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Tissues Secondary in stems and roots of woody plants but

rarely in leaves
Complex more than one basic type of cells - Characteristic of gymnosperms and many
a. Xylem = conduction of water and minerals; eudicots, but not monocots
parenchyma, tracheary elements (vessels and
tracheids), fibers Roots
b. Phloem conduction of food; parenchyma, - Multicellular organs with important functions:
sieve elements, companion cells, fibers anchoring the plant, absorbing minerals and
Two types of water conducting cells, tracheid and water, storing organic nutrients
vessel elements, are dead at maturity
Tracheids are found in the xylem of all vascular Types of root system
plants Taproot consist of one main vertical root, gives rise
Vessel elements = are common to most angiosperms to lateral, or branch roots
and a few gymnosperms Fibrous characterised by thin lateral roots with no
Fibers- supporting cells main root
Adventitious
Phloem
Sieve tube elements = are alive at maturity though Root tip covered by root cap, which protects the
they lack organelles apical meristem as the root pushes through the soil
Sieve plates porous end walls that allow fluid to Growth and development occur above the root tip, in
flow between cells along the sieve tube three zones of cells; zone of cell division, elongation
Companion cell = connected to sieve tube element and maturation or differentiation
whose nucleus and ribosomes serve both cells
Endodermis innermost part of cortex
Stele = vascular tissue of a stem or root
Vascular cylinder the stele of the root in Specialized/modified roots
angiosperms Storage roots
Strangling aerial roots structural support
Ground tissue internal to the vascular tissue is pith; Buttress roots
external cortex for storage, photosynthesis and Taproots
support Prop roots- type of adventitious
Pneumatophores
Meristem = parenchyma tissue, dividing tissues and Root nodules - develop as a result of a symbiotic
allow for indeterminate growth, generate cells for relationship between rhizobial bacteria and the root
new organs hairs
Indeterminate growth = grow throughout its life Mychorrhiza fungi-plant root association
Determinate growth = cease to grow at a certain size
Secondary growth
Apical meristem located at the tips of shoots Origin of secondary tissues in roots
Lateral = add thickness or girth to woody plants,
process called secondary growth
To lateral mersitems vascular and cork cambium
Meristems = give rise to initials, remain in the
meristem and derivatives, become specialized in
developing tissues
Woody plants, primary and secondary growth occur
simultaneously but in different location