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# MEE315-Process Instrumentation & Control

## Dr. Dipesh S. Patle

SMBS, VIT Vellore

dipesh.patle@vit.ac.in
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Process modeling with example of blending process and CSTR
DOF analysis
Numerical on blending process

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Important analytical method for solving linear ordinary
differential equations.
- It applies only to linear ODEs. Non linear ODE are to be
linearized first.
Laplace transforms play a key role in important process
control concepts and techniques.
- Examples:
Converting ODEs into simple algebraic equations
Transfer functions
Frequency response
Control system design
Stability analysis 3
Definition

## The Laplace transform of a function, f(t), is defined as

F ( s) L f (t ) f t e st dt (3-1)
0

## where F(s) is the symbol for the Laplace transform, L is the

Laplace transform operator, and f(t) is some function of time, t.

## Note: The L operator transforms a time domain function f(t)

into an s domain function, F(s). s is a complex variable:
s = a + bj, j 1

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Inverse Laplace Transform, L-1:
By definition, the inverse Laplace transform operator, L-1,
converts an s-domain function back to the corresponding time
domain function:

f t L1 F s

Important Properties:
Both L and L-1 are linear operators. Thus, they satisfy
superposition principle
L ax t by t aL x t bL y t
aX s bY s (3-3)

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where:
- x(t) and y(t) are arbitrary functions
- a and b are constants
- X s L x t and Y s L y t

Similarly,

L1 aX s bY s ax t b y t

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1. Constant Function
Let f(t) = a (a constant). Then from the definition of the
Laplace transform in (3-1),

a st a a
L a ae st
dt e 0 (3-4)
0 s s s
0

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2. Step Function
The unit step function is widely used in the analysis of process
control problems. It is defined as:

0 for t 0
S t (3-5)
1 for t 0

## Because the step function is a special case of a constant, it

follows from (3-4) that
1
L S t (3-6)
s

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3. Derivatives
This is a very important transform because derivatives appear
in the ODEs we wish to solve.

df
L sF s f 0 (3-9)
dt
initial condition at t = 0

## Similarly, for higher order derivatives:

dn f n n 2 1
L n s F s s n 1
f 0 s f 0
dt
... sf 0 f 0
n2 n 1
(3-14)
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where:
- n is an arbitrary positive integer

dk f
- f k 0
dt k t 0

## Special Case: All Initial Conditions are Zero

f 0 f 0 ... f 0 . Then
1 n1
Suppose

dn f n
L n s F s
dt
In process control problems, we usually assume zero initial
conditions. Reason: This corresponds to the nominal steady state
when deviation variables are used.

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4. Exponential Functions
Consider f t ebt where b > 0. Then,

L ebt ebt e st dt e dt
b s t
0 0
1 b s t 1
e (3-16)
bs 0 sb

## 5. Rectangular Pulse Function

It is defined by:

0 for t 0

f t h for 0 t tw (3-20)
0 for t t
w

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h

f t

tw
Time, t

## The Laplace transform of the rectangular pulse is given by

h
s

F s 1 e t w s (3-22)

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6. Impulse Function (or Dirac Delta Function)
The impulse function is obtained by taking the limit of the
rectangular pulse as its width, tw, goes to zero but holding
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the area under the pulse constant at one. (i.e., let h )
tw
Let, t impulse function

Then, L t 1

7. Trigonometric Functions
L[cos(wt)] = L[ejwt+e-jwt ]/2 = s/(s2+w2)

## L[sin(wt)] = L[ejwt-e-jwt ]/2j = w/(s2+w2)

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Solution of ODEs by Laplace Transforms
Procedure:
1. Take the L of both sides of the ODE.
2. Rearrange the resulting algebraic equation in the s domain to
solve for the L of the output variable, e.g., Y(s).
3. Perform a partial fraction expansion.
4. Use the L-1 to find y(t) from the expression for Y(s).

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Example 3.1
Solve the ODE,
dy
5 4y 2 y 0 1 (3-26)
dt

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Example 3.1
Solve the ODE,
dy
5 4y 2 y 0 1 (3-26)
dt
First, take L of both sides of (3-26),

5 sY s 1 4Y s
2
s
Rearrange,
5s 2
Y s (3-34)
s 5s 4
Take L-1,
1 5s 2
y t L
s 5s 4
From Table 3.1,
y t 0.5 0.5e0.8t (3-37)
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Important Properties of Laplace Transforms

## Final Value Theorem

It can be used to find the steady-state value of a closed loop
system (providing that a steady-state value exists).

Statement of FVT:

lim y t lim sY s
t s 0

## providing that the limit exists (is finite) for all

Re s 0, where Re (s) denotes the real part of complex
variable, s.
Initial Value TheoremHW

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Example:

Suppose,
5s 2
Y s (3-34)
s 5s 4
Then,
5s 2
Final value: y lim y t lim 0.5
t s 0 5s 4

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