Family: Pomacentridae
Abudefduf saxatilis (Linnaeus, 1758) Deretrema fusillus, Haplosplanchnus adacutus, Parahemiurus merus
Stegastes leucostictus (Mller & Troschel, 1848) Diphtherostomum americanum, Helicometrina nimia, Lepocreadium sogandaresi,
Schikhobalotrema pomacentri
Stegastes rectifraenum(Gill, 1862) Schikhobalotrema pomacentri
Stegastes variabilis(Castelnau, 1855) Schikhobalotrema pomacentri
Family: Pomatomidae
Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus, 1766) Bucephaloides callicotyle, Lecithochirium microstomum, Lobatostoma ringens, Proso-
rhynchoides arcuatus, Sterrhurus monticelli
Family: Priacanthidae
Heteropriacanthus cruentatus (Lacepde, 1801) Lecithochirium floridense, L.parvum, Pseudopecoelus priacanthi
Priacanthus arenatus Cuvier, 1829 Bucephalus priacanthi, Deretrema fusillus, Lecithochirium floridense, L.parvum, Pseu-
dopecoelus priacanthi, Tergestia pectinata
(continued )
480 ~ Trematoda (Platyhelminthes)

Checklist 5. Gulf of Mexico host-trematode list. (continued)

Host taxon Trematode

Family: Pristidae
Pristis pectinata Latham, 1794 Multicalyx cristata
Family: Ptereleotridae
Ptereleotris calliura (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882) Lecithochirium floridense
Family: Rachycentridae
Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus, 1766) Psettarium anthicum, Stephanostomum imparaspine, Tormopsolus filiformis
Family: Scaridae
Calotomus spinidens (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) Haplosplanchnus brachyurus
Nicholsina usta (Valenciennes, 1840) Haplosplanchnus brachyurus
Scarus coelestinus Valenciennes, 1840 Hapladena ovalis, Haplosplanchnus brachyurus
Scarus iseri (Bloch, 1789) Barisomum erubescens
Scarusguacamaia Cuvier, 1829 Haplosplanchnus brachyurus
Sparisoma aurofrenatum (Valenciennes, 1840) Haplosplanchnus brachyurus
Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider, Schikhobalotrema sparisomae
Sparisoma rubripinne (Valenciennes, 1840) Hapladena ovalis, Schikhobalotrema sparisomae
Sparisoma viride (Bonnaterre, 1788) Haplosplanchnus brachyurus, Schikhobalotrema sparisomae
Family: Sciaenidae
Bairdiella chrysoura (Lacepde, 1802) Bucephalus cynoscion, Diplomonorchis leiostomi, Lecithaster confusus, Lecithochirium
parvum, Metadena spectanda, Opecoeloides fimbriatus, Parahemiurus merus, Proso-
rhynchoides caecorum, Pseudopecoelus manteri, Siphodera vinaledwardsii, Stepha-
nostomum interruptum, Sterrhurus musculus, Tergestia pectinata
Cynoscion arenarius Ginsburg, 1930 Bucephalus cynoscion, Cardicola laruei, Hirudinella ventricosa, Metadena spectanda,
Pleorchis americanus, Prosorhynchoides caecorum, Stephanostomum interruptum,
Stomachicola magnus
Cynoscion nebulosus (Cuvier, 1830) Bucephalus cynoscion, Cardicola laruei, Parahemiurus merus, Pleorchis americanus,
Prosorhynchoides caecorum, Stephanostomum interruptum
Cynoscion acoupa (Lacepde, 1801) Lepocreadium trulla, Metadena globosa
Equetus lanceolatus (Linnaeus, 1758) Lecithochirium floridense, Manteriella crassa, Pseudopecoeloides equesi
Leiostomus xanthurus (Lacepde, 1802) Aponurus pyriformis, Diplomonorchis leiostomi, Homalometron manteri, H.pallidum,
Lecithaster leiostomi, Lecithochirium parvum, Sterrhurus musculus
Menticirrhus americanus (Linnaeus, 1758) Cotylogaster basiri, Glaucivermis spinosus, Lobatostoma ringens, Opecoeloides fimbria-
tus, Stephanostomum sentum, Sterrhurus musculus
Menticirrhus littoralis (Holbrook, 1847) Opecoeloides fimbriatus
Menticirrhus saxatilis (Bloch & Schneider, Opecoeloides fimbriatus
Micropogonias undulatus (Linnaeus, 1766) Aponurus pyriformis, Cotylogaster basiri, Diplomonorchis leiostomi , Lecithaster con-
fusus, Lecithochirium parvum, Lecithophyllum pyriforme, Lobatostoma ringens,
Metadena spectanda, Opecoeloides fimbriatus, O.vitellosus, Prosorhynchoides caeco-
rum, Stephanostomum interruptum, Sterrhurus musculus, Thometrema lotzi
Odontoscion dentex (Cuvier, 1830) Manteriella crassa
Pareques umbrosus (Jordan & Eigenmann, Helicometrina execta, Manteriella crassa, Pseudopecoeloides equesi
Pogonias cromis (Linnaeus, 1766) Cardicola palmeri, Cotylogaster basiri, C.dinosoides, Diplomonorchis leiostomi,
Homalometron pallidum
Sciaenops ocellatus (Linnaeus, 1766) Bucephaloides megacirrus, Cardicola currani, Diplomonorchis leiostomi, Lecithaster
confusus, Lecithochirium mecosaccum, Metadena spectanda, Opecoeloides fimbria-
tus, O.vitellosus, Prosorhynchoides caecorum
Family: Scombridae
Acanthocybium solandri (Cuvier, 1832) Hirudinella ventricosa
Auxis thazard (Lacepde, 1800) Lecithochirium parvum, Tergestia laticollis
Euthynnus sp. Hirudinella ventricosa
Euthynnus alletteratus (Rafinesque, 1810) Dinurus scombri, Hirudinella ventricosa, Lecithochirium floridense, L.parvum, L.texa-
num, Rhipidocotyle capitatum, R.nagatyi, Tergestia laticollis
Overstreet, Cook, and Heard ~ 481

Checklist 5. Gulf of Mexico host-trematode list. (continued )

Host taxon Trematode

Sarda sarda (Bloch, 1793) Dinurus barbatus, Lecithochirium texanum, Rhipidocotyle angusticolle, Sterrhurus tex-
Scomberomorus cavalla (Cuvier, 1829) Bucephaloides scomberomorus, Bucephalus varicus, Prosorhynchoides arcuatus, Rhipi-
docotyle angusticolle
Scomberomorus maculatus (Mitchill, 1815) Bucephaloides scomberomorus, Didymocystis scomberomori, Prosorhynchoides arcu-
atus, Rhipidocotyle adbaculum, R.baculum
Scomberomorus regalis (Bloch, 1793) Didymocystis scomberomori, Prosorhynchoides arcuatus, Rhipidocotyle adbaculum,
Thunnus albacares(Bonnaterre, 1788) Lecithochirium parvum, Tergestia laticollis
Family: Scorpaenidae
Pontinus longispinis Goode & Bean, 1896 Lecithochirium floridense, Pseudopecoelus vulgaris, Sterrhurus musculus
Scorpaena agassizii Goode & Bean, 1896 Helicometrina nimia, Lecithochirium floridense
Scorpaena brasiliensis Cuvier, 1829 Helicometrina nimia, Lecithochirium floridense, Pseudopecoelus scorpaenae, Sterrhurus
Scorpaena grandicornis Cuvier, 1829 Bucephalus scorpaenae, Helicometrina nimia, Lecithochirium parvum, Pseudopecoelus
Scorpaena maderensis Valenciennes, 1833 Derogenes varicus, Dissosaccus laevis, Opecoelina helicoleni
Scorpaena plumieri Bloch, 1789 Bucephalus scorpaenae, Helicometrina nimia, Lecithochirium floridense, Pseudopecoelus
scorpaenae, Sterrhurus musculus
Family: Scyliorhinidae
Cephaloscyllium ventriosum (Garman, 1880) Multicalyx cristata
Family: Sebastidae
Trachyscorpia cristulata (Goode & Bean, 1896) Derogenes varicus, Opecoelina scorpaenae, Pseudopecoelus vulgaris
Helicolenus dactylopterus (Delaroche, 1809) Derogenes varicus, Dissosaccus laevis, Opecoelina helicoleni, Pseudopecoelus vulgaris
Family: Serranidae
Centropristis striata (Linnaeus, 1758) Aponurus laguncula, Lecithochirium floridense, Sterrhurus musculus
Diplectrum bivittatum Valenciennes, 1828 Lecithochirium floridense
Diplectrum formosum (Linnaeus, 1766) Lecithochirium parvum, Sterrhurus musculus
Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck, 1765) Helicometra torta
Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein, 1822) Lecithochirium microstomum, Prosorhynchus promicropsi, Stephanostomum promi-
Epinephelus morio (Valenciennes, 1828) Allonematobothrium yucatanense, Barisomum erubescens, Helicometra torta, Heli-
cometrina nimia, Lecithochirium floridense, Lepidapedon levenseni, Postporus epi-
nepheli, Stephanostomum dentatum
Epinephelus mystacinus (Poey, 1852) Stephanostomum admicrostephanum
Epinephelus niveatus (Valenciennes, 1828) Lepidapedoides nicolli, Prosorhynchus ozakii, Stephanostomum microstephanum
Epinephelus striatus (Bloch, 1792) Cainocreadium lintoni, Helicometra torta, Lecithochirium floridense, L.microstomum,
L.parvum, Sterrhurus musculus
Hemanthias aureorubens (Longley, 1935) Lethadena profunda
Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey, 1860) Lecithochirium microstomum, Lecithochirium parvum, Postporus epinepheli, Proso-
rhynchus atlanticus, P.pacificus
Mycteroperca microlepis (Goode & Bean, 1879) Lecithochirium floridense, L.parvum, Neolepidapedoides macrum, Prosorhynchus
atlanticus, P.pacificus
Mycteroperca venenosa (Linnaeus, 1758) Helicometrina execta, Postporus mycteropercae, Proctoeces maculatus, Prosorhynchus
atlanticus, Stephanostomum dentatum
Pronotogrammus sp. Pseudopecoelus vulgaris
Rypticus saponaceus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) Prosorhynchus aguayoi, Sterrhurus ryptici
Family: Setarchidae
Setarches guentheri Johnson, 1862 Derogenes varicus, Gonocerca crassa
Family: Sparidae
Archosargus probatocephalus (Walbaum, 1792) Cotylogaster basiri, Crassicutis archosargi, Diplangus paxillus, Lepocreadium archo-
sargi, Megasolena hysterospina, Multitestis rotundus

(continued )
482 ~ Trematoda (Platyhelminthes)

Checklist 5. Gulf of Mexico host-trematode list. (continued)

Host taxon Trematode

Archosargus rhomboidalis (Linnaeus, 1758) Cainocreadium oscitans, Diplomonorchis leiostomi, Diphtherostomum americanum,
Lecithochirium parvum, Megasolena hysterospina, Steringotrema corpulentum
Calamus bajonado (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) Anahemiurus microcercus, Aponurus pyriformis, Cardicola cardiocola, Lecithochirium
floridense, Lecithophyllum pyriforme, Lobatostoma ringens, Pachycreadium crassigu-
lum, Proctoeces maculatus, Pycnadenoides calami, Stephanostomum sentum
Calamus calamus (Valenciennes, 1830) Anahemiurus microcercus, Aponurus pyriformis, Diplangus paxillus, Helicometrina
nimia, Lecithophyllum pyriforme, Lobatostoma ringens, Myzoxenus vittellosus,
Pachycreadium crassigulum, Proctoeces maculatus, Pseudocreadium anandrum, Pyc-
nadena lata, Stephanostomum sentum
Diplodus holbrookii (Bean, 1878) Pachycreadium crassigulum
Lagodon rhomboides (Linnaeus, 1766) Diplomonorchis leiostomi, Diphtherostomum americanum, Ectenurus yamagutii,
Lasiotocus beauforti, L.lintoni, Lecithaster confusus, Lecithochirium parvum, Lepo-
creadium floridanus, Megasolena hysterospina, Parahemiurus merus, Proctoeces lin-
toni, Steringotrema corpulentum
Stenotomus chrysops (Linneaus, 1766) Lobatostoma ringens
Family: Sphyraenidae
Sphyraena barracuda (Edwards, 1771) Bucephaloides longoviferous, Claribulla longula, Paradinurus manteri, Prosorhyn-
choides arcuatus, Rhipidocotyle barracudae, R.longicirrus, R.longleyi, Stephanosto-
mum gracile, Sterrhurus musculus
Sphyraena guachancho Cuvier, 1829 Lecithophyllum pyriforme

Family: Stromateidae
Peprilus alepidotus (Linnaeus, 1766) Lecithocladium excisum, Lepocreadium pyriforme, Opechona gracilis
Peprilus burti Fowler, 1944 Lecithocladium excisum
Peprilus triacanthus (Peck, 1804) Lepocreadium pyriforme
Family: Synaphobranchidae
Ilyophis brunneus Gilbert, 1891 Helicometra robinsorum
Synaphobranchus affinis Gnther, 1877 Pseudopecoelus vulgaris
Synaphobranchus oregoni Castle, 1960 Helicometra robinsorum, Hypertrema ambovatum
Family: Syngnathidae
Hippocampus erectus Perry, 1810 Dictysarca virens, Genitocotyle cablei
Syngnathus sp. Genitocotyle atlantica
Family: Synodontidae
Saurida normani Longley, 1935 Gonocerca crassa
Synodus foetens (Linnaeus, 1766) Ectenurus americanus, Genolopa ampullacea, Lecithochirium floridense, L.mecosac-
cum, L.microstomum, L.parvum, L.synodi, Opegaster synodi, Parahemiurus merus,
Sterrhurus musculus, Stomachicola magnus, S.rubeus
Synodus intermedius (Spix & Agassiz, 1829) Gonocerca crassa, Sterrhurus musculus
Synodus poeyi Jordan, 1887 Lecithochirium floridense, L.mecosaccum
Synodus sp. Sterrhurus musculus
Family: Tetraodontidae
Lagocephalus laevigatus (Linnaeus, 1766) Aponurus laguncula, Bianium plicitum, B.vitellosum
Sphaeroides sp. Bianium plicitum
Sphoeroides spengleri (Bloch, 1785) Bianium plicitum, Sclerodistomum sphoeroidis, Xystretrum solidum
Sphoeroides testudineus (Linnaeus, 1758) Bianium plicitum, Megalophallus diodontis, Sclerodistomum sphoeroidis, Xystretrum
Family: Trichiuridae
Benthodesmus simonyi (Steindachner, 1891) Pseudopecoelus vulgaris
Trichiurus lepturus Linnaeus, 1758 Bucephaloides trichiuri, Bucephalus brevitentaculatus, Lecithochirium microstomum
Family: Triglidae
Bellator militaris (Goode & Bean, 1896) Helicometra fasciata, Pseudopecoelus vulgaris
Prionotus alatus Goode & Bean, 1883 Helicometra fasciata, Pseudopecoelus vulgaris
Prionotus carolinus (Linnaeus, 1771) Helicometra fasciata
Overstreet, Cook, and Heard ~ 483

Checklist 5. Gulf of Mexico host-trematode list. (continued )

Host taxon Trematode

Prionotus sp. Lecithochirium floridense, L.parvum, Sterrhurus musculus

Prionotus scitulus Jordan & Gilbert, 1882 Sterrhurus monticelli
Prionotus stearnsi Jordan & Swain, 1885 Lecithochirium floridense, Pseudopecoelus vulgaris, Sterrhurus musculus
Family: Uranoscopidae
Kathetostoma albigutta (Bean, 1892) Bucephalus kathetostomae
Class: Chondrichthyes
Family: Carcharhinidae
Carcharhinus limbatus (Mller & Henle, 1839) Selachohemecus benzi
Rhizoprionodon terraenovae (Richardson, Selachohemecus olsoni

Family: Dasyatidae
Dasyatis americana Hildebrand & Schroeder, Nagmia floridensis
Dasyatis sabina (Lesueur, 1824) Nagmia floridensis
Class: Reptilia
Family: Alligatoridae
Alligator mississippiensis (Daudin, 1801) Caimanicola pavidus, Timoniella loossi, Protocaecum coronarium
Family: Cheloniidae
Caretta caretta (Linnaeus, 1758) Carettacola bipora, Cricocephalus albus, Cymatocarpus solearis, Diaschistorchis pandus,
Hapalotrema synorchis, Lophotaspis vallei, Neospirorchis pricei, Orchidasma amphi-
orchis, Pachypsolus irroratus, Plesiochorus cymbiformis, Pleurogonius trigonocepha-
lus, Pyelosomum longicaecum, Rhytidodes gelatinosus, Styphlotrema solitarius
Chelonia mydas (Linnaeus, 1758) Angiodictyum parallelum, Cricocephalus albus, C.megastomus, Desmogonius desmogo-
nius, Deuterobaris proteus, Diaschistorchis pandus, Enodiotrema megachondrus,
Glyphicephalus lobatus, G.solidus, Learedius learedi, L.similis, Microscaphidium
reticulare, Octangium sagitta, Pleurogonius trigonocephalus, Polyangium linguatula,
Pyelosomum cochlear, Rhytidodoides intestinalis, R.similis, Schizamphistomoides
spinulosus, Schizamphistomum scleroporum
Eretmochelys imbricata (Linnaeus, 1766) Adenogaster serialis, Cricocephalus americanus, Diaschistorchis pandus, Glyphicepha-
lus solidus, Pleurogonius longibursatus, Pleurogonius trigonocephalus, Rhytidodes
Family: Crocodylidae
Crocodylus rhombifer Cuvier, 1807 Acanthostomum americanum, Timoniella loossi
Crocodylus acutus Cuvier, 1807 Acanthostomum americanum, Timoniella loossi
Crocodylus moreletii Dumril and Bibron, 1851 Acanthostomum americanum, Timoniella loossi
Family: Dermochelyidae
Dermochelys coriacea (Vandelli, 1761) Pyelosomum renicapite
Class: Aves (the Sauropsida clade of the Reptilia;
including the class Aves and excluding the order
Testudines and the clade Crocodylotarsi)
Family: Accipitridae
Buteo jamaicensis (J.F.Gmelin, 1788) Phagicola longa
Buteo lineatus (J.F.Gmelin, 1788) Microparyphium facetum
Buteogallus anthracinus (Deppe, 1830) Ascocotyle tenuicollis, Phagicola nana
Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Linnaeus, 1766) Mesostephanus appendiculatoides, Microparyphium facetum, Phagicola longa, P.nana,
Renicola thapari
Pandion haliaetus (Linnaeus, 1758) Ascocotyle angrense, Echinochasmus dietzevi, Mesostephanus appendiculatoides, Neogo-
gatea pandionis, Phagicola longa, Pygidiopsis pindoramensis, Scaphanocephalus
expansus, Stephanoprora denticulata, Renicola ralli

(continued )
484 ~ Trematoda (Platyhelminthes)

Checklist 5. Gulf of Mexico host-trematode list. (continued)

Host taxon Trematode

Family: Anatidae
Aix sponsa (Linnaeus, 1758) Prosthogonimus ovatus
Anas fulvigula Ridgway, 1874 Prosthogonimus ovatus, Psilochasmus oxyurus
Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus, 1758 Psilochasmus oxyurus
Aythya collaris (Donovan, 1809) Cyclocoelum obscurum, Prosthogonimus ovatus
Aythya marila (Linnaeus, 1761) Psilochasmus oxyurus
Dendrocygna bicolor (Vieillot, 1816) Prosthogonimus ovatus
Family: Anhingidae
Anhinga anhinga (Linnaeus, 1766) Echinochasmus dietzevi, Euparyphium anhingae, E.capitaneum, Schwartzitrema
schwartzi,Trifolium travossosi
Family: Ardeidae
Ardea alba Linnaeus, 1758 Ascocotyle angrense, A.gemina, A.mcintoshi, Ascocotyle megalocephala, A.tenuicollis,
Apharyngostrigea pipientis, Echinochasmus dietzevi, Ignavia venusta, Mesostephanus
appendiculatoides, Microparyphium facetum, Phagicola diminuta, P.longa, P.nana,
Pholeter anterouterus, Stephanoprora denticulata
Ardea herodias Linnaeus, 1758 Apharyngostrigea cornu, A.simplex, Ascocotyle gemina, Ascocotyle megalocephala,
Echinochasmus dietzevi, Ignavia venusta, Microparyphium facetum, Parastrigea
brasiliana, Phagicola diminuta, Prosthogonimus ovatus, Pygiodopsis pindoramensis,
Stephanoprora denticulata
Botaurus lentiginosus (Rackett, 1813) Apharyngostrigea pipientis
Bubulcus ibis (Linnaeus, 1758)
Butorides virescens (Linnaeus, 1758) Apharyngostrigea duboisi, Ascocotyle leighi, Microphallus turgidus, Strigea gracilis
Egretta caerulea (Linnaeus, 1758) Apharyngostrigea multiovata, A.simplex, Ascocotyle chandleri, A.gemina, A.mcintoshi,
A.tenuicollis, Echinochasmus donaldsoni, Phagicola diminuta, P.longa, P.nana,
Pholeter anterouterus, Microphallus turgidus, Prosthogonimus ovatus
Egretta thula (Molina, 1782) Echinochasmus dietzevi, Microparyphium facetum, Stephanoprora denticulata
Hydranassa tricolor (Muller, 1776) Apharyngostrigea pipientis, Phagicola diminuta, Renicola hydranassae
Nyctanassa violacea (Linnaeus, 1758) Ascocotyle gemina, Ignavia venusta, Microphallus turgidus, Parorchis acanthus,
Pygiodopsis pindoramensis
Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus, 1758) Apharyngostrigea cornu, Mesostephanus appendiculatoides, Parorchis acanthus, Phagi-
cola longa, P.mollienesicola, Pygiodopsis pindoramensis
Family: Cathartidae
Cathartes aura (Linnaeus, 1758) Phagicola macrostoma
Family: Charadriidae
Haematopus palliatus Temminck, 1820 Acanthoparyphium spinulosum
Himantopus mexicanus (Muller, 1776) Caiguiria himantopae, Neoallopyge americanensis
Pluvialis squatarola (Linnaeus, 1758) Megalophallus reamesi
Family: Ciconiidae
Mycteria americana Linnaeus, 1758 Ascocotyle sesquiordoi, Echinochasmus dietzevi, E.donaldsoni, Erschoviorchis lintoni,
Ignavia venusta, Microparyphium facetum, Phagicola longa, P.macrostoma, P.nana,
Stephanoprora denticulata
Family: Falconidae
Caracara cheriway (Jacquin, 1784) Microparyphium facetum, Prosthogonimus ovatus
Falco sparverius Linnaeus, 1758 Prosthogonimus ovatus
Family: Fregatidae
Fregata magnificens Mathews, 1914 Galactosomum cochleariforme, G.fregatae, Schwartzitrema seamsteri
Family: Gaviidae
Gavia immer (Brunnich, 1764) Austrobilharzia terrigalensis, Echinochasmus skrjabini, Erschoviorchis lintoni, Himas-
thla alincia, Mesostephanus appendiculatoides, Microparyphium facetum, Odhneria
odhneri, Parorchis acanthus, Phagicola longa, Plotnikovia fodiens, Prosthogonimus
ovatus, Renicola pollaris, Stephanoprora denticulata, Stictodora lariformicola
Family: Laridae
Larus argentatus Pontoppidan, 1763 Cardiocephalus medioconiger, C.megaloconus, Cryptocotyle lingua, Parorchis acanthus,
Stephanoprora denticulata, Stictodora lariformicola
Overstreet, Cook, and Heard ~ 485

Checklist 5. Gulf of Mexico host-trematode list. (continued )

Host taxon Trematode

Larus atricilla Linnaeus, 1758 Cardiocephalus medioconiger, Cardiocephalus megaloconus, Cotylurus aquavis, Galac-
tosomum fregatae, Galactosomum puffini, Galactosomum spinetum, Gynaecotyla
adunca, Pachytrema sanguineum, Philophthalmus larsoni, Renicola glandoloba
Rynchops niger Linnaeus, 1758 Acanthotrema martini, Galactosomum spinetum, Neostictodora huttoni, Stephanoprora
Sterna forsteri Nuttall, 1834 Cardiocephalus medioconiger, C.megaloconus
Sterna hirundo Linnaeus, 1758 Renicola glandoloba
Sterna maxima Boddaert, 1783 Cardiocephalus medioconiger, C.megaloconus, Pachytrema sanguineum, Philophthal-
mus andersoni, Renicola glandoloba, Stephanoprora denticulata, Stictodora larifor-
Sterna nilotica J.F.Gmelin, 1789 Galactosomum spinetum, Renicola glandoloba
Family: Pelecanidae
Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Gmelin, 1789 Ascocotyle gemina, A.leighi, Bursatintinnabulus bassanus, Echinochasmus dietzevi,
Mesostephanus appendiculatoides, M.microbursa, Phagicola longa, P.nana, Pholeter
anterouterus, Renicola thapari, Stephanoprora denticulata
Pelecanus occidentalis Linnaeus, 1766 Echinochasmus donaldsoni, Galactosomum darbyi, G.fregatae, G.puffini, Mesostepha-
nus yedeae, Microparyphium facetum, Microphallus turgidus, Phagicola macrostoma
Family: Phalacrocoracidae
Phalacrocorax auritus (Lesson, 1831) Drepanocephalus spathans, Mesostephanus appendiculatoides, M.cubaensis, Parorchis
acanthus, Phagicola diminuta, P.longa, Phocitremoides butionis
Phalacrocorax brasilianus (Gmelin, 1789) Phocitremoides butionis
Family: Phoenicopteridae
Phoenicopterus ruber Linnaeus, 1758 Parorchis acanthus
Family: Rallidae
Porzana carolina (Linnaeus, 1758) Prosthogonimus ovatus
Rallus elegans Audubon, 1834 Ascocotyle pachycystis, Cyclocoelum obscurum, Echinochasmus schwartzi, Levinseniella
byrdi, Prosthogonimus ovatus
Rallus longirostris Boddaert, 1783 Ascocotyle gemina, Austrobilharzia penneri, Diacetabulum riggini, Echinochasmus
schwartzi, Gynaecotyla adunca, Levinseniella deblocki, Longiductotrema floriden-
sis, Lyperosomum sinuosum, Maritrema patulus, M.prosthometra, Megalophallus
pentadactylus, M.reamesi, Microphallus turgidus, Odhneria raminellae, Pachytrema
sanguineum, Parorchis acanthus, Phagicola diminuta, Probolocoryphe glandulosa,
Renicola glandoloboides, R.hydranassae, R.ralli
Family: Scolopacidae
Arenaria interpres (Linnaeus, 1758) Androcotyla arenariae, Diacetabulum riggini, Megalophallus reamesi, Parorchis acan-
thus, Probolocoryphe glandulosa
Calidris canutus (Linnaeus, 1758) Cyclocoelum obscurum, Himasthla alincia, Odhneria odhneri, Parorchis acanthus
Catoptrophorus semipalmatus (J.F.Gmelin, Acanthotrema cursitans, A.hancocki, Cyclocoelum obscurum, Diacetabulum riggini,
1789) Endocotyle bushi, Gynaecotyla adunca, Himasthla catoptrophori, H.quissetensis,
Levinseniella hunteri, Maritrema patulus, Microphallus nicolli, M.turgidus, Nume-
niotrema kinsellai, Odhneria odhneri, Paragymnophallus kinsellai, Parorchis acan-
thus, Parvatrema borinquenae, Probolocoryphe glandulosa, Prosthogonimus ovatus,
Renicola glandoloboides, Testiculoporus cedarkeyensis
Limnodromus griseus (J.F.Gmelin, 1789) Cyclocoelum obscurum, Parorchis acanthus
Numenius americanus Bechstein, 1812 Cyclocoelum obscurum, Himasthla rhigedana, Lyperosomum oswaldoi, L.sinuosum,
Parorchis acanthus, P.numenii, Probolocoryphe glandulosa
Tringa flavipes (J.F.Gmelin, 1789) Himasthla alincia
Family: Strigidae
Athene cunicularia (Molina, 1782) Maritrema patulus, Prosthogonimus ovatus
Family: Sulidae
Morus bassanus (Linnaeus, 1758) Bursacetabulus morus, Bursatintinnabulus bassanus, Galactosomum cochleariforme
Sula leucogaster (Boddaert, 1783) Mesostephanus fajardensis

(continued )
486 ~ Trematoda (Platyhelminthes)

Checklist 5. Gulf of Mexico host-trematode list. (continued)

Host taxon Trematode

Family: Threskiornithidae
Ajaia ajaja (Linnaeus, 1758) Apharyngostrigea multiovata, Ascocotyle chandleri, A.mcintoshi, Echinochasmus
dietzevi, Microparyphium facetum, Microphallus turgidus, Phagicola longa, P.mac-
rostoma, Phocitremoides butionis, Pygiodopsis pindoramensis, Pygorchis americanus,
Renicola ralli, Stephanoprora denticulata, Strigea strigis
Eudocimus albus (Linnaeus, 1758) Ascocotyle ampullacea, A.mcintoshi, Gynaecotyla adunca, Lyperosomum sinuosum,
Microparyphium facetum, Microphallus turgidus, Parastrigea diovadena, Parorchis
acanthus, Polycyclorchis eudocimi, Probolocoryphe glandulosa
Class: Mammalia
Family: Delphinidae
Feresa attenuata Gray, 1874 Nasitrema lanceolata, Pholeter gastrophilus
Grampus griseus (G.Cuvier, 1812) Campula palliata, Hadwenius tursionis, Pholeter gastrophilus
Stenella attenuata (Gray, 1846) Braunina cordiformis, Campula palliata, Pholeter gastrophilus
Steno bredanensis (G.Cuvier in Lesson, 1828) Campula palliata, Hadwenius tursionis, Pholeter gastrophilus
Tursiops truncatus (Montagu, 1821) Braunina cordiformis, Campula palliata, Pholeter gastrophilus
Family: Didelphidae
Didelphis virginiana Kerr, 1792 Acanthotrema cursitans, Linstowiella szidati, Mesostephanus appendiculatoides, Phagi-
cola longa
Family: Felidae
Lynx rufus (Schreber, 1777) Heterobilharzia americana
Family: Muridae
Ondatra zibethicus (Linnaeus, 1766) Ascocotyle angrense, Echinochasmus schwartzi, Paramonostomum pseudalveatum,
Phagicola diminuta, Quinqueserialis quinqueserialis
Oryzomys palustris (Harlan, 1837) Acanthotrema cursitans, Ascocotyle angrense, A.mollienisicola, Catatropis johnstoni,
Echinochasmus schwartzi, Gymnophalloides heardi, Gynaecotyla adunca, Levinsen-
iella deblocki, Maritrema heardi, M.prosthometra, Microphallus basodactylophallus,
M.nicolli, Odhneria odhneri, Probolocoryphe glandulosa
Sigmodon hispidus Say and Ord, 1825 Gynaecotyla adunca, Microphallus basodactylophallus, Nudacotyle novicia, Plagiorchis
muris, Probolocoryphe glandulosa
Family: Mustelidae
Lontra canadensis (Schreber, 1777) Baschkirovitrema incrassatum
Mustela vison Schreber, 1777 Baschkirovitrema incrassatum, Cryptocotyle concava, Euparyphium beaveri, Heterobil-
harzia americana, Isthmiophora melis, Sellacotyle vitellosa
Family: Procyonidae
Procyon lotor (Linnaeus, 1758) Acanthotrema cursitans, Amphimerus speciosus, Ascocotyle angrense, A.pachycystis,
Carneophallus bilobatus, Gynaecotyla adunca, Heterobilharzia americana, Isthmio-
phora melis, Levinseniella deblocki, Linstowiella szidati, Maritrema prosthometra,
Mesostephanus appendiculatoides, Microphallus basodactylophallus, M.turgidus,
Phagicola diminuta, P.longa, Probolocoryphe glandulosa
Family: Trichechidae
Trichechus manatus Linnaeus, 1758 Chiorchis fabaceus, Cochleotrema cochleotrema, Moniligerum blairi, Nudacotyle
The record of Conger conger is based on a misidentification; the true identity of the host remains unknown.