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CONTENTS

To the students ....................................................................... 7


Chapter 1.Coordinates, lines, functions, graphs
1.1. Rectangular coordinate systems......................................... 9
1.2. Increments ...................................................................... 10
1.3. Slopes of nonvertical lines .............................................. 10
1.4. Lines that are parallel or perpendicular ............................ 11
1.5. Equations for lines .......................................................... 11
a) Horizontal and vertical lines .............................................. 11
b) Point- slope equation for lines ............................................ 11
c) Lines determined by slope and y-intercept .......................... 12
Exercises ............................................................................... 13
1.6. The properties of inequalities .......................................... 15
1.7. The absolute value function ............................................. 15
1.8. Properties of absolute value............................................. 16
Exercises ............................................................................... 17
1.9. Distance formula for points in the plane .......................... 19
1.10. Division of line segment into the given ratio .................. 19
1.11. The midpoint formula ................................................... 20
1.12. Area of the triangle ....................................................... 20
Exercises ............................................................................... 21
1.13. Functions ...................................................................... 22
1.14. Operations on functions................................................. 23
Exercises ............................................................................... 24
1.15. Symmetry of odd and even functions ............................. 26
1.16. Graphs and graphing ..................................................... 27
1.17. Graphing functions by translation .................................. 28
Exercises ............................................................................... 29
Chapter 2. The limit of a function
2.1. Definition of limit ........................................................... 31
2.2. Computations of limits .................................................... 33
2.3. Limits of polynomials as x or x ............. 35
2.4. Limits of rational functions as x or x 37
2.5. A quick method for finding limits of rational functions
as x or x ............................................................ 38
Exercises ............................................................................... 38
2.6. Limits involving radicals ................................................. 39

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Exercises ............................................................................... 41
2.7. One sided limits .............................................................. 42
2.8. Existence of limits .......................................................... 44
2.9. Continuity ....................................................................... 45
Exercises .............................................................................. .46
2.10. The limit of trigonometric functions. The first
remarkable limit ............................................................. 49
Exercises ............................................................................... 51
2.11. The number e. Second remarkable limit......................... 52
Exercises ............................................................................... 55
Chapter 3. Derivatives
3.1. Definition of derivatives.................................................. 56
3.2. Geometric interpretation of derivatives ............................ 56
3.3. Derivative notation.......................................................... 58
3.4. Existence of derivatives .................................................. 59
Exercises ............................................................................... 60
3.5. Techniques of differentiation........................................... 62
3.6. Higher order derivatives .................................................. 66
Exercises ............................................................................... 67
3.7. The derivatives of the trigonometric functions ................. 69
Exercises ............................................................................... 72
3.8. The derivative of composite function. The
Chain rule ...................................................................... 74
Exercises ............................................................................... 79
3.9. Implicit differentiation .................................................... 81
Exercises ............................................................................... 86
3.10. The linearization ........................................................... 88
3.11. The differential ............................................................. 89
3.12. Using the differential..................................................... 91
Exercises ............................................................................... 94
Chapter 4. Applications of derivatives
4.1. Relative maxima and minima. The first and second
derivative tests ................................................................ 96
Exercises ............................................................................. 100
4.2. Maximum and minimum values of a function on a
closed interval ..................................................................... 102
4.3. Concavity ..................................................................... 104

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4.4. Inflection points ............................................................ 105
Exercises ............................................................................. 106
4.5. Asymptotes ................................................................... 107
Exercises ............................................................................. 109
4.6. The derivative and sketching the graph.......................... 110
Exercises ............................................................................. 113
4.7. Rolles theorem; Mean-value theorem ........................... 114
Exercises ............................................................................. 116
4.8. Indeterminate forms and LHopitals rule ...................... 117
Exercises ............................................................................. 121
Chapter 5. Integration
5.1. Antiderivatives. The indefinite integral. Properties and
some integration formulas ............................................ 123
Exercises ............................................................................. 127
5.2. Integration by substitution ............................................. 128
Exercises ............................................................................. 130
5.3. Sigma notation .............................................................. 132
Exercises ............................................................................. 133
5. 4. The definite integral and its properties .......................... 135
Exercises ............................................................................. 139
5. 5. The first fundamental theorem of Calculus ................... 141
Exercises ............................................................................. 143
5. 6. The second fundamental theorem of Calculus ............... 144
Exercises ............................................................................. 147
5. 7. Substitution in a definite integral .................................. 148
Exercises ............................................................................. 151
Chapter 6.Logarithmic and exponential functions
6.1. Logarithms (an overview) ............................................. 153
Exercises ............................................................................. 154
6.2. The derivatives y ln x and y log a x ....................... 156
Exercises ............................................................................. 160
6.3. Logarithmic differentiation ........................................... 161
Exercises ............................................................................. 163
6.4. Integrals involving ln x and log a x .............................. 164
Exercises ............................................................................. 166
6.5. Exponents (an overview) ............................................... 167

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6.6. Derivatives of the functions a x and e x ......................... 168
Exercises ............................................................................. 169
6.7. Integrals of the functions a x and e x ............................. 171
Exercises ............................................................................. 173
6.8. Limits involving functions a x , e x and ln x .LHopitals

rule and the forms 1 , 0 0 and 0 ............................... 175
Exercises ............................................................................. 180
6.9. The hyperbolic functions ............................................... 181
Exercises ............................................................................. 185
Chapter 7. Inverse trigonometric and hyperbolic functions
7.1. Inverse trigonometric functions ..................................... 187
Exercises ............................................................................. 191
7.2. The inverse hyperbolic functions ................................... 193
Exercises ............................................................................. 194
Chapter 8.Techniques of integration.
8.1. Basic integration formulas ............................................. 195
8.2. The substitution method ................................................ 197
Exercises ............................................................................. 200
8.3. Integration by parts ....................................................... 202
Exercises ............................................................................. 205
8.4. Trigonometric integrals ................................................. 207
8.4.1. Integrating powers of sine and cosine functions .......... 207
Exercises ............................................................................. 210
8.4.2. Trigonometric substitutions ........................................ 212
Exercises ............................................................................. 214
8.5. Integrals involving ax 2 bx c, a 0 ....................... 215
Exercises ............................................................................. 219
8.6.1. Integration of rational functions by partial fractions .... 221
8.6.2. Integrating improper rational functions ....................... 227
Exercises ............................................................................. 228
8.7. Special techniques of integration ................................... 230
Exercises ............................................................................. 234
Chapter 9. Improper integrals
9.1. Definition of improper integrals .................................... 236
9.2. Tests for convergence and divergence ........................... 241
Exercises ............................................................................. 243

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To the students
There are a few lucky students who seem to learn even the
hardest math almost effortlessly. The rest of us can only envy them and
try to pick their brains. You are like the majority of us who cannot learn
math without working hard at it. Do not fool yourself into thinking that
you can get by without working at it. You will only get yourself into
more trouble than you climb out of by mid-semester.

Tip 1: Do the homework exercises. Many professors do not


require you hand in the homework. The homework is for your benefit,
not the professors. You cannot learn to play the piano without
endlessly practicing scales. You cannot make the football team without
endlessly running windsprints. You cannot learn to paint without
endlessly painting still lives. Math is no different. The exercises will
train your mind and sharpen your intuition. So do the work. It will pay
off in the end.

Tip 2: Math books are meant to be read slowly. You cannot


speed- read it and expect to get any benefit out of it at all. When you
encounter a new concept in a math book, do not expect to understand it
on the first reading, no matter how carefully you read it. You should go
over each difficult paragraph several times. If you are still
uncomfortable with it, read ahead a page or so, then come back to the
difficult passage. And remember that math books are meant to be read
with paper and pencil in hand.
Tip 3: Always use a pencil to do math (and exams). Dont ever
try to do math in ink. You will make mistakes. Everybody does. So be
equipped to clean them up. If you like mechanical pencils, great. If you
prefer the old wooden kind, then sharpen several of them before you
start each homework. Make sure you have a clean, usable eraser as
well.
Although neatness might not get you extra points, it does help
keep you from confusion. Keep your work organized. Skip a line (or
even two) between each row of written calculations. You will be
surprised at how much easier it will be for you to follow your own

7
work when its not so densely packed onto the page. Paper is cheap. Do
not be afraid to use lots of it.
Tip 4: Your greatest assets are in the class with you. Your
classmates are in the same boat as you. Organize a study group. Try to
coax at least one of the top students in the class into your group. I
recommend that the group size be three to five. Try to meet at least
once per week. You will be working together on homework and
comparing your lecture notes.
Tip5: You will be tested as an individual. Despite the
helpfulness of your group activities, in the end your grade will be based
upon your individual performance at solving problems. Following your
group get-togethers, be sure to go solo on a few exercises.
Tip 6: Try to see more than just procedures. Again I urge you,
learn the concepts, and the procedures will seem obvious. And try to
have some fun with it. Humanity invented math largely because it is
fascinating.
As for this book, it was written with the aim to help students to
understand how to solve problems. The chapters are divided into
sections. Each section contains necessary theoretical background and
solved problems. This book also contains a lot of exercises, which
would be useful to strength your understanding of sections. Answers
are right after exercises.
In the end, any suggestions from readers would be greatly
appreciated.

8
Chapter 1
Coordinates, lines, functions, graphs

1.1. Rectangular coordinate systems

A rectangular coordinate system (also called a Cartesian


coordinate system) is a pair of y-axis
perpendicular coordinate lines, called
coordinate axes, which are placed so
that they intersect at their origin. P(a, b)
b
The horizontal axis is usually called
x-axis and the vertical axis is called
y-axes.(Fig. 1.1).
A plane in which a rectangular 0 a x-axis
coordinate system has been introduced is
called a coordinate plane. Fig.1.1.
Every point P in a coordinate plane can be
associated with a unique ordered pair of real
numbers (a, b) .
The number a is called the
y x- coordinate or abscissa of P and the
quadrant quadrant number b is called the y-coordinate
II I or ordinate of P.
(,) ( , ) In a rectangular coordinate system
the coordinate axes divide the plane
quadrant 0 quadrant x into four regions called quadrants.
III IV These are numbered counter-
(,) (,) clockwise with roman numerals as
Fig. 1.2 shown in Fig.1.2. It is easy to
determine the quadrant in which a
given point lies from the signs of its
coordinates: a point with two positive coordinates (+, +) lies in
quadrant I, a point with a negative x coordinate and positive
y coordinate (,) lies in quadrant II, and so on. Points with a zero
x coordinate lie on the y axis and points with a zero y
coordinate lie on the x axis.

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1.2. Increments
Increments are net changes. When a particle moves from
(x1, y1) to (x2, y2) the increments in its coordinates are x x2 x1
and y y 2 y1 (Fig.1.3.).
Example:
From A(2,5) to B(7,2) the increments are x 7 2 5
and y 2 5 3 .
Example:
A particle starts at A(-5,6) and its coordinates change by increments
x 7 and y 4 . Find its new position.
Solution:
From x x2 x1 and y y 2 y1 using x1 5 and y1=6 we get
x2 (5) 7 and
y2 6 4 . So particles new position is x2 2 and y 2 2 .

1.3. Slopes of nonvertical lines

If P1(x1, y1) and P2(x2, y2) are points on a nonvertical


line (Fig. 1.3), then slope m of the
y
line is defined by:
rise y 2 y1 P2(x2, y2)
m
run x2 x1
rise=y2- y1
Example: P1(x1, y1)
Find the slope of the line through
the points (2,9) and (4,3). run=x2- x1
Solution: x
0
Fig.1.3
39 6
m 3
42 2

Example:
Find the slope of the line through the points (6,2) and (9,8).

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Solution:
82 6
m 2
96 3
m is sometimes called the rate of change of y with respect to x along the
line.
1.4. Lines that are parallel or perpendicular

Let L1 and L2 be nonvertical lines with slopes m1 and m2


respectively.
a) The lines are parallel if and only if m1 m2 .
b) The lines are perpendicular if and only if m1 m2 1 .
Example:
Use slopes to show that the points A (1, 3), B (3, 7) and C (7, 5)
are vertices of right triangle.
Solution:
We shall show that the line through A and B is perpendicular to
the line through B and C. The slopes of these lines are
m1= (7-3)/ (3-1) =2 and m2= (5-7)/ (7-3) =-1/2
Since m1m2=-1, the line through A and B is perpendicular to the line
through B and C; thus, ABC is a right triangle.

1.5. Equations for lines


a) Horizontal and vertical lines
The vertical line through (a,0) and the horizontal line through
(0, b) are represented, respectively, by the equations
x a and y b
Example:
Find an equation for a) the vertical line and b) the horizontal
line through (-5, 7).
Solution:
a) The graph of x 5 is the vertical line and
b) The graph of y 7 is the horizontal line through (-5, 7).

b) Point- slope equation for lines


The line passing through P1(x1, y1) and having slope m is given
by the equation:

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(1) y y1 m( x x1 )
This is called the point- slope equation for the line.
Example:
Find the point slope equation of the line through (4,-3) with slope 5.
Solution:
Substituting the values x1 4 , y1 3 and m=5 in (1) yields
the point- slope equation:
y 3 5( x 4) or y=5x-23.
Example:
Write an equation for the line that passes through (-2, 1) and (2, 2).
Solution:
First of all we calculate the slope and then use equation (1).
m= (2-1)/ (2-(-2)) =1/4
The (x1, y1) in equation (1) can be either (-2, 1) or (2, 2).
Let (x1, y1) be (-2, 1).
Then
1
y 1 ( x (2))
4
x 3
y
4 2
Check for yourself that with ( x1 , y1 ) (2,2) the equation is the same.

c) Lines determined by slope and y-intercept

The line with y intercept b and slope m is given by the equation


(2) y mx b
This is called the slope-intercept form of the line.
Example:
Find the slope intercept form of the equation of the line that
satisfies the stated conditions:
a) slope is 9; crosses the y-axis at (0, -4);
b) slope is 1; passes through the origin;
c) passes through (-5, 1); perpendicular to y=3x+4.
Solution:
a) From the given conditions we have m 9 ; b 4 ,
so equation (2) yields y 9 x 4 .

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b) From the given conditions m 1 and the line passes through
(0,0) , so b=0.
Thus, it follows from (2) that y=x.
c) The given line y 3x 4 has a slope m=3, so the line to be
determined will have slope (1)/3. Substituting this slope and given
point in the point slope form (2):
1
y 1 ( x 5)
3
and simplifying yields
x 2
y .
3 3
Example:
Find equations for the lines through P (-2, 2) that are
a) parallel and
b) perpendicular to the line 2x+y=4.
Solution:
a) We shall first write equation 2 x y 4 in the form
y 2 x 4 .
This line has slope m 2 . Parallel line will have same slope. So using
m 2 and P(2,2) from point-slope form we will have
y 2 2( x 2) or y 2 x 2 .
b) Two lines are perpendicular if m1 m2 1 . So if m1 2
then m2=1/2. Again using point-slope form we will get
1 x
y 2 ( x 2) or y 3 .
2 2

Exercises

In exercises 1-2, a particle moves from A to B. Find the net


changes x and y. in the particles coordinates.
1. A (-5, 11), B (3, 6)
2. A ( 6 , 2.7), B (0, 1.3 )
3. A particle starts at A (-2, 3) and its coordinates change by increments
x=5, y=-6. Find its new position.

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4. The coordinates of a particular change by x=3, y=-5 as it moves
from A (x, y) to B (-6, 4). Find x and y.
5. Find the slope of the line through
a) (-1, 2) and (3, 4)
b) (5, 3) and (7, 1)
c) (4, 2 ) and (-3, 2 )
d) (-2,-6) and (-2, 12)
6. Let points A (8, 1), B (2, 10), C (-4, 6), D (2, -3) be given. Determine
whether the line through AB is perpendicular or parallel to the line
through CD.
In exercises 7-8 find an equation for a) the vertical line and
b) the horizontal line through the given point.
7. (-2, 3/2) 8. (-3, 5)
In exercises 9-10, write an equation for the line through P
with slope m.
9. P (-2, 3), m=2 10. P (, 0), m=-3
In exercises 11-12, write an equation for the line through the
two points.
11. (2, 4), (1, -7) 12. (-3, 6), (-2, 1)
In exercises 13-14 write an equation for the line with slope m
and y-intercept b.
13. m=-2/3, b= 3
14. m=2, b=3.5
15. Find equations for the lines through P (1, 2) that are a) parallel and
b) perpendicular to the line x+2y=3.
16. Find equation for the line which is parallel to y=4x-2 and its
y-intercept is 7.
17. Find equation for the line which is perpendicular to y=5x+9 and has
y-intercept 6.
18. For what value of k the line 3x k y 4 will
a) have slope 2
b) have y-intercept 5
c) pass through the point (2,4)
d) be parallel to the line 2x-5y=1
e) be perpendicular to the line 4x+3y=2?

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Answers
1. x=8, y= -5; 2. x=- 6 , y=-4; 3. (3, -3); 4. (-9, 9); 5. a) 1/2; b)-1;
c) 0; d) not defined; 7. a) x=-2 b) y=3/2; 8. a) x=-3; b) y 5 ;
9. y 2 x 7 ; 10. y=-3x+3; 11. y=11x-18; 12. y=-5x-9;
13. y=-2x/3+ 3 ; 14. y=2x+3.5; 15. a) y=-x/2+5/2; b) y=2x;
16. y=4x+7; 17. y=-x/5+6; 18. a)-3/2; b) 4/5; c) 5/2; d) 15/2; e) 4.

1.6. The properties of inequalities

1. If ab and cd, then a+c b+d


2. If ab and c is any number, then a+c b+c
3. If ab and c is any number, then a-c b-c
4. If ab and c is a positive number, then a c b c
5. If ab and c is a negative number, then a c b c
6. If ab and cd and a, b, c, and d are positive, then a c b d
7. If ab and c is a positive number, then a/c b/ c
8. If ab and c is a negative number, then a/c b/ c
9. If a and b are positive numbers and a b, then 1/a 1/b.
All 1-9 properties hold for as well as for .

1.7. The absolute value function

The absolute value or magnitude of a real number a is denoted


by a and is defined by
a if a 0
a
a if a 0
Example:
|5|=5; |-6/7|=6/7; |0|=0
Remark:
Inequality |x| a, (a0) is equivalent to the inequality
a x a

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1.8. Properties of absolute value
If a and b are real numbers, then
1. -a=a
2. ab=ab
3. a/b=a/b ; b0
4. a+ba+b
5. a-ba-b
To solve an equation or inequality that contains absolute
values, we write equivalent equation or inequality and then solve as
usual.
Example:
Solve: x-3 4
Solution:
This inequality can be rewritten as
4 x 3 4 or, on adding 3 throughout, 1 x 7 .
This can be written in interval notation as (-1, 7).
Example:
Solve: 5(x-1) 3
Solution:
5(x-1) 3 given.
5(x-1) 3 absolute value of product
(x-1) 3/5 dividing by 5
-3/5(x-1) 3/5 (x-1) has absolute value less than 3/5
-3/5+1x 3/5+1 adding 1 to an inequality
2/5x 8/5 arithmetic.
In short, x is in open interval (2/5, 8/5).
Example:
1
Solve: 5
2x 3
Solution:
First of all, we see that x=3/2 is not a solution because this
value of x results in a division by zero. Lets keep it in mind.
1
5 given
2x 3
2x 3 1 / 5 taking reciprocals

16
2(x-3/2) 1/5 factor out the coefficients of x
2||x-3/2 1/5 absolute value of product
|x-3/2 1/10 dividing by 2
-1/10x-3/2 1/10 (x-3/2) has abs. value less than 1/10
7/5x 8/5 we added 3/2 throughout.
If, as noted above, we eliminate the value x=3/2 to avoid the
division by zero, we see that the solution consists of all x that satisfy
7/5 x 3/2 or 3/2 x 8/5
The solution set consists of all x in the set (7/5, 3/2)(3/2, 8/5).
Example:
Solve the equation x-3= 4
Solution:
Depending on whether (x-3) is positive or negative, the
equation x-3= 4 can be written as:
x 34 or x 3 4
We obtain that equation has two roots x 7 and x 1 .
Example:
Solve the equation x-1+x-2= 1
Solution:
Let us consider these cases:
1) x 1; 2) 1 x 2; 3) x 2
1) In this case x-1=-(x-1) and x-2=-(x-2).
So given equation is equivalent to
( x 1) ( x 2) 1 or 2 x 2 0 and x 1 .
Since in this case x 1, and x=1 can not be a root of equation.
2) In this case x-1=(x-1) and x-2=-(x-2).
Given equation is equivalent to
x 1 ( x 2) 1
It leads us to the identity, so any x from 1, 2 satisfies the given
equation.
3) In this case x-1=(x-1) and x-2=(x-2).
Given equation is equivalent to
x 1 x 2 1
2 x 4 and x 2 .
It contradicts to the condition that x 2 .
So as a result, the root of the equation is any x from 1, 2.

17
Exercises
In exercises 1-11 solve the inequalities.
1. x-3 4 2.x+2 5
3. x-4 7 4.x2 25
5.x2 16 6. x 6 3
7. 2 x 3 6 8. x 2 1
1
9. 5 2 x 4 10. 2
x 1
3
11. 4
2x 1
In exercises 12-19 solve the equations.
12. x-5= 4 13. 2x+5= 1
14. x+1-x-4= 6 15. s/2-2= 3
16. 6 x 2 7 17. 6 x 7 3 2 x
x5
18. 9 x 11 x 19. 6
2x

Answers

1.-1 x 7; 2. -7 x 3; 3. x -3 and x 11; 4. -5 x 5; 5. x -4 and


3 9 1 9
x 4; 6. (9,3) ;7. , ;8. (,3] [1,) ;9. (, ] [ ,) ;
2 2 2 2
1 3 1 1 1 7
10. , , ; 11. , , ;12. x1=1; x2=9;
2 2 8 2 2 8
5 3 1 5
13. x1=-2; x2=-3; 14. x ; 15. s1=10; s2=-2; 16. ; ;17. ; ;
6 2 2 2
11 11 17
18. ; ;19. 1; .
10 8 5

18
1.9. Distance formula for points in the plane

The distance between two points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) in a
coordinate plane is given by:
(1) d= ( x2 x1 ) 2 ( y 2 y1 ) 2
Example:
Find the distance between the points (-2, 3) and (1, 7)
Solution:
If we let (x1, y1) be (-2, 3) and let (x2, y2) be (1, 7) then
(1) yields
d= (1 (2))2 (7 3) 2 32 4 2 5 .
Remark: When using (1) it does not matter which point is labeled
(x1, y1) and which is labeled (x2, y2). Thus, in example above, if we had
let (x1, y1) be (1, 7) and (x2, y2) be (-2, 3) we would obtained
d= (2 1) 2 (3 7) 2 (3) 2 (4) 2 5
which is the same result we obtained with the opposite labeling.

1.10. Division of line segment into the given ratio

The coordinates of the point M ( x, y) which divides the line segment


M M
M 1 M 2 with M 1 ( x1 , y1 ) and M 2 ( x2 , y 2 ) into the ratio 1 l
MM 2
(where l 1 ) are defined by
x lx 2 y ly 2
(1) x 1 , y 1
1 l 1 l
Example:
Find the coordinates of the point C ( x, y) which divides the line
segment AB between points A(4,2) and B(2,8) into the ratio
AC 3

CB 2
3
Solution: l and using (1) yields
2

19
3 3
4 2 2 (8)
2 2; 2 28
x y
3 5 3 5
1 1
2 2
2 28
Hence C ( x, y ) ; .
5 5

1.11. The midpoint formula

The midpoint of the line segment joining two points ( x1 , y1 ) and


( x 2 , y 2 ) in a coordinate plane is
x1 x 2 y1 y 2
(2) ,
2 2
Example:
Find the midpoint of the line segment joining (3,5) and (4,7) .
Solution:
x x 2 y1 y 2
From 1 , , the midpoint is
2 2
3 4 5 7
, 3.5, 1
2 2

1.12. Area of the triangle

Area of the triangle ABC with vertices A( x1 , y1 ) , B( x2 , y 2 ) ,


C ( x3 , y3 ) is defined by
1
(3) S ( x 2 x1 )( y 3 y1 ) ( x3 x1 )( y 2 y1 )
2
Example:
Find the area of the triangle with vertices A(3,1) , B(2, 5) , C (1, 4) .
Solution: From (3)

20
1
S (2 (3))(4 (1)) (1 (3))(5 (1))
2
1 1 13
5 5 2 6 13 (unit square)
2 2 2
Example:
Find the length of the medians (A median of a triangle is a line that
passes through a vertex and the midpoint of the opposite edge) of a
triangle PQR with vertices P(3, 2) , Q(5, 4) , R(7, 2) .
Solution: Let L, M , N be midpoints of the sides PQ, QR, and PR ,
respectively. Coordinates of the point L can be found using (2). In this
case x1 3 , y1 2 , x 2 5 , y 2 4 . If we will denote coordinates of
the point L by ( x L , y L ) we would get
35 24
xL 1, yL 3, L(1, 3)
2 2
Similarly
57 4 (2)
xM 6, yM 1, M (6, 1)
2 2
37 2 (2)
xN 2, yN 0, N (2, 0)
2 2
Now let us find the length of median LR . Using distance formula
with x1 1 , y1 3 , x 2 7 , y 2 2 we obtain
LR (7 1) 2 (2 3) 2 61
Similarly
MP (6 (3) 2 (1 2) 2 82
NQ (5 2) 2 (4 0) 2 5 .

Exercises

In exercises 1-4 find the distance between A and B.


1. A (2, 5), B (-1, 1)
2. A (7, 1), B (1, 9)
3. A (2, 0), B (-3, 6)
4. A (-2, -6), B (-7, -4)

21
5. The point C divides the line segment AB with A(2, 5) and
B(4, 8) into the ratio 2 3 . Find the coordinates of the point C .
6. The point C (2, 3) divides AB into the ratio 1 2 . Find the coordinates
of the point B if the coordinates of the point A are
x 1, y 2 .
7. Find area of the triangle ABC with vertices A(0,2) , B(4, 5) ,
and C (6,4) .
8. Let A(2, 1) , B(2, - 2) , and C (8, 6) be vertices of the triangle
ABC . Find the height of the triangle through the vertex B .
9. Prove that the triangle with vertices (5, -2), (6, 5), (2, 2) is isosceles.
10. Prove that for all values of t the point (t, 2t-6) is equidistant from
(0, 4) and (8, 0).
11. Prove that points (0, -2), (-4, 8) and (3, 1) lie on a circle with
center (-2, 3).

Answers
4 1
1. 5; 2. 10; 3. 61 ; 4. 29 ; 5. C (2 ,6 ) ; 6. B(4, 5) ;
5 5
7. 25 unit sq. ; 8. 2 5 .

1.13. Functions

Definition: Let X and Y be sets. A function from X to Y is a rule (or


method) for assigning one (and only one) element in Y to each element
in X .
Definition: (Domain and range). Let X and Y be sets. Let f be
function from X to Y . The set X is called the domain of the function.
The set of all outputs of then function is called the range of the
function.
Example:
Find the domain and range of f ( x) 3 x 1 .
Solution:
For 3 x 1 to be meaningful, the square root of ( x 1)

22
must make sense; thus, the domain consists of all numbers x such that
x 1 0 or x 1 . That is, the domain is the interval [1,) .
As x varies from 1 to larger numbers, f (x) increases from
f (1) 3 1 1 3 to arbitrary large values.
Thus, the range of f is [3,) .
Example:
x 1
Find the domain and range of the function f ( x) .
x 1
Solution:
The domain of f consists of all x , except x 1 . In interval
notation the domain is (,1) (1,) .
To find range of the function, let us introduce a dependent variable
x 1
y
x 1
Solving this equation for x in terms of y yields
y 1
( x 1) y x 1 x
y 1
It is now evident from the right side of this equation that y 1 is not in
the range. So the range of the function f is ( , 1) (1 ,) .

1.14. Operations on functions

Definition: Given functions f and g , formulas for the sum


f g ,difference f g , product f g and quotient f / g are defined
by
( f g )(x) f ( x) g ( x)
( f g )(x) f ( x) g ( x)
( f g )(x) f ( x) g ( x)
( f / g )(x) f ( x) / g ( x)
Example: Let f ( x) 2 x 3 and g ( x) x 2 .
Find ( f g )(x), ( f g )(x), ( f g )(x), ( f / g )(x)

23
Solution:
( f g )(x) f ( x) g ( x) (2 x 3 ) ( x 2) x x 3
( f g )(x) f ( x) g ( x) (2 x 3 ) ( x 2)
x3 x 4
( f g )(x) f ( x) g ( x) (2 x 3 ) ( x 2)
x x 3 2 x 3 2x 4
2 x3
( f / g )(x) f ( x) / g ( x)
x2
Definition: Given functions f and g ,the composition of f with g ,
denoted by f g , is the function defined by
( f g ) f ( g ( x))
( f g is read as f circle g or as f composed with g ).
Example:
Let f ( x) x 2 and g ( x) x 3 . Find a) f (g (5)) and g ( f (5)) .
Solution:
f ( g ( x)) f ( x 3) ( x 3) 2
g ( f ( x)) g ( x 2 ) x 2 3 ,
So
f ( g (5)) f (8) 64 and g ( f (5)) g (25) 28

Exercises

1. Given that f ( x) 3x 2 2 . Find


a) f (2) ; b) f (4) ; c) f (0) ; d) f ( 3 ) ; e) f (a 1)
1
,x 3
2. Given that f ( x) x . Find
2 x , x 3
a) f (4) ; b) f (4) ; c) f (0) ; d) f (3) ; e) f (t 2 5)
In exercises 3-8 find domain of the function

24
1 x 1
3. f ( x) 4. h( x)
x3 x2
x
5. f ( x) 6. F ( x) 3 x x 2 4
x 1
7. G( x) x 2 2 x 5 8. g ( x) sin x
In exercises 9-16 find the domain and the range of the given
function.
9. f ( x) 3 x 10. g ( x) 4 x 2
11. h( x) 3 x 12. F ( x) x 2 3
13. H ( x) 3 sin x 14. g ( x) 2 cos x
1 1
15. f ( x) 16. g ( x)
x 1 1 x2
17. Given that f (1) 4, f (2) 5, g (1) 3, and g (2) 1 . Find
a) ( f g )(1) b) ( f g )(1)
c) ( f / g )(2) d) ( f g )(2)
In exercises 18-19 find formulas for
a) ( f g )(x) b) ( f g )(x) c) ( f g )(x)
d) ( f / g )(x) e) ( f g )(x) f) ( g f )(x)
18. f ( x) x 1 , g ( x) x 2
19. f ( x) 1 x 2 , g ( x) sin 3x
4
20. Let f ( x) 2 and g ( x) x . Find ( f g )(x) and ( g f )(x) .
x 5
f ( x h) f ( x )
In exercises 21-22 find and simplify as much
h
as possible.
1
21. f ( x) 3x 2 5 22. f ( x)
x

25
Answers
1. a) 14; b) 50; c) 2; d) 11; e) 3a 2 6a 5 ; 2. a) -8; b) 1/4; c) 0;
1
d) 6; e) ; 3. (,3) (3,) ; 4. (,2) [1,) ;
t 5
2

5. (,) ; 6. [2,) ; 7. (,) ; 8. [0,) ;


9. domain (,3] , range [0,) ; 10.domain [2, 2] , range [0, 2] ;
11.domain [0,) , range [3,) ;12.domain (,) , range [3,) ;
13. domain (,) , range [3,3] ;14. domain (,) , range [1, 3] ;
15. domain (,1) (1,) , range (,0) (0,) ; 16. domain
all real x except x 1; range (,0) [1,) ; 17. a) 7; b) -12;
c) -5;d) 4; 18. a) x 1 x 2 ; b) x 1 x 2 ; c) ( x 2) x 1 ;
x 1
d) ; e) x 1 ; f) x 1 2 ; 19. a) 1 x 2 sin 3x ;
x2
b) 1 x 2 sin 3x ; c) 1 x 2 sin 3x ; d) 1 x 2 / sin 3x ; e) cos 3x ;
4 2
f) sin( 3 1 x 2 ) ; 20. ( f g )(x) , x 0 ; ( g f )(x) ;
x5 x2 5
1
21. 6 x 3h, h 0 ; 22. , h0.
x ( x h)

1.15. Symmetry of odd and even functions

Definition:
A function f such that f ( x) f ( x) is called an even function.
x4
Example: f ( x) is an even function, since
(1 x 2 )
( x) 4 x4
f ( x) f ( x)
(1 ( x) 2 ) (1 x 2 )
The graph of even function is symmetric with respect to the y -axis.

26
Definition:
A function f such that f ( x) f ( x) is called an odd function.
Example: The function f ( x) x 3 is odd function, since
f ( x) ( x) 3 f ( x)
The graph of odd function is symmetric with respect to the origin.
Most functions are neither even nor odd. For instance x 3 x 6 is neither
even nor odd, since ( x) 3 ( x) 6 x 3 x 6 , which is neither x 3 x 6
nor ( x 3 x 6 ) .

1.16. Graphs and graphing

The points ( x, y) in the plane whose coordinates are the input-output


pairs of function y f (x) make
up the functions graph. y
Example: Sketch the graph y=x+4
of f ( x) x 4 .
Solution: 4
By definition the graph of
f is input-output pairs
-4 0 x
of f ( x) x 4 ;
this is a line with slope 1 and Fig. 1.4
y intercept 4. (Fig.1.4)

Example:
Sketch the graph of f ( x) x
y
Solution:
x , x 0
y f ( x) y= x
x , x 0
The graph coincides with the line
y x for x 0 and with the line 0 x
y x for x 0 . (Fig.1.5)
Fig. 1.5

27
Example:
1 ,x2
Sketch y f ( x)
x 2 ,x2
Solution:
For x 2 , we y
have y 1 , for x 2 we
4
have y x 2 . The graph of
y 1 is a horizontal line, and the 1
graph of y x 2 is a straight
line. (Fig.1.6).In that figure we 0 2 x
used the heavy dot and open
circle above x 2 to emphasize Fig. 1.6
that the value f (2) 1 lies on
the horizontal line and not on
the inclined line.

1.17. Graphing functions by translation

y
1) If a positive constant is added to f (x) , y x2 3
( y f ( x) C ), the geometric effect is to
translate the graph of the function 3 y x2
f parallel to the vertical axis in the positive
direction. (Fig.1.7).
0 x
Fig.1.7
y
y x2 2) If a positive constant is subtracted from
x
f (x) , ( y f ( x) C ), translate the graph of
0
the graph of the function f parallel to the
y x2 3 vertical axis in the negative direction.
-3
(Fig.1.8).
Fig.1.8

28
3) Similarly, if a positive constant is y
added to the independent variable of a
function f (x) , ( y f ( x C ) ), the
y x2
geometric effect is to translate the graph y ( x 3) 2
of the function parallel to the horizontal x
axis in the negative direction.(Fig.1.9). -3 0

Fig.1.9

y
4) If a positive constant is subtracted
from the independent variable of a
y x2 y ( x 3) 2 function f (x) , ( y f ( x C ) ),
translate the graph of the graph of the
0 3 x function f parallel to the horizontal
Fig.1.10 axis in the positive direction.
(Fig.1.10).

Exercises

In exercises 1-10 label each function as even, odd, or neither.


1. f ( x) x 2 2 2. f ( x) 1 x 2
3. f ( x) x x 3 4. f ( x) 3 x
5. f ( x) ( x 2) 2
6. f ( x) 5 x
7. f ( x) x x 3 5x 4 8. f ( x) 7 x 4 5x 2
1
9. f ( x) 3 x 2 1 10. f ( x) x 2
x
In exercises 11-23 sketch the graph of the function.
11. f ( x) 2 x 1 12. f ( x) x , 1 x 2
13. f ( x) x 2 2 , 1 x 1 14. h( x) x 2 5
15. h( x) ( x 5) 2 16. F ( x) x 1
x2 4
17. F ( x) 3 x 18. f ( x)
x2
29
x3 x2
19. f ( x)
x 1

x
20. f ( x)
x

x 2, x 3
21. f ( x)
x 4, x 3
1, 0 x 1
3, 1 x 2

22. h( x)
1, 2 x 3
0 , elsewhere

x 2 ,x 1
23. f ( x)
2 , x 1

24. Use the graph of y x to graph the following functions


a) y x 4 b) y x 4
c) y x 4 4 d) y x 6 2

Answers.

1. even; 2. even; 3. odd; 4. neither; 5. neither ; 6. odd ; 7. neither;


8. even; 9. even; 10. neither.

30
Chapter 2
The limit of a function

2.1. Definition of limit

A limit is the value a function tends to take as the limit variable


approaches a specified value. For example, the limit of the function
f (x) as x approaches the value of zero would be written as:
lim f ( x)
x0
The value will come as close to zero as possible without
actually becoming zero. The limit variable (x in example above) could
approach some value other than zero. Most limits will have their limit
variable approaching zero but that is not necessary and any other value
will work just as well.
As an example, consider a function such as f (x) =3x2+2, and
substitute x+x everywhere the variable x appears in the function to get
the function f (x+x).
f (x)=3x2+2
f (x+x)=3(x+x)2+2=3(x2+2xx+(x)2)+2=3x2+6xx+3(x)2+2
Then the limit of the function f(x+x) as x approaches zero is
written as:
lim ( f ( x x)) lim (3x 2 6 x x 3 (x) 2 2) =
x 0 x 0
=3x2+6x0+3(0)2+2=3x2+2
Obviously, in this example, the value of the limit is a function of x and
a value can be computed if a value of x is specified. For x=2, the limit is
14, etc. You can find limit of a function as the limit variable approaches
something other than zero. It could approach any other value within its
range such as:
lim ( f ( x x)) 3x2+6x14+3142+2=3x2+84x+590
x14
This method of evaluating a limit does not work for all functions. For
example if:
x 2 16
f ( x)
x4

31
then the limit of this function as x approaches the value of 4 cannot be
computed by simply substituting for x. This function does not have a
value for x=4 since we get a division of zero by zero by substituting
4 for x. This is defined as an indeterminent result since there is no real
result defined for this type of division.
There are two possibilities here:
1. Factor the equation. In example above, the equation can be factored
into:
( x 4)(x 4)
f ( x) x4
x4
Now we can substitute the value 4 for x to get the limit:
lim( f ( x)) lim( x 4) 8 .
x 4 x 4
This works most of the times but not always.
2. Approach the value of the limit from both directions and calculate
the value of the function. If you take values for x that approach the
value 4, you will get answers other than divided by zero. And by taking
values for x approaching 4 from both directions, you start to narrow
down the value of limit. It becomes apparent that as x approaches the
value 4 from either direction, the limit of the function approaches the
value of 8.
A limit can also result in a value of infinity. For example, if the
function is
3
f ( x)
x
then the limit of f (x) when x approaches zero would be:
3
lim f ( x) lim ,
x 0 x 0 x

obviously will approach infinity as x becomes closer and closer to zero.


It cannot be directly calculated but can be determined by observation of
the fact that the function would be a division by zero at the limit
conditions, which is by definition equal to infinity.

32
Definition of limit: Let f (x) be defined for all x in some open interval
containing the number a, with the possible exception that f (x) may not
be defined at a. We will write
lim f ( x) L
x a
If given any number 0 we can find a number 0 such that
f (x)-L if x satisfies 0 x-a .
Example: Prove that lim(3x 5) 1
x 2
Solution: We must show that given any positive number , we can find
a positive number such that

(3x 5) 1 if x satisfies 0 x 2
L a
f ( x)

But this if statement can be rewritten as


3x-6 if 0 x-2
3x-2 if 0 x-2
x-2 /3 if 0 x-2
One choice of that makes the if statement true for any 0 is
= /3.The value = /3 is not the only value that will make if
statement true. Any smaller will do as well.

2.2. Computations of limits

Let f and g be two functions and assume that


lim f ( x) and lim g ( x) both exist. Then
xa xa

1. lim ( f ( x) g ( x)) lim f ( x) lim g ( x)


x a x a x a

2. lim ( f ( x) g ( x)) lim f ( x) lim g ( x)


x a x a x a

3. limk f ( x) k lim f ( x) , for any constant k


x a x a

4. lim ( f ( x) g ( x)) lim f ( x) lim g ( x)


x a x a x a
lim f ( x)
f ( x ) x a
5. lim , if lim g ( x) 0
x a g ( x) lim g ( x) x a
x a

33
x a

6. lim f ( x)g ( x ) lim f ( x)
x a
lim g ( x )
x a if lim f ( x) 0
x a

7. lim n f ( x) n lim f ( x) if lim f ( x) 0


x a x a x a

Example: Find lim ( x 4 x 3) 2


x 5

Solution: lim ( x 2 4 x 3) = lim x 2 - lim 4 x + lim 3 =


x 5 x5 x 5 x 5
2 2
= lim x -4 lim x + lim 3 =5 -45+3=8
x5 x 5 x 5

x 6x 9 2
Example: Find lim
x3
x 3
Solution: The numerator and denominator both have a limit of zero as
x approaches 3, so there is a common factor of (x-3). We proceed as
follows:
x 2 6x 9 ( x 3) 2
lim = lim = lim ( x 3) =0.
x 3 x3 x 3 x 3 x 3

2x 8
Example: Find lim 2
x 4 x x 12

Solution: The numerator and denominator both have a limit of zero as


x approaches -4, so there is a common factor of (x-(-4))=x+4. We
proceed as follows:
2x 8 2( x 4) 2
lim = lim = lim =-2/7.
x 4 x 2 x 12 x 4 ( x 4)( x 3) x 4 x 3

3x 2 4 x 7
Example: Find lim
x 1 2 x 2 5 x 6

Solution:
3x 2 4 x 7 lim (3x 2 4 x 7)
x 1
lim 2 = =
x 1 2 x 5 x 6 lim(2 x 2 5 x 6)
x 1

lim 3x lim 4 x lim 7


2
3 lim x 2 4 lim x lim 7
x 1 x 1 x 1 x 1 x 1 x 1
= = =
lim 2 x 2 lim 5 x lim 6 2 lim x 2 5 lim x lim 6
x 1 x 1 x 1 x 1 x 1 x 1

3 1 4 1 7
2
= =6/3=2.
2 12 5 1 6

34
Example:
x 2 6x 8
Find lim
x 4 x4
Solution: The numerator and denominator both have a limit of zero as
x approaches 4. Let us rewrite x2-6x+8 using x2+px+q=(x-x1)(x-x2)
where x1 and x2 are roots of equation x2+px+q=0. An equation
x2-6x+8=0 has roots x1=2 and x2=4, so x2-6x+8=(x-2)(x-4).
After substituting we get
x 2 6x 8 ( x 2)(x 4)
lim = lim = lim( x 2) =4-2=2.
x 4 x4 x 4 x4 x 4
Example:
3x 2 x 2
Find lim 2
x 1 4 x 5 x 1

Solution: Again when x=1 both numerator and denominator have a


limit of zero. Let us factor given function using identity
ax2+bx+c=a(x-x1)(x-x2)
where x1 and x2 are roots of equation ax2+bx+c=0. The limit can be
obtained as follows:
3x 2 x 2 3( x 1)(x 2 / 3) 3( x 2 / 3)
lim 2 = lim = lim =
x 1 4 x 5 x 1 x 1 4( x 1)( x 1 / 4) x 1 4( x 1 / 4)

3(1 2 / 3)
= =5/3.
4(1 1 / 4)

2.3. Limits of polynomials as x or x

Sometimes it is useful to know how f (x) behaves when x is a


large positive (or a negative number of large absolute value).
Rather than writing as x gets arbitrary large through positive
values, f (x) approaches the number L, it is customary to use the
notation lim f ( x) L . This is read as x approaches infinity, f (x)
x
approaches L, or the limit of f (x) as x approaches infinity is L.
Similarly, lim f ( x) L means that the limit of f (x) as x approaches
x
minus infinity is L.

35
Remark: Notations x and x are equivalent to each other,
and we will use both of these notations.
Remark: All properties of limits stated above hold when x a is
replaced by
x or by x .
lim x n , n=1,2,3,..;
x

, if n 2,4,6,........
lim x n ;
x
- , if n 1,3,5,........
n
1 1
lim lim 0 ;
x x n
x x

n
1 1
lim lim 0 .
x x
x x n

A polynomial P(x) = c0+c1x+c2x2+..+cnxn behaves like its


term of highest degree as x or x . If cn0, then
lim (c0 c1 x c2 x 2 ........ cn x n ) lim cn x n
x x

lim (c0 c1 x c2 x ........ cn x ) lim cn x n .


2 n
x x

Example: Find lim (7 x 8x 12x 8)


5 3
x

Solution: lim (7 x 5 8 x 3 12 x 8) = lim 7 x 5 .


x x

Example: Find lim (4 x 14x 4 x 3)


6 2
x

Solution: lim (4 x 14 x 2 4 x 3) = lim (4 x 6 ) .


6
x x
Remark: It is important to keep in mind that or is not a
number. The last two limits above do not exist.

36
2.4. Limits of rational functions as x or x

To find limits of rational functions as x or x we


divide the numerator and denominator of a rational function by the
highest power of x that occurs in the denominator. What happens then
depends on the degrees of the polynomials involved.
5x 3
Example: Find lim
x 7 x 6

Solution: Divide the numerator and denominator by the highest


power of x that occurs in the denominator; this is x1=x.
We obtain
5x 3 5 3 / x xlim (5 3 / x)
lim = lim = =
x 7 x 6 x 7 6 / x lim (7 6 / x)
x
lim 5 lim 3 / x 50 5
x x
= = .
lim 7 lim 6 / x 70 7
x x

5x 2 x
Example: Find lim
x 3 x 3 4

Solution: Divide the numerator and denominator by the highest power


of x that occurs in the denominator, namely x3. We obtain
5x 2 x 5 / x 1/ x 2
lim = lim =
x 3 x 3 4 x 3 4 / x 3

lim (5 / x 1 / x 2 ) 0 0
x
= 0.
lim (3 4 / x 3 ) 30
x

7 x 3 4x 2 1
Example: Find lim
x 2x 5
Solution: Divide the numerator and denominator by x to obtain
7 x 3 4x 2 1 7 x 2 4x 1/ x
lim = lim ,
x 2x 5 x 2 5/ x
5 5
since 7x2-4x + , 0 , and 2 2 as x .
x x

37
2.5. A quick method for finding limits of
rational functions as x or x

Let f (x) be a polynomial and let axn be its term of highest degree. Let
g(x) be another polynomial and let bxm be its term of highest degree.
Then
f ( x) ax n f ( x) ax n
lim lim m and lim lim m
x g ( x) x bx x g ( x) x bx

Example: Evaluate the following limits:


3x 4 5 x 2 x 3 16x x4 x
a) lim ; b) lim ; c) lim
x x 4 10x 5 x 15x 4 x 3 5 x x 6 x 3 x 2

Solution: By the preceding observations,


3x 4 5 x 2 3x 4
a) lim = lim = lim (3) 3 ;
x x 4 10x 5 x x 4 x

x 16x
3
x 3
1
b) lim = lim = lim 0;
x 15x x 5 x
4 3 x 15x 4 x 15x

x4 x x
c) lim = lim .
x 6 x x
3 2 x 6

Exercises

In exercises 1-5 use definition of limit to prove that the given


limit statement is correct.
1. lim 3x 15 2. lim(2 x 7) 3
x 5 x2
1
3. lim (2 3x) 5 4. lim 3
x 1 x 1 / 3 x
5. lim x 3 3
x 6
In exercises 6-20 find the limits.
6. lim(2 x 2 7 x 6) 7. lim(3x 4 5x 3 6 x 2 4 x 7)
x 3 x3

4 x 5x 2
2
x 2 5x 4
8. lim 9. lim
x 2 3 x 2 6 x 4 x 4 x 2 7 x 6

38
x 2 8 x 12 3x 2 7 x 2
10. lim 11. lim
x 6 x 2 7 x 6 x 2 4 x 2 5 x 6

y6 x 2 6x 5
12. lim 2 13. lim 2
y 6 y 36 x 1 x 3 x 4

t 3 t 2 5t 3 5x 2 7
14. lim 15. lim
t 1 t 3 3t 2 x 3 x 2 x

x 7 8x 6 5x 4
16. lim 17. lim (4 x 2 x 3)
x 10x 6 7 x 5 4 x 17 x

6x 3 x
18. lim (6 x 5 12x 3 ) 19. lim
x x 2 x 10 5 x 8

5x 3 2 x
20. lim
x x 2 x 7

Answers
6. 3; 7. 157; 8. 2; 9. 0; 10. 4/5; 11. 5/11; 12. Does not exist; 13. 4/5;
14. 4/3; 15. 5/3; 16. ; 17. ; 18. - ; 19. 0; 20. - .

2.6. Limits involving radicals

3x 5
Example: Find lim 3
x 8x 3
Solution:
Using the property of limit
3x 5 3 3x 5 3 3x 3 3 3 3
lim 3 = lim = lim = .
x 8 x 3 x 8 x 3 x 8 x 8 2

Example: Find:
3x 2 2 x 3x 2 2 x
a) lim ; and b) lim .
x x x x
Solution:
Before beginning the solution, note that if x is positive, x 2 x , but if
x is negative, x 2 x .

39
3x 2 2 x x 2 (3 1 / x) x 3 1/ x
a) lim = lim = lim =
x x x x x x
= lim 3 1 / x = 3 .
x

3x 2 2 x x 2 (3 1 / x) x 3 1/ x
b) lim = lim = lim =
x x x x x x

= lim 3 1 / x 3 .
x

3
1 x 1
Example: Find lim
1 x 1
x 0

Solution:
Let us substitute z6=1+x. We choose z6 in order to take roots easily.
From substitution it is easy to see that if x0 then z1. Using
substitution, we get
3
1 x 1 3
z6 1 z 2 1
lim = lim = lim =
x 0 1 x 1 z 1 z 6 1 z 1 z 3 1

( z 1)(z 1) z 1
= lim = lim 2 =2/3.
z 1 ( z 1)( z 2 z 1) z 1 z z 1

Example: Find lim ( x 2 6 x 5 x) .


x
Solution:
When x we get ( ) . Let us multiply and divide given
function to ( x 2 6 x 5 x) . We will get
lim ( x 2 6 x 5 x) =
x

( x 2 6 x 5 x) ( x 2 6 x 5 x)
= lim =
x
x 2 6x 5 x
( x 2 6 x 5) x 2 6x 5
= lim = lim =
x x
x 6x 5 x
2
x 6x 5 x
2

6 5/ x 6
= lim = =3.
x
1 6 / x 5/ x 1 11
2

40
x2 2
Example: Find lim .
x 3x 6
Solution:
As x , the values of x are eventually positive, so we can replace
x by x where desirable. We obtain
x2 2 x2 2 / x x2 2 / x2
lim = lim lim =
x 3x 6 x (3x 6) / x x (3x 6) / x

1 2 / x 2 xlim 1 2 / x2

= lim = =1/3.
x 3 6/ x lim (3 6 / x)
x

Exercises
In exercises 1-21 find the limits.
x4 2 5x 9 3
1. lim 2. lim
x 0 x x 0 x
x2 4 2 1 x 2
3. lim 4. lim
x 0 x x 3 x3
5. lim x 2 3 x 6. lim 2 x 2 5 x
x x
7. lim x 5 x x
2
8. lim x 3x x
2
x x
x 2 25
9. lim x 2 ax x 10. lim
x x 5 2 x 1
4n 32
1 tan x 1 tan x
11. lim 12. lim
n 2n 1 x sin 2 x
x2 5x 2 2
13. lim 14. lim
x x 2 2 x 1 x x3
2 y 3x 4 x
15. lim 16. lim
y
7 6y2 x x2 8

41
x x9
17. lim 18. lim
x 3 x 3 x 9 x 3
12n 5 6x 5
19. lim 20. lim
n 3 x
27n 3 6n 2 8 1 x2 3
x 1

4
21. lim 3 Hint : Let x t 12
x 1 x 1
Answers
1. 1/4; 2. 5/6; 3. 0; 4. 1/2; 5. 0; 6. ; 7. 5/2; 8. 3/2; 9. a/2; 10. 40;
11. 1; 12. 1/2; 13. 0; 14. - 5 ; 15. 1 / 6 ; 16. 3 ; 17. does not exist;
18. 6; 19. 4; 20. 6; 21. 3/4.

2.7. One sided limits


x
Let f ( x) . If x approaches 0 from the right, f (x) is always 1.
x
If x approaches 0 from the left, f (x) is always 1. This introduces the
notion of one-sided limits.
Definition: Right-hand limit of f (x) at a. Let f be a function and
a some fixed number. Assume that the domain of f contains an open
interval (a, b). If, as x approaches a from the right, f (x) approaches a
specific number L, then L is called the right-hand limit f (x) as x
approaches a.
This is written:
lim f ( x) L or as x a+, f (x)L.
x a
The assertion that lim f ( x) L is read : the limit of f as x
x a
approaches a from the right is L, or as x approaches a from the right,
f (x) approaches L.
The left-hand limit is defined similarly. The only differences
are that the domain of f must contain an open interval of the form (c, a)
and f (x) is examined as x approaches a from the left. The notations for
the left-hand limits are: lim f ( x) L or as x a-, f (x)L.
x a
1 1
lim ; lim ;
x 0 x x 0 x

42
1 1
lim ; lim .
x a xa x a xa
2 x 2 x
Example: Find: a) lim ; b) lim
x 4( x 4)( x 2) x 4 ( x 4)( x 2)
Solution: In both examples the limit of the numerator is 2 and
denominator is 0, so the limit of the ratio does not exist. We need to
analyze the sign of the ratio. As x approaches 4 from the right, the ratio
is always negative, and as x approaches 4 from the left the sign of the
ratio is eventually positive (after x exceeds 2), so
2 x 2 x
lim and lim
x 4 ( x 4)( x 2) x 4 ( x 4)( x 2)

1
Example: Find lim
x 1 ( x 1) 2

Solution: As x approaches -1 from the right, (x+1) approaches 0 from


1
right. The reciprocal stays positive and increases beyond all
( x 1) 2
bounds.
1 1
Example: Find: a) lim 3 x and b) lim 3 x
x 0 x 0
1
Solution: a) When x approaches 0 from the left, then is large
x
1
1
1
3
x
and negative. We can write: 3x 1
.
x
3
1
1
is large when x 0 , then 3
x
Since is also large, and its reciprocal
x
1
1
is a small number. Consequently
x
3
1
1
1
lim 3 lim 0
x
lim 3x 1
x 0 x 0 x 0
x
3

43
1
b) When x approaches 0 from the right, then is large and positive.
x
1
The value 3 x will be large and positive.
1 1

lim 3 .
x
lim 3x
x 0 x 0

2.8. Existence of limits

In general, no guarantee that a function f (x) actually has a limit


as x x0 , x x0 or x x0 . If there is no limit, then we say that the
limit does not exist.
Theorem: A function f (x) has a limit as x approaches x0 if and only if
the right-hand and left-hand limit at x 0 exist and are equal. In symbols,
lim f ( x) L lim f ( x) L and lim f ( x) L
x x0 x x0 x x0

Remark: Keep in mind that the symbols and are simply


descriptions of limits that fail to exist. These symbols do not represent
real numbers and consequently they can not be manipulated using rules
of algebra. For example, it is not correct to write =0.
Example: y
Figure 2.1 shows the graph of
function f whose domain is the closed
interval 0, 5 . 3
a) Does lim f ( x) exist? 2
x1
1
b) Does lim f ( x) exist?
x2 0 x
c) Does lim f ( x) exist? 1 2 3 4 5
x3 Fig.2.1
Solution:
a) Inspection of the graph shows that
lim f ( x) 1 and lim f ( x) 2
x 1 x1
Although the two one-sided limits exist, they are not equal. Thus,
lim f ( x) does not exist. In short, f does not have a limit as x 1 .
x1

44
b) Inspection of the graph shows that
lim f ( x) 3 and lim f ( x) 3
x 2 x 2
Thus, lim f ( x) exists and is 3. The solid dot at (2,2) shows that
x2
f (2)=2. This information, however, plays no role in our examination of
the limit of f (x) as x 2 .
c) Inspection of the graph shows that lim f ( x) 2 and lim f ( x) 2
x 3 x 3
Thus, lim f ( x) exists and is 2. Incidentally, the fact that f (3) is equal
x3
to 2 is irrelevant in determining lim f ( x) .

2.9. Continuity

Definition: A function f is said to be continuous at a point c if the


following conditions are satisfied:
1. f (c) is defined
2. lim f ( x) exists
xc
3. lim f ( x) f (c)
xc
If one or more of the conditions in this definition fails to hold,
then f is called discontinuous at c and c is said to be a point of
discontinuity of f . If f is continuous at all points of an open interval
(a , b), then f is said to be continuous on (a , b).
x2 4
Example: f ( x) is discontinuous at 2, because
x2
f (2) is undefined.
Example:
x2 4
, x2
g ( x) x 2 is also discontinuous
3 x2
,
at 2 because g (2) =3, and
x2 4
lim g ( x) lim lim( x 2) 4 , so that lim g ( x) g (2) .
x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2

Example: Show that f ( x) x is a continuous function.

45
Solution: We can write f (x) as
x if x 0

f ( x) x 0 if x 0
x if x 0

f ( x) x is continuous if x>0 or x<0. x is identical to the polynomial
and all polynomials are continuous functions. Thus, x=0 is the only
point that remains to be considered. At this point f (0) 0 0 , so it
remains to show that lim f ( x) lim x 0
x0 x0
Because the formula for f changes at 0, it will be helpful to consider the
one-sided limits at 0 rather than the two- sided limit. We obtain:
lim x lim x 0 and lim x lim ( x) 0
x 0 x0 x 0 x 0

Thus, (2) holds and x is continuous at x=0.


Theorem: If functions f and g are continuous at c, then
a) f + g is continuous at c;
b) f - g is continuous at c;
c) f g is continuous at c;
d) f / g is continuous at c if g(c)0
and is discontinuous at c if g(c)=0.

Theorem: A rational function is continuous everywhere except at the


points where the denominator is zero.
x2 9
Example: Where is h( x) 2 continuous?
x 5x 6
Solution: By theorem, the ratio is continuous everywhere except at the
points where the denominator is zero. Since solution of
x 2 5x 6 0 are x=2 and x=3, h(x) is continuous everywhere except
at these two points.

Exercises
In exercises 1-13 find the limits.
x x
1. lim 2. lim 2
x 3 x 3 x 2 x 4

46
x 7
3. lim 4. lim
x 2 x 42 x 0 3 x

2t 2t
5. lim 6. lim
t 5 t 5 t 5 t 5

6 6
7. lim 8. lim
x 3 x 3 x 3 x 3
1
4
9. lim 10. lim 2 x 2
x 2 ( x 2) 2 x 2
1
11. lim x
2 2
x 2

x2 1
12. lim as a) x 2 and b) x 2
2x 4
1
13. lim 2
x 4
as a) x 2 b) x 2
c) x 2 d ) x 2
In each of exercises 14 and 15 there is a graph of functions.
14. (See Fig.2.2). Decide which of given y
limits exist, and evaluate those which do.
a) lim f ( x) ; b) lim f ( x) ;
x 0 x1
c) lim f ( x) ; d ) lim f ( x) ; y 3
x 2 x 2
2
15. (See Fig.2.3) 1
a) lim f ( x) ; b) lim f ( x) ;
x1 x2 x
3
c) lim f ( x) ; d ) lim f ( x) 1 2 3 4 5
2
x3 x 4 Fig.2.2
1

x
1 2 3 4 5
x , 3
x 1
16. Graph f ( x) Fig.2.3
0 , x 1
a) Find lim f ( x) and lim f ( x) .
x 1 x 1

47
b) Does lim f ( x) exist? If so, what is that? If not, why not?
x1
In exercises 17-22 find points of discontinuity, if any.
x
17. f ( x) x 3 2 x 3 18. f ( x) 2
x 1
x4 x
19. f ( x) 2 20. f ( x)
x 16 x 3
2 x 3 , x 4

21. f ( x) x 2 x
3 2
22. f ( x) 16
7 x , x 4
23. Find a value for the constant k, if possible, that will make the
function continuous.
7 x 2 , x 1 kx 2 , x2
a) f ( x) 2 ; b) f ( x)
kx , x 1 2 x k , x 2

24. Let f (x) equal the least integer that is greater than or equal to x. For
instance, f (3) =3, f (3.4) =4, f (3.9) =4. This function is sometimes
denoted x and called the ceiling of x. Graph the function and
answer the questions.
a) Does lim f ( x) exist? If so, what is it?
x 4

b) Does lim f ( x) exist? If so, what is it?


x 4

c) Does lim f ( x) exist? If so, what is it?


x4
d) Is f continuous at 4?
e) Where is f continuous?
f) Where is f not continuous?
Answers
1. ; 2. ; 3. ; 4. ; 5. ; 6. ; 7. ; 8. ;
9. ; 10. ; 11. 0; 12. a) ; b) ; 13. a) ; b) ;
c) ; d) ; 14. a) 2; b) 1; c) 1; d) 3; 15. a) 2; b) 2; c) 1; d) 2;
16. a) 1, 1; b) 1; 17. none; 18. none; 19. x 4 ; 20. x 3 ;
21. none; 22. none; 23. a) 5; b) 4/3; 24. a) yes; 4; b) yes; 5; c) no;
d) no; e) all nonintegers; f) all integers.

48
2.10. The limit of trigonometric functions.
The first remarkable limit

First of all, let us consider principle called the squeeze principle.


The squeeze principle:
If g ( x) f ( x) h( x) and lim g ( x) L lim h( x)
xa xa
then lim f ( x) L
x a
Theorem 1: Let sin denote the sine of an angle of radians. Then
sin
lim 1
0
Sometimes this limit is also called the first remarkable limit.
Theorem 2: Let cos denote the cosine of an angle of radians.
Then
1 cos
lim 0
0
As x or x , the values of sin x and cos x oscillate
repeatedly between 1 and 1 without approaching any fixed real value.
Thus, the limits lim sin x , lim sin x , lim cos x , lim cos x do not
x x x x
exist. We shall say that they fail to exist due to oscillation.
sin ax
Example: Find lim
x 0 x
Solution: Let ax , as x 0, 0 . Thus,
sin ax sin sin sin
lim = lim = lim a = a lim a 1 a .
x 0 x 0 / a 0 0

sin ax
So, lim a.
x 0 x
sin 2 x
In particular, if a=2, then lim 2.
x 0 x
sin 5 x
Example: Find lim
x 0 5 x

sin 5 x 1 sin 5 x 1 sin 5 x 1


Solution: lim = lim = lim 5 1.
x 0 5 x x 0 5 x 5 x0 x 5

49
sin ax
Example: Find lim
x 0 sin bx
Solution: Let us divide numerator and denominator by x
sin ax sin ax
lim
sin ax x =a .
= lim x
x 0
lim
x 0 sin bx x 0 sin bx sin bx b
lim
x x 0 x
tan x
Example: Find lim
x 0 x
tan x sin x 1 1 sin x
Solution: lim = lim( ) = lim( )=
x 0 x x 0 cos x x x 0 cos x x
1 sin x
= lim lim =11=1.
x 0 cos x x 0 x

sin 2 ( x / 3)
Example: Find lim
x0 x2
2 2
x x x
sin 2 sin sin 2
3 3 3 1 1
Solution: lim = lim = lim = .
x0 x 2 x 0 x x 0 x 3 9


sin x
Example: Find lim
x 0 x9 3
Solution: As x0 then numerator and denominator approaches zero.
Let us multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate of
denominator:
sin x sin x( x 9 3)
lim = lim =
x 0 x 9 3 x0 ( x 9 3)( x 9 3)
sin x
= lim lim( x 9 3) =1(3+3)=6.
x 0 x x 0

x
Example: Find lim(2 x) tan
x 2 4
Solution: Observe that as x2, we shall have (0 ) .
Let x 2 . We obtain

50
x
lim(2 x) tan = lim tan (2 ) = lim tan( ) =
x 2 4 0 4 0 2 4

cos
4 =
= lim cot = lim
0 4 0
sin
4


4 1 4
= lim lim cos = 1 .
0 0 4
sin
4 4 4
Exercises
In exercises 1-18 find the limits.
sin 3 sin x
1. lim 2. lim
0 x 0 5 x

tan 7 x h
3. lim 4. lim
x 0 sin 3 x h 0 tan h

2
1 cos 5h
5. lim 6. lim
0 1 cos h0 cos 7 h 1

2 x sin x 1 1
7. lim 8. lim x sin let t
x 0 x x x x
x
sin 3
sin ax 2
9. lim 10. lim 3
x 0 tan bx x0 x
sin( x 1) sin x
11. lim 3 12. lim
x 1 x 1 x 0 x4 2
1 cos x tan2 x x
13. lim 14. lim x cot
x 0 x sin x x 0 3
x9 3 1 x 2
cos x
15. lim 16. lim
x0 sin 6 x x 0 sin 2 x

17. lim ( x ) tan x let x

x 2 2
2

51

cos
18. lim x let t
x 2 x 2 2 x

19. Find a nonzero value for the constant k so that
tan kx
if x 0
f ( x) x will be continuous at x=0.
3x 2k 2 if x 0

Answers
1. 3; 2. 0; 3. 7/3; 4. 1; 5. 2; 6. 25/49; 7. 3; 8. 1; 9. a/b; 10. 1/8;
11. 1/3; 12. 4; 13. 1/2; 14. 3; 15. 1/36 ; 16. 3/2; 17. 1; 18. /4;
19. 1/2.

2.11. The number e. Second remarkable limit

Number e is the limit


x
1
(1) lim 1 e or
x x
1

lim 1 e

(2)
0
Limits (1) and (2) are equivalent and called the second remarkable
limits.
To evaluate lim ( x)
( x)
C there are following possible cases.
x a

a) If lim ( x) A and lim ( x) B then C=AB


x a x a

b) If lim ( x) A 1 and lim ( x) B then we apply


x a x a

0 if 0 C 1
lim C x
x
if C 1
or
if 0 C 1
lim C x
x
0 if C 1

52
c) If lim ( x) 1 and lim ( x) then we assume
x a x a
( x) 1 ( x) , where ( x) 0 as x a and
( x ) ( x )
lim ( x ) ( x ) lim ( x ) 1 ( x )
C lim 1 ( x) ( x )
1
= e x a = e x a .
x a
x
k
Example: Find lim 1
x x
k
Solution: As x , expression 1 1 and we get indeterminate
x
k k
form 1 . Let us introduce by x .
x
If x then 0 . Thus,
x k
k
lim 1 = lim 1 = lim 1
k 1

x x 0 0
Using (2) we obtain
k k

lim 1 = lim 1 = e k
1 1

0 0
x
k
(3) lim 1 =e ;
k
x x
x
3
In particular, if k=3, then lim 1 = e 3
x x
ln(1 x)
Example: Find lim
x 0 x
1
ln(1 x) 1
Solution: Since ln(1 x) ln(1 x) x
x x
Using (2) we obtain
ln(1 x) 1
1

lim = lim ln(1 x) ln lim(1 x) x = ln e =1.
x
x 0
x 0 x x0

53
x
x 2
Example: Find lim
x x 3

Solution:
Let us divide numerator and denominator by x, and then use (3)
x
2

x 1 2
x 2 x = e e5 .
lim = lim
x x 3 x 3 e 3
1
x
1 4 x
2
Example: Find lim 1
x 3x 1
Solution:
1 4 x 1 4 x
2 2
lim 1 = lim 1
x 3x 1 x 3x 1
2 1 2 1
Let . Then x y .
3x 1 y 3 3
As x , then y .
We obtain
8 1
1 4 x y
2 1 3 3
lim 1 = lim 1 =
x 3x 1 y
y
8
1
1
y 3
1

3
8
= lim 1 1 =e 3 .
y y
y

x 3
2x 4
Example: Find lim
x 2 x 4
x 3 x 3
2x 4 8
Solution: lim = lim 1
x 2 x 4 x 2x 4
8 1
Let . Then
2x 4 y

54
x 3 4 y 1
8 1
lim 1 = lim 1 =
x 2x 4 y
y
4
1
y
1
1

= lim 1 1 = e 4 .
y y

y

Exercises

In exercises 1-12 find the limits.


n
2
2. lim1 3x x
1
1. lim 1
n n x 0

ln(1 4 x)
3. lim 4. lim x ln(x 1) ln x
x 0 x x
x x
x 1 xn
5. lim 6. lim
x x 3 x x m

y2 5 2 x
4 2x 3
7. lim 1 8. lim
x 2 x 1
y
3y 1
2 x4
3x 1
x
2x 3
9. lim 10. lim ln
x 3 x 2 x 2 x 1

x 4
5x 3
12. lim3x 2 ( x 2 1)
x
11. lim ln
x 5 x 1 x 1

Answers

1. e 2 ; 2. e 3 ; 3. 4; 4. 1; 5. e 4 ; 6. e n m ; 7. e 4 / 3 ; 8. e 4 ; 9. e 2 ;
10. 2; 11. 4/5; 12. e 3 / 2 .

55
Chapter 3
Derivatives
3.1. Definition of derivatives

Definition: Let f be a function that is defined in at least in some open


interval that contains the number x. If
f ( x h) f ( x )
(1) lim
h0 h
exists, it is called the derivative of f at x and is denoted f ' ( x) .
The function f is said to be differentiable at x.
Example: Find the derivative of the function x2 at any number x.
Solution: By the definition of the derivative
( x h) 2 x 2 x 2 2hx h 2 x 2
f ' ( x) lim = lim =
h0 h h0 h
2hx h 2
= lim == lim(2 x h) =2x.
h0 h h0
The fact that the derivative of the function x2 is 2x is recorded in the
d 2
notation (x2)=2x or (x ) 2x .
dx
3.2. Geometric interpretation of derivatives

Definition: If P( x0 , y0 ) is a point on the graph of a function f, then


the tangent line to the graph of f at y=f (x)
P is defined to be the line through
y
P with slope Tangent line
f ( x 0 h) f ( x 0 )
(1) mtan lim Q
h0 h X0

provided this limit exists.


For brevity, the tangent line f (x0+h)-f (x)
P h
at P(x0,y0) is often called the
tangent line at x0.(Fig.3.1)
It follows from the definition
that point-slope form of the 0
tangent line at x0 is: x0 x0+h x
(2) y y0 mtan ( x x0 ) Fig.3.1

56
Geometric interpretation of the derivative:
'
f is the function whose value at x is the slope of the tangent
line to the graph of f at x.
Example: Find the slope and an equation of the tangent line to the
graph of f ( x) x 2 at the point P(3,9).
Solution: We have x0 3 and y 0 9 , so from (1)
f (3 h) f (3) (3 h) 2 (3) 2
mtan lim = lim =
h0 h h0 h
9 6h h 2 9 6h h 2
= lim = lim = lim(6 h) =6
h0 h h0 h h0
Thus, from (2) the point-slope form of the tangent line is
y 9 6( x 3) and the slope-intercept form is y 6 x 9.
Example: Let f ( x) x 2 1
a) Find f ' ( x)
b) Use the result in part (a) to find the slope of the tangent line
to y x 2 1 at x 2, x 0, and x 2
Solution:
a) From (1) of (3.1)

f ' ( x) lim
f ( x h) f ( x )
= lim

( x h) 2 1 [ x 2 1]
=
h0 h h0 h
x 2 2 xh h 2 1 x 2 1 2 xh h 2
= lim = lim =
h0 h h 0 h
= lim(2 x h) =2x
h0
b) From part (a) the slope of the tangent line at any point x is
f ' ( x) 2 x .
Thus, at x 2, x 0, and x 2 the slopes are
f ' (2) 4 ; f ' (0) 0 and f ' (2) 4 .
Example: Find
a) the derivative with respect to x of f ( x) x
b) the slope of the tangent line to the graph of y x at x=9.

57
Solution: a) From definition
f ( x h) f ( x ) xh x
f ' ( x) lim = lim =
h0 h h0 h
( x h x )( x h x )
= lim =
h0 h( x h x )
xhx 1 1
= lim = lim = .
h0 h( x h x ) h 0 xh x 2 x
b) The slope of the tangent line at x=9 is f ' (9) ,and from part (a)
1 1
we have f ' (9) .
2 9 6
x
Example: Find the derivative of f ( x)
x 9
Solution:
f ( x h) f ( x )
f ' ( x) lim =
h0 h
1 xh x 1 ( x h)(x 9) x( x h 9)
= lim = lim
h0 h x h 9 x 9 h 0 h ( x h 9)(x 9)
1 x 2 9 x x h 9h x 2 x h 9 x
= lim
h0 h
( x h 9)(x 9)
1 9h 9 9
= lim
h0 h ( x h 9)( x 9)
lim
h0 ( x h 9)( x 9)
.
( x 9) 2

3.3. Derivative notation

The process of finding a derivative is called differentiation. It is


often useful to think of differentiation as an operation that, when
applied to a function f, produces a new function f ' . In the case where
the independent variable is x, the differentiation operation is often
d
denoted by the symbol [ f ( x)] , which is read, the derivative of
dx
f (x) with respect to x. Thus,

58
d
[ f ( x)] = f ' ( x)
dx
dy
Remark: should not be regarded as a ratio, it should be considered
dx
as a single symbol denoting the derivative.
If the independent variable is not x, then appropriate adjustments in the
notation have to be made. For example, if y f (u) then
d
[ f (u )] = f ' (u ) .
du
In particular, adjusting the notation in last two examples above yields
d 1 d u 9
[ u]= and = .
du 2 u du u 9 (u 9) 2

3.4. Existence of derivatives

The derivative of a function f is defined at those points where


the limit in (1) exists. If x0 is such a point, then we say that f is
differentiable at x0 or f has a derivative at x0. Stated another way, the
domain of f ' consists of those points where f is differentiable. We say
that f is differentiable on an open interval (a, b) if it is differentiable
at each point in (a, b), and we say that f is a differentiable function if
it is differentiable on (,) . At points where f is not differentiable
we say that the derivative of f does not exist.
Example:
The function f ( x) x is continuous for y
all x and consequently is continuous y x
at x=0.(Fig.3.2)
a) Show that f ( x) x is not differentiable
at x=0
b) Find f ' ( x) . x
0
Fig.3.2
Solution: a) From definition:
f (0 h) f (0) f (h) f (0)
f ' (0) lim = lim =
h0 h h 0 h

59
h0 h
= lim = lim
h 0 h h 0 h
h 1 if h0 h
But ,so that lim 1
h - 1 if h0 h 0 h
h h
and lim 1 . Thus f ' (0) limdoes not exist because the one
h 0 h h0 h

sided limits are not equal. Consequently, f ( x) x is not differentiable


at x=0.
b) If x0, then f ( x) x x , so f ' ( x) 1 and
y
if x0, then f ( x) x x , so f ( x) 1'
1

f ' ( x) x
d 1 if x 0
0
dx 1 if x 0 x
As we see in Fig.3.3. f is not a continuous -1
function. So, this example shows that a Fig.3.3
continuous function can have a derivative that is not continuous.

Exercises
In exercises 1-8 use definition of derivative to find f ' ( x)
1. f ( x) 3x 2 2. f ( x) x 2 x
3. f ( x) x 3 4. f ( x) 2 x 3 1
5. f ( x) x 1 6. f ( x) 1 / x
1
7. f ( x) ax2 b (a , b constants) 8. f ( x)
x
In exercises 9-12 use definition of derivative (with the
appropriate change in notation) to obtain the derivative requested.
9. Find f ' (t ) if f (t ) 4t 2 t
10.Find g ' (u ) if g (u) 5u 3
dA
11.Find if A 32
d

60
dV 4
12. Find if V r 3 .
dr 3
In exercises 13-17 find f ' (a) and the equation of the tangent
line to the graph of f at the point where x= a.
13. f is the function in Exercise 1.; a=3
14. f is the function in Exercise 2.; a=2
15. f is the function in Exercise 3.; a=0
16. f is the function in Exercise 4.; a=-1
17. f is the function in Exercise 5.; a=8
18. Given that f (3)=-1and f ' (3) 5 , find an equation for the tangent
line to the graph of y f (x) at the point where x=3.
x 2 1 , x 1
19. Show that f ( x) is continuous and
2 x , x 1
differentiable at x=1. Sketch the graph of f.
x 2 1 , x 1
20. Show that f ( x) is continuous but not
x 1 , x 1
differentiable at x=1. Sketch the graph of f.
3x 2 , x 1
21. Let f ( x)
ax b , x 1
Find the values of a and b so that f will be differentiable at x=1.

Answers
1 1
1. 6x ; 2. 2x-1; 3. 3x 2 ; 4. 6x 2 ; 5. ; 6. ; 7. 2ax ;
2 x 1 x2
1 1
8. 3
; 9. 8t 1 ; 10. 5 ; 11. 6 1 ; 12. 4 r 2 . 13. 18;
2 ( x)
y 18x 27 ; 14. 3; y 3x 4 ; 15. 0; y 0 ; 16. 6; y 6 x 5 ;
1 x 5
17. ; y ; 18. y 5x 16 ; 21. a=6, b=-3.
6 6 3

61
3.5. Techniques of differentiation
Rule 1: If f is a constant function, say f (x)= c for all x, then f ' ( x) =0;
that is,
d
c 0
dx
Example: If f (x)=5 for all x, then f (x) =0 for all x; that is
d
5 0 .
dx
Rule 2: (The power rule) For any fixed exponent n
d n
dx

x n x n1

through any interval where x n and x n1 are both defined.


Example:
d 5
dx

x 5 x4 ;
d
dx
x 1 x 0 1 ;

dx

d 12
x 12 x11 .
Rule 3: Let c be a constant. If f is differentiable at x, then so is cf, and
d
c f ( x) c d f ( x)
dx dx
Remark: In words, a constant factor can be moved through a derivative
sign. In function notation, rule 3 states (c f ) ' c f '
Example:
d
dx

4x8 4
d 8
dx
x 4 (8 x 7 ) 32x 7 ;

d
dx

x12 (1)
dx

d 12
x 12x11
Rule 4: If f and g are differentiable at x, then so is f + g , and
d
f ( x) g ( x) d f ( x) d g ( x)
dx dx dx
Rule 4 can be written in function notation as ( f g ) ' f ' g '

Example:
d 4
dx

x x7
dx

d 4
x
d 7
dx
x 4x3 7 x 6 .
By writing f g f (1) g and applying rule 4 it follows that

62
d
f ( x) g ( x) d f ( x) d g ( x)
dx dx dx
or in function notation as ( f g ) f g ' .
' '

Rule 4 can be extended to any finite number of functions.


If f1, f2, .fn are all differentiable at x, then their sum is differentiable
at x and:
d
f1 ( x) f 2 ( x) ......f n ( x)
dx
d d d
= [ f1 ( x)] [ f 2 ( x)] .. ..... [ f n ( x)] .
dx dx dx
Example:
d
dx

3x 8 7 x 5 6 x 7 d
dx

3x 8
d
dx
7 x 5 6 x [7] =
d
dx
d
dx
= 24x 35x 6 .
7 4

Rule 5: (The product rule) If f and g are differentiable at x, then so is


the product f g, and
d
f ( x) g ( x) f ( x) d g ( x) g ( x) d f ( x)
dx dx dx
The product rule can be written in function notation as
( f g)' f g ' g f ' .
Warning: Note that it is not true in general that ( f g ) ' f ' g ' ; that
is derivative of a product is not generally the product of the derivatives.
Example:
dy
Find if y (4 x 2 7)(7 x 3 x)
dx
Solution: There are two methods that can be used to find dy/dx. We can
either use the product rule or we can multiply out the factors in y and
then differentiate.
Method 1. (Using product rule)
dy d
= [(4 x 2 7)(7 x 3 x)] =
dx dx
d d
= (4 x 2 7) [7 x 3 x] (7 x 3 x) [4 x 2 7] =
dx dx

63
= (4 x 2 7)(21x 2 1) (7 x 3 x)(8x) =
= 84x 4 4 x 2 147x 2 7 56x 4 8x 2 = 140x 4 135x 2 7 .
Method 2. (Multiplying first)
y (4 x 2 7)(7 x 3 x) =
= 28x 5 4 x 3 49x 3 7 x 28x 5 45x 3 7 x .
Thus,
dy d
= [28x 5 45x 3 7 x] = 140x 4 135x 2 7 ,
dx dx
which agrees with the result obtained using the product rule.
The product rule can be extended to any finite number of
differentiable functions :
( f1 f 2 ..... f n ) ' = f1 f 2 ... f n + f 2 f1 ... f n +
' '

+ f n f1 f 2 ... f n1
'

Rule 6: (The quotient rule) If f and g are differentiable at x and g(x)0,


then f / g is differentiable at x and
g ( x) f ( x) f ( x) g ( x)
d d
d f ( x) dx dx

dx g ( x) [ g ( x)]2
The quotient rule can be written in function notation as
'
f f ' g g' f
.
g g2
x2 1 dy
Example: Let y 4 . Find .
x 1 dx

dy ( x 4 1)(x 2 1) ' ( x 2 1)(x 4 1) '


Solution: = =
dx ( x 4 1) 2
( x 4 1)(2 x) ( x 2 1)(4 x 3 )
= =
( x 4 1) 2
2x 5 2x 4x 5 4x 3 2x5 4x3 2x 2 x( x 4 2 x 2 1)
= = = .
( x 4 1) 2 ( x 4 1) 2 ( x 4 1) 2

64
Remark: Since it is needed often, it is worth memorizing that
if f (x)= c then
' '
f c c g'
2 .
g g g
'
1
Example: Find 3 .
2x x 5
'
1
Solution: By the formula for ,
g
'
1 1(2 x 3 x 5) ' 6x 2 1
3 = = .
2x x 5 (2 x 3 x 5) 2 (2 x 3 x 5) 2
d 9
Example: [ x ] 9 x 91 9 x 10 ;
dx
d 1 d 1 1
[ x ] (1) x 11 2 .
dx x dx x
1 2
Example: Find y ' if y x 5 x 3 x
5 3
Solution: Applying rule 2, rule 3, and rule 4 where it is necessary,
we obtain
1 2 1 2
y ' = ( x 5 ) ' ( x 3 ) ' ( x) ' ( x 5 ) ' ( x 3 ) ' ( x) '
5 3 5 3
1 2
= 5 x 4 3x 2 1 x 4 2 x 2 1 ( x 2 1) 2 .
5 3
x2 2
Example: Find f ' ( x) if f ( x) 2
x 2
Solution: Using rule 6 we get
'
x 2 2 ( x 2 2) ' ( x 2 2) ( x 2 2)(x 2 2) '
f ( x) = 2
'
=

x 2 ( x 2 2) 2
2 x( x 2 2) 2 x( x 2 2) 2 x( x 2 2 x 2 2) 8x
= 2 .
( x 2)
2 2
( x 2)
2 2
( x 2) 2

65
x 1
Example: Find y ' if y (2 x 7 x 2 )
x 1
Solution:
'
x 1 2 ' x 1
y ' = ( 2 x 7 x 2 ) = (2 x x ) x 1 +
7

x 1
'
x 1 x 1 2
+ (2 x x ) = (14x 2 x) (2 x 7 x 2 ) .
7 2 6
+
x 1 x 1 ( x 1) 2
Example: Find y ' if y ( x 5 2 x) 2
Solution: y ( x 5 2 x) 2 x10 4 x 6 4 x 2
y ' ( x10 4 x 6 4 x 2 ) ' 10x 9 24x 5 8x .
0 6
Example: Find y ' if y ( 0 is constant)
2 0
'
0 6 1 1
Solution: y =
'
2 ( 0 ) = 2 (0 6 ) .
6 ' 5

2 0 0

3.6. Higher order derivatives


If the derivative of y ' of a function y is itself differentiable,
d2y
then the derivative of y ' is denoted by y '' (or ) and is called the
dx 2
second derivative of y.
dy ' d dy d 2 y
y '' = = = .
dx dx dx dx 2
As long as we have differentiability, we can continue the process of
differentiating derivatives to obtain third, fourth, fifth, and even higher
derivatives of y.
dy '' d
y ''' = ;..; y (n ) = n [ y ( n 1) ] .
dx dx
'
y -read as y prime
y '' -read as y double prime

66
d2y
-read as d squared y dx squared
dx 2
y (n ) -read as y super n.
Example: If y 3x 4 2 x 3 x 2 4 x 2 , then
dy
y ' = 12 x 3 6 x 2 2 x 4 ;
dx
d2y
y '' = 2 = 36 x 2 12 x 2
dx
d3y
y ' ' ' = 3 = 72 x 12 ;
dx
d4y
y ( 4) 4 72
dx
y 0.
( 5)

Exercises
In exercises 1-15 use the techniques of differentiation to find dy/dx.
1. y 4x 7 2. y 3x 8 2 x 1
1
3. y 3 4. y ( x 7 2 x 9)
3

5. y 2x 1 6. y ax 3 bx 2 cx d
2
1 2 1 1
7. y x x c 8. y x 3
a b x7
1
9. y (3x 2 6)(2 x ) 10. y ( x 3 7 x 2 8)(2 x 3 x 4 )
4
1
11. y (3x 2 1) 2 12. y
5x 3
3x 2x 1
13. y 14. y
2x 1 x3
1 1/ x
15. y
1 1/ x
16. If 3) 2 and f ' (3) 4 , find g ' (3)
f (

67
2x 1
a) g ( x) 3x 2 5 f ( x) b) g ( x)
f ( x)
17. If f (2) 3 and f ' (2) 4 , g (2)=1 and g ' (2) 5 then
find F ' (2)
a) F ( x) 5 f ( x) 2 g ( x) b) F ( x) f ( x) 3 g ( x)
f ( x)
c) F ( x) f ( x) g ( x) d) F ( x)
g ( x)
18. Find y ''
a) y 4 x 7 5x 3 2 x b) y 3x 2
3x 2
c) y d) y ( x 3 5)(2 x 3)
5x
19. Find y ' ' '
1
a) y x 5 x 5 b) y
x
c) y ax3 bx c (a, b, c constant)
20. Find
a) f ' ' ' (2) , where f ( x) 3x 2 2
d2y
b) , where y 6 x 5 4 x 2
dx 2 x 1


4
d
c) 4
x 3
dx x 1
2
d y
21. Find
dx 2
a) y 7 x 3 5x 2 x b) y 12x 2 2 x 3
x 1
c) y d) y (5x 2 3)(7 x 3 x)
x
In each of exercises 22-25 find an equation of the tangent to the
given curve at the given point.
22. y x 3 x 2 2 x at (1, 2)

68
1
23. y at (2, 1/5)
2x 1
24. y x ( x 2 2) at (4, 36)
x 1
25. y at (-1, 0)
x2
Answers
7 6 2
1. 28x 6 ; 2. 24x 7 2 ; 3. 0 ; 4. x ; 5. 2 ;
3 3
2x 1 7 3
6. 3ax 2 2bx c ; 7. ; 8. 3x 4 8 ; 9. 18x 2 x 12 ;
a b x 2
2 3 4 5
10. 15x 14x 48x 32x ;11. 12x(3x 1) ; 2

5 3 7 2
12. ; 13. ; 14. ; 15. ;
(5 x 3) 2
(2 x 1) 2
( x 3) 2
( x 1) 2
16. a) -2; b) 8; 17. a) 10; b) 19; c) 19; d) -11; 18. a) 168x 5 30x ;
4
b) 0; c) ; d) 6 x(4 x 3) ; 19. a) 210x 8 60x 2 ; b) 6 x 4 ;
5x 3
c) 6a; 20. a) 0; b) 112; c) 360 ; 21. a) 42x 10 ; b) 24; c) 2 ;
x3
2x 9
d) 700x 3 96x ; 22. y 3x 1 ; 23. y ;
25 25
24. y 20.5x 46 ; 25. y x 1 .

3.7. The derivatives of the trigonometric functions

For the purpose of finding derivatives of the trigonometric


functions sinx,cosx, tanx, cotx , secx , and cscx, we shall assume that x
d d
is measured in radians. In order to find (sin x) and (cosx) , it will
dx dx
be necessary to make use of the limits
sin h 1 cos h
lim 1 and lim 0.
h 0 h h0 h
Let us first consider the problem of differentiating sin x. Let x
be any real number. From the definition of a derivative,

69
sin( x h) sin x
d
sin x = lim
h 0

dx h
sin x cos h cos x sin h sin x
= lim
h0 h
cos h 1 sin h
= lim sin x cos x =
h0
h h
sin h 1 cos h
= lim cos x sin x
h0
h h
Since sinx and cosx do not involve h, they remain constant as h0;
thus
lim(sin x) sin x and lim(cos x) cos x .
h0 h0
Consequently,
sin h 1 cos h
d
sin x = cos x lim
h0 h
sin x lim
h0
=
dx h
= cos x (1) sin x 0 =cosx.
Thus, we have shown that
(1)
d
sin x cos x ;
dx
or in function notation (sin x) ' cos x
The derivative of cosx can be obtained similarly, resulting in the
formula
(2)
d
cos x sin x ;
dx
or in function notation (cos x) ' sin x
The derivatives of remaining trigonometric functions can be obtained
using the relationships
sin x cos x 1 1
tan x ; cot x ; sec x ; csc x .
cos x sin x cos x sin x
For example,
cos x sin x sin x cos x
d d
d
tan x = d sin x = dx dx =
dx dx cos x 2
cos x

70
cos x cos x sin x ( sin x) cos2 x sin 2 x
= 2
= 2
= sec 2 x .
cos x cos x
(3)
d
tan x sec 2 x ;
dx
or in function notation (tan x) ' sec 2 x
The remaining formulas are
(4)
d
cot x csc 2 x ;
dx
or in function notation (cot x) ' csc 2 x

(5)
d
sec x sec x tan x ;
dx
or in function notation (sec x) ' sec x tan x

(6)
d
csc x csc x cot x ;
dx
or in function notation (csc x) ' csc x cot x
Example: Find f ' ( x) if f ( x) x 2 tan x
Solution: Using the product rule and formula (3), we obtain
f ' ( x) x 2 tan x tan x
d
dx
d 2
dx
x =
= x 2 sec 2 x 2 x tan x .
Example: Find dy / dx if y sin 2 x
Solution:
sin 2 x 2 sin x cos x trigonometric identity
Thus
(sin 2 x) ' (2 sin x cos x) ' 2(sin x cos x) '

= 2 sin x(cos x) ' cos x(sin x) ' =
= 2 [sin x( sin x) cos x(cos x)] 2(cos2 x sin 2 x) 2 cos 2 x .
Example: Find ( x 3 sec x) '
Solution: ( x 3 sec x) ' =
= x 3 (sec x) ' sec x ( x 3 ) ' x 3 sec x tan x sec x (3x 2 )

71
Example:
sin x
Find dy / dx if y
1 cos x
Solution: Using the quotient rule together with formulas (1) and (2)
we obtain
d d
(1 cos x) [sin x] sin x [1 cos x]
dy dx dx
=
dx (1 cos x) 2
(1 cos x)(cos x) (sin x)( sin x) cos x cos2 x sin 2 x
= = =
(1 cos x) 2 (1 cos x) 2
1 cos x 1
= .
(1 cos x) 2
1 cos x

Example: Find y ' ' if y( x) sec x
4
Solution:
y ' sec x tan x ;
d d
y ' ' sec x [tan x] tan x [sec x] =
dx dx
= sec x sec 2 x tan x sec x tan x = sec 3 x sec x tan2 x .
Thus,

y ' ' = sec 3 sec tan2 =
4 4 4 4
= ( 2 ) ( 2 ) (1) 3 2 .
3 2

Exercises

In exercises 1-12 find f ' ( x)


sin x
1. f ( x) 2 cos x 3 sin x 2. f ( x)
x
3. f ( x) x 3 sin x 5 cos x 4. f ( x) sec x 2 tan x
5. f ( x) sec x tan x 6. f ( x) x 4 csc x 2 cot x

72
cot x
7. f ( x) csc x cot x 8. f ( x)
1 csc x
9. f ( x) sin 2 x cos 2 x
sin x sec x
10. f ( x)
1 x tan x
1 3 sec x
11. f ( x)
tan x
cot x
12. f ( x)
1 x2
d2y
In exercises 13-17 find
dx 2
13. y x cos x 14. y csc x
15. y x sin x 3 cos x 16. y x 2 cos x 4 sin x
17. y sin x cos x

Answers
x cos x sin x
1. 2sinx-3cosx; 2. 2
; 3. x 3 cos x (3x 2 5) sin x ;
x
4. sec x tan x 2 sec x ; 5. sec 3 x sec x tan 2 x ;
2

1 cos2 x 1
6. 1 4 csc x cot x 2 csc 2 x ; 7. ; 8. ; 9. 0 ;
3
sin x 1 sin x
1 1 3 cos x (1 x 2 ) csc 2 x 2 x cot x
10. 11. ; 12. ;
(1 x tan x) 2 sin 2 x (1 x 2 ) 2
1 cos 2 x
13. x cos x 2 sin x ; 14. ; 15. x sin x 5 cos x ;
sin 3 x
16. 2 cos x 4 x sin x x 2 cos x 4 sin x ; 17. 4 sin x cos x .

73
3.8. The derivative of composite function.
The Chain rule

If f and g are differentiable functions, is the composite function


f g also differentiable? If so, what is its derivative?
More concretely: If y f (u) and u g (x) , then y is a function of x.
dy
How we can find ?
dx
Take a very simple case. The function y 6 x can be built by
composing the functions y 3u and u 2 x , since 6 x 3 (2 x) . In this
case,
dy du dy
3, 2, and 6.
du dx dx
dy dy du
So, is the product of the derivatives and . This observation
dx du dx
suggests the all-important Chain rule.
The Chain rule: If y is a differentiable function of u and u is a
differentiable function of x, then y is a differentiable function of x and
dy dy du
(1)
dx du dx
The equation
dy dy du
is read derivative of y with respect to x equals
dx du dx
derivative of y with respect to u times derivative of u with respect to x.
As we have already remarked, the notation dy/dx is not a
fraction, but rather a notation for the derivative of y with respect to x.
The Chain rule is a statement about derivatives, not about fractions, and
we should not think of the du as canceling out.
Example: Find y ' if y (1 x 2 )100
Solution: y (1 x 2 )100 . So y u 100 where u 1 x 2
According to the Chain rule
dy d 100 d
[u ] [1 x 2 ] 100u 99 2 x 100(1 x 2 ) 99 2 x =
dx du dx
= 200x(1 x 2 ) 99 .

74
Example: Find dy/dx if y 4 cos(x 3 )
Solution: Let u x 3 so that y 4 cos u
By the Chain rule,
dy dy du d d
= [4 cos u ] [ x 3 ] = (4 sin u) (3x 2 ) =
dx du dx du dx
= (4 sin( x 3 )) (3x 2 ) = 12x 2 sin( x 3 ) .
The Chain rule extends to a function built up as the composition of
three or more functions. For instance, if
y f (u), u g (v), and v h(x) then y is a
function of x and it can be shown that
dy dy du dv
(2)
dx du dv dx
Example:
Differentiate (1 x 2 ) 5
Solution: y (1 x 2 ) 5 can be expressed as y u , u v 5 ,
and v 1 x 2 .
Then
dy dy du dv
or
dx du dv dx
d
(1 x 2 ) 5 = [ u ] [v 5 ] [1 x 2 ]
d d d
dx
du dv dx
1 5v x 5(1 x ) x
4 2 4 3
= 5 v 4 2x = 5 x(1 x 2 ) 2 .
2 u u (1 x 2 ) 5
Although formulas (1) and (2) are useful it is sometimes unwieldy
because they involves so many dependent variables. A simpler version
of the Chain rule can be obtained by noting that y f (u) in (1), so

f (u ) and
dy d dy
f ' (u )
dx dx du
Substituting these expressions in (1) yields the following alternative
form of the Chain rule.
(3)
d
f (u) f ' (u) du
dx dx
75
Example:
Find f ' if f ( x) ( x 2 x 1) 23
Solution: Let u x 2 x 1 , so f (u) u 23 , then apply (3) to obtain
d
dx
d
( x 2 x 1) 23 = [u 23 ] 23u 22
dx
du
dx
=

d
= 23( x 2 x 1) 22 [ x 2 x 1] =
dx
= 23( x x 1) (2 x 1) .
2 22

More generally, if u were any other differentiable function of x, the


pattern of computation would be the same. For example, if u cos x ,
then
d
dx
d
cos23 x = [u 23 ] 23u 22
dx
du
dx
=

d
= 23cos22 x [cos x] = 23sin x cos22 x .
dx

Generalized derivative formulas


d n du
[u ] n u n1 (n an integer)
dx dx
d
dx
u
1 du
2 u dx

d du
[sin u ] cos u
dx dx
d du
[cosu ] sin u
dx dx
d du
[tanu ] sec 2 u
dx dx
d du
[cot u ] csc 2 u
dx dx
d du
[sec u ] sec u tan u
dx dx
d du
[csc u ] csc u cot u .
dx dx
76
d
Example: Find [sin(2 x)]
dx
Solution: Taking u 2 x in the generalized derivative formula
for sin u yields
d d du
[sin(2 x)] = [sin u ] = cos u =
dx dx dx
d
= cos(2 x) [2 x] = cos(2 x) 2 =2cos(2x).
dx
Example:
d
Find [tan(x 2 1)]
dx
Solution: Taking u x 2 1 in the generalized derivative formula for
tan u yields
d d du
[tan(x 2 1)] = [tanu ] = sec 2 u =
dx dx dx
d
= sec 2 ( x 2 1) [ x 2 1] = 2 x sec 2 ( x 2 1) .
dx
Example: Find
d
dx

(1 x 5 cot x) 8

Solution: Taking u 1 x 5 cot x in the generalized derivative


formula for u 8 yields
d
dx
d
(1 x 5 cot x) 8 = [u 8 ] = 8u 9
dx
du
dx
=
d
= 8(1 x 5 cot x) 9 [ x 5 ( csc 2 x) 5 x 4 cot x] =
dx
9
= (1 x cot x) (8x 5 csc 2 x 40x 4 cot x)
5

It is sometimes necessary to apply the Chain rule more than once to


find a derivative.
Example: Find
d
dx
cos2 (x)
Solution: Taking u cos( x) in the generalized derivative
formula for u 2 yields

77
d
dx
d
cos2 ( x) [u 2 ] = 2u
dx
du
dx
d
= 2 cos( x) [cos( x)]
dx
Taking u x in the generalized derivative formula for cos u yields
d
2 cos( x) [cos( x)] = 2 cos( x) ( sin( x))
dx
= 2 sin( x) cos( x) = sin(2 x) .
Example:
Find
d
dx
sin 1 cos x
Solution:
d
dx

sin 1 cos x = cos 1 cos x
d
dx

1 cos x =
sin x sin x cos 1 cos x
= cos 1 cos x = .
2 1 cos x 2 1 cos x
As you become more comfortable with using the Chain rule,
you may want to dispense with actually writing out the expression for u
in your computations. To accomplish this, it is helpful to express
formula (3) in words. If we call u the inside function and f the
outside function in the composition f (u), then (3) states:
To find dy/dx , differentiate the outside function f and leave the
inside function u alone; then multiply by the derivative of inside
function .
Example: Find
d
dx

cos(x 2 9) = sin( x 2 9)

2x
derivativeof the
derivativeof the
outsidefunction insidefunction

Example: Find
d
dx

tan2 x = tan x = 2tan
d
dx
2
x sec
x
2

derivativeof the derivativeof the


outsidefunction insidefunction

d
Example: Find if t 2 sec t
dt
Solution: Because the independent variable is t rather than x,
appropriate adjustments in notation have to be made.
d d 2

= t sec t =
dt dt

78
= 2t sec t t 2 sec t tan t
d
dt
t =

= 2t sec t t 2 sec t tan t .
2 t
Exercises
In exercises 1-20 find f ' ( x)
2
7
1. f ( x) ( x 2 x)
3 37
2. f ( x) x 3
x
4
3. f ( x) 4. f ( x) 4 3 x
(3x 2 x 1) 3
2

5. f ( x) sin( x 3 ) 6. f ( x) tan(4 x 2 )
1
7. f ( x) 4 cos 5 x 8. f ( x) sin 2
x
9. f ( x) 2 sec 2 ( x 7 ) 10. f ( x) cos(5x)

11. f ( x) x csc( x 3 3)
3
12. f ( x) x 2 5 x 2
1
13. f ( x) x 3 sin 2 (5x) 14. f ( x) x 5 sec
x
15. f ( x) cos(cos x) 16. f ( x) cos (sin 2 x)
3


3
x5
17. f ( x) 5x 813 x 3 7 x
12
18. f ( x)
2x 1

19. f ( x)
2 x 33
4 x 12 8

f ( x) x sin(2 x) tan ( x )4 7 5
20.
d2y
21. Find 2
if y x cos(5x) sin 2 x
dx
In exercises 22-23 find an equation for the tangent line to the
graph at the specified point.
22. y x cos(3x) ; x

79

23. y sec 3 x ; x
2 2
In exercises 24-25, find the indicated derivative
dy
24. y cot3 ( ) ; find
d
25.
d
dw

a cos2 ( w) b sin 2 ( w) ;
(a, b constants)

26. Given that f ' (0) 2 , g (0) 0 , and g ' (0) 3 , find ( f g ) ' (0)
27. Given that f ' ( x) 3x 4 and g ( x) x 2 1 , find F ' ( x)
if F ( x) f ( g ( x))
x
28. Given that f ' ( x) 2 and g ( x) 3x 1 , find F ' ( x)
x 1
if F ( x) f ( g ( x))
In exercises 29-30 find the value of ( f g ) ' at the given value of x
u
29. f (u ) cot ; u g ( x) 5 x ; x 1.
10
2u
30. f (u ) ; u g ( x) 10x 2 x 1 ; x 0 .
u2 1
Answers
3
7 7
1. 37 ( x 3 2 x) 36 (3x 2 2) ; 2. 2 x 3 3x 2 2 ;
x x
24 (1 3x) 3
3. ; 4. ; 5. 3x 2 cos(x 3 ) ;
(3x 2 x 1)
2 4
4 x 43 x
2 1
6. 8x sec 2 (4 x 2 ) ; 7. 20 cos4 x sin x ; 8. 3
cos( 2 ) ;
x x
5 sin(5 x)
9. 28x 6 sec 2 ( x 7 ) tan(x 7 ) ; 10. ;
2 cos(5 x)

11. 3 x csc( x 3 3) 1 3x
4 2
csc( x 3 3) cot(x 3 3) ;
x (10 3x ) 2
12. ; 13. 10x 3 sin(5x) cos(5x) 3x 2 sin 2 (5x) ;
5 x 2

80
1 1 1
14. x 3 sec tan 5 x 4 sec ; 15. sin x sin(cos x) ;
x x x
16. 6 cos (sin 2 x) sin(sin 2 x) cos 2 x ;
2

17. 12 5x 813 ( x 3 7 x)11 (3x 2 7) 65 ( x 3 7 x)12 (5 x 8)12 ;


33( x 5) 2 2 (2 x 3) 2 (52x 2 96x 3)
18. ; 19. ;
(2 x 1) 4 (4 x 2 1) 9
4
20. 5 x sin 2 x tan4 ( x 7 ) [2 x cos(2 x) sin(2 x) 28x 6
tan3 ( x 7 ) sec 2 ( x 7 )] ; 21. 25x cos(5x) 10 sin(5x) 2 cos(2 x) ;
22. y x ; 23. y 1 ; 24. 3 cot 2 csc 2 ;
1
25. (b a) sin(2 w) ; 26. 6; 27. 2 x 3x 2 1 ; 28. ; 29. ;
2x 4
30. 0.

3.9. Implicit differentiation

Consider the equation


(1) xy 1
dy
One way to obtain is to rewrite this equation as
dx
1
(2) y
x
For which it follows that
dy d 1 1
= 2
dx dx x x
However, there is another possibility. We can differentiate both sides of
(1) before solving for y in terms of x, treating y as a differentiable
function of x. With this approach we obtain
d d
[ xy] [1]
dx dx
d d
x [ y ] y [ x] 0
dx dx

81
dy dy y
x y0
dx dx x
If we now substitute (2) into the last expression, we obtain
dy 1
2
dx x
which agrees with the previous computation.
The equation xy 1 is said to describe the function y f (x)
1
implicitly. The equation y describes the function y f (x)
x
explicitly.
The second method of obtaining derivatives is called implicit
differentiation. It is especially useful when it is inconvenient or
impossible to solve explicitly for y in terms of x.
Example: By implicit differentiation find dy / dx if 5 y 2 sin y x 2
Solution: Differentiating both sides with respect to x and treating y as a
differentiable function of x, we obtain
d d
[5 y 2 sin y] [ x 2 ]
dx dx
d d
5 [ y 2 ] [sin y] 2 x
dx dx
dy dy
5 (2 y ) (cos y) 2x
dx dx
dy dy
10 y (cos y) 2x
dx dx
dy
Solving for , we obtain
dx
dy 2x

dx 10 y cos y
Note that this formula for dy/dx involves both the variables x
and y. In order to obtain a formula involving x alone we would have to
solve the original equation for y in terms of x and substitute it in dy/dx.
However, it is impossible to do this, so the formula for dy/dx must be
left in terms of x and y.

82
dy
Example: Find if 3x y 3 y 2 4
dx
d d
Solution: [3x y 3 ] [ y 2 4]
dx dx
2 dy dy
3 3y 2y
dx dx
dy dy
3y 2 2y 3
dx dx
dy 3

dx 2 y 3 y 2
One important thing to remember when doing implicit differentiation:
The derivative of y is y ' . The derivative of x is taken in the
normal way of a variable, so that the derivative of x is 1, as an example.
The reason for this is that y is a function of x, and does not exist without
being dependant on the equation on the other side. The derivative of,
for example, y 2 is 2 y y ' . The reason is that we actually use Chain
rule to solve it. So the outside function has a derivative 2 y , and the
inside function has derivative y ' , we multiply them together and
obtain 2 y y ' . So the derivative of 3y 2 is 6 y y ' .
Example: Assume that equation 2 xy sin y 2 defines y f (x) .
dy
Find when x 1 and y
dx 2
Solution: Implicit differentiation yields
d d
[2 xy sin y] [2 ]
dx dx
dy dy
2 x 2 y (cos y ) 0
dx dx
Solving for the derivative, dy/dx , we get
dy 2y

dx 2 x cos y

83

In particular, when x 1 and y ,
2

2
dy 2

dx 2
2 1 cos
2
Implicit differentiation takes four steps:
Step 1. Differentiate both sides of the equation.
Step 2. Send all terms with y ' to one side of the equation, and all terms
without to the other side.
Step 3. On the side with y ' terms, factor out the y ' .
Step 4. Solve for y ' by dividing.
Example:
Find the slope of the tangent line at the point (4,0) on the graph
of 7 y x 3 y x 4
4

Solution: It is difficult to solve given equation for y in terms of x, so


we shall differentiate implicitly. We obtain
d d
[7 y 4 x 3 y x] [4]
dx dx
dy dy
28 y 3 x3 3x 2 y 1 0
dx dx
dy
Solving for yields
dx
dy 1 3x 2 y

dx 28 y 3 x 3
At the point (4,0) we have x = 4, and y = 0, so
dy 1
mtan
dx x 4 64
y 0

Example: Find the tangent and normal to the curve y 2 x 1 0


at the point (2, -1).
dy
Solution: We first use implicit differentiation to find :
dx

84
d 2 d
[ y x 1] [0]
dx dx
dy
2y 1 0
dx
dy 1

dx 2 y
We then evaluate the derivative at x =2, y =-1, to obtain
dy 1
mtan
dx x 2 2
y 1
The tangent to the curve at (2, -1) is
1
y (1) ( x 2)
2
x x
y 1 1 and in the end y
2 2
The slope of normal line can be found from the condition m1 m2 1
mnor 2
The normal to the curve at (2, -1) is
y (1) 2( x 2)
y 2x 3
Example: Find slope of the curve x 2 y 3 2 x y at (2, 1).
Solution:
d 2 d
[ x y 3 ] [2 x y ]
dx dx
dy dy
2x 3y 2 2
dx dx
dy 2 2 x

dx 3 y 2 1
dy
Substitute (2, 1) into to find the slope at that point
dx
dy 2 22
1 is the slope of the curve.
dx x 2 3 12 1
y 1

85
d2y
Example: Use implicit differentiation to find 2
if 4 x 2 2 y 2 9 .
dx
Solution: Differentiating both sides of equation implicitly yields
dy
8x 4 y 0
dx
dy 2 x

dx y
We now apply the quotient rule to find y ' '
dy
2 y 2x
d 2 x dx
y ' ' =
dx y y2
2x
Finally we substitute y ' into y ' ' to express y ' ' in terms
y
of x and y
2x
2 y 2x
2
d y y 2 y 2 4x 2 1 2 y 2 4x 2
y'' = 2 = .
dx y2 y y2 y3
Exercises
In exercises 1-12 find dy / dx by implicit differentiation.
1. x 2 y 2 25 2. x 2 y 3xy 3 x 7
1 1
3. 2 4. x y 9
x y
3
5. ( x 2 3 y 2 ) 35 x 6. 3xy ( x 3 y 2 ) 2

7. sin( x 2 y 2 ) x 8. tan3 ( xy 2 y) x
9. 1 sin 3 ( xy 2 ) y 10. xy sin y 0
2 2 2 2 2
x y
11. 2
2 1 (a, b constants) 12. x 3 y 3 a 3
a b
In exercises 13-17 use the differentiation to find the slope of
the tangent line to the given curve at the given point.
13.
2 xy

sin y 2
at 1, 2
86
14. 2 y 3 4 xy x 2 7 at (1, 1)
15. x y x yx y 4
5 3 2 5
at (1, 1)
16. x tan xy 2
at 1,
4

17. x 3 y y 3 x 10 at (1, 2)
d2y
In exercises 18-21 find by implicit differentiation.
dx 2
18. 3x 2 4 y 2 6 19. x 3 y 3 27
20. x 3 y 3 6 0 21. 2 xy y 2 13
In exercises 22-23 find the lines that are a) tangent and b)
normal to the curve at the given point.
22. x 2 xy 2 2 y 2 0 at (1, 1)
23. x 2 y 2 9 at (-1, 3)
24. At what point(s) is the tangent line to the curve y 2 2x 3
perpendicular to the line 4 x 3 y 1 0 ?
25. Find the values of a and b for the curve x 2 y ay 2 b if the point
(1, 1) is on its graph and the tangent line at (1, 1) has the equation
4x 3 y 7 .
Answers
x 1 2 xy 3 y 3
y2 y
1. ; 2. ; 3. ; 4. ;
y x 9 xy
2 2
x 2
x
3 2 3 1
x (x y 2 ) 2 y
1 70x( x 2 3 y 2 ) 34
5. ; 6. 2 ;
210y ( x 3 y )
2 2 34 1
x y( x 3 y 2 ) 2
1 2 xy 2 cos(x 2 y 2 ) 1 3 y 2 tan2 ( xy 2 y) sec 2 ( xy 2 y)
7. ; 8. ;
2 x 2 y cos(x 2 y 2 ) 3(2 xy 1) tan2 ( xy 2 y) sec 2 ( xy 2 y)
3 y 2 sin 2 ( xy 2 ) cos( xy 2 ) y
9. ; 10. ;
2 1 sin 3 ( xy 2 ) 6 xy sin 2 ( xy 2 ) cos( xy 2 ) x cos y

87
1
b2 x y 3 3 8 2
11. 2 ; 12. ; 13. ; 14. ; 15. ;16. ;
a y x 2 5 9 4
14 12 y 2 9 x 2 2 xy 3 2 x 4 2y
17. ; 18. 3
; 19. 5
; 20. 2 ;
13 16 y y x
y 2 2 xy 3x 1 2x 5
21. ;22. y tan ; y nor ; 23. y tan 3x 6 ;
( y x) 3
2 2 3 3
1 8
y nor x ; 24. for all (x, y) which satisfies y 4 x 2 0 ;
3 3
1 5
25. a ; b .
4 4

3.10. The linearization

Fig. 3.4 suggests that if f is differentiable y=f (x)


at the given point a, then the tangent line y
to the curve
y = f (x) at a is a reasonably good
approximation to the curve y = f (x) for
vales x near a. Since the tangent line
passes through (a, f (a)) and has slope f ( a) Tangent line
f ' (a) , the point- slope form of its
equation is
0
y f (a) f ' (a)(x a) or a x
Fig.3.4
y f (a) f (a)(x a)
'

Definition: If y f (x) is a differentiable at x = a, then


(1) L( x) f (a) f ' (a)(x a)
is the linearization of f at a. The approximation f ( x) L( x) is the
linear approximation of f near x = a.

88
Example: Find the linearization of f ( x) tan x at / 4 .
Solution: In this case f ' ( x) sec 2 x . We compute

f tan 1
4 4

f ' sec 2 ( 2 ) 2 2
4 4

Thus the linearization of tan x at is L( x) 1 2( x )
4 4
1
Example: Find the linearization of f ( x) at a 2.
x2
1
Solution: We evaluate (1) for f ( x)
x2
2
f ' ( x) ( x 2 ) ' 2 x 3 3
x
1 1
For a 2 we obtain f (2) ; and f ' (2)
4 4
1 1 1 3
Equation (1) gives L( x) ( x 2) L( x) x .
4 4 4 4

3.11. The differential


Up to now we have been
y viewing the expression
y=f (x) dy /dx as a single symbol
for the derivative. dy
and dx are called
differentials.
Regard x as fixed and
define dx to be an
independent variable that
Rise = dy
can be assigned an arbitrary
Run = dx value.
If f is differentiable at x0,
0 x0 x0+dx then we define dy by the
x
Fig. 3.5 formula

89
(1) dy f ' ( x0 ) dx
If dx 0 , then we can divide both sides of (1) by dx to obtain
dy dy
f ' ( x0 ) . Since f ' ( x0 ) m tan , where mtan is the slope of the
dx dx
tangent to y f (x) at x0 , the differentials dy and dx can be viewed as
a corresponding rise and run of this
tangent line (Fig. 3.5). y
It is important to understand the
distinction between the increment y=f(x)
y and differential dy.
To see the difference, let us represent
the change in y that occurs when we
start at x0 and travel along the curve
dy y
y f (x) until we moved x (=dx)
units in the x-direction, while dy x = dx
represents the change in y that occurs
if we started at x0 and travel along the 0
x0 x0+x
tangent line until we have moved dx x
(x0+dx)
(= x ) units in the x-direction (Fig. Fig.3.6
3.6)

Definition: Let y f (x) be a differentiable


function and x0 be a number in the domain of f.
Then f ' ( x0 )dx is called the differential of f at x and denoted df or dy.
dy
Example: If y x 3 , then the relation 3x 2 can be written in the
dx
differential form dy 3x 2 dx
For example, when x0= 2, this becomes dy 12dx .
This tells us that if we have travel along the tangent to the curve
y x 3 at x0 = 2, then a change of dx units in x produces a change of
12dx units in y. For example, if the change in x is dx =3 then the change
in y along the tangent is dy 12 3 36 units.

90
Example:
Let y x . Find dy and y if x0 = 4 and x 3 .
Solution: From y f ( x0 x) f ( x0 ) with f ( x) x ,
y x0 x x0 7 4 0.65
dy 1 1 1 3
Since y x , then , dy dx 3 0.75 .
dx 2 x 2 x 2 4 4
Notice that dy is very close to y , as was to be expected.
Example: Find dy and y for y x 2 2 x when x0 = 2
and dx x 1 .
Solution: y f ( x0 x) f ( x0 ) = f (3) f (2) =
= (32 2 3) (2 2 2 2) 3 .
y x 2 2x ;
dy
2 x 2 ; and dy (2 x 2)dx (2 2 2) 1 2 .
dx
3.12. Using the differential

The linearization of y f (x) at x 0 is


y f ( x0 ) f ' ( x0 ) ( x x0 ) or
y f ( x0 ) f ' ( x0 )(x x0 )
For values of x close to x 0 , the height y of tangent line will closely
approximate the height f (x) of the curve, which yields approximation
(1) f ( x) f ( x0 ) f ' ( x0 )(x x0 )
for x near x 0 . If we let x x x0 , so that x x0 x , then (1) can
be written in the alternative form
(2) f ( x0 x) f ( x0 ) f ' ( x0 )x
which is a good approximation when x is near zero.
The output of f at x0 x is approximated by the output of f at x 0 plus
the differential f ' ( x0 ) x .

91
3
Example: Use approximation formula to estimate 29
3
Solution: Because we wish to estimate 29 , we introduce the cube
root function f ( x) x . We know the exact value of 3 x when
3

x = 27, which is near 29, so we use (2) with x0 = 27, and


x 29 27 2
3
29 3 27 2 3 27 f ' (27) (29 27)
1
1
Since f ( x) x3 ; f ' ( x) .
3 x2
3

Thus we have
1
3
29 3 2 or
3 3 27 2
2
3
29 3 3 0.0741 3.0741.
27
To estimate f (b) take the following steps:
1. Find a number x0 near b at which f ( x0 ) and f ' ( x0 ) are easy to
calculate
2. Find x b x0 . ( x may be positive or negative)
3. Compute f ( x0 ) f ' ( x0 ) x . This is an estimate of f (b).
In short, f (b) f ( x0 ) f ' ( x0 ) (b x0 )
Example: Use a differential to estimate 61
Solution: Let us take the point x0 64 , since f (64) is known. We have
f (64) 64 8 .
1 1
f ' (64)
2 64 16
Since 61=64-3, x 3 . Therefore
1
61 =f (64-3) f (64) f ' (64) (3) 8 (3) 7.81.
16
Example: Use (2) to approximate cos 62
Solution: We shall take advantage of the fact that 62 is close to 60
at which point the trigonometric functions are easy to estimate

92
31
62 and 60 .
90 3
31
x0 x and x0
90 3

It follows that x , so (2) yields
90
31 '
f f f ;
90 3 3 90
31 1 3
cos cos sin 0.4698 .
90 3 3 90 2 2 90
d [ ] denotes the differential of the expression in the brackets.
For example:
d[ x 2 ] 2 xdx
d[ f ( x)] f ' ( x)dx
The basic rules of differentiation can be expressed in terms of
differentials.

Differential formulas:

d [c] =0
d[cf ] c df
d[ f g ] df dg
d[ f g ] f dg g df
f g df f dg
d
g g2

Example: Find dy if y x cos x


Solution:
dy d[ x cos x] x d[cos x] cos x d[ x] =
= x( sin xdx) cos xdx (cos x x sin x)dx

93
Exercises

In exercises 1-4 find the linearization L (x ) of f (x) at x = a .


1. f ( x) x at a = 1 2. f ( x) 3 x at a = 8
x
3. f ( x) x 3 x at a = 2 4. f ( x) at a = 1
x 1

In exercises 5-8 compute df and f of the given functions,


and values of x0 and dx
5. f ( x) x 2 at x0 = 1 and dx 0.3
6. f ( x) x at x0 = 9 and dx 2

7. f ( x) tan x at x0 and dx
6 12
8. f ( x) x 1 at x0 0.5 and dx 0.1

In exercises 9-14 use differentials to estimate the given quantities.


9. 119 10. 3 25

11. tan 0.01 12. sin 0.02
4 3
13. sin 0.13
14. sin 32 [Hint: first translate into radians]

In exercises 15-19 find dy


15. y 4 x 3 7 x 2 2 x 1 16. y sin 3 ( x / 2)
17. d [tan 3 x] 18. d [ x 3 sec 2 5x]
1 x3 1
19. y 20. y
2 x x 1
3

94
Answers
x 1 x 4
1. L( x) ; 2. L( x) ; 3. L( x) 11x 16 ;
2 12 3
x 1 1
4. L( x) ; 5. dy 0.6; y 0.69 ; 6. dy ; y 7 3 ;
4 4 3
1 2 1
7. dy ; y 1 ; 8. dy ; y ; 9. 10.91 ; 10. 2.9259;
9 3 5 3
11. 0.98; 12. 0.856;13. 0.13; 14. 0.5302; 15. dy (12x 2 14x 2)dx ;
3 x x
16. dy sin 2 cos dx ; 17. 3 tan 2 x sec 2 xdx ;
2 2 2
2x 3 6x 2 1
18. [3x 2 sec 2 5x 10x 3 sec 2 5x tan 5x]dx ; 19. dx ;
(2 x) 2
3x 2
20. dx .
( x 3 1) 2

95
Chapter 4
Applications of derivatives

4.1. Relative maxima and minima.


The first and second derivative tests

Definition: A function f is said to have a relative maximum at x0 if


f ( x0 ) f ( x) for all x in some open interval containing x0 .
Definition: A function f is said to have a relative minimum at x0 if
f ( x0 ) f ( x) for all x in some open interval containing x0 .
Definition: A function f has a global maximum at the number x 0 if
f ( x0 ) f ( x) for all x in the domain of f .
Definition: A function f has a global minimum at the number x0 if
f ( x0 ) f ( x) for all x in the domain of f .
Definition: A critical point for a function f is any value of x in the
domain of f at which f ' ( x) 0 or at which f is not differentiable;
the critical points where f ' ( x) 0 are called stationary points of f.
The first derivative theorem for local extreme value:
Let f be a function defined at least on the open interval (a, b).
If f takes on an extreme value at a number c in this interval and if
f ' (c) exists, then
f ' (c ) 0 .
If an extreme value occurs within an open interval and derivative exists
there, the derivative must be 0 at that point.
Warning 1: The theorem is not
y Maximum
necessarily true if the open
interval (a , b) replaced by a occurs
at x=b
closed interval [a, b].
As Fig. 4.1 shows, the maximum
occurs at b where the derivative is
not zero.
0
a b x
Fig. 4.1
96
Warning 2: The converse of this theorem is not y f(x)=x3
true. Having the derivative equals to 0 at a
point does not guarantee that there is an
extremum at that point.
0 x
Let us consider f ( x) x 3 .
f ' ( x) 3x 2 ; f ' (0) 0
As we see f (x) has f ' (0) 0 , but Fig.4.2
f ( x) x has neither maximum nor minimum at the point x 0 .
3

After finding a number c such that f ' (c) 0 , we would like to


know whether there may be a relative maximum or relative minimum
at c. The following test describes a way to get the answer.
The first derivative test for local maximum at point c:
Suppose f is continuos at a critical point c.
a) If f ' (c) 0 on an open interval extending left from c and
f ' (c) 0 on an open interval extending right from c, then f has a
relative maximum at c.(Fig.4.3)

relative
relative
minimum
maximum

For x>c For x<c For x>c


For x<c
f (x)<0 f (x)<0 f (x)>0
f (x)>0

c
c
a critical point a critical point
Fig.4.3
Fig.4.4

b) If f ' (c) 0 on an open interval extending left from c and f ' (c) 0
on an open interval extending right from c, then f has a
relative minimum at c.(Fig.4.4).
c) If f has the same sign [either f ' (c) 0 or f ' (c) 0 ] on an open
interval extending left from c and on an open interval extending right
from c, then f does not have a relative extremum at c.

97
Briefly, the relative extrema, on an open interval where f is
continuous occur at those critical points where f ' changes the sign.
Example: Locate the relative extrema of f ( x) x 2 2 x 1 .
Solution:
f ' ( x) 2 x 2
Solving f ' ( x) 0 we obtain x =1. To see whether the critical point is a
relative maximum, relative minimum or neither, check the sign of
f ' ( x) 2 x 2 .
If x 1 then (2 x 2) 0 , and
If x 1 then (2 x 2) 0 , so the first derivative test tells us
that the critical point x =1 is a relative minimum.
Example: Locate the relative extrema of f ( x) x 3 3x 2 3x 1 .
Solution:
f ' ( x) 3 x 2 6 x 3
f ' ( x) 0 3( x 1) 2 0 and x =1 is only critical point.
Since ( x 1) 2 0 for all x and f ' ( x) does not change sign at x =1, we
make conclusion:
In spite the fact that x =1 is a critical point but f does not have a relative
extrema at x =1. Thus f has no extrema.
Example: Locate the relative extrema of f ( x) 3 x 1 .
Solution:
1
f ' ( x) .
3 ( x 1) 2
3

Since f ' ( x) does not exist when x 1 , so this point is a critical point.
But, as we see, f ' does not change the sign. We make conclusion that f
does not have a relative extrema at x =1.
Example: Locate the relative extrema using first derivative test of
f ( x) 2 x 3 9 x 2 12x .
Solution: f ' ( x) 6 x 2 18x 12
f ' ( x) 0 6 x 2 18x 12 0 yields x1 1; x2 2

98
The sign of f ' changes from + to + + + - - - - + + +
- at x =1 and from - to + at 1 2
the point x =2. Thus there is a ' 2
relative maximum at x =1 and Sign of f =6x -18x+12
relative minimum at x =2.
Relative maximum equals 5 at x =1 and relative minimum is 4 at x =2.
Second derivative test:
Suppose that f is twice differentiable at a stationary point c.
a) If f ' ' (c) 0 then f has a relative minimum at c.
b) If f ' ' (c) 0 then f has a relative maximum c.
Example: Locate the relative extrema of f ( x) x 4 2 x 2 .
Solution: f ' ( x) 4 x 3 4 x
f ' ' ( x) 12x 2 4
Solving f ' ( x) 0 yields the stationary points x 0 , x 1 , x 1 .
Since
f ' ' (0) 4 0
f ' ' (1) 8 0
f ' ' (1) 8 0
there is a relative maximum at x =0, relative minimum at x =1; x =-1.
Example: Find all relative extrema of the function f ( x) x 4 2 x 3 .
Solution: f ' ( x) 4 x 3 6 x 2
f ' ' ( x) 12x 2 12x - - - - + + + + + +
f ' ( x) 0
-3 0
2 x 2 ( x 3) 0 ;
x1 0; x2 3 . Sign of f ' ( x) =4x3+6x2

f ' ' (0) 0 ; f ' ' (3) 72 0


Since f ' ' (0) 0 , then second derivative test fails. Let us use first
derivative test. Since at x =0, f ' does not change the sign then we say
that x 0 is not extreme point.
Function f ( x) x 4 2 x 3 has a relative minimum at x 3 .

99
1
Example: Find relative extrema of f ( x) x sin x , 0 x 2
2
using second derivative test.
1
Solution: f ' ( x) cos x
2
f ( x) sin x
''

1
From f ' ( x) 0 we obtain cos x ; x .
2 3

3
f '' 0 , so f (x) has a relative minimum at x and its
3 2 3
value is
3 3 3
f .
3 6 2 6

Exercises

In exercises 1-6 locate the critical points and classify them as


stationary points or points of nondifferentiability.
1. f ( x) x 2 5x 6 2. f ( x) x 3 3x 2 9 x 1
x
3. f ( x) x 4 6 x 2 3 4. f ( x) 2
x 2
5. f (x) sin 2 x ; 0 x 2 ;
2

1
6. f ( x) x 3 ( x 4)
In exercises 7-16 use any method to find the relative extrema.
7. f ( x) x 5 8. f ( x) x 3 5x 2
9. f ( x) x( x 1) 2 10. f ( x) 2 x 2 x 4
4
11. f ( x) x 5 12. f ( x) tan(x 2 1)
x 2 3x 2
13. f ( x) 2 x x 2 14. f ( x)
x 2 2x 1
4
15. f ( x) ( x 1) 3 16. f ( x) 1 ( x 2) 5

100
In exercises 17-18 f ' ( x) is given. Find all critical points and
determine whether a relative maximum, relative minimum or neither
occurs there.
9 4x 2
17. f ' ( x) x 3 ( x 2 5) 18. f ' ( x)
3
x 1
k
19. Find a value of k so that x 2 will have a relative extremum
x
at x 3 .
x
20. Find a value of k so that 2 will have a relative extremum
x k
at x 2.5

Answers

1. x =5/2 (stationary); 2. x=-3;1 (stationary); 3. x =0; 3 (stationary);


n
4. x = 2 (stationary); 5. x ; n=1,2,3,4,5,6,7 (stationary);
4
6. x =-1 (stationary); x =0 (not differentiable); 7. Critical point is x=0,
neither maximum nor minimum; 8. none; 9. Relative min. of 0 at x=1;
4 1
Relative max. of at x ; 10. Relative min. of 0 at x=1;
27 3
Relative max. of 1 at x =1; -1; 11. Relative min. of 0 at x=0;
12. Relative min. of tan(1) at x=0; 13. Relative min. of 0 at x=0;
1 7
Relative max. of 1 at x =1; 14. Relative min.of at x ;
24 5
15. none; 16. Relative max. of 1 at x =2; 17. Relative maximum at x =0;
3
Relative minimum at x 5 ; 18. Relative maximum at x = ;
2
Relative minimum at x 1 ; 19. 54 ; 20. 6.25.

101
4.2. Maximum and minimum values of a function on a
closed interval

In many applied problems we are interested in finding global


maximum or global minimum of function over some closed interval
[a, b]. To find the extreme values of continuous function f on a closed
interval [a, b] we use following steps:
Step 1: Find the critical points of f .
Step 2: Evaluate f at the endpoints a and b, and at those critical points
which lie in [a, b].
Step 3: Select the largest of the values in step 2 as the global (absolute)
maximum value of f on [a, b] and the smallest value as the global
(absolute) minimum.
Example:
Find the maximum and minimum value of
f ( x) x 3 3x 2 3x on [0, 2]
Solution:
Step 1: Let us find critical points
f ' ( x) 3 x 2 6 x 3
f ' ( x) 0 is equivalent to 3x 2 6 x 3 0 or 3( x 1) 2 0 .
Thus 1 is the only critical number, and it lies in the interval [0, 2].
Step 2: Evaluating f at critical point x =1 and the endpoints, we have
f (0) 0 ;
f (1) 13 3 12 3 1 1 ;
f (2) 23 3 2 2 3 2 2
Thus, the maximum value is 2 and the minimum value is 0. The
maximum occurs at x =2 and the minimum occurs at x =0.
Example:
Find the maximum and minimum value of
f ( x) 2 x 3 3x 2 12x on the interval [0, 3]
Solution:
Step 1: f ' ( x) 6 x 2 6 x 12
The equation f ' ( x) 0 becomes 6 x 2 6 x 12 0 , which simplifies
to x 2 x 2 0 or ( x 2)(x 1) 0 .

102
There are two critical points x1 1 and x2 2 . But only x2 2 lies
on [0, 3]. So x1 1 is not a point of interest.
Step 2:
f (0) 0 ;
f (2) 2 23 3 2 2 12 2 20 ;
f (3) 2 33 3 32 12 3 9
Step 3:
Thus, the minimum value of f on [0, 3] is 20, which occurs at x =2,
and the maximum value of f on [0, 3] is 0, which occurs at x =0.
Example:
2
Find the maximum and minimum value of f ( x) x3 (20 x)
on [-1, 20]
Solution:
Differentiating, we obtain
1 2 1
2 2 40 5 x
f ( x) x 3 (20 x) x 3 = x 3 (20 x) x = 3
'
3 3 3 x
Thus, f ' ( x) 0 at x =8 and f ' ( x) does not exist at x =0. It follows that
both of critical points lie on the [-1, 20]. Let us evaluate f at these and at
endpoints:
f ( x) 3 x 2 (20 x)
f (1) 3 (1) 2 (20 (1)) 21
f (0) 0
f (8) 3 82 (20 8) 4 12 48
f (20) 3 202 (20 20) 0 .
Thus, the maximum value of f on [-1, 20] is 48, which occurs at x =8
and the minimum value is 0, which occurs at two points
x 0 and x 20 .

103
4.3. Concavity

Definition: The curve is called concave down if it lies below its


tangent lines and above its
chords.(Fig. 4.5) tangent
Definition: The curve is chord
called concave up if it lies
above its tangent lines and
below its chords. (Fig. 4.6) chord tangent
'
Since f is the slope of a
Fig.4.5 Fig.4.6
tangent line to the graph
of f , it brings the following
definitions.
Definition: A function f whose derivative is increasing through the
open interval (a, b) is called concave up in that interval.
Definition: A function f whose derivative is decreasing through the
open interval (a, b) is called concave down in that interval.
Theorem:
a) If f ' ' ( x) 0 on an open interval (a, b), then f is concave up
on (a, b)
b) If f ' ' ( x) 0 on an open interval (a, b),then f is concave down
on (a, b).
Example: Find open interval on which following functions are concave
up and open intervals on which they are concave down.
a) f ( x) x 2 4 x 7 ; b) f ( x) x 5 ; c) f ( x) x( x 1) 3
Solution:
a) Calculating f ' and f ' ' we obtain
f ' ( x) 2 x 4 and f ' ' ( x) 2
Since f ' ' ( x) 0 for all x, the function is concave up on (;) .
b) Calculating f ' and f ' ' we obtain
f ' ( x) 5 x 4 and f ' ' ( x) 20x 3
Since f ' ' ( x) 0 if x 0 and f ' ' ( x) 0 if x 0 , the function f (x) is
concave down on (;0) and concave up on (0;) .

104
c) f ' ( x) ( x 1) 2 (4 x 1)
1
f ' ' ( x) 12( x )(x 1) .
2
1
f ' ' 0 if x1 and x 2 1 .
2
f ( x) 0 if x (;1 / 2) and x (1;) ,
''

so function is concave up on these intervals.


f ' ' ( x) 0 if x (1 / 2;1) so f is concave down on this interval.

4.4. Inflection points

Definition: If function f is continuous on (a, b) containing x0 and if


f changes the direction of concavity at x0 , then the point ( x0 , f ( x0 ) is
called an inflection point of f, and we say that function f has an
inflection point at x0.
The simplest way to look for an inflection point is to use the second
derivative.
To find inflection point of f (x) use following steps:
1) Compute f ' ' ( x) ;
2) Look for numbers x0 such that f ' ' ( x) =0 or f ' ' ( x) is not defined
at x0;
3) Check whether f ' ' ( x) changes the sign.
Example: Find the inflection point of f ( x) x 4 6 x 3 12x 2
Solution: Let us find f ' ' ( x)
f ' ( x) 4 x 3 18x 2 24x and
f ' ' ( x) 12x 2 36x 24
Let us find points where f ' ' ( x) =0. ++++ - -- -- + + +
12x 2 36x 24 0 -1 2
x 2 3x 2 0 ; ''
Sign of f (x)=(x-2)(x-1)
Roots of equation are: x1 1 ; x2 2 .
As we see f ' ' ( x) changes sign at x = 1and x = 2, so both of these

105
numbers are inflection numbers. The graph of f (x) has two inflection
points namely (1, f (1))=(1, 7) and (2, f (2))=(2, 16).
Example:
Find the inflection point of f ( x) 3 x 1
2
1
Solution: f ( x) ( x 1) 3 ;
'
3
5
2 2
f ( x) ( x 1) 3
''
9 9 3 ( x 1) 5
f ' ' ( x) is never zero. f ' ' ( x) is not defined at x =1. Let us check if
f ' ' ( x) changes the sign at x =1.
If x <1 then f ' ' ( x) 0 and if x >1 then f ' ' ( x) 0 so point
(1, f (1))=(1, 0) is an inflection point.

Exercises

In exercises 1-7 find the maximum and minimum values of f on


the given closed interval and state where these values occur.
1. f ( x) x 2 x 4 ; [0, 1] 2. f ( x) 4 x x 2 ; [0, 1]
3. f ( x) x 3 2 x 2 5x ; [-1, 3] 4. f ( x) ( x 1) 3 ; [0, 4]
3x 2
5. f (x) ; [-1, 1] 6. f ( x) ( x 2 x) 3 ; [-2,3]
4x 2 1

7. f (x) x tan x ; ; .
4 4
In exercises 8-15 find the intervals where the function is concave up or
concave down and give x coordinate of inflection points.
8. f ( x) x 3 3x 2 2 9. f ( x) x 2 x 1
1
10. f ( x) x 4 4 x 3 11. f ( x)
1 x2
12. f ( x) 3x 4 4 x 3 13. f ( x) cos x ; 0 x 2
14. f ( x) 2 x 3 3x 2 15

106
Answers
1. max f ( x) f 2 1 ; min f ( x) f (0) f (1) 0 ;
2 4
2. max f ( x) f (1) 3 ; min f ( x) f (0) 0 ;
3. max f ( x) f (3) 24 ; min f ( x) f (1) 8 ;
4. max f ( x) f (4) 27 ; min f ( x) f (0) 1 ;
5. max f ( x) f (1) 3 / 5 ; min f ( x) f (1) 3 / 5 ;
6. max f ( x) f (3) 3 144 ; min f ( x) f (1) f (0) 0 ;

7. max f ( x) f 1 ; min f ( x) f 1 ;
4 4 4 4
8. concave up: x >1, concave down x <1, inflection point: x =1;
9. concave up for all x ; 10. concave up for x <0 and x >2; concave
down for 0< x <2; inflection points: x = 0, 2; 11. concave up for
x 1 / 3 , concave down for x 1 / 3 ; inflection points:
x 1 / 3 ; 12. concave up for x < 0 and x >2/3, concave down for
0 < x < 2/3 ; inflection points: x =0; 2/3 ; 13. concave up for
( / 2 x 3 / 2 ; concave down for (0 x / 2) and
(3 / 2 x 2 ) ; inflection points: / 2 ; 3 / 2 ; 14. concave up for
x >1/2; concave down for x < 1/2 ; inflection point: 1/2.

4.5. Asymptotes

The line is an asymptote of the graph of y f (x) if the distance


between the line and graph approaches zero as we move farther from
the origin. There are three kinds of asymptotes: vertical asymptote,
horizontal asymptote and an oblique asymptote.
Definition:
A line x x0 is called a vertical asymptote for the graph of f (x) if
lim f ( x) or lim f ( x)
x x0 x x0

A line y y0 is called a horizontal asymptote for the graph of f (x) if


lim f ( x) y 0 or lim f ( x) y 0
x x

107
f ( x)
If lim k and lim [ f ( x) kx] b exists then the line
x x x

y kx b is called an oblique asymptote. In other words, rational


function has an oblique asymptote if the degree of numerator is one
more greater than degree of denominator.
1
Example: Find vertical and horizontal asymptote of f ( x) .
( x 1) 2
Solution: To search for vertical asymptote we set denominator
equals to zero.
y
( x 1) 2 0 , we find x =1. Vertical
From definition: 1 asymptote
1 y
lim ; ( x 1) 2
x 1 ( x 1)
1
1
lim
x 1 ( x 1) Horizontal 0
1 x
so x 1 is a vertical asymptote. asymptote Fig.4.7

1
To search for horizontal asymptote we examine lim 0 and
x ( x 1) 2

1
lim 0 . The line y 0 is a horizontal asymptote.(Fig. 4.7).
x ( x 1) 2

Example:
x
Find vertical and horizontal asymptote of f ( x) .
x2
Solution: Vertical asymptotes occurs at x 2 ;
x x
lim ; and lim .
x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2
The line x = 2 is a vertical asymptote.
The horizontal asymptote:
x x
lim 1 and lim 1,
x x 2 x x 2

so the graph approaches the line y 1 as x and x .


The line y 1 is the horizontal asymptote.

108
Example:
x3
Find asymptotes of f ( x) .
x2 1
Solution: As we see the graph of function has neither a vertical
x3
( x 2 1 0 for all x) , nor a horizontal ( lim 2 ) asymptote.
x x 1

Let us find an oblique asymptote:


f ( x) x3
k lim lim 2 x 1.
x x x x 1

x3
b lim [ f ( x) 1 x] = lim 2 x =0.
x x x 1

So, an oblique asymptote is the line y x.

Exercises

In exercises 1-13 find asymptotes and sketch the graph of the


given rational functions.
2x x2
1. y ; 2. y ;
x3 x2 1
x 3 4x
3. y ; 4. y ;
1 x2 2 5x
1 x2 1 x2
5. y ; 6. y ;
1 x2 1 x2
3x 5 1
7. y ; 8. y ;
2 x4 x( x 1)( x 2)
x 1 ( x 1) 2
9. y ; 10. y ;
x2 4 x2
4 4 ( x 2) 3
11. y 3 2 ; 12. y ;
x x x2
1 1
13. y x 1 2 .
x x

109
Answers
1. y 2; x 3 ; 2. y 1; x 1; x 1 ; 3. y 0 ; 4. x = -2/5; y =-4/5;
5. y = -1; 6. y =-1, x =1; x =-1; 7. y =3x; 8. y =0, x =2; x =0; x =1;
9. y =0, x =-2; x =2; 10. y =1, x =0; 11. y =3, ;x =0; 12. y = x-6 ; x =0;
13. y = x+1 ; x =0.

4.6. The derivative and sketching the graph

For graphing the function it is advisable to follow the scheme:


1). Find the domain of the function.
2). Check for symmetry.
3). Find the vertical asymptote.
4). Investigate the behavior of the function in and
find horizontal or oblique asymptotes.
5). Find extreme values and intervals where function increase or
decrease.
6). Find point of inflection, intervals of concavity.
7). Find x and y intercepts.
8). Sketch the graph.
1 x2
Example: Sketch the graph of y .
1 x2
Solution:
1) Domain of the function is all x 1
2) The function is even, since
1 x2 1 ( x) 2 1 x 2
f ( x) and f ( x ) = f (x) ,
1 x2 1 ( x) 2 1 x 2
and the graph is symmetric about the y axis.
1 x2 1 x2
3) lim and lim ,
x 1 1 x 2 x 1 1 x 2

so x 1 is a vertical asymptote.
1 x2 1 x2
lim and lim ,
x 1 1 x 2 x 1 1 x 2

so x 1 is a vertical asymptote.

110
1 x2 1 x2
4) lim 1 and lim 1 ,
x 1 x 2 x 1 x 2

so y 1 is a horizontal asymptote.
5) Let us find the critical points:
2 x(1 x 2 ) 2 x(1 x 2 ) 4x
y'
(1 x ) 2 2
(1 x 2 ) 2
There is only one critical point x 0 ; since x 1 are not from domain
of function, we omit them. If x 0 , then f ' ( x) 0 , if x 0 , then
f ' ( x) 0 .So point x 0 is a point of relative minimum.
f min f (0) 1 ____ ___
+++ ++
On (,1) and (-1,0) function -1 0 1
is decreasing and on (0,1) and (1, ) Sign of f

it is increasing.
6) Concavity: y
4(1 3x ) 2
y''
(1 x 2 ) 3
Since y ' ' 0 on (-1,1), the -1
1 1 x
graph is concave up on this interval. 0
y 0 on (,1) and (1,) ,
''
-1
on these intervals graph of function
is concave down. y ' ' 0 so there is
no inflection point.
7) y intercept is 1, since f (0)=1.
The graph does not cross Ox- axis, Fig. 4.8
1 x2
because 0 does not have a solution. The final graph is shown
1 x2
in Fig.4.8.
x2 1
Example: Sketch the graph of y .
x3
Solution:
1) Domain of function is (,0) (0,) .

111
2) Symmetries: Replacing x by x and y by y yields an equation that
simplifies back to the original equation, so the graph is symmetric
about the origin.
x2 1 x2 1
3) lim and lim yield the vertical
x 0 x3 x 0 x3
asymptote x 0 .
x2 1 x2 1
4) lim 0 and lim 0 yield the horizontal
x x 3 x x 3

asymptote y 0 .
dy 2 x x 3 3x 2 ( x 2 1) 3 x 2
5) =
dx x6 x4
x 3 are stationary points.
Function is decreasing on ___ 0 0
+++ +++ ++
(, 3 ) and ( 3,) . _
++ 0
3 3
And function is increasing on Sign of y
( 3,0) and (0, 3 )
2 3
At x 3 there is a relative minimum f ( 3 ) ;
9
2 3
at x 3 there is a relative maximum f ( 3 ) ;
9
2( x 2 6)
6) Concavity: y ' ' ___ 0 0
x5 +++ --- ++
_
This analysis show that a change ++ 0
6 6
in concavity occurs at the vertical ''
asymptote x 0 and at the points Sign of y
x 6 and x 6 .

7) x intercepts are x 1; x 1 . There is no y intercept, since setting


x 0 leads to a division by zero. The final graph is sketched in Fig. 4.9.

112
y

3 3
-1 1 x

Fig.4.9

Exercises

In exercises 1-15 use the techniques illustrated in this section to


sketch the graph of given functions.
3x 1 x
1. y 2. y 2
3x 1 x 1
x 1
3. y 2 4. y x 2 2
x 1 x
27
5. y x 3 12x 2 36x 6. y x 3
x
( x 1) 3
x 2
2
7. y 8. y 2
( x 1) 2
x 1
3 1 x 1
9. y 2 3 10. y 2
x x x 16
x3
11. y 12. y 3x 4 4 x 3
x4
x 2 2x 3 4 x3
13. y 14. y
x2 x2
1
15. y .
( x 1) ( x 2) 2
2

113
4.7. Rolles theorem; Mean-value theorem

Rolles theorem: Let f be a continuous function on the closed interval


[a , b] and have a derivative at all x in the open interval (a, b).
If f (a) = f (b), then there is at least one number c in (a, b) such
that f ' (c) 0 .
Example: Verify Rolles theorem for the case f ( x) cos x
and [a, b] [ , 5 ] .
Solution: Note that f ( ) 1 f (5 ) . f ( x) cos x is differentiable
for all x and it is continuous on [ , 5 ] . According to Rolles, there
must be at least one number c in ( , 5 ) for which (cos x) ' 0 . So
(cos x) ' sin x 0 . As can be checked, the equation has three such
solutions, 2 , 3 and 4 .
Example: Verify Rolles theorem for the case f ( x) x 3 3x 2 2 x
and [a, b] [0 , 2] .
Solution: f (0) 0
f (2) 23 3 2 2 2 2 0 , f (a) f (b) satisfies.
Given function is continuous on [0, 2] and differentiable on (0, 2), so
according to Rolles theorem there must be at least one number c in
[0, 2] such that f ' (c) 0 .
Let us find that number
f ' ( x) 3 x 2 6 x 2
f ' ( x) 0 3x 2 6 x 2 0 and we obtain
3 3
x1 1 and x 2 1
3 3
As we see equation has two solutions in (0, 2), we make conclusion that
at two points in (0, 2) given function has derivative equals zero.
Example: The function f ( x) x 1 has the property that f (-1) =0
and f (1)=0, but there is no point in (-1, 1) where f ' ( x) 0 . This fact
that f ' ( x) is never zero does not contradict Rolles theorem, because
f ( x) x 1 does not satisfy all conditions required for Rolles

114
theorem, namely the function f is not differentiable at every point of the
interval (-1, 1).
The Mean- value theorem:
Let f be a continuous function on the closed interval [a, b] and have a
derivative at every x in the interval (a, b). Then there is at least one
number c in the interval (a, b) such that
f (b) f (a)
f ' (c )
ba
Example:
Verify the Mean-value theorem for f ( x) 2 x 2 x 1 ; a =-2; b =3
Solution:
Because f is a polynomial, it is differentiable and continuous
everywhere, hence it is continuous on [-2,3] and differentiable
on (-2, 3). The hypothesis of Mean-value theorem are satisfied.
f (a) f (2) 2(2) 2 (2) 1 7
f (b) f (3) 2(3) 2 (3) 1 22
f ' ( x) 4 x 1
f ' (c) 4c 1 , so the equation
f (b) f (a)
f ' (c ) becomes
ba
22 7 15 1
4c 1 3, c .
3 (2) 5 2
As we see c (2,3) and it is only number whose existence is
guarantied by the Mean-value theorem.
Example:
1
Verify the Mean-value theorem for f ( x) on [2, 5] and find all
x 1
values of c that satisfy the conclusion of the theorem.
Solution:
1
f ( x) is continuous on [2, 5] and differentiable on (2, 5). The
x 1
hypothesis of the theorem are satisfied.

115
1
f (a) f (2) 1 ; f (b) f (5)
4
1 1
f ' ( x) ; f ' (c ) ,
( x 1) 2 (c 1) 2
1
1
1 4
according to the theorem ;
(c 1) 2 5 2
(c 1) 2 4 and we find c1 3 and c2 1 .
Only the c1 is in the interval (2, 5), so c =3 is the only number in (2, 5)
that satisfies the conclusion of the Mean- value theorem.

Exercises

In exercises 1-4 verify that the given function satisfies the


hypothesis of Rolles theorem for the given interval. Find all numbers c
that satisfy the conclusion of the theorem.
1. f ( x) x 2 2 x 3 and [0, 2]
2. f ( x) x 4 2 x 2 1 and [-2, 2]
3. f ( x) x 2 6 x 8 and [2, 4]
1
4. f ( x) x x and [0, 4]
2
In exercises 5-8 verify that the hypothesis of Mean- value
theorem are satisfied on the given interval and find all values of c that
satisfies the conclusion of the theorem.
5. f (x) x 2 4 x and [0, 5]
6. f ( x) x 3 2 x 4 and [-1; 4]
7. f ( x) x 3 and [1, 6]
8. f ( x) 36 x 2 and [-6, 0]
2
9. Let function f ( x) x 3 be given.
a) Graph given function for x in [-1, 1]
b) Show that f (-1)=f (1)

116
c) Is there any number c in (-1, 1) such that f ' (c) 0 ?
d) Why does this function not contradict Rolles theorem?

Answers
13
1. 1; 2. 0; 1; -1; 3. 3; 4. 1; 5. 2.5; 6. ; 7. 13/4 ; 8. 3 2 .
3

4.8. Indeterminate forms and LHopitals rule

f ( x)
If lim f ( x) 0 and lim g ( x) 0 then finding lim
x a x a g ( x)
x a

by simply substituting the limits of numerator and denominator


0
produces , a meaningless expression traditionally called an
0
indeterminate form. Because geometric arguments and the technique
of canceling factors apply only to limited range of problems it is
desirable to have a general method for handling indeterminate forms.
This is provided by LHopitals rule.
0
Theorem: ( LHopitals rule for case )
0
Let a be a number and let f and g be differentiable over some open
interval that contains a. Assume also that g ' ( x) is not 0 for any x in
that interval except perhaps at a. Then
f ( x) 0 f ' ( x)
lim = = lim '
x a g ( x ) 0 xa g ( x)
x3 1
Example: Find lim
x 1 x 2 1

Solution: We can find this limit using factorization:


x3 1 ( x 1)(x 2 x 1) 3
lim 2 = lim =
x 1 x 1 x 1 ( x 1)(x 1) 2
Now let us use LHopitals rule to evaluate it.

117
In this case, a 1 , f ( x) x 3 1 , g ( x) x 2 1 . All assumptions of
LHopitals rule are satisfied. In particular,
lim( x 3 1) 0 and lim( x 2 1) 0 .
x 1 x 1
According to LHopitals rule,
x3 1 0 ( x 3 1) ' 3x 2
lim 2 = = lim 2 = lim =3/2.
x 1 x 1 0 x 1 ( x 1) ' x 1 2 x

sin 3x
Example: Use LHopitals rule to evaluate lim
x 0 x
Solution: Since lim sin 3x 0 and lim x 0 the given limit is an
x 0 x 0

0
indeterminate form of type . Thus, we can apply LHopitals rule:
0
sin 3x 0 (sin 3x) ' 3 cos 3x
lim = = lim = lim 3.

x 0 '
x 0 x 0 ( x) x 0 1
sin x x
Example: Find lim
x 0 x3
Solution: As x 0 , both numerator and denominator approach zero.
According to LHopitals rule
sin x x 0 (sin x x) ' cos x 1 0
lim = = lim = lim
0 0
3 3 '
x 0 x x 0 (x ) x 0 3x 2
Let us use LHopitals rule for the second time:
cos x 1 0 (cos x 1) ' sin x 0
lim = lim lim
0 0
x 0 2 2 '
3x x 0 (3x ) x 0 6x
Using LHopitals rule again we obtain
sin x 0 ( sin x) ' cos x 1
lim = lim lim .
0 x 0 (6 x )
x 0 ' x 0
6x 6 6
f ( x)
Warning: When applying LHopitas rule to lim , the derivative
x a g ( x )

f ' ( x)
of f (x) and g (x) are taken separately. lim . Do not make the
x a g ' ( x)

118
f ( x)
mistake of differentiating according to quotient rule.
g ( x)

Theorem: ( LHopitals rule for case )

Let f and g be defined and differentiable functions of x. If f (x) and
g (x) both approaches infinity as x approaches a , then
f ( x) f ' ( x)
lim = = lim '
x a g ( x ) xa g ( x)
A similar result holds for x a , x a , x or x .
Moreover, lim f ( x) and lim g ( x) could both be , or one could be
xa xa
and the other .
4 x 2 3x
Example: Find lim
x 5 x 2 7

Solution: Both numerator and denominator approach as x .


Trying LHopitals rule we obtain
4 x 2 3x ( 4 x 2 3 x) ' 8x 3
lim = = lim = lim = =
x 5 x 2 7 (5 x 7) 10x
x 2 ' x

(8 x 3) ' 8 4
= lim '
= lim .
x (10x) x 10 5
tan x
Example: Find lim
x / 2 tan 3 x

Solution:
tan x
lim = ; Let us apply LHopitals rule
x / 2 tan 3 x

1
tan x (tan x) '
cos 2 x =
lim = = lim = lim
x / 2 tan 3 x x / 2 (tan3 x) ' x / 2 3
cos 2 3x
cos2 3x 0 6 cos 3x sin 3x sin 6 x
= lim = = lim = lim =
x / 2 3 cos 2 x 0 x / 2 6 cos x sin x x / 2 sin 2 x

119
0 6 cos 6 x 6
= = lim 3.
0 x / 2 2 cos 2 x 2
Indeterminate form of type (0 ) or ( ) .
If lim f ( x) 0 and lim g ( x) then lim[ f ( x) g ( x)] is called an
x a x a x a
indeterminate form of type (0 ) .
Similarly if lim f ( x) and lim g ( x) then lim[ f ( x) g ( x)]
x a x a x a
produces an indeterminate form of ( ) . The limits of these types
0
can be converted to the form of or and then can be evaluated
0
by LHopitals rule.
1 1
Example: Find lim
x 0 x sin x
Solution:
1 1
Since lim and lim the given problem is an
x 0 x x 0 sin x

0
indeterminate form of type ( ) . Let us convert it to form and
0
apply LHopitals rule
1 1 sin x x 0 (sin x x) '
lim = lim = = lim =
x 0 x sin x x0 x sin x 0 x0 ( x sin x) '
cos x 1 0 (cos x 1) '
= lim = = lim =
x 0 sin x x cos x 0 x0 (sin x x cos x)
'

sin x
= lim =0.
x 0 cos x cos x x sin x

Example: Evaluate lim (1 tan x) sec 2 x


x / 4
Solution:
The given problem is an indeterminate form of type (0 ) . We can
0
convert it to type and then apply LHopitals rule
0

120
1 tan x 0 (1 tan x) '
lim (1 tan x) sec 2 x = lim = = lim =
x / 4 x / 4 cos 2 x 0 x / 4 (cos 2 x)
'

sec 2 x 2
= lim 1.
x / 4 2 sin 2 x 2

Although the LHopitals rule is very useful and widely used method,
there are some limits for which LHopitals rule does not help.
4x 1
Example: Evaluate lim
x x3
Solution:
lim 4 x 1 and lim x 1 , so the given limit is an
x x


indeterminate form of . Thus,

4x 1 ( 4 x 1) ' 4 x3
lim = = lim = lim =
x x 3 x ( x 3 ) ' x 4x 1
Repeated application of LHopitals rule simply will produce another

indeterminate form of . We must try something else.

The given limit can be rewritten as
4x 1 4x 1 4 1/ x
lim = lim = lim = lim 4 2.
x x 3 x x 3 x 1 3 / x x

Exercises

In exercises 1-16 use LHopitals rule to find limits if it applies.



tan x sin x x
1. lim 2. lim
x 0 x sin x x 0 x
cot
2
tan x
3. lim 4. lim(1 cos x) cot x
x tan 5 x x 0
2

121
x 1 5
5. lim(1 x) tan 6. lim 2
x 1 2 x 3 x 3 x x 6
x cos x sin x 4x 3 2x 2 2
7. lim 8. lim
x 0 x3 x 1 4 x 2 5 x 1

1 2 sin x
9. lim 10. lim( x cot x)
x x 0
6 cos 3 x

1 1
11. lim 2 cot 2 x 12. lim cot x
x 0 x x 0 x
sin x 2 x 8
3
13. lim 14. lim 2
x0 (sin x ) 2 x 2 x 5

4 x 2 3 cos 3x x sin x
15. lim 16. lim
x 2 x 2 2 sin 2 x x 0 tan x sin x

In exercises 17-20 verify that LHopitals rule is no help in


finding limit, then find limit by some other method.
x sin 2 x x(2 sin 2 x)
17. lim 18. lim
x x x x 1
16x 1 2 x sin x
19. lim 20. lim
x 2x 5 x 3 x sin x

Answers
2
2 1 1 8 3
1. 3; 2. ; 3. 5; 4. 0; 5. ; 6. ; 7. ; 8. ; 9. ;
2 5 3 3 3
1
10. ;11. 2/3; 12. 0; 13. 1; 14. 16/9; 15. 2; 16. 1/3; 17. 1;

18. does not exist; 19. 2 2 ; 20. 2/3.

122
Chapter 5
Integration

5.1. Antiderivatives. The indefinite integral. Properties


and some integration formulas

Definition: A function F (x) is called an antiderivative of the function


f (x) on a given interval if
F ' ( x) f ( x)
for all x in that interval.
1 1 1 1
Example: The functions x 4 ; x 4 7 ; x 4 ; x 4 C (C-is any
4 4 4 4
constant) are antiderivatives of f ( x) x , because derivatives of all
3

above functions are x 3 . A function can have many antiderivatives.


If F (x) is antiderivative of any function f (x) , and C is any constant,
then F ( x) C is also antiderivative of f (x) .
d
[ F ( x) C ] f ( x)
dx
We will denote it by
(1) f ( x)dx F ( x) C

The symbol is called an integral sign, f (x) is the integrand.


(1) is read as the definite integral of f (x) equals F (x) plus C
For example above:
x4
x 3 dx
4
C.

Properties of indefinite integrals. Integration formulas

An indefinite integral has the following properties:


1) A constant factor can be moved through an integral sign
c f ( x)dx c f ( x)dx
2) An antiderivative of a sum is the sum of the antiderivatives

123
[ f ( x) g ( x)]dx f ( x)dx g ( x)dx
3) An antiderivative of a difference is the difference of the
antiderivatives

[ f ( x) g ( x)]dx f ( x)dx g ( x)dx .

List of some basic integration formulas

(1) 0 dx C
(2) dx x C
x n 1
(3) x n dx
n 1
C; (n 1)

(4) sin xdx cos x C

(5) cos xdx sin x C


sec xdx tan x C
2
(6)

csc xdx cot x C


2
(7)

(8) sec x tan xdx sec x C


(9) csc x cot xdx csc x C
Correctness of integration formulas can be checked by differentiation.
For example (3) is correct, since
'
x n 1 (n 1) x n
C xn
n 1
n 1
Example: Evaluate 8 cos xdx
Solution:

8 cos xdx = Apply the first property= 8 cos xdx =
=Apply formula (5)= 8 sin x C .

124
Example: Evaluate
dx dx
a)
x5
; b) 3
x
c) 4
x dx

Solution:
x n 1
For all integrals we will apply (3) x n dx
n 1
C for different n:

dx x 51 1

5
a) = x dx = C= 4 C;
x 5
5 1 4x
1
1 1
dx x 3 33 2
b) 3
x
= x 3 dx =
1
C=
2
x C;
1
3
1
1 1
4 x4
c) 4
x dx =
1
C = 4 x5 C
x 4 dx =
5
1
4
Second and third properties of indefinite integrals can be extended to
more than two functions:
[ f ( x) g ( x) h( x)]dx f ( x)dx g ( x)dx h( x)dx
Example: Evaluate (6 x 2 x 7 x 4)dx 3 2

Solution:
(6x 2x 7 x 4)dx = 6 x dx -
3 2 3

2 x dx 7 xdx 4dx 6 x dx 2 x
2 3 2

dx 7 xdx
x4 x3

4 dx 6
4
C1 2
3
C 2 +

x2 3 2 7
7 C3 4( x C 4 ) x 4 x 3 x 2 4 x
2 2 3 2
3 2 7
+ (6C1 2C2 7C3 4C4 ) x 4 x 3 x 2 4 x C
2 3 2

125
Sometimes it is useful to rewrite an integrand (simplify) in a different
form before performing integration.
Example: Evaluate
sin x t 4 3t 6
a)
cos 2 x
dx ; b) t6
dt
Solution:
sin x sin x 1
a)
cos x2
dx =
cos x cos x
dx = tan x sec xdx = sec x

t 4 3t 6 1
b)
t 6 t
dt = 2 3 dt = t 2 dt 3dt =
1
t 1
= 3t C 3t C .
1 t
2
x x

Example: Find sin cos dx
2 2
Solution:
2
x x 2 x x x x

sin cos dx = sin
2 2 2
2 sin cos cos2 dx =
2 2 2


= (1 sin x)dx = x cos x C
1
Example: Evaluate 1 sin x dx
Solution:
Let us multiply numerator and denominator by (1-sinx).
We obtain
1 1 sin x 1 sin x

1 sin x
dx =
(1 sin x)(1 sin x)
dx =
cos 2 x
dx =

1
=
cos2 x
dx tan x sec xdx tan x sec x C

x
Example: Evaluate sin 2 dx 2
Solution:
1 cos 2 x
Let us use identity sin 2 x
2

126
x 1 cos x 1 cos x x sin x
sin dx
dx
C .
2
dx = dx =
2 2 2 2 2 2

Exercises

In exercises 1-15 evaluate the integrals and check each answer


by differentiating it.
5x dx (2 x x x 5 )dx
2 3
1. 2.
4
3. dt 4. x 4
x dx
t
2
(2 x x
2
(2 x 8x
3 5 ) dx 2 2
5. 6. ) dx

x 5 2x 2 1
7. x4
dx
8. [4 sin x 2 cos x]dx

9. sec x(sec x tan x)dx


10. [ csc 2 ]d

sin 2 x cos3 5
11.
cos x
dx 12.
cos2
d
1


13. 3 x 2
3
dx
x
14. (ax b) 3 dx
x

15. sin 2 dx
2
16. Find the antiderivative F (x) of f ( x) 3 x that satisfies F (1) 2 .

17. Find a function f such that f ' ( x) cos x 0 and f 2 .
2
Answers
4 9
5 3 x x6 4 4
1. x C ; 2. x 2
C ; 3. 8 t C ; 4. x C ;
3 4 6 9
5
6 40 5 3 x 4 1 2
5. x 3 x 2 x C ;6. x 4 x 3 C ; 7. x 2
5 3 5 3 2 x
1
3 C ; 8. 4 cos x 2 sin x C ; 9. tan x sec x C ;
3x

127
2
10. cot C ; 11. 2cosx +C ; 12. sin 5 tan C ;
3
3 3 a3 4 3
13. x3 x 2 3 x 2 C ; 14. x a 2bx3 ab2 x 2
5 2 4 2
1 3 4 5
b 3 x C ; 15. ( x sin x) C ; 16. F ( x) x 3 ;
2 4 4
17. f ( x) 3 sin x .

5.2. Integration by substitution

We use substitution method of integration to transform an


integral not listed in an integral table to one that is listed.

Example: Find (sin x 2 ) 2 x dx
Solution:
Note that 2x is the derivative of x 2 . Make substitution u x 2 .
Then du 2 xdx and
(sin x
) 2 x dx = sin u du = cos u C
2

Replacing u by x 2 in cos u yields cos x 2 . Thus


(sin x ) 2 x dx = cos x 2 +C
2

The answer can be checked by differentiation:


d
[ cos x 2 C ] (sin x 2 ) 2 x .
dx

Example: Evaluate ( x 3 1) 60 3x 2 dx
Solution:
If we let u x 3 1 , then du 3x 2 dx , so
u 61 ( x 3 1) 61

( x 3 1) 60 3x 2 dx = u 60 du =
61
C=
61
C .

Example: Evaluate sin 5 xdx

128
Solution:

u 5x
du 1 1
sin 5xdx =
du 5dx = sin u
5
= cos u C cos 5 x C .
5 5
du
dx
5

Remark: There are no hard and fast rules for choosing u making an
appropriate choice will come with experience.

Example: Evaluate sin 3 x cos x dx
Solution:
u sin x u4 sin 4 x
sin 3 x cos xdx =
du cos xdx
= u 3 du 4
C=
4
C

sin x
Example: Evaluate x
dx

Solution:
du 1
If we let u x , then , so
dx 2 x
dx dx
du and 2du . Then
2 x x
sin x
x
dx = sin u 2du = 2 cos u C 2 cos x C .

x2
Example: Evaluate 1 x3
dx

Solution:

u 1 x3 1
1
2
x du / 3 1 u 2
1 x
dx = du 3 x 2 dx =
3 u
=
3 1
C
du 1
x 2 dx 2
3

129
1 2
= 2 u C 1 x3 C .
3 3

7t 3 4 7t 4 dt
3
Example: Evaluate
Solution:

7t 3 4 7t 4 dt =
3

u 4 7t 4 1
1
du 1 u3
4
= du 28t 3 dt = 3 u ( ) =
41
C =
du 1
7t 3 dt 3
4
1 3 3
= 3 u 4 C 3 (4 7t 4 ) 4 C .
4 4 16
Example: Evaluate x 2 x 1 dx
Solution:
u x 1
x x 1 dx = du dx = (u 1) 2 u du =
2

x u 1
5 3 1

= (u 2u 1) u du = u 2u u 2 du =

2 2 2



7 5 3
2 4 2
= u2 u2 u2 C =
7 5 3
7 5 3
2 4 2
= ( x 1) 2 ( x 1) 2 ( x 1) 2 C .
7 5 3
Exercises

In exercises 1-20 use appropriate substitutions to evaluate integrals.

(1 x ) x dx (1 x ) xdx
2 6 3 2
1. 2.

3. cos 7 d 4. ( x 3) dx 5

130
2x 7
x sin x 6 dx (x
5
5. 6. dx
2
7 x 6) 4

t 8t 14 dt x 4 dx
2
7. 8.
x dx
9. cos dx 10. sin 2
4 3x
cos x
11. x x 2 dx 12. 1 4 sin x
dx

x x2
13. 1 x2
dx 14. x3 1
dx

sin(5 / x)
x sec ( x ) dx
2 2 3
15. dx 16.
x2
17. sin 5 3t cos 3t dt 18. cos 4 2 sin 4 d

19. sec 3
2 x tan 2 x dx 20. [sec (cos3 )] sin 3 d
2

Answers
1 3 4 sin 7 ( x 3) 6
1. (1 x 2 ) 7 C ; 2. (1 x 2 ) 3 C ;3. C ;4. C;
14 8 7 6
1 1 1 1
5. cos x 6 C ;6. 2 C ;7. (8t 2 14) 3 C ;
6 3 ( x 7 x 6) 3
24
2 x 1
8. ( x 4) 3 C ; 9. 4 sin C ; 10. cot 3x C ;
3 4 3
2 5 4 3 1
11. ( x 2) 2 ( x 2) 2 C ; 12. 1 4 sin x C ;
5 3 2
2 3 1
13. 1 x 2 C ; 14. x 1 C ;15. cos(5 / x) C ;
3 5
1 1 1 3
16. tan(x 3 ) C ; 17. sin 6 3t C ; 18. (2 sin 4 ) 2 C ;
3 18 6
1 1
19. sec 2 x C ; 20. tan(cos3 ) C .
3
6 3

131
5.3. Sigma notation

Definition: Let a1 , a2 , a3 ,.......,an be n numbers. The sum


a1 a2 a3 ....... an will be denoted in sigma notation by the
n
symbol a
k 1
k , which is read as the sum of a sub k as k runs

from 1 to n.
Example: Write 13 2 3 33 4 3 in the sigma notation.
Solution:
4
13 2 3 33 4 3 k
k 1
3

5
Example: Compute 2
k 1
k

5
Solution: 2
k 1
k
= 21 2 2 23 2 4 25 =2+4+8+16+32=62.

Properties of sigma notation:


n n
a)
k 1
c ak = c a
k 1
k

n n n
b)
k 1
(a k bk )
k 1
ak b
k 1
k

n n n
c) (a
k 1
k bk ) a b
k 1
k
k 1
k

Some useful sums:


n
n(n 1)
(1) k
k 1
2
n
n(n 1)(2n 1)
(2) k
k 1
2

6
2
n(n 1)
n
(3) k 1
k3
2

132
10
Example: Evaluate k (k 3)
k 1
Solution:
10 10 10 10 10


k 1
k (k 3)
k 1
k2
k 1
3k
k 1
k2 3k
k 1
10 11 21 10 11
3 385 165 550 .
6 2
Some sums are formed by adding up differences. When each term of a
sum cancels part of the next term, leaving only portions of the first and
last terms at the end of the sum is said to telescope.
1 1
50
Example: Evaluate
k 1 k
k 1

Solution:
1 1
50


1 1 1 1 1
(1 ) ( ) ( ) .....
k 1 k k 1 2 2 3 3 4
1 1 1 50
.... ( ) 1 .
50 51 51 51
n
Example: Evaluate (a
k 1
k a k 1 )

Solution:
n

(a
k 1
k a k 1 ) = (a1 a2 ) (a2 a3 ) ..... (an an1 ) a1 a n1

Exercises
In exercises 1-3 evaluate the sums.
3 4 3
1. a) k ;
k 1
b) 2k ;
k 1
c) n
n 1
2

4 6 150
2. a) 1
i 1
i
; b) (1)
k 2
k
; c) 3 j 1
6 10 5
3. a)
j 2
(3 j 1) ; b)
n 0
1; c) 2
m 3
m 1

133
In exercises 4-10 write is sigma notation, but do not evaluate.
4. x x 4 x 5 x 6 x 7
3

1 1 1
5. ........
3 4 102
6. 1 2 2 3 3 4 ...... 49 50
7. 1-3+5-7+9-11
1 1 1 1
8. 1
2 3 4 5
9. b0 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5
10. a 5 a 4 b a 3b 2 a 2 b 3 ab4 b 5
In exercises 11-13 evaluate sum using useful sums formulas.
20 6 30
11.
k 1
k2 ; 12.
k 1
(4k 3 2k 1) ; 13. k (k 2)(k 2)
k 1
In exercises 14-16 evaluate telescoping sums.
100 50
1

1
14. (2 i 2 i 1 ) ; 15.
i 1 i 1 2i 1 2(i 1) 1
20
1
k
1
16.
2
(k 1) 2
k 2
17. Evaluate
100 n n
a) i ;
i 1
b) n ;
k 1
c) kx
k 1
Answers
1. a) 6; b) 20; c)14; 2. a) 4;b) 1; c) 450; 3. a) 55; b) 11; c) 112;
7 102 49 6 5


1 1
4. x i ;5. ;6. n(n 1) ;7. (1) k 1 (2k 1) ;8. (1) k ;
i 3 k 3 k n 1 k 1 k 1 k
5 5
9.
k 0
(1) k 1 bk ; 10. a
k 0
5 k
b k ; 11. 2870; 12. 1728;

100 399
13. 214365; 14. 2100 1 ;15. ; 16. ; 17. a) 5050; b) n 2 ;
101 400
1
c) n(n 1) x .
2

134
5. 4. The definite integral and its properties

Let function f be continuous on [a, b].


Let us divided [a, b] into n
subintervals. If an interval [a, b] y
divided into n subintervals, and if
x k is an arbitrary point in f (x)
th
k subinterval, the f ( x k )x k
is
the area of a rectangle of height
f ( x k ) and width x k , so then the
area under the curve y f (x) 0
over the interval [a , b] is defined a b x
n Fig. 5.1
by lim
max xk 0
f (x
k 1

k ) x k

We write
b n

f ( x)dx lim
max xk 0
f (x
k 1

k ) x k .
a
Briefly, the definite integral f over [a, b] is the area under the curve
y f (x) over [a, b].
b

f ( x)dx is called the definite integral of f from a to b.


a
a and b are called the lower and upper limits of integration,
respectively.
n
Example: Express lim
max xk 0
(x
k 1
4
k ) x k ; as a definite integral

for a =1, b =2.


Solution: The function being evaluated at x k in each term of the sum
is f ( x) x 4 . The partition interval is [1, 2], so the limit is the integral
of f from 1 to 2
n 2
lim
max x k 0

k 1
( xk ) 4 xk
= x 4 dx
1

135
area under b
A y f ( x) over = f ( x)dx .

[a, b] a
5
Example: Evaluate x dx
3
y
Solution: The integral represents the area
y=x
under the graph of y = x over [3, 5]. (Fig.5.2).
This region is a trapezoid whose parallel
sides are have length 3 and 5, and whose
height is 2. 0
Thus 3 5 x
5 Fig. 5.2
35
x dx =
3
2
28

6
Example: Evaluate (2 x) dx
2
y

Solution: y=2-x
The integrand is negative over [2, 6],
so the integral is the negative of the 0 2 6 x
area of the triangle (Fig. 5.3). The area
of triangle is 8, so
6 Fig. 5.3
(2 x) dx 8 .
2
Properties of definite integrals
b a
1. f ( x)dx = f ( x)dx
a b
a
2. f ( x)dx 0
a

b b
3.
a
c f ( x)dx = c f ( x)dx
a

136
b b b


4. [ f ( x) g ( x)]dx = f ( x)dx + g ( x)dx
a a
a
b b b


5. [ f ( x) g ( x)]dx = f ( x)dx - g ( x)dx
a a

a
b b b b


6. [ f ( x) g ( x) h( x)]dx = f ( x)dx + g ( x)dx h( x)dx
a a a
a
7. If a, b, and c are numbers then
b c b

f ( x)dx = f ( x)dx f ( x)dx


a a c
8. If f is integrable on [a, b] and f ( x) 0 for all x in [a, b] , then
b

f ( x)dx 0
a
9. If f and g are integrable functions on [a, b], where a b and
f ( x) g ( x) for all x in [a, b], then
b b


a
f ( x)dx g ( x)dx
a
10. If m and M are numbers and m f ( x) M for all x in [a, b], then
b
m(b a) f ( x)dx M (b a) if a < b
a
and

b
m(b a) f ( x)dx M (b a) if a > b
a
Example: Suppose that
6 6 6


1
f ( x)dx 1 ;
3
f ( x)dx 3 and g ( x)dx 4 .
3
6 3
Find
a) [3 f ( x) g ( x)]dx ;
3
b) f ( x)dx
1

137
Solution:
a) From properties of definite integral
6 6 6


3
[3 f ( x) g ( x)]dx = 3 3

f ( x) dx g ( x)dx = 3 3 4 5 .
3
b) From 7 th property of definite integral with a=1, b=6, c=3
6 3 6

f ( x)dx = f ( x)dx + f ( x)dx , so


1 1 3
3 6 6

f ( x)dx = f ( x)dx - f ( x)dx = 1 3 4 .


1 1 3
Example:
2 1 3
Find
3
f ( x)dx if
2
f ( x)dx 2 and f ( x)dx 6 .
1
Solution:
From 1 st property it follows that
2 3

3
f ( x)dx = f ( x)dx
2
th
From 7 property we obtain
3 1 3


2
f ( x)dx
2
f ( x)dx f ( x)dx 2 (6) 4
1
and

f ( x)dx = (4) 4
3
It can be shown that
b

c dx c(b a) (c-const);
a
b
b2 a2

a
x dx
2

2
; and

b
b3

0
x 2 dx
3
.

138
Using these integrals we can evaluate other integrals.
3

x
2
Example: Evaluate dx
0
3
33
Solution:
0
x 2 dx =
3
9

(3x 4 x 5)dx
2
Example: Evaluate
0
4 4 4 4

(3x
4 x 5)dx = 3 x dx 4 xdx 5 dx =
2 2
Solution:
0 0 0 0
3 2 2
4 4 0
= 3( ) 4( ) 5(4 0) 64 4 8 20 52 .
3 2 2
3

x
2
Example: Evaluate dx
2
3 3 2
33 2 3 1
Solution:
2

x 2 dx = x 2 dx x 2 dx =
0

0
3

3
6 .
3

Exercises

In exercises 1-3 use the given values of a and b to express the


following limits as a definite integral. (Do not evaluate the integrals).
n
1. lim
max xk 0
(x
k 1
3
k ) x k ; a = 1; b = 4
n
2. lim
max xk 0
{4( x
k 1
2
k) 3x k 3}x k ; a = -1; b = 2

n

3. lim
max xk 0
(cos
k 1
2
x k )x k ; a
2 3
; b

In exercises 4-10 evaluate definite integrals by using area


formulas from geometry, where needed.

139
2 1
1 1
4.
0
(1
2
x) dx 5. (1 2 x) dx
1
9 5
6. 6 dx
7
7. (3 4 x) dx
0
3 3
8. 0
9 x 2 dx 9. 3x 3 dx
2

10. cos x dx
0
2 2 2
11. Find
1
[ f ( x) 3g ( x)] dx if
1
f ( x) dx 7 and g ( x) dx 5 .
1
5 1 5
12. Find
1
f ( x) dx if
0
f ( x) dx 2 and f ( x) dx 1 .
0
b b b

x
2
In exercises 13-16 use formulas for c dx ; x dx and dx
a a 0
to evaluate the given integrals:
5 2 5

x x x
2 2 2
13. a) dx ; b) dx ; c) dx
2 5 5
2 1 3
14. a) x dx ;
1
b) x dx ;
2
c) x dx
3
2 0 2

( x 2) 2 dx (2 x 2 - 3x)dx (x 2 x 7) dx
2
15. 16. 17.
0 3 1

Answers

4 2 3

(4 x - 3x 3) dx ; 3. cos
3 2 2
1. x dx ; 2. x dx ;4. 1; 5. 2; 6. 12;
1 1

2

140
9
7. -35; 8. ; 9. 39/2; 10. 0; 11. 22; 12. 3;13. a) 39; b) 39; c) 0;
4
94 3 1
14. a) 3/2; b) 3/2; c) 0; 15. 56/3; 16. ; 17. 6 .
2 3

5. 5. The first fundamental theorem of Calculus

Theorem: (The first fundamental theorem of Calculus)


Let f be continuous on an open interval containing the
interval [a, b]. Let
x
(1) F ( x) f (t )dt for a x b
a
then F (x) is differentiable on [a, b] and its derivative is f ; that is
F ' ( x) f ( x) .
It also can be expressed by the formula
d x
(2) f (t )dt f ( x)
dx a
In words (2) states: where the integrand is continuous, the derivative
of integral with respect to upper limit is equal to the integrand
evaluated at the upper limit .
x
Example: Differentiate y
0
1 t 3 dt

Solution: By the fundamental theorem


dy d
x

1 t dt 1 x
3 3
dx dx 0
d
x
Example: Find
dx
sin t dt

d
x
Solution:
dx
sin t dt sin x [Equation (2) with f (t)=sin t ].

141
d 3
x
Example: Find
t dt
dx 1
d 3
x


t dt x
3
Solution:
dx 1
10
Example: Differentiate y
x
1 t 2 dt

Solution:
The lower limit of integration is x, we change the limit of integration
first:
x
y
10
1 t 2 dt then apply the first fundamental theorem

dy d
x

1 t dt 1 x .
2 2
dx dx 10
x4
Example: Differentiate y
0
t t 2 dt

Solution:
The first fundamental theorem does not apply directly since the upper
limit of integration is x 4 , not x. In this case let u x 4 .Then
u
y
0
t t 2 dt , where u x 4

dy
By the first fundamental theorem u u2
du
The Chain rule tells us that
dy dy du
u u 2 4x 3 = x 4 x 8 4x 3 4 x 5 1 x 4 .
dx du dx
sin 2 x
Example: Differentiate y 0
t 1 dt

142
Solution: Let u sin 2 x , then
dy d
u

t 1 dt u 1
du du 0
By the Chain rule
dy dy du
u 1 2 sin x cos x = sin 2 x 1 sin 2 x .
dx du dx
d 1
x
Example: Find
dt
dx x 1 t
Solution:
Let us first rewrite it as
x 0 x
1 1 1

x
1 t
dt
x

1 t
dt
0
1 t
dt .

Then
d 1 d x 1 u x
0
1
dt dt = =
dx x 1 t dx 0 1 t du dx 1 x

d 1
x
1
dt
dx 0 1 t 1 x
d 1
x
1 1 2
dt =
dx x 1 t 1 x 1 x 1 x 2
.

Exercises

In exercises 1-6 differentiate the given functions.


x x

t dt t
4 4
1. 2. dt
1 2
x2 x

4
t
3. 3
1 sin t dt 4. dt
7 1

143
x3 sin x
1 1
5. 1 t dt 6.
4
1 t2
dt

x
cos t
7. Let F ( x) t
0
2
4
dt . Find

a) F (0) b) F ' (0) c) F '' (0)


x
8. Let F ( x)
0
4t 2 5 dt . Find

a) F (0) b) F ' (0) c) F '' (0)


9. Prove that
g ( x)
d

dx h ( x )
f (t )dt f ( g ( x)) g ' ( x) f (h( x)) h ' ( x)

x4
dy d
10. Find
dx
if y
dx x3
sin 2 t dt
3x
dy d
11. Find
dx
if y
dx 2 x
t tan t dt

Answers
cos x
1. x 4 ; 2. x 4 ; 3. 2 x 3 1 sin( x 2 ) ;4. 4 x ; 5. 3/x; 6. ; 7. a) 0;
1 sin 2 x
b)1/4; c) 0; 8. a) 0; b) 5 ; c) 0; 10. 4 x 3 sin 2 ( x 4 ) 3x 2 sin 2 ( x 3 ) ; 11.
9 x tan 3x 4 x tan 2 x .

5. 6. The second fundamental theorem of Calculus

Theorem: If f is continuous on [a, b] and F is antiderivative of f then


b
(1) f ( x)dx F (b) F (a)
a
b
The difference F (b) F (a) is commonly denoted by F ( x) a and

144
(1) can be written as
b

f ( x)dx F ( x)
b
a
= F (b) F (a)
a
3

x
2
Example: Evaluate dx
1
Solution:
x3
Since F ( x) by 2 nd fundamental theorem we obtain
3
3 3
x3 1 1 1 26
= (3) 3 (1) 3 9
2
x dx =
1
3 1 3 3 3 3
0
Example: Evaluate x dx
1
Solution:
0 0
x2 0 1 1

1
x dx =
2 1

2 2 2
2

(x 4 x 5)dx
4
Example: Evaluate
0
Solution:
2
2
x5 x2 32 42
( x 4 x 5)dx = 4 5 x 8 10 0
4
.
0 5 2 0 5 5
2
Example: Evaluate x dx
3
Solution:
Since x x if x 0 and x x if x 0 , then
2 0 2 0 2
x2 x2 9 4 13
x dx = ( x)dx
3 3 0
xdx
2 3
= .
2 0 2 2 2

145
Theorem: (The Mean Value theorem for integrals)
If f is continuous on a closed interval [a, b] then there is a number c
between a and b such that
b

f ( x)dx f (c)(b a) .
a
Definition: The average or mean value of an integrable function f (x)
on a closed interval [a, b] is
b
1
f ave
f ( x)dx .
ba a
Example:
Verify the Mean Value theorem for f ( x) x 2 and [a,b]=[0,3]
Solution:
3 3
x3
x dx
2
=9
0
3 0
Since f ( x) x 2 , we are looking for c in closed interval [0, 3], such that
3

x dx 9 = f (c)(3 0) or 9 c 2 3 ; since c 2 3 c 3 ,thus


2

c 3 is the number in [0, 3], whose existence is guaranteed by Mean-


Value theorem.
Example: Find the average value of x 3 over the interval [1, 3]
Solution:
b 3
1 1
f ave
ba a
f ( x)dx =
3 1 1
x 3 dx =

3
1 x4
10 .
1 81 1
=
2 4 1 2 4 4

146
Exercises

In exercises 1-13 use the second fundamental theorem to


evaluate the given integrals.
2 4

5x dx ( x 5x
3 2
1. 2. )dx
1 1
/3 /2
3. 5 cos x dx
/6
4. sin 2 x dx
0
9 8

5
3
5. x dx 6. x 2 dx
4 1
2 9

(t 2t 8) dt
2
7. 8. x dx
1 1
9
3 4

3
5 x x 2 dx
9. 2y
4
y dy 10.
x
1


/4
d
4


11. ( x 3 x) dx
2
12. 0
cos 2
1
9
13. 3
4
x dx
x
14. Find the area of the region under the curve 3x 2 and above [1, 4].
Make a sketch of the region.
15. Find the area of the region under the curve 6x 4 and above [-1, 1].
Make a sketch of the region.
16. Find the total area between the curve x 2 3x 10 and the
interval [-3, 8]. Make a sketch of the region.
In exercises 17-21 find the average value of the given function
over the given interval.
17. x 2 ; [3, 5]
18. 3x ; [1, 3]
19. x ; [0, 9]

147
2
20. ; [4, 9]
x

21. sec 2 x ; ,
6 4

Answers.
1 5
1. 75/4; 2. 112 ; 3. ( 3 1) ; 4. 1; 5. 190/3; 6. 93/5; 7. 22/3; 8. 52/3;
2 2
9. 844/5; 10. -55/3; 11. 66; 12. 1; 13. 40;14. 63; 15. 12/5; 16. 203/2;
12( 3 1)
17. 49/3; 18. 6; 19. 2; 20. 4/5; 21. .
3

5. 7. Substitution in a definite integral

Method 1:
The substitution technique extends to definite integrals,
b

f ( x) dx , with one important remark:


a
When making the substitution from x to u, be sure to replace the
integral [a, b] by the interval whose endpoints are u (a) and u (b).
Examples will illustrate the necessary changes in the limits of
integration.

21 x x dx
3
2 5
Example: Evaluate
2
Solution:
If we let u 1 x 2 , then du 2 xdx .
As x goes from 2 to 3, u 1 x 2 goes from 1 2 2 5 to 1 32 10 .
Then
10


3 10
u6 106 5 6

2 5
21 x x dx = u du
5

2 5
6 5
6
Remark: Once you make the substitution, you work only with
expression involving u . There is no need to bring back x again.

148

4
Example: Evaluate cos( x) dx
0
Solution:
Let u x so that du dx and dx du .
With this substitution
when x 0 then u
3
when x then u , [ this is the last you see of x], so
4 4
3
4 4
3
0
cos( x) dx = cos u du = sin u

4 =

3
= sin
4


sin 1 / 2 0 2 / 2 .


5
Example: Evaluate x
0
x 4 dx

Solution:
Let u x 4 . Now let us express x and dx by u and du.
By taking square of u x 4 we obtain
u 2 x 4 , x u 2 4 and dx 2u du
When x runs from 0 to 5, u x 4 runs from 2 to 3. Thus

2u
5 3 3


x x 4 dx = (u 2 4)u 2u du = 8u 2 du =
4

0 2 2
5 3 3 3
u u 2 8
=2 8 = (35 2 5 ) (33 2 3 )
5 2
3 2
5 3
2 8 506 11
= 211 19 = 33 .
5 3 15 15

149
/8

sin 2 x cos 2 x dx
5
Example: Evaluate
0
Solution:
du
Let u sin 2 x so that du 2 cos 2 x or cos 2 xdx .
2
With the substitution u sin 2 x we obtain
u sin 0 0 if x 0
2
u sin 2 if x . Thus
8 2 8
/8 2/2 6
1 2
2/2
du 1 u 6 1
sin 2 x cos 2 x dx = =
5 5
u = .
2 2 6
12 2 96
0 0 0
1
x
Example: Evaluate 0 4 5x
dx

Solution:
Let u 4 5x . To express x and dx we have to take the square of u
u2 4 2
u 2 4 5x ; x and dx u du
5 5
if x 0 then u 4 5 0 2
if x 1 then u 4 5 1 3 , so

1 3 3
x 1 u2 4 2 2

0 4 5x
dx =
52 u 5 u du =
25 2
(u 2 4)du =
3
2 u3 2 8 14
= 4u = [(9 12) ( 8)] .
25 3 2 25 3 75
Method 2:
b
There is another method for evaluating a definite integral f ( x) dx .
a

150
The idea of the method is that first we evaluate the indefinite integral
f ( x)dx by substitution as it discussed in 5.2., and then change back
to x , and use the original x- limits.
2

x( x 1) 3 dx
2
Example: Evaluate
0
Solution:

u x2 1
Substitute du 2 xdx then we obtain
du
xdx
2
2
1 3 u4 ( x 2 1) 4

0
x( x 2 1) 3 dx =
2u du
4
C=
8
C

Thus
2 2
( x 2 1) 4 625 1
x( x 1) dx = 78 .
2 3
=
0
8 0
8 8
The choice of methods for evaluating a definite integral by substitution
is a matter of taste, but it is best to know both methods.

Exercises

In exercises 1-14 evaluate the integral by any method.


1 15
x
1. 0 1 x 2
dx 2. 1 x 2 x dx
8
/42
0
sin x
(1 2 x)
3
3. dx 4. dx
/ 16
2 x 1
8 /2
x
5. x
0
1 x dx 6.
0
4sin dx
2

151
1 3
x x2
7.
2
( x 2) 3
2
dx 8.
1 x 2 4x 7
dx

5 x cos( x ) dx sin 3x cos 3x dx


2 2
9. 10.
0 0
/9 1
y 2 dy
11.
/ 12
sec 2 3 d 12.
0 4 3y
1 4
x dx

13. 15x 2 5 x 3 4 dx
0
14.
1 5x

Answers

1. 2 ;4. 10; 5. 1192/15; 6. 8 4 2 ; 7. -1/48;


2 1 ; 2. 37/3; 3.
1
8. 2( 7 3 ) ; 9. 0; 10. -1/9; 11. ( 3 1) ; 12. 106/405; 13. 38/3;
3
14. 8/3.

152
Chapter 6.
Logarithmic and exponential functions

6.1. Logarithms (an overview)


Definition: If a and x are positive numbers, a 1 , and a y x , then the
number y is the logarithm x to the base a and we write
y loga x
log a x is read as the logarithm to the base a of x
In general, if y loga x , then y is that power to which a must be raised
to produce x, so x ay
y loga x has the following properties:
1) log a 1 0
2) log a a 1
3) loga (b c) log a b log a c
b
4) log a log a b log a c
c
5) log a b x x log a b
1
6) log a log a b
b
log c b
7) log a b
log c a
1
Definition: The number e is e lim(1 x) x 2.7182
x 0
We will denote the natural logarithm of x by ln x (readell n of x).
Thus ln x is that power to which e must be raised to produce x.
For example:
ln 1 0 ; ln e 1 ; ln(1 / e) 1 ; ln e 3 3 .
Remark: All properties for y loga x are hold for y ln x as well.
Example: Evaluate
1
a) log9 37 ; b) log5 3 252 ; c) log 2 log10 100
16

153
1
Solution: a) log9 37 = 7 log9 3 7 7/2
2
2
2
b) log5 3 252 = log5 (25) 3 log5 25 4 / 3
3
1
c) log 2 log10 100 = log 2 2 4 log10 102 4 2 2
16
Example:
x2 y4
Express ln 3
in terms of sums, differences and multiplies
z
Solution:
x2 y4 1
ln 3
= ln x 2 ln y 4 ln 3 z = 2 ln x 4 ln y ln z
z 3
Example: Write expression 5 ln 3 2 ln 4 ln 7 as a single logarithm
Solution:

5 ln 3 2 ln 4 ln 7 = ln 35 ln 4 2 ln 7 = ln 3 4
5 2

7
Example: Solve for x if ln 2 x 3
Solution:
ln 2 x 3
e3
2x e3 x
2

Exercises

1. Evaluate
a) log3 3 ;
b) log3 35 ;
1
c) log 3
27
2. If log 4 A 2.1 , then evaluate
1
a) log 4 A 2 ; b) log 4 ; c) log 4 16A
A
3. Evaluate

154
1
a) log 2 16 ; b) log 2 ; c) log9 3
32
4. Evaluate
a) 2 log2 16 ; b) 2 log2 (1 / 2) ; c) 2 log2 7

In exercises 5-7 expand the logarithm in terms of sums,


differences and multiplies.

5. log3 10x x 3
x 2 sin 3 x
6. ln
x2 1
x2 1 x3
7. ln
sin 2 x

In exercises 8-9 write the expression as a single logarithm.


8. 4 log3 ( x 3) 5 log3 (sin 3x) 2
1
9. 3 ln(x 2) ln x ln(sin x)
2
In exercises 10-14 solve for x.
3
10. log10 x 2 ; 11. ln 3
x
12. log7 (7 ) 9 ;
3x
13. ln x 3 / 2 ln x 5
1

14. ln ln 2 x 3 ln 8
x
Answers
1. a) 1/2; b) 5; c) -3; 2. a) 4.2; b) -2.1; c) 4.1; 3. a) 4; b) -5; c) 1/2;
1
4. a) 16; b) 1/2; c) 7; 5. log3 10 log3 x log3 ( x 3) ;
2
1 1
6. 2 ln x 3 ln(sin x) ln(x 1) ;7. ln x 2 1 3 ln x 2 ln(sin x) ;
2
2 2
9 ( x 3) 4
x ( x 2) 3
8. log3 5
; 9. ln ; 10. 104 11. 3e 3 ;12. 3;
sin 3x sin x
5
13. e ; 14. 2.

155
6.2. The derivatives y ln x and y log a x

1
The derivative of natural logarithm function y ln x is the function ;
x

d 1
(ln x) , x 0 .
dx x
If u( x) 0 , and if the function u is differentiable at x, then applying the
Chain rule to the function y ln u yields
d 1 du
(1) [ln u ]
dx u dx
or in function notation
ln u ' 1 u '
u
To find the derivative of a base a logarithm, we first convert it to a
natural logarithm.
d
log a x = d ln x = 1 d [ln x] 1
dx dx ln a ln a dx x ln a
In general, if u is a positive differentiable function of x, then
d
log a u = d ln u = 1 1 du
dx dx ln a ln a u dx

(2)
d
log a u = 1 1 du
dx ln a u dx
or, in function notation
log a u ' 1 1 u '
ln a u
Example: Find
d
dx

ln x 3 1

Solution: From (1) with u x 3 1 ,


d
dx

ln x 3 1 = 3
1 d 3
x 1 dx
[ x 1] 3
3x 2
x 1
.

156
'
cos x
Example: Find ln
2x

Solution:
According to (1)
' '
cos x 2 x cos x 2 x sin x 2 x 2 cos x
ln = = =
2 x cos x 2 x cos x 4x 2
x sin x cos x
= .
x cos x
Example: Find
d
dx

log3 (2 x 2 7)
Solution:
From (2) with u 2 x 2 7 we obtain
d
dx

log3 (2 x 2 7) =
1
2
1
ln 3 2 x 7 dx
d
[ 2 x 2 7] =
4x
(2 x 7) ln 3
2

'
x 2
Example: Find log 5


x 1
Solution:
'
2
'
2
log 5 x = 1 x 1 x =
x 1 ln 5 x 2 x 1

1 x 1 (2 x 2 2 x x 2 ) x2
= 2 =
ln 5 x ( x 1) 2
ln 5 x( x 1)
Remark: Before differentiating, if it is possible, the properties of
logarithms should be used to convert products, quotients and exponents
into sums, differences, and constant multiples. Let us apply it to the last
example.
'
x2

' ln
2
log 5 x
x 1 = x 1 =
1
ln 5 ln 5

ln x 2 ln(x 1) ' =

157
1 1 2 1 x2
= [2 ln x ln(x 1)]' = = .
ln 5 ln 5 x x 1 ln 5 x( x 1)
d x 3 cos x
Example: Find ln
dx 1 x 2
Solution:
First of all, let us use properties of natural logarithm function to convert
given expression into sums, differences and constant multiples:
d x 3 cos x d
ln = ln x ln cos x ln 1 x =
3 2
dx 1 x dx
2
d 1 1 1 sin x 1 2 x
= 3 ln x ln cos x ln(1 x 2 ) = =
dx 3 x cos x 2 1 x
2
2
1 x
= tan x 2
3x x 1
d x 3 x 1
Example: Find log5

dx sin x sec x
Solution:
d x 3 x 1 d 1
ln x x 1
3
log5 =

dx sin x sec x dx ln 5 sin x sec x
1
Since is a constant, we can move it outside the derivative symbol.
ln 5
Then
1 d
[ln x ln 3 x 1 ln sin x ln sec x] =
ln 5 dx
1 1
ln x ln(x 1) ln sin x ln sec x =
1
=
ln 5 2 3
1 1 1
= cot x tan x
ln 5 2 x 3( x 1)
dy
Example: Use implicit differentiation to find if y 2 ln(x y) 3
dx

158
Solution: Differentiating both sides with respect to x yields
d 2 d
[ y ln(x y )] [3]
dx dx
Since y is the function of x we get
1
2 yy ' (y x y' ) 0
xy
By solving for y '
1 y'
2 yy ' 0
x y
y
y'
x(2 y 2 1)
Example: Find tangent to y ln x 2 y 2 at (1, 1).
Solution: The tangent line is
dy
y y0 ( x x0 ) x0 1; y0 1
dx ( x0 , y0 )
dy
And all we need to write equation of tangent line is .
dx ( x0 , y0 )
Differentiating both sides of equation we obtain
1
y ' 2 (2 xy x 2 y ' ) 0
x y
2 y'
y' 0
x y
dy 2y
y'
dx x( y 1)
dy 2 1
1
dx (1,1) 1 (1 1)
Equation of tangent line is y 1 1( x 1) or y x 2

159
Exercises

In exercises 1-14 find dy / dx .


1. y ln 3x 2. y (ln x) 3
x
3. y ln 4. y ln x 3 4 x 2 5
1 x2
3
5. y ln x 6. y cos
ln x
x2
7. y x 3 ln(3 2 x) 8. y
1 ln x
9. y ln(sec x tan x) 10. y x(ln 3 x 3 ln 2 x 6 ln x 6)
11. y log 4 x 3 12. y x cos(log4 x)
13. y x 2 ln(log5 (3x)) 14. y x log6 (1 / x)
15. Find dy / dx by implicit differentiation if y 2 ln(xy) 2 .
In exercises 16-22 first simplify by using laws of logarithms,
then differentiate.
1 x 1 5 x
16. y ln 17. y ln
5 3x 5 10 5 x


18. y ln ( x 2 1) 3 ( x 5 1) 4
19. y ln
2 x 1 3 3x 2
( x 2 1) 5
sin x cos 3x
20. y log 7 21. y log6 (log4 7 x 2 )
3 2
x
x 2 sin 5 x
22. y log3
cos x x 1

Answers
1 1 1 x2 3x 2 8 x 1 1
1. ; 2. 3(ln x) 2 ; 3. ; 4. ;5. ;
x x x(1 x )
2
x 4x 5
3 2
2 ln x x
3 sin(3 / ln x) 2x 3 x(1 2 ln x)
6. ; 7. 3x 2 ln(3 2 x) ; 8. ;
x(ln x) 2
3 2x (1 ln x) 2

160
3 sin(log4 x)
9. sec x ;10. ln 3 x ;11. ; 12. cos(log4 x) ;
x ln 4 ln 4
x 1 ln x y
13. 2 x ln(log5 (3x) ; 14. ;15. ;
ln 3x ln 6 x(2 y 2 1)
1 1 6x 20x 4 1 1
16. ; 17. ;18. ;19.
x(3x 5) 25 x 2
x 1 x 1
2 5
2 x 1 3x 2
10x 1 2 2 1
2 ; 20. (cot x 3 tan 3x ) ; 21.
x 1 ln 7 3x x ln 6 ln 7 x 2
1 2 1
22. [ 5 cot 5 x tan x ].
ln 3 x 2( x 1)

6.3. Logarithmic differentiation

The logarithmic differentiation is the special case of implicit


differentiation. This way of differentiation is useful for differentiating
functions that are composed of products, quotients and powers.
3
x (1 x 2 ) 3
Example: Differentiate y 4
x 5
Solution: If you were differentiating directly, you would run into
messy computations. Let us take logarithm of both sides of the equation
first. We can write
1 3 4
ln y ln x ln(1 x 2 ) ln x
3 2 5
Differentiating implicitly gives
1 dy 1 1 3 2 x 41

y dx 3 x 2 1 x 2
5x
dy
Solving for yields
dx
dy 1 3x 4
3
x (1 x 2 ) 3 1 3x 4
y =
dx 3x 1 x 2
5x 4
x 5 3x 1 x
2
5x
Remark: Notice that we replaced y back with what it is equal to. We
do not do that by a regular implicit differentiation problem.

161
dy x 1
Example: Find if y 5
dx x 1
Solution:
x 1 1 1
ln y ln 5 = ln(x 1) ln(x 1)
x 1 5 5
1 dy 1 1 1 1

y dx 5 x 1 5 x 1
dy 2 x 1
5
dx 5( x 1) x 1
2

Logarithmic differentiation is also useful for differentiation of


functions of the form f ( x) g ( x )
dy
Example: Find if y x 2 x
dx
Solution:
Again taking logarithms of both sides yields
ln y ln x 2 x 2 x ln x
Differentiating implicitly we obtain
1 dy 1
2 ln x 2 x
y dx x

2ln x 1 x 2 x
dy
dx
Example: Differentiate y (sin x) cos x
Solution:
ln y ln(sin x) cos x cos x ln(sin x)
1 dy cos x
sin x ln(sin x) cos x
y dx sin x
dy
[cos x cot x sin x ln(sin x)] (sin x) cos x
dx

162
Exercises
dy
In exercises 1-12 obtain by logarithmic differentiation.
dx
5
(sec 4 x) 4 sin 3 2 x
1. y (1 3x) (sin 3x)
5 6
2. y
x
x 1 ( x 8) x 2 1
2 4
3. y 3 4. y
x 1 sin x
x( x 1)( x 2 1)
5. y x 5 4 x 3 1 6. y 3
( x 3 2)(3x 2)
7. y x 6 x 8. y (sin x) tan x
9. y x x 2 10. y (2 x) log3 x
11. y (cos x) ln x 12. y (2 t ) t 1

Answers

5
15 (sec 4 x) 4 sin 3 2 x
1. (1 3x) (sin 3x)
5 6
18 cot 3x ; 2.
1 3x x
1 x 1 2
5 tan 4 x 6 cot 2 x ; 3. 3 ;
2x x 1 3( x 2 1)
( x 2 8) 4 x 2 1 8x x
4. 2 2 cot x ;5. y x 5 4 x 3 1
sin x x 8 x 1
5 3x 2 x( x 1)( x 2 1) 1 1 1 2x
;6. 3
[ 2
x 4( x 1)
3
( x 2)(3x 2) 3 x x 1 x 1
3

3x 2 3
3 ] ;7. 6 x 6 x (ln x 1) ;8. (sin x) tan x (1 sec 2 x ln(sin x)) ;
x 2 3x 2
1
9. x x 2 (ln x 1 2 x) ;10. (2 x) log3 x log3 2 x 2 ;11. y (cos x) ln x
x
1 t 1
[ ln(cos x) ln x tan x] ; 12. (2 t ) t 1 ln(2 t ) .
x t 2

163
6.4. Integrals involving ln x and log a x

1
x dx ln x C for any x 0 .
If u is nonzero differentiable function, then
1
u
du ln u C

4x 3
Example: Evaluate
x4 3
dx

Solution:
The numerator is exactly the derivative of the denominator. If we let
u x 3 3 , then du 4 x 3 dx so that
4x 3 1
x 3
4
dx =
u
du ln u C = ln x 4 3 C

Example: Evaluate tan x dx


Solution:
u cos x
sin x
tan x dx =
cos x
dx = du sin xdx =
du sin xdx
1
= u du ln u C = ln cos x C
4
1
Example: Evaluate
1 x (1 x )
dx

Solution:
dx dx
Let u 1 x , so that du 2du .
and
2 x x
It is necessary to change limits of integration x 1, x 4 to the u-limits
if x 1 , then u 1 1 2
if x 4 , then u 1 4 3

164
4 3
1 2du

3
dx = 2 ln u 2(ln 3 ln 2) 2 ln(3 / 2) .
1 x (1 x ) 2
u 2

Integrals involving log a x

To evaluate integrals involving base a logarithms, it is


necessary to convert them to natural logarithm, then use usual way
log 5 x
Example: Evaluate
x
dx

Solution:
ln x
u ln x
log 5 x 1 ln x

dx = ln 5 dx dx = =
1
x x ln 5 x du dx
x
1 1 u2 ln 2 x
ln 5
=
u du =
ln 5 2
C
2 ln 5
C.

log3 ( x 2)
1
Example: Evaluate
0
x 2 dx

Solution:
u ln(x 2)
log3 ( x 2)
1 1
1 ln(x 2)
x2
dx =
ln 3 0 x 2 dx =
du
dx =
0
x2
if x 0 , then u ln 2
if x 1 , then u ln 3 , we get
1 ln 3 ln 3
1 ln(x 2) 1 1 u2

ln 3 0 x 2
dx
ln 3 ln 2
u du
ln 3 2 ln 2

=
1
2 ln 3

ln 2 3 ln 2 2 1
2 ln 3
3
ln 6 ln .
2

165
Exercises

In exercises 1-20 evaluate integrals.


5dx dx
1. 5x 1
2.
3x 2
1 1
3. x
sin(ln x) dx 4.
y
(ln y ) 4 dy

dx x sin 5 d
5. sin x
[Hint: let u ]
2
6.
1 cos 5
3
x
7. x 1
2
dx 8. cot x dx
log 6 x ln 7 log 7 x
9. 3x
dx 10.
2x dx

3 log10 (2 x 1)
1
1
11. 2x 1
dx 12.
0
3 x 2dx

0 4
x 3
13.
1

x 5
2
dx 14. 1 2 x dx
1
e2
dx dx
15. x ln x
e
16. x ln x ln(ln x)
2 log3 (2 x 1)
9 2
dx
17. x
4 x
18.
1
2x 1
dx

5
1 csc x
19. x log
3 3 x
dx 20. ln(csc x cot x)
dx

Answers

1 (ln y ) 5
1. ln 5x 1 C ; 2.ln 3x 2 C ;3. cos(ln x) C ;4. C;
3 5
x 1 1 1
5. ln tan C ;6. ln 1 cos 5 C ;7. x 2 ln(x 2 1) C ;
2 5 2 2

166
1 ln 2 x
8. ln sin x C ; 9. ln 2 x C ;10. C ;
6 ln 6 4
3 ln 2 (2 x 1) 1 5 1 5 3
11. C ; 12. ln ; 13. ln ; 14. ln 7 ;15. ln 2 ;
4 ln 10 3 2 2 6 2
ln 3 5
ln
16. ln ln(ln x) C ;17. 2 ln 2 ;18. ;19. ln 3 ln ;
2 ln 3
20. 2 ln(csc x cot x) .

6.5. Exponents (an overview)

Laws of exponents:
The bases are positive, the exponents are any real numbers.
1. a x y a x a y
ax
2. a x y y
a
3. (a ) a x y
x y

4. (a b) x a x b x
x
a ax
5. x
b b
6. a 1
0

7. a loga x x (for x 0)
All laws above are true for the base e as well.
Example: ln e 3 3
Example: e ln(x 3) x 2 3
2

Example: 2 log2 7 7
2
Example: 4 log2 x 2 2 log2 x 2 log2 x x 2
Example: e xln 5 e x e ln 5 5e x
Example: Find y if ln(2 y) 4 x 3
Solution: Exponentiate both sides:
e ln(2 y ) e 4 x 3

167
e 4 x 3
2 y e 4 x 3 y
2
Example: Find x if e 2 x 25
Solution:
Take the natural logarithm of both sides
ln e 2 x ln 25
2 x ln 25 x ln 5
Example: Find y if 3 4 y 17
Solution:
Let us take the logarithm to the base 3 of both sides:
log3 34 y log3 17
1
4 y log3 17 y log3 17 .
4

6.6. Derivatives of the functions a x and e x .

To obtain the derivative of a x we will let y a x and then use


logarithmic differentiation
ln y ln a x x ln a
1 dy
ln a
y dx
dy
a x ln a Thus
dx
d x
(1) [a ] a x ln a
dx
In particular case where a e we have ln e 1 , so (1) becomes
d x
(2) [e ] e x
dx
If u is a differentiable function of x, then it follows that
d u du
(3) [a ] a u ln a and
dx dx

168
d u du
[e ] e u
(4)
dx dx
d cos x d
Example: [3 ] 3cos x ln 3 [cos x] 3cos x ln 3 sin x
dx dx
d 3 x 1 d
Example: [e ] e 3 x 1 [3x 1] 3e 3 x 1
dx dx
d x5 5 d 5
Example: [e ] e x [ x 5 ] 5 x 4 e x
dx dx

Example: Find 2 3 x e 4 x x 2
2
'

Solution:
2 3x2
' 2
e 4 x x 2 = 2 3 x ln 2 (3x 2 ) ' e 4 x (4 x) ' x 2 + e 4 x (x 2 ) ' =
2
= 2 x(3 ln 2 2 3 x 2 xe 4 x e 4 x )
Example: Find the extrema of y x e x
Solution:
dy
Let us examine :
dx
dy d x e x xe x 1 x
x
dx dx e x e 2x e
There is a critical point when x 1 .
dy dy
When x 1, 0 and when x 1, 0 . Hence there is a global
dx dx
1
maximum occurs when x 1 and f (max) f (1) .
e

Exercises

1. Simplify
a) e ln 8 b) e ln 3ln 5 c) log9 3sin x
2. Solve for k
a) e 3k 9 b) 2 k 2 7 c) e k / 100 t

169
3. Solve for y
a) ln(2 y) k b) log3 ( y 3) 4 c) e y x 4
In exercises 4-15 differentiate and simplify where it is
necessary.
1
4. y e 7 x
3
5. y e x
6. y cos(e x ) 7. y x 3 e x
e x ex
8. y 9. y e x tan x
e x e x
10. y e ( x e 11. y ln(1 xe x )
3x
)

e ax (a x 1)
12. y (a is a constant) 13. y 2 sec x
a2
14. y 3e 2 x
x
15. y 7 x
e 4x
16. Find the minimum value of y x 2 ln x
(ln x) 2
17. Find the relative extrema of .
x
In exercises 18-19 find a) relative maxima or minima,
b) inflection points of the given functions.
18. f ( x) (1 x) e x
19. f ( x) x 3 e x
20. Let f ( x) e kx and g ( x) e kx . Find
a) f ( n ) ( x) b) g ( n ) ( x)
2
1 x
1
2
21. Find f ( x) if f ( x)
'
e where and are
2
constants and 0 .

170
Answers

1. a) 1 / 8 ; b) 15; c) (sin x) / 2 ; 2. a) ln 9 / 3 ; b) 2 log 2 7 ; c) 100ln t ;


1
1 x
3.a) 2 e k ; b) 78 ; c) ln 2 x 4 ; 4. 21x 2 e 7 x ;5.
3
e ;
x2
4
6. e x sin(e x ) ;7. x 2 e x (3 x) ;8. ;
(e e x ) 2
x

x 1
9. ( x sec 2 x tan x) e xtan x ;10. (1 3e 3 x ) e x e ;11.
3x
; 12. x e ax ;
ex x
13. sec x tan x ln 2 2 sec x ; 14. 3e ln 3 e x 2 ln 2 x ;
x

ln 7 1
15. 7 x e 4 x 4 ;16. (1 ln 2) ;17. Relative minimum (1,0),
2 x 2
Relative maximum (e 2 ,4e 2 ) ;18. a) global maximum (0, 1); b) x 1 ;
27
19. a) global maximum (3, 3 ) ; b) x 0; x 3 3 ;20. a) k n e kx ;
e
2
1 x
1
2
b) (1) n k n e kx ; 21. (x ) e .
2 3

6.7. Integrals of the functions a x and e x

e dx e x C
x

e du e u C
u

ax
a x dx
ln a
C

au

a u du
ln a
C.

Example: Evaluate e 7 x dx
du
Solution: Let u 7 x so that du 7dx or dx , which yields
7

171
1 u 1 1
e
e du = e u C = e 7 x C .
7x
dx =
7 7 7

sin x
Example: Evaluate e cos x dx
Solution:
u sin x
e
sin x
cos x dx = du cos xdx = e u du e u C e sin x C .
cos x dx du
ln 4

e (1 e x ) 2 dx
x
Example: Evaluate
ln 2
Solution:
Make the u-substitution
u 1 e x du e x dx
and change the x- limits of integration ( x ln 2 , x ln 4) to the
u-limits (u 1 e ln 2 3 , u 1 e ln 4 5) . We obtain
ln 4 5 5
u3 5 3 33 98
e (1 e ) dx = u du
x x 2 2
= .
ln 2 3
3 3
3 3

2
7x
Example: Evaluate dx
Solution:

u 7x
1 u 1 2u 27x
2 dx = du 7 dx = 2 du C= C.
7x
7 7 ln 2 7 ln 2
du
dx
7
2

x4
x2
Example: Evaluate dx
1
Solution:
du
Let u x 2 so that du 2 x dx or x dx
2
if x 1 then u 1

172
if x 2 then u 2 and we obtain
2 2 2
1 1 4u 1 1 1 3
x 4 x dx =
2
4 u du = ( ) .
1
2 1 2 ln 4 1
2 ln 4 16 4 64 ln 2
3

3
( x 1)
Example: Evaluate dx
2
Solution:
4
3
u x 1 4 u 3u
3
( x 1)
dx = = 3 du =
2
du dx 1 ln 3 1
1 1 242
(3 4 ) =
= .
ln 3 3 3 ln 3
dx
Example: Evaluate
sin x cos x
Solution:
Let us divide numerator and denominator by cos2 x .
1
1 2
We obtain cos x .
sin x cos x tan x
1
Let u tan x then du dx .
cos2 x
1
dx 2 du
Then
sin x cos x
= cos x dx
tan x u
= ln u C = ln tan x C .

Exercises

In exercises 1-18 evaluate the integrals


e
5 x
2. x 2 e 2 x dx
3
1. dx
x
e
1 e dx e 1 e 2t dt
2t
3. x
4.

5. sin x e cos x
dx 6. e x
sec 2 (2 e x ) dx

173

7. sin x cos x dx ( x ln 3 4 e cos x) dx
2
8.
y
e
9. (ln(e x ) ln(e x )) dx 10. y
dy

ln 5 3

e x (3 4e x ) dx (3 e
x
11. 12. ) dx
0 1
ln 3 2 x 1
ex e
13.
ln 3
e x
4
dx 14. 2x 1
dx

x dx dx
15. 3 2x 2
16. 1 e x

2 1

8
2 x
17. 3x 3 x (ln x 1) dx 18. ln 2 dx
1 2

19. Find the area of the region enclosed by y e x , y 2 and x 0 .


e 3x
20. Evaluate ex 3
dx .

Answers

1 1 1
1 e 5 x C ; 2. e 2 x C ; 3. ln(1 e x ) C ;4. (1 e 2t ) 3 / 2 C ;
3

5 6 3
sin x
1
5. e cos x C ; 6. tan(2 e x ) C ;7. C ;8. x 2 ln 3
ln 2
4 e 2 sin x C ; 9. C ;10. 2e y C ;11.-36; 12. 6 e e 3 ;
21 1
13. ln ; 14. e 2 x 1 C ;15. ln 3 2 x 2 C ;
13 4
1
16. x ln(1 e x ) C ;17. 63;18. (8 4 64) ; 19. 2 ln 2 1 ;
6
2x
e
20. 3e x 9 ln(e x 3) C .
2

174
6.8. Limits involving functions a x , e x and ln x .

LHopitals rule and the forms 1 , 0 0 and 0
We are familiar with the LHopitals rule, which is a technique for
dealing with limits of the form zero-over-zero and infinity-over-
infinity. In both of these cases it asserts that
f ( x) f ' ( x)
lim lim '
x a g ( x) x a g ( x)

if the latter limit exists.


Note that it concerns the quotients of two derivatives, not the
derivatives of the quotient. Now let us consider some limits involving
a x , e x and ln x .
ln x
Example: Evaluate lim 2
x x

Solution:
First note that ln x and x 2 as x . We may use

LHopitals rule in the form. We have

ln x (ln x) ' 1/ x 1
lim 2 = = lim 2 ' = lim = lim 2 0 .
x x
x (x ) x 2 x x 2x
x
Example: Evaluate lim x
x e

Solution:
lim x lim e x , so given limit is an indeterminate form of type
x x

. Thus, by LHopitals rule:

x ( x) ' 1
lim x = = lim x ' = lim x 0
x e x (e ) x e

175
2x 1
Example: Evaluate lim
x 0 x
Solution: Both (2 1) and x approach zero as x 0 . The given limit
x

0
is an indeterminate form of type . Thus, by LHopitals rule
0
2 1 0
x
(2 1)
x '
2 x ln 2
lim = = lim = lim ln 2
0 x 0 ( x )
x 0 ' x 0
x 1
Example: Evaluate lim x ln x
x 0
Solution:
Since lim x 0 and lim ln x , the given limit is an indeterminate
x 0 x 0

form of type 0 . Rewriting x ln x as


ln x
converts the problem to
1/ x

the form and by LHopitals rule

ln x (ln x) '
lim x ln x = lim = = lim =
x0 (1 / x)
x 0 x 0 1 / x '

1/ x
= lim = lim ( x) 0
x 0 1 / x 2 x 0

0
Remark: We could convert the problem to the form by writing
0
x ln x
x ln x = . But it is less desirable than because of the
1 / ln x 1/ x
1
relatively complicated derivative of .
ln x
cos( x / 2)
Example: Evaluate lim
x 1 ln x
Solution:

sin( x / 2)
lim
cos( x / 2) 0
= = lim
cos( x / 2) = lim
'
2 =

.
x 1 ln x 0 x1 ln x ' x 1 1/ x 2

176
x e x cos2 6 x
Example: Evaluate lim
x 0 e2x 1
Solution:
x e x cos2 6 x 0 ( x e x cos2 6 x) '
lim = = lim =
x 0 e2x 1 0 x 0 (e 2 x 1) '
e x cos2 6 x x e x cos2 6 x 2 cos 6 x sin 6 x 6 x e x 1
= lim = .
x 0 2e 2 x 2

Indeterminate forms of types 1 , 0 0 and 0


Limits of the form lim f ( x) g ( x ) gives an indeterminate forms of
x a

and 1 . All three types can be evaluated by


types 0 ,
0 0

introducing a dependent variable y f ( x) g ( x ) . Then calculating

x a x a

lim ln y lim ln( f ( x)) g ( x ) lim g ( x) ln( f ( x))
x a

if lim ln y L then lim y lim eln y e L


x a x a x a
x
Example: Find lim x
x 0
Solution:

The limit leads to indeterminate form of 0 0 . But a little algebraic
manipulation will change the problem, which obeys to LHopitals rule.
Let y x x . Then ln y ln x x x ln x . Taking limits of both
sides yields
ln x
lim ln y lim x ln x lim =
x 0 x 0 x 0 1 / x
'
(ln x) 1/ x
= lim lim 0; L0
x 0 (1 / x) ' x 0 1 / x 2

and lim y e 0 1 .
x 0

177
Example: Find lim (e 2 x 1)1 / ln x
x 0
Solution:
The limit leads us to the form 0 0 . We let y (e 2 x 1)1 / ln x and
find lim ln y . Since
x 0

ln(e 2 x 1)
ln y ln(e 2 x 1)1 / ln x
ln x
ln(e 1)
2x
(ln(e 2 x 1)) '
lim ln y lim = = lim
x 0 x 0 ln x x 0 (ln x) '
2e 2 x
x 2e 2 x 0 2e 2 x 4 xe 2 x
= lim e 1 = lim 2 x
2x
= lim 1
x 0 1/ x x 0 e 1 0 x 0 2e 2 x
Therefore lim y e1 e (With L 1 )
x 0
x
1
Example: Show that lim 1 e
x x
Solution:
The limit has indeterminate form of type 1 .
1
ln y x ln (1 )
x
'
1 1
ln (1 ) ln (1 )
lim ln y lim x 0 = lim x

x x 1/ x 0 x 1 / x '
x 1
( 2 )
= lim x 1 x lim 1 1 .
x 1 x 1
( 2 ) 1
x x
Therefore lim y e1 e . (With L 1 )
x

178
x
1
Example: Evaluate lim 1 2
x x
Solution: The limit has indeterminate form of type 1 .
1
y (1 2 ) x
x
1
ln(1 2 )
1 x x
ln y ln(1 2 )
x 1 / x
'
1 1
ln(1 2 ) ln(1 2 )
lim ln y lim x = 0 = lim x
=
x x 1/ x 0 x 1 / x '
x2 2 2x 4
= lim ( x 2
) = lim 0 , so
x x2 1 x3 x 3 x 5 3 x 3

lim y e 0 1 .
x

Example: Evaluate lim (3 x 5 x )1 / x


x

Solution: The limit leads to indeterminate form of type 1


y (3 5 )
x x 1/ x

ln(3 x 5 x )
ln y ln(3 x 5 x )1 / x =
x
ln(3 5 )
x x
(ln(3 x 5 x )) '
lim ln y lim = = lim
x x x x ( x) '
3 x ln 3 5 x ln 5
= lim
x 3x 5x
Repeated use of LHopitals rule does not help here. Let us divide
numerator and denominator by 5 x :
(3 / 5) x ln 3 ln 5
lim ln 5 (since (3 / 5) x 0 as x )
x (3 / 5) x 1
Therefore lim y e ln 5 5 .
x

179
Exercises

In exercises 1-23 find the limits.


x4 (ln x) 2
1. lim x 2. lim
x e x x
x
2 log 2 x
3. lim x 4. lim
x 3 x log x
3
cot x x ln x
5. lim 6. lim
x 0 ln x x x ln x

x 101
7. lim x 8. lim x e x
x e x


9. lim x sin 10. lim x(e sin(2 / x ) 1)
x x x
x
3
11. lim 1 12. lim(e x x)1 / x
x x x 0

x2 x
1 tan( )
13. lim 1 14. lim(2 x) 2
x x x 1
3
15. lim x sin x 16. lim (sin x) ln x
x 0 x 0

1 1
17. lim x 18. lim [ x ln(x 2 1)]
x 0 x e 1 x
1
19. lim ( x 2 x x) 20. lim(cos x) x
x x 0
1
xe (1 x)
x 3
21. lim 22. lim(1 sin 2 x) x
x 0 ex 1 x 0
bx
a
23. lim 1
x x

180
Answers
ln 3
1 0; 2. 0; 3.0;4. ;5. ; 6. ;7. 0;8. 0; 9. ;10. 2;11. e 3 ;
ln 2
12. e 2 ;13. ; 14. e 2 / ;15. 1;16. e 3 ;17. 1/2;18. ; 19. 1/2; 20. 1 ;
21. 1; 22. e 2 ; 23. e ab .

6.9. The hyperbolic functions

Definition: The hyperbolic cosine and hyperbolic sine functions,


denoted by cosh and sinh respectively, are defined by the formula
e x ex e x ex
cosh x and sinh x
2 2
The four other hyperbolic functions, namely, the hyperbolic tangent,
the hyperbolic secant, the hyperbolic cotangent, the hyperbolic
cosecant, are defined as follows:
sinh x e x e x 1 2
tanh x x ; sec h x x
cosh x e e x
cosh x e e x
cosh x e x e x 1 2
coth x x ; csc h x x .
sinh x e e x
sinh x e e x
The hyperbolic functions satisfy various identities similar to the
identities for the trigonometric functions. The most useful of these are:
cosh 2 x sinh 2 x 1
sinh 2 x 2 sinh x cosh x
cosh 2 x cosh 2 x sinh 2 x
cosh 2 x 1
cosh 2 x
2
cosh 2 x 1
sinh 2 x
2
tanh x 1 sec h 2 x
2

coth2 x 1 csc h 2 x .

181
Example: Simplify cosh 5x sinh 5x
Solution:
e 5 x e 5 x e 5 x e 5 x
cosh 5x sinh 5x = - e 5 x .
2 2
Example: Let sinh x 2 . Find other five hyperbolic functions.
Solution:
From cosh 2 x sinh 2 x 1 we obtain
cosh 2 x 1 sinh 2 x 1 (2) 2 5 cosh x 5 . Since
cosh x 0 for all x then the answer will be cosh x 5 .
sinh x 2
From tanh x we obtain tanh x
cosh x 5
cosh x 5
From coth x we obtain coth x
sinh x 2
1 1
From sec h x we get sec h x and
cosh x 5
1 1
From csc h x we get csc h x .
sinh x 2
Example: Simplify cosh(3 ln x)
e 3 ln x e 3 ln x x 3 x 3 x 6 1
Solution: cosh(3 ln x) .
2 2 2x 3

Derivatives of hyperbolic functions

d du d du
[sinh u ] cosh u [cosh u ] sinh u
dx dx dx dx
d du d du
[tanhu ] sec h 2 u [cothu ] csc h 2 u
dx dx dx dx
d du d du
[sec h u ] sec hu tanhu [csc h u ] csc hu coth u
dx dx dx dx

182
d
Example: Differentiate [cosh(x 4 )]
dx
Solution:
d d
[cosh(x 4 )] = sinh(x 4 ) [ x 4 ] 4 x 3 sinh(x 4 )
dx dx
d
Example: Find [ln(cothx)]
dx
Solution:
d 1 d csc h 2 x
[ln(cothx)] = [coth x]
dx coth x dx coth x
d
Example: Find [sinh 3 (2 x)]
dx
Solution:
d d
[sinh 3 (2 x)] = 3 sinh 2 (2 x) [sinh(2 x)]
dx dx
d
3 sinh (2 x) cosh(2 x) [2 x] 6 sinh 2 (2 x) cosh(2 x) .
2
dx
dy
Example: Find if y sec h(e 2 x ) sinh(cos3x)
dx
Solution:
dy
= sec h(e 2 x ) tanh(e 2 x ) (e 2 x ) ' cosh(cos3x) (cos3x) ' =
dx
= 2e 2 x sec h(e 2 x ) tanh(e 2 x ) 3 sin 3x cosh(cos3x) .

Integral formulas for hyperbolic functions.

sinh u du cosh u C cosh u du sinh u C


sec h u du tanhu C csc h u du cothu C
2 2

sec hu tanhu du sec h u C csc hu cothu du csc h u C

183
sinh
6
Example: Evaluate x cosh x dx
Solution:
Let u sin x then du cosh xdx .
We obtain
u7 sinh 7 x
sinh 6 x cosh x dx = u 6 du 7
C
7
C

Example: Evaluate coth x dx


Solution:
cosh x u sinh x
coth x dx = sinh x dx = du cosh xdx =
du
= u
= ln u C = ln sinh x C
1

2e cosh x dx
x
Example: Evaluate
0
Solution:
e x ex
1 1 1

2e cosh x dx = 2e dx = (e 2 x 1) dx =
x x

0 0
2 0
1
e 2x e2 1 e2 1
= x 1 .
2 0 2 2 2
4
sinh x
Example: Evaluate
1 2 x
dx

Solution:
4 u x 2
sinh x

1 2 x
dx =
du
dx = sinh u du =
1

2 x
2 e 2 e 2 e e 1
= cosh u 1 cosh 2 cosh1 = .
2 2

184
Exercises

1. Let coth x 2. Find the values of the other five hyperbolic functions.

In exercises 2-8 simplify the expressions as much as you can.


2. sinh(4 ln x) 3. sinh(4 x) cosh(4 x)
4. (sinh x cosh x) 2 5. ln(cosh x sinh x) ln(cosh x sinh x)
6. (cosh x sinh x) 7. cosh( x)
3
8. sinh( x)
dy
In exercises 9-15 find
dx
9. y sinh(7 x 4) 10. y coth(lnx)
11. y csc h(1 / x) 12. y 4 x cosh 2 (5x)
13. y x 3 tanh2 x 14. y e 3 x sinh x
15. y x sinh x cosh x
In exercises 16-22 evaluate integrals.

16. tanh x sec h 2 x dx
17. tanh x sec h 3 x dx
1
cosh x
sinh
2
18 dx . 19. (2 x)dx
x 0
2


20. tanh(5 x) sec h 6 (5 x) dx 21. sinh x dx
2
ln 3
22.
ln 3
cosh 2 x 1 dx

Answers

1. sinh x 1 / 3 ; cosh x 2 / 3 ; tanh x 1 / 2; sec hx 3 / 2;


x8 1
csc hx 3 ; 2. 4
;3. e 4 x ;4. e 2 x ;5. 0; 6. e 3 x ;7. cosh x ;8. sinh x ;
2x
9. 7 cosh(7 x 4) ;10. [ csc h 2 (ln x)] / x ;11. [csc(1 / x) coth(1 / x)] /( x 2 ) ;

185
12. [2 5 cosh(5x) sinh(5x)] / 4 x cosh 2 (5x) ;

13. x 5 / 2 tanh x sec h 2 x 3x 2
tanh2 x;
2 3
14. e 3 x (cosh x 3 sinh x) ; 15. x cosh x ; 16. (tanh x) 2 C ;
3
1 sinh 44
17. sec h 3 x C ;18. 2 sinh x C ;19. ;
3 8
sec h 6 5 x
20. C ;21.0; 22. 0.
30

186
Chapter 7
Inverse trigonometric and hyperbolic functions

7.1. Inverse trigonometric functions

Definition: The inverse sine function, denoted by sin 1 , is defined to



be inverse of the function sin x , x
2 2
1 x 1

y sin 1 x is equivalent to sin y x if
y
2 2
1
Definition: The inverse cosine function, denoted by cos , is defined
to be inverse of the function cos x , 0 x
1 x 1
y cos1 x is equivalent to cos y x if
0 y
Definition: The inverse tangent function, denoted by tan1 , is defined

to be inverse of the function tan x , x
2 2
x

y tan1 x is equivalent to tan y x if
y
2 2
1
Definition: The inverse secant function, denoted by sec , is defined to
3
be inverse of the function sec x , 0 x or x
2 2
x 1 x 1

y sec 1 x is equivalent to sec y x if or 3
0 y y
2 2
The inverse cotangent and inverse cosecant functions are denoted by
cot 1 x and csc 1 x , will not be needed. They may be defined as
follows:

cot 1 x tan1 x for all x
2

187
1
csc 1 x = sin 1 for x 1
x
Example: Find cos1 ( 3 / 2)
Solution:
Let y cos1 ( 3 / 2) . This is equivalent to
5
cos y 3 / 2 and y
6
1
Example: Find sin ( 2 / 2)
Solution: Let y sin 1 ( 2 / 2) . Then

sin y 2 / 2 y
4

The derivatives of the inverse trigonometric functions

d 1 du
(1) [sin 1 u ] 1 u 1
dx 1 u dx
2

d 1 du
(2) [cos1 u ] 1 u 1
dx 1 u 2 dx
d 1 du
(3) [tan1 u ]
dx 1 u 2 dx
d 1 du
(4) [cot1 u ]
dx 1 u 2 dx
d 1 du
(5) [sec 1 u ] u 1
dx u u 1 dx
2

d 1 du
(6) [csc 1 u ] u 1
dx u u 1 dx
2

Example: Find the derivative of tan1 x


Solution:
From (3)
dy

1 d
dx 1 x dx
x
1

2 x (1 x)

188
dy 3x
Example: Find if y sin 1
dx 4
Solution:
From (1)
dy 1 d 3x 1 3 3
.
dx 1 (3x / 4) 2 dx 4 1 9 x 2 / 16 4 16 9 x 2
dy
Example: Find if y sec 1 (e x )
dx
Solution:
From (5)
dy 1 d x 1
[e ]
dx e e 1 dx
x 2 x
e x 1
2

Example: Differentiate y x 1 x 2 sin 1 x


Solution:
dy d 1
[ x 1 x 2 sin 1 x] 1 x 2 x (2 x)
dx dx 2 1 x2
1 1 x2
1 x2 2 1 x2
1 x 2
1 x2

dy
Example: Find if y (1 x csc 1 x)10
dx
Solution:
dy d
= [(1 x csc 1 x)10 ] =
dx dx
d
= 10 (1 x csc 1 x) 9 [1 x csc 1 x] =
dx
1
= 10 (1 x csc 1 x) 9 csc 1 x x .

x x 2
1
With each derivative of (1)-(6) comes a corresponding antiderivative.

189
Most commonly needed integration formulas are
du
(7)
1 u 2
sin 1 u C for u 2 1

du
(8)
1 u2
tan1 u C for all u

du 1
(9)
u u 1
2
sec 1 u C cos1 C
u
for u 2 1

dx
Example: Evaluate 1 6x 2

Solution:
Substituting u 6 x , du 6 dx yields
dx 1 du 1
1 6x 2
=
6 1 u
2

6
tan1 u C

1
tan1 ( 6 x) C
6
e 2x
Example: Evaluate 1 e 4x
dx

Solution:
Substituting u e 2 x , du 2e 2 x dx yields
e 2x 1 du 1 1
1 e 4x
dx =
2
1 u2 2
= sin 1 u C sin 1 (e 2 x ) C .
2
1
dx
Example: Evaluate x 4x 2 1
1/ 3
Solution:
Substituting u 2 x , du 2 dx yields
1 2 2
dx du / 2 1

1
cos
1/ 3 x 4x 2 1 2/ 3 u / 2 u 1
2 u 2/ 3


cos1 (1 / 2) cos1 ( 3 / 2) = .
3 6 6

190
12 dx
Example: Evaluate e 2x 1
Solution:
let us multiply and divide numerator and denominator by e x .
12 dx 12 e x dx
e2x 1

e x e 2x 1
Let u e x , du e x dx .
Then
12 e x dx du
e x
e 2x
1
u
12
u 1
2
12 sec 1 u C 12 sec 1 (e x ) C .

Exercises

1. Evaluate without a calculator


a) sin 1 (1 / 2) b) tan1 (1 / 3 ) c) sec 1 2
d) tan1 ( 3 ) e) sin 1 ( 2 / 2) f) cos 1 (1)
g) sin 1 (sin / 7) h) sin[2 cos1 (3 / 5)] i) tan[2 sec 1 (3 / 2)]
In exercises 2-13 find dy / dx
2. y sin 1 5 x 3. y sec 1 3x
x sec 1 3x
4. y tan1 3 x 5. y
e 2x
6. y sin 1 x 1 x 2 7. y (tan1 2 x) 3
x x 2
8. y 2 x 2 sin 1 9. y sec 1 3x 5
2 2 3
1 x
10. y tan1 11. y e x sec 1 x
1 x
12. y sin 1 ( x 2 ln x) 13. y x 2 1 sec 1 x

191
In exercises 14-23 evaluate the integrals.
1 2 3
dx dx
14.
1
1 x2
15. x x2 1
2

dx e x dx
16. 1 16x 2
17. 1 e2x
3
dx sec 2 x dx
18.
1 x (x 1)
19. 1 tan2 x
2
dx dy
20. x 1 (ln x) 2
21. 1 ( y 1)
0
2

e x dx
ln(2 / 3 ) 4
dx
22.
ln 2 1 e 2 x
23. 2x
2 x 1

Answers
24
1. a) ; b) ; c) ; d) ;e) ; f ) ; g) ; h) ; i) 4 5 ;
6 6 4 3 4 7 25
5 1 1 x
2. ;3. ; 4. 2 / 3 ;5. e 2 x [
1 25x 2
x 9x 1
2 3x (1 x )
2/3
x 9x 2 1
1 x 6(tan1 2 x) 2
(1 2 x) sec 1 3x] ; 6. ; 7. ; 8. 2 x 2 ;
1 x 1 4x 2

5 1 ex
9. ;10. 2 ;11 e x sec 1 x ;
3x 3x 1
5 x 1 x x 1
2

x 2 x ln x 1
12. ; 13. 1 2
;14. / 2 ; 15. ;
1 x 4 ln 2 x x 12
1
16. tan1 4 x C ;
4

17. tan1 (e x ) C ;18. ;19. sin 1 (tan x) C ;20. sin 1 (ln x) C ;
6

21. ;22. ; 23. .
2 6 12
192
7.2. The inverse hyperbolic functions
y sinh 1 x , y cosh 1 x , y tanh1 x , y coth1 x ,
y sec h 1 x , y csc h 1 x are inverses of y sinh x , y cosh x ,
y tanh x , y coth x , y sec hx and y csc hx respectively.
Some useful identities for inverse hyperbolic functions
1
sec h 1 x cosh 1
x
1 1 1
csc h x sinh
x
1
coth1 x tanh1
x
Derivatives of inverse hyperbolic functions.
d 1 du
(1) [sinh 1 u ]
dx 1 u 2 dx
d 1 du
(2) [cosh 1 u ] ; u 1
dx u 1 dx
2

d 1 du
(3) [tanh1 u ] ; u 1
dx 1 u 2 dx
d 1 du
(4) [coth1 u ] ; u 1
dx 1 u 2 dx
d 1 du
(5) [sec h 1u ] ; 0 u 1
dx u 1 u 2 dx
d 1 du
(6) [csc h 1u ] ; u 0.
dx u 1 u dx
2

dy
Example: Find if y sinh 1 (2 x)
dx
Solution:
dy 1 d 2
From (1) ( 2 x)
dx 1 4 x 2 dx 1 4x 2
dy
Example: Find if y x 3 (cosh 1 x) 4
dx

193
Solution:
dy
dx
'

x 3 (cosh 1 x) 4 3x 2 (cosh 1 x) 4

1 4x
x 3 4 (cosh 1 x) 3 x 2 (cosh 1 x) 3 3 cosh 1 x
x2 1 x 2 1
Example: Find (csc h 1 (tan x))'
Solution:
1 1
(csc h 1 (tan x))' 2

csc x .
tan x 1 tan2 x cos x
Exercises

In exercises 1-9 find dy / dx .


1
1. y sinh 1 x 2. y cosh 1 (2 x 1)
3
1
3. y sec h ( x 7 ) 4. y csc h 1 (e x )
5. y e x sec h 1 x 6. y x 2 (sinh 1 x) 3
7. y (1 x csc h 1 x)10 8. y sec h 1 (sin x)
1 x
9. y tanh1
1 x

Answers
1 2 7 1
1. ; 2. ;3. ; 4. ;
9 x2 (2 x 1) 2 1 x 1 x14 1 e 2x
ex 3x 2 (sinh 1 x) 2
5. e x sec h 1 x ; 6. 2 x(sinh 1 x) 3 ;
x 1 x 2
1 x 2


7. 10(1 x csc h 1 x) 9 csc h 1 x) ; 8. csc x ;
x
x 1 x2

1
9. .
2x

194
Chapter 8
Techniques of integration

8.1. Basic integration formulas

The following integral table lists a few formulas that should be


memorized. Each of them can be checked by differentiating the right-
hand side of the equation.

1. du u C

2. a du a du au C

u r 1

3. u r du
r 1
C, r 1
du
4. u ln u C
5. e du e C
u u

au

6. a u du
ln a
C, a0


7. sin u du cos u C

8. cos u du sin u C

9. sec u du tan u C
2

10. csc u du cot u C


2

11. sec u tan u du sec u C

12. csc u cot u du csc u C

13. tan u du ln cos u C

14. cot u du ln sin u C

15. sinh u du cosh u C

195

16. cosh u du sinh u C
du
17. 1 u 2
sin 1 u C

du
18. 1 u 2
tan1 u C

du
19. u u 12
sec 1 u C


20. u dv u v v du (Integration by parts)


Example: Find x 3 dx
Solution:
Using (3) with r 3 we obtain
x 31 x4
x 3 dx =
3 1
C
4
C

x 4 2 x 3 3x 2
Example: Find x2
dx

Solution:
We divide the numerator by the denominator
x 2 x 3 3x 2
4
x3
x 2 3x C
2
dx = ( x 2 x 3) dx
x2 3
2
1

Example: Find 1 2 dx
x
Solution:
By expanding the integrand we get
1
2
1 2

2 4
1 2 dx = 1 2 4 dx dx 2 x dx x dx =
x x x
x 21 x 41 2 1
=x2 C=x 3 C
2 1 4 1 x 3x

196
dx
Example: Find sin 2
x cos2 x
Solution:
dx sin 2 x cos2 x
sin x cos2 x
2
sin 2 x cos2 x
dx

dx dx
= cos 2
x

sin 2 x
cot x tan x C .

x
Example: Find sin 2 2
dx
Solution:
x 1 cos x

Since sin 2 , we get
2 2
x 1 cos x 1 1

sin 2 dx
2 2
dx x sin x C
2 2

Example: Find sin x cos 3xdx
Solution:
1
Since sin x cos 3x (sin 4 x sin 2 x), then we obtain
2
1 1 1
sin x cos 3xdx
2
(sin 4 x sin 2 x)dx cos 4 x cos 2 x C
8 4

8.2. The substitution method

The substitution method changes the form of an integrand to


one that we can integrate more easily. Sometimes we use substitution to
convert an integral not listed in an integral table to one that is listed.


Example: Find cos(x 3 ) 3x 2 dx
Solution:
Since 3x 2 is the derivative of x 3 , we make substitution
u x 3 . Then du 3x 2 dx and
cos(x
) 3x 2 dx cos u du sin u C sin( x 3 ) C
3

197

6
Example: Find 6e x x 5 dx
Solution:
Introduce u x 6 . Then du 6 x 5 dx and
6e
x6 6
x 5 dx e u du e u C e x C


Example: Find cos3 x sin x dx
Solution:
Note that derivative of cos x is sin x . Let u cos x , then
du sin xdx and sin x dx du .
We obtain
u4 cos4 x
cos3 x sin x dx u 3 du 4
C
4
C.


5
Example: Evaluate 1 x 4 x 3 dx
Solution:
The derivative of (1 x 4 ) is 4x 3 , which differs from x 3 in the
integrand only by constant factor 4.
If we let u 1 x 4 ,
du
then du 4 x 3 dx and x 3 dx .
4
We obtain

5
1 x 4 x 3 dx u 5
du 1 u 6

4 4 6
C
1
24
6

1 x4 C .
d 1
(1 x ) C
4 6
Check:
dx 24
6
1
24
5 d

1 x 4 [1 x 4 ] 1 x 4 x 3
dx
5

2
x
Example: Find
(1 x) 3
dx

Solution:
Try the substitution u 1 x . Then du dx . Solving the
equation u x 1 for x gives x u 1 .

198
Thus
x2 (u 1) 2 u 2 2u 1
(1 x) 3
dx u3
du
u3
du

1 2 1 2 1

2 3 du ln u 2 C
u u u u 2u
2 1
ln 1 x C
1 x 2(1 x) 2
3
e1 / x
Example: Evaluate
2
x2
dx

Solution:
1 1 dx
Let u . Then du 2 dx and 2 du .
x x x
1 1 1
As x goes from 2 to 3, u goes from to
x 2 3
3 1/ 3
e1 / x

1/ 3
dx e u du e u ( e 1 / 3 e 1 / 2 ) e 3 e .
2
x2 1/ 2
1/ 2

1
2dx
Example: Evaluate 1 (4 x 1)
0
2

Solution:
du
The nearest standard form is 1 u 2
tan1 u C ,

du
so let u 4 x 1 , du 4dx and 2dx
2
if x 0 then u 1
if x 1 then u 5 and we obtain
1 5
2dx 1 du 1

5
tan1 u =
0
1 (4 x 1) 2
2 1 1 u 2
2 1

=
1
2
1

tan1 5 tan1 1 tan1 5
2 4

199
e 3x
Example: Evaluate 1 e 3x 3
dx

Solution:
du
Let u 1 e 3x , then du 3e 3 x dx and e 3 x dx .
3
We obtain
e 3x 1 du 1 u 31 1 1
1 e
3x 3
dx
3 u 3

3 3 1
C
6 u2
C

1 1
C
6 (1 e 3 x ) 2
4
2 cot x
Example: Evaluate sin 2 x
dx
Solution:
1
Let u 2 cot x , so that du dx .
sin 2 x
1
1
4
2 cot x u4 44 5
sin 2 x
dx 4
u du
1
C
5
u C
1
4
44
(2 cot x) 5 C .
5

Exercises

In exercises 1-9 evaluate the integrals.


x-2 x 2
1. ( x 3 x 2 1) dx 2.
x2 3 x
dx
2
x x 3 4 cos3 x
3. sin cos dx
2 2
4. cos2 x
dx
x
e x2
5. e x (1 3 ) dx
x
6. 1 x2
dx

200
x x
7. sin 3 cos 3 dx 8. sin x cos 7 x dx
9. cos 4 x cos 6 x dx
In exercises 10-28 evaluate the integrals using appropriate
substitutions.

(1 x 1 x 2 x dx
2 5 3
10. ) x dx 11.
t
e
12. t
dt 13. sin 3 d
x
x sin x 5 dx 1 x
4
14. 15. 4
dx

ln 3x x
16. x
dx 17. x4
dx
1

x
2 x3
18. sin 3 x cos x dx 19. e dx
0

sin 2 x dx
20. cos4 x 1
dx 21. 1 x
2 /4 /4
sin x
tan sec d
2
22. dx 23.
/ 16
2 x /6
2
dx 2 ln 2 x
24. (1 x) x
25.
1
x
dx

1
x 2 dx
26.
0
5 2 d 27. ax b
; a0

e x / 2 dx
28. 1 ex

201
Answers
4 3
x x 3 12 3
1. x C ; 2. C ;3. x cos x C ;
3
4 3 x 5 6 x 5 2x 3 x
1
4. 3 tan x 4 sin x C ;5. e x 2 C ; 6. x tan1 x C ;
2x
x x 1 1
7. 3(sin cos ) C ; 8. cos 8 x cos 6 x C ;
3 3 16 12
1 1 1
9. sin 10x sin 2 x C ; 10. (1 x 2 ) 6 C ;
20 4 12
3 1
11. (1 x 2 ) 4 / 3 C ; 12. 2e t C ; 13. cos 3 C ;
8 3
1 1 1 2 1
14. cos x C ; 15. tan x C ; 16. (ln 3x) 2 C ;
5
5 2 2
2 4
sin x e 1
17. ( x 4) 3 8 x 4 C ; 18. C ; 19. ;
3 4 3
1
20. tan1 (cos2 x) C ;21. 2 x 2 ln(1 x ) C ; 22. 2 ; 23. ;
3
24. 2 tan 1 x C ; 25. 2 2
ln 4

ln 2
; 26.
12
;
ln 2 ln 5
1 1
27. 3 a 2 x abx b 2 ln ax b C ; 28. 2 sin 1 (e x / 2 ) C ;
2

a 2

8.3. Integration by parts

Integration by parts is based on the equation


(1)
u dv u v v du
where u and v are both differentiable functions of x.
xe
x
Example: Find dx
Solution:
To use formula u dv u v v du we must write
xe x dx as u dv . One way to do this is

202
u x ; dv e x dx so that du dx and v e x dx e x .
Thus from (1)
x e
dx e e
dx xe ex C
x x x x
x
u dv uv vdu
Remark: The key to applying integration by parts is the labeling of u
and dv. Usually three conditions should be met:
1. v can be found by integration and should not be too messy.
2. du should not be more complicated than u

3. v du should be easier than the original u dv
Application of integration by parts formula is a matter of experience
that comes with lots of practice.
Example: Find x lnx dx
Solution:
Letting dv ln x dx is not a wise move, since ln xdx is not
immediately apparent. But setting u ln x is promising.
1
u ln x , du dx
x
x2
dv xdx v xdx
2 Thus

x2 x 2 dx x 2 x2
x lnx dx ln x
2

2 x

2
ln x
4
C
You may check the result by differentiation.
Example: Evaluate x 2 e x dx
Solution:
Let u x2 du 2 xdx
dv e dx v e x dx e x
x
so that

x e dx x e 2xe dx x e 2 xe dx
2 x 2 x x 2 x x

Another integration by parts applied to x e dx will complete the x

problem.

203
We let
u x du dx
so that
dv e dx v ex
x

xe
dx xe e dx xe e .
x x x x x

After substituting we obtain


x
e x dx x 2 e x 2 xe x dx x 2 e x 2 xe x dx
2

x e 2( xe e ) ( x 2 2 x 2)e x C
2 x x x

For definite integrals the formula corresponding to udv uv vdu is


b b


b
(2) u dv u v a v du
a a
Remark: It is important to keep in mind that the variables u and v in
(2) are functions of x, and that the limits of integration in (2) are limits
on the variable x.
e3
ln x
Example: Evaluate
e
x3
dx

Solution:
Let
1
u ln x du dx
x
1 1
dv dx v 2 . Thus
x3 2x
e3 e3 e3
ln x ln x 1

e
x 3
dx 2
2x e
2x
e
3
dx But

e3 e3
1 1 1

e
2x 3
dx 2
4x e
(e 6 e 2 ) , so
4
e3 e3
ln x ln x 1 6

e
x 3
dx 2
2x e

4
(e e 2 ) =

204
1 1 e 2
(3e 6 e 2 ) (e 6 e 2 ) (3 7e 4 )
2 4 4

x
Example: Evaluate e sin xdx
Solution:
Let u ex , du e x dx
dv sin xdx ,
v sin xdx cos x .
Thus
e
sin xdx e x cos x e x cos xdx
x
(3)

e
x
Integral cos xdx is similar to the original integral; it seems that
nothing has been accomplished. Let us integrate new integral by parts;
we let
u ex du e x dx
dv cos xdx
v cos xdx sin x .
Thus
e
cos xdx e x sin x e x sin xdx .
x

Substituting in (3) yields


e
sin xdx e x cos x e x sin x e x sin xdx ,
x

which is an equation we can solve for the unknown integral. We obtain



2 e x sin xdx e x sin x e x cos x and hence
1 x 1
e sin xdx e sin x e x cos x C
x
2 2

Exercises

In exercises 1-17 evaluate the integrals by integration by parts.



2x
1. xe dx 2. x sin 2 xdx

3. tan 1
xdx 4. x 2
sin xdx

205
ln x
5. x
dx
6. sin(ln x) dx
2 1


7. x 2 e x dx
1

8. sin 1 xdx
0
3 e
ln x

9. (ln x) 2 dx
2
10.
1
x2
dx

ln(1 x 2 )
11.
x2
dx
12. e axsinbx dx
2


2
13. x 3 e x dx 14. ln(x 3)dx
2
/2 1
x3
15.
0
x sin 4 xdx 16.
0 x2 1
dx

/3

x tan
2
17. xdx
0
Answers
1 x 1
1. e 2 x (2 x 1) C ;2. cos 2 x sin 2 x C ;3. x tan1 x
4 2 4
1
ln(1 x 2 ) C ; 4. x 2 cos x 2 x sin x 2 cos x C ;5. 2 x ln x
2
x 5e 10
4 x C ; 6. (sin(ln x) cos(ln x)) C ; 7. 2
;8. 1 ;
2 e 2
e2 ln(1 x 2 )
9. 3(ln 3) 2 6 ln 3 2(ln 2) 2 4 ln 2 2 ; 10. ; 11.
e x
e ax 1
2 tan1 x C ; 12. 2
2
(a sin bx b cos bx) C ; 13. x 2 e x
a b 2
2
1 1
e x C ; 14. 5 ln 5 4 ; 15. / 8 ; 16. (2 2 ) ;
2

2 3
3 2
17. ln 2 ;
3 18

206
8.4. Trigonometric integrals

8.4.1. Integrating powers of sine and cosine functions.

Integrals of the form sin m xdx and cosn xdx can be


evaluated by using so called reduction formulas:
1 m 1
sin m x dx sin m1 x cos x
m m
sin m2 x dx and
1 n 1
cosn xdx cosn1 x sin x
n n
cosn 2 x dx ,

where n and m are integers and m 2 , n 2 .


But we will now give alternative methods for evaluating such
integrals.
If m and n both positive integers, then evaluating integral
sin
m
x cosn x dx can be divided into three cases.
Case 1: m is odd
Case 2: n is odd
Case 3: m and n both even
Case1. If m is odd, we split of a factor of sin x as m 2k 1 and apply
identity sin 2 x 1 cos2 x to obtain
sin m x sin 2k 1 x (sin 2 x) k sin x (1 cos2 x) k sin x
Then we make the substitution u cos x , and solve as usual.

Example: Evaluate sin 3 x cos xdx
Solution:
sin
x cos xdx sin 2 x sin x cos xdx
3

u cos x

(1 cos2 x) cos x sin xdx
du sin xdx
(1 u 2 )udu

u2 u4 cos4 x cos2 x
C C
2 4 4 2

207
sin
m
Case2. If n is odd then in x cosn x dx we write n as 2k+1 and use
identity cos2 x 1 sin 2 x to obtain
cosn x cos2k 1 x cos2k x cos x (1 sin 2 x) k cos x


Example: Evaluate sin 4 x cos5 xdx
Solution:
sin
x cos5 xdx sin 4 x cos4 x cos xdx
4

u sin x
sin 4 x (1 sin 2 x) 2 cos xdx
u 4 (1 u 2 ) 2 du
du cos xdx
1 2 u9

(u 4 2u 6 u 8 )du u 5 u 7
5 7 9
C

1 2 1
sin 5 x sin 7 x sin 9 x C
5 7 9

Case3. If m and n both are even, then we use identities


1 cos 2 x 1 cos 2 x
sin 2 x and cos2 x
2 2
to reduce the powers on sin x and cos x .


Example: Evaluate sin 2 x cos2 xdx
Solution:
1 cos 2 x 1 cos 2 x
sin x cos2 xdx dx
2
2 2
1 cos 2 2 x 1
= 4
dx
4
sin 2 2 xdx
2
For the sin 2 x we again use identity
1 cos 4 x
sin 2 2 x and get
2
1 1 1 cos 4 x 1
4 sin 2 2 xdx
4 2
dx
8
(1 cos 4 x)dx

208
1 sin 4 x
x C
8 4
Example: Evaluate cos3 xdx
Solution:
cos
xdx cos2 x cos xdx (1 sin 2 x) cos xdx
3

u sin x u 3
sin 3 x

du cos xdx
(1 u 2 )du u
3
C sin x
3
C

Example: Evaluate sin 4 xdx


Solution:
2
1 cos 2 x

sin 4 xdx (sin 2 x) 2 dx
2
dx

1 1 1 cos 4 x

4 (1 2 cos 2 x cos2 2 x)dx


4 (1 2 cos 2 x
2
)dx

1 sin 2 x x sin 4 x 3x sin 2 x sin 4 x


x 2 C C
4 2 2 8 8 4 32

Integrals of the form sin mx sin nxdx ; sin mx cos nxdx ;

cos mx cos nxdx can be found using the product to sum formulas
1
sin mx sin nx [cos(m n) x cos(m n) x]
2
1
sin mx cos nx [sin(m n) x sin(m n) x]
2
1
cos mx cos nx [cos(m n) x cos(m n) x]
2

Example: Evaluate sin 5 x cos 6 xdx
Solution:
1 1
Since sin 5 x cos 6 x [sin( x) sin(11x)] [sin 11x sin x]
2 2

209
We can write
1 1 cos11x cos x
sin 5x cos 6 xdx 2 (sin 11x sin x)dx 2 11

2
C.

Example: Evaluate cos 2 x cos 8 xdx


Solution:
1
cos 2x cos8xdx 2 [cos6 x cos10x]dx
1 sin 6 x 1 sin 10x 1 sin 6 x sin 10x
C C.
2 6 2 10 4 3 5


Example: Evaluate sin 7 x sin 3xdx
Solution:
1
sin 7 x sin 3xdx 2 (cos 4x cos10x)dx
1 1
sin 4 x sin 10x C.
8 20

Exercises

In exercises 1-20 evaluate the integrals.



1. sin x cos4 x dx
2. sin 3 x cos3 x dx

cos5 x

3. sin 2 5 x dx 4.
sin 2 x
dx

5. sin 2
x cos4 x dx
6. sin x cos3 x dx
x
7. cos 4
dx
8. sin 2 2t cos3 2t dt
4
sin x

9. cos4 x sin 3 x dx 10. cos 8
x
dx
/3 /2
x x
sin 4 3x cos3 3x dx sin cos 2 dx
2
11. 12.
0 0
2 2


13. sin x sin 3x dx
14. sin 3x cos 2 x dx

210
/6


15. cos 4 x cos 2 x dx 16. sin 2 x cos 4 x dx
0
2


17. cos5 x sin x dx
18. sin 2 2 x cos3 2 x dx
0
4
sin x sin 3 x
19. cos6 x
dx 20. cos 4 x
dx

Answers

cos5 x cos4 x cos6 x x sin 10 x


1. C ;2. C ;3. C ;
5 4 6 2 20
1 sin 3 x 1 1 1
4. 2 sin x C ;5. x sin 4 x sin 3 2 x C ;
sin x 3 16 64 48
1 3 x 1 1
6. cos4 x C ;7. x sin sin x C ;8. sin 3 2t
4 8 2 8 6
1 1 1 1
sin 5 2t C ; 9. cos5 x cos7 x C ; 10. C ; 11. 0;
10 5 7 7 cos7 x
sin 2 x sin 4 x cos 5 x cos x
12. ; 13. C ;14. C ;
16 4 8 10 2
1 1 1 1
15. sin 6 x sin 2 x C ; 16. ;17. cos6 x C ; 18. 0;
12 4 24 6
5
tan x 1 1
19. C ; 20. 3
C.
5 3 cos x cos x

211
8.4.2. Trigonometric substitutions

We will evaluate integrals of the form a2 x2 , x 2 a 2 and


x 2 a 2 by making substitutions involving trigonometric functions.
One of the trigonometric identities 1 sin 2 cos2 ,
tan2 1 sec 2 , or sec 2 1 tan2 will be used to convert a
sum or difference of squares into a perfect square.

Case1: a 2 x 2 ; let x a sin (a 0 , - )
2 2

Case2: x 2 a 2 ; let x a tan (a 0 , - )
2 2

Case3: x 2 a 2 ; let x a sec (a 0 , 0 , )
2
For example, if we replace x in a 2 x 2 by x a sin , we obtain
a 2 x 2 a 2 a 2 sin 2 a 2 (1 sin 2 ) a cos
Example: Compute 1 x 2 dx
Solution:
To eliminate the radical we make the substitution
x tan (Fig.8.1) dx sec 2 d
1 x 2 1 tan2 sec .
Thus 1 x2

1 x 2 dx sec sec 2 d x=tan

From the integral table,


1
sec tan 1 Fig.8.1
sec d ln sec tan C .
3
2 2
To complete the solution we must express sec and tan in terms
of x. Since x tan we obtain sec 1 tan2 1 x 2 .
Thus

212
x 1 x2 1
1 x 2 dx ln 1 x 2 x C .
2 2
dx
Example: Compute x 2
4 x2
Solution:
dx
Let x 2 sin 2 cos or dx 2 cos d .
d
This yields
dx 2 cos d 2 cos d
x 2
4x 2
(2 sin )
4 4 sin 2 2
(2 sin )2
(2 cos )

1 d 1 1

4 sin 2 4
csc 2 d cot C
4
x 4 x2
From x 2 sin we obtain sin and cot , ( Draw
2 x
triangle) so that
dx 1 1 4 x2
x 2
4 x2
cot C
4 4 x
C

x 2 25
Example: Evaluate x
dx
Solution:
To eliminate the radical, we make
substitution x 5 sec , x
x 2 25
dx
5 sec tan
d
or dx 5 sec tan d . 5
Thus Fig.8.2
x 2 25 25 sec 2 25
x
dx
5 sec
5sec tan d

5 tan

5 sec
5 sec tan d 5 tan2 d 5 (sec 2 1)d
5 tan 5 C

213
To express the solution in terms of x, from triangle (Fig.8.2) we
x 2 25
obtain tan , so that
5
x 2 25 x
x
dx x 2 25 5 sec 1 C
5
dx
Example: Evaluate x a2 x2
Solution:
Let x a tan t , dx a sec 2 tdt . Then
dx a sec 2 t dt 1 sec 2 t
x a2 x2

a tant a 2 a 2 tan2 t a tan t sec t
dt
1 sec t 1 dt 1

a tan t
dt
a sin t a
ln csc t cot t C

x a a2 x2
Since tan t we get cot t and csc t 1 cot 2 t .
a x x
dx 1 a2 x2 a
Hence x a2 x2

a
ln
x
C

Exercises

In exercises 1-10 find the integrals using trigonometric


substitutions
dx
1. 9 x 2
2. x 3 1 x 2 dx
3. a 2 x 2 dx (a 0) 4. a 2 x 2 dx

dx x2 9
5. 25x 2 16
6. x
dx

dx
x e 1 e 2 x dx
x
7. 8.
2
9 4x 2

214
4 2
dx
9.
0
x 3 16 x 2 dx 10. x 2
x2 1
2

Answers

x2 9 x
1. ln C ;2. 1 (1 x 2 ) 5 / 2 1 (1 x 2 ) 3 / 2 C ;
3 5 3

1 x 1 1
3. a 2 sin 1 x a 2 x 2 C ;4. x a 2 x 2 a 2
2 a 2 2
1
ln( a 2 x 2 x) C ;5. ln 5 x 25x 2 16 C ;6. x 2 9
5
x 9 4x 2 1 1
3 sec 1 C ;7. C ;8. sin 1 (e x ) e x 1 e 2 x C ;
3 9x 2 2
9.
2048
15
; 10.
1
2

3 2 .
8.5. Integrals involving ax 2 bx c, a 0

Assume that the polynomial ax 2 bx c is irreducible; that is , it


cannot be factored into two first degree polynomials. This is the case

when the discriminant b 2 4ac is negative. Integrals that involve a
quadratic expression can be evaluated by first completing the square,
then making an appropriate substitutions.
dx
If integral is in the form px qx r
2

then completing the square reduces to one of the following integrals


du 1 u
(1) u a
2 2
tan1 C
a a
or

du 1 ua
(2)
u a
2 2
ln
2a u a
C

215
mx n
If integral is in the form px qx r
2
dx

then completing the square converts given integral to (1), (2) or


u du 1
(3) u a
2 2
ln u 2 a 2 C
2
dx
If integral is in the form px 2 qx r
then completing the square converts given integral to one of
du u
(4) a2 u2
sin 1 C
a
or

du
(5) u a
2
ln u u 2 a C

If integral is in the form px 2 qx r dx


then completing the square converts given integral to one of
u a
(6) u 2 a du
2
u 2 a ln u u 2 a C
2
u a2 u
(7) a 2 u 2 du
2
a2 u2
2
sin 1 C .
a
dx
Example: Evaluate x 2 4 x 13
Solution:
In x 2 4 x 13 , b 2 4ac 4 2 4 1 13 36 0 .
Therefore x 2 4 x 13 is irreducible. Completing the square yields
x 2 4 x 13 x 2 4 x 2 2 13 2 2 ( x 2) 2 9 .
Thus
dx dx
x 4 x 13
2
( x 2) 2 9
.

3u x 2
Let and
3du dx

216
dx 3du 1 du 1
( x 2) 2
9
9u 2

9 3 u 1 3
2
tan1 u C

Hence
dx 1 x 2
x 4 x 13 3
2
tan1
3
C

x2
Example: Evaluate
x 2x 5
2
dx

Solution:
mx n
It is the integral of the form
px qx r
2 dx .

x2 x2 ( x 1) 1
x 2x 5
2
dx
( x 2 x 1) 4
2
dx
( x 1) 2 4
dx
u x 1 u 1 u du

du dx

u 2
2 2
du
u 2
2 2
du
u 22
2

1 1 u 1 1 x 1
ln(u 2 2 2 ) tan1 C ln(x 2 2 x 5) tan1 ( )C
2 2 2 2 2 2
dx
Example: Evaluate
5 4x x 2
Solution:
Completing the square and using (4) yields
dx dx

5 4x x 2 ( x 2 4 x 4 4 5)
dx ux2 du
9 ( x 2) 2

du dx
32 u 2

u x2
sin 1
C sin 1 C
3 3
dx
Example: Evaluate
6 4x 2x 2

217
Solution:
dx dx 1 dx
2

6 4x 2x 2 2( x 2 2 x 3) ((x 1) 2 4)
1 dx u x 1 1 du

2 4 ( x 1) 2

du dx

2 22 u 2

1 u 1 x 1
sin 1 C sin 1 C
2 2 2 2
dx
Example: Evaluate 3x 2 6 x 9
Solution:
dx dx 1 dx
3x 6 x 9
2
3( x 2 x 3)
2

3 ( x 1) 2 2

u x 1 1 du

du dx

3 u2 2
Using (5) we obtain

1 du 1
3
ln u u 2 2 C
u 2
2 3
1
ln x 1 x 2 2 x 3 C .
3
Example: Evaluate x 2 8 x 25 dx
Solution:
x 2 8 x 25 dx ( x 2 8 x 16) 16 25 dx
u x4
( x 4) 2 9 dx u 2 9 du using (6) yields
du dx
x4 9
u 2 9 du
2
( x 4) 2 9 ln x 4 ( x 4) 2 9 C
2
x4 2 9
x 8 x 25 ln x 4 x 2 8 x 25 C .
2 2

218
Example: Evaluate 8 2 x x 2 dx
Solution:
Completing the square converts given integral to the integral of
the form (7):

8 2 x x 2 dx = ( x 2 2 x 8) dx

- ( x 2 2 x 1 1 8) dx 9 ( x 1) 2 dx
u x 1 u 9 u

du dx

3 2 u 2 du
2
9 u 2 sin 1 C
2 3
x 1 9 x 1
8 2 x x 2 sin 1 C.
2 2 3

Exercises

In exercises 1-20 evaluate the integrals.


dx dx
1. x 36
2
2.
2 x 17
2
dx dx
3. 3x 10
2
4.
4 x 10x 24
2
dx dx
5. 4 x 5x 2
2
6.
x x 1
2
x 1 dx
7. x x 1
2
dx 8.
3x 6 x 12
2

dx dx
9. 2 3x 2 x 2
10. x 2 2x

x 4x 13 dx 5 4 x x 2 dx
2
11. 12.
dx dx
13. 14.
x 4 x 13
2
8 2x x 2
dx
15. x 6 x 10
2
16. 3 2 x x 2 dx

219
2x 5 dx
17. x 2
2x 5
dx 18. x 2
2x 3
2x 3x 5
19. x 2x 3
2
dx 20. 3x 2 2 x 1
dx

Answers

1 x 1 2 1 3 x 10
1. tan1 C ;2. tan1 x C ;3. ln C ;
6 6 34 17 2 30 3 x 10
1 2x 3 2 8x 5 1 2x 1 5
4. ln C ;5. tan1 C ; 6. ln C ;
22 2 x 8 7 7 5 2x 1 5
1 1 2x 1 5 1
7. ln x 2 x 1 ln C ;8. ln x 1
2 2 5 2x 1 5 3
1 4x 3
x 2 2 x 4 C ;9. sin 1 C ;10. ln x 1 x 2 2 x
2 5
x2 2 9
C ; 11. x 4 x 13 ln x 2 x 2 4 x 13 C ;
2 2
x2 9 x2 1 x 2
12. 5 4 x x 2 sin 1 C ; 13. tan1 C;
2 2 3 3 3
x 1
14. sin 1 C ; 15. ln x 6 x 10 x 3 C ;
2

3
x 1 1
( x 1) 3 2 x x 2 C ;17. ln x 2 x 5
1
16. 2 sin 2

2 2

3 x 1
tan1 C ; 18.
1
tan1
x 1

C ; 19. ln x 2 2 x 3
2 2 2 2
2 tan1
x 1 1

C ; 20. ln 3x 2 2 x 1 2 2 tan1
2
3x 1
C.
2 2

220
8.6.1. Integration of rational functions by partial fractions

A( x)
A rational function in which the degree of A(x) is less
B ( x)
than the degree of B(x) is called proper rational function. Otherwise
the function is called improper rational function. An improper rational
function can be expressed as the sum of a polynomial and a proper
rational function.
First we will concentrate on the representation of a proper
rational functions, and then improper rational functions.
To represent a proper rational function as a sum of rational functions
we use following steps:
1. Write B(x) as a product of first-degree polynomials and irreducible
second degree polynomials.
2. If (ax b) appears exactly n times in the factorization of B(x) , form
A1 A2 An
(1) ............
ax b (ax b) 2
(ax b) n
where A1 , A2 ,........., An are constants to be determined.
3. If (ax 2 bx c) appears exactly m times in the factorization of
B(x) , then form the sum
A1 x B1 A2 x B2 Am x Bm
(2) .....
(ax bx c) (ax bx c)
2 2 2
(ax 2 bx c) m
where A1 , A2 ,........., Am , B1 , B2 ,......., Bm are constants to be
determined.
' '
4.Find all constants Ai s , Bi s mentioned in steps 2 and 3 so that the
A( x)
sum of all expressions formed in steps 2 and 3 equals .
B ( x)
A( x) x 2 3x 1
Example: Carry out steps 2 and 3 for
B( x) ( x 1) 3 ( x 2 2 x 3) 2

221
Solution:
A( x)
Degree of numerator is 2, degree of denominator is 7. Thus is a
B ( x)
proper fraction. x 2 2 x 3 is irreducible, since
b 2 4ac 4 12 8 0 . Therefore, we have
x 2 3x 1

( x 1) 3 ( x 2 2 x 3) 2
A1 A2 A3 A x A5 A x A7
24 26 .
( x 1) (x 1) 2
(x 1) 3
( x 2 x 3) ( x 2 x 3) 2
Remark: In example above the number of unknown constants is 7-
equals the degree of B(x) . Always number of unknowns equals degree
of polynomial in the denominator and this fact can be used as a check
on your algebra.
2x 1
Example: Express 2 in a partial fractions.
x 3x 2
Solution:
The denominator x 2 3x 2 is reducible, since
b 2 4ac 9 8 1 0 . Its factorization is
x 2 3x 2 ( x 1)(x 2) .
Thus
2x 1 2x 1 A A
1 2
x 3x 2 ( x 1)(x 2) x 1 x 2
2

To find the constants A1 and A2 , we multiply both sides of last


equation by ( x 1)(x 2) , obtaining
(3) 2 x 1 A1 ( x 2) A2 ( x 1)
(3) is actually an identity that holds for all values of x. In particular it
holds for x 1 and x 2 .
Therefore:
if x 1 then 2 1 1 A1 (1 2) A2 (1 1)
if x 2 then 2 2 1 A1 (2 2) A2 (2 1)
These equations reduce to

222
A1 0 A2 1

A1 0 A2 3
from which we obtain that A1 1 , A2 3 . Then
2x 1 1 3

x 3x 2 x 1 x 2
2

Example above can be solved by a completely different method, called


comparison of coefficients. It is based on the fact that if two
polynomials are equal, then their corresponding coefficients are equal.
2 x 1 A1 ( x 2) A2 ( x 1)
Let us multiply out and collect terms of like degree on the right side:
2 x 1 A1 x 2 A1 A2 x A2 ( A1 A2 ) x (2 A1 A2 )
and the equating the coefficients of the like powers of x on both sides to
obtain
A1 A2 2

2 A1 A2 1
The solution of this system of linear equations is A1 1 , A2 3 ,
which agrees with the results obtained above.
Example:
3x 2 4 x 1
Find the partial-fraction representation of
( x 2)(x 1)(x 3)
Solution:
There are constants A, B, C such that
3x 2 4 x 1 A B C
(4)
( x 2)(x 1)(x 3) x 2 x 1 x 3
To find A , multiply both sides of (4) by ( x 2) , obtaining
3x 2 4 x 1 B C
(5) A ( x 2)
( x 1)( x 3) x 1 x 3
Now replace x by 2, obtaining
3 4 4 2 1 5
A 0 . Hence A
(2 1)(2 3) 3
To obtain B , multiply both sides of (4) by ( x 1) , obtaining

223
3x 2 4 x 1 A C
(6) B ( x 1)
( x 2)( x 3) x 2 x 3
replacing x by (-1) in (6) gives
3 1 4 (1) 1 2
B 0. Hence B
(1 2)(1 3) 3
To obtain C , multiply (4) by ( x 3) , obtaining
3x 2 4 x 1 A B
(7) C ( x 3)
( x 2)( x 1) x 2 x 1
replacing x by 3 in (7) gives
39 43 1 16
C 0 . Hence C 4 .
(3 2)(3 1) 4
Therefore
3x 2 4 x 1 5 2
3 3 4 .
( x 2)(x 1)(x 3) x 2 x 1 x 3
x2 x 2
Example: Evaluate ( x 2 1)(x 1)
dx

Solution:
By the (1), factor ( x 1) introduces one term
A
and
x 1
the quadratic factor ( x 2 1) introduces
Bx C
.
x2 1
Thus the partial fraction representation of integrand is
x2 x 2 A Bx C
2
( x 1)( x 1) x 1 x 1
2

Multiplying by ( x 1)(x 2 1) yields


x 2 x 2 A( x 2 1) ( Bx C )(x 1)
To determine A , B , and C we multiply out and collect like terms:
x 2 x 2 ( A B) x 2 ( B C ) x ( A C )

224
Equating corresponding coefficients gives
A B 1

B C 1 and we find that A 2 , B 1 , C 0 .
A C 2

Thus integrand becomes
x2 x 2 2 x
2 (Verify)
( x 1)( x 1) x 1 x 1
2

and
x2 x 2 dx xdx 1
( x 1)(x 1)
2
dx 2 x 1
x 1
2
2 ln x 1 ln(x 2 1) C
2
3x 2
Example: Evaluate x 3 2x 2
dx

Solution:
3x 2 3x 2
The integrand can be rewritten as 3 2
x 2x 2
x ( x 2)
Although x 2 is a quadratic factor, it is not irreducible.
By the (1), x 2 introduces two terms of the form
A B

x x2
and factor ( x 2) introduces one term
C
,
x2
so partial representation is
3x 2 A B C
2
x ( x 2) x x
2
x2
multiplying by x 2 ( x 2) yields
3x 2 Ax( x 2) B( x 2) Cx 2
which after multiplying out and collecting like powers of x, becomes
3 x 2 ( A C ) x 2 ( 2 A B) x 2 B
Equating corresponding coefficients gives

225
A C 0

2 A B 3
2 B 2

which is true if B 1 , A 1 , C 1 and
3x 2 1 1 1
2 .
x ( x 2) x x
2
x2
Thus
3x 2 dx dx dx
x 2x
3 2
dx x
x 2

x2

1 x 1
ln x ln x 2 C ln C
x x2 x
x2
Example: Evaluate ( x 2)( x 1) 2 dx
Solution:
The factor ( x 2) introduces one term
A
x2
The factor ( x 1) 2 introduces two factors
B C

x 1 ( x 1) 2
So the partial fraction representation is
x2 A B C

( x 2)( x 1) 2
x 2 x 1 ( x 1) 2
Multiplying by ( x 2)(x 1) 2 yields
x 2 A( x 1) 2 B( x 2)(x 1) C ( x 2)
if x 1 , then 3C 1 and C 1 / 3
if x 2 , then 9 A 4 and A 4 / 9
if x 0 , then 0 A(0 1) 2 B(0 2)(0 1) C (0 2)
Substituting values of A and C into last equation we get B 5 / 9 .
Thus

226
x2 4/9 5/9 1/ 3
and
( x 2)( x 1) 2
x 2 x 1 ( x 1) 2
x2 4 dx 5 dx 1 dx
( x 2)( x 1) 2 dx 9 x 2 9 x 1 3 ( x 1) 2
4 5 1 1
ln x 2 ln x 1 C
9 9 3 ( x 1)
1 1
ln ( x 2) 4 ( x 1) 5 C.
9 3( x 1)

8.6.2. Integrating improper rational functions

A( x)
If is improper, (degree of numerator greater than degree
B ( x)
A( x)
of denominator) first we use long division to divide and obtain
B ( x)
A( x) R( x)
Q( x)
B ( x) B( x)
R ( x)
where Q(x) is a polynomial and is a proper (may even be zero).
B ( x)
3x 3 2 x 2 x 3
Example: Evaluate x2 1
dx

Solution:
Since integrand is improper rational function, we first carry out
the long division.

_ 3x 2 x x 3 x2-1
3 2
Thus
3x 3 2 x 2 x 2 4x 1 3x 3 3x 3x+2
3x 2 2 2x2
+4x-3
x 1
2
x 1 _
2x2-2
and 4x-1

227
3x 3 2 x 2 x 3 4x 1
x 1
2
dx (3x 2)dx
x2 1
dx
Second integral can be evaluated by a partial-fraction representation:
4x 1 5 dx 3 dx

x 1
2
dx
2 x 1 2 x 1
In the end we obtain
3x 3 2 x 2 x 3 x2 5
x 1
2
dx 3
2
2 x ln x 1
2
5
3 3 1 x 1
ln x 1 C x 2 2 x ln C.
2 2 2 x 13

Exercises

In exercises 1-4 indicate the form of the partial-fraction


representation of the proper rational functions. (Do not find the
numerical values of the coefficients).
2x 1 2 3x 4
1. 2. 3 2
( x 1)( x 3) x ( x 2)
2x 2 1 2x 1
3. 4.
( x 1) (2 x 2)(3x 3)
2
( x 1)(x 2 x 1) 2
In exercises 5-11 express the rational function in terms of
partial fractions.
x4 5x 2 x 1
5. 6. 2
x( x 2) x ( x 1)
2x 2 3 5x 2 9 x 6
7. 8.
x( x 1)( x 2) ( x 1)(x 2 2 x 2)
2x 3x 3 2 x 2 3x 1
9. 10.
x 1
2
x( x 2 1)
x 3 2 x 2 3x 1
11.
x( x 1)

228
In exercises 12-28 perform the integrations.
x2 2 2 xdx
12. x 3 x 2 2 x dx 13. x 2
3x 4
11x 17 dx
14. 2x 2
7x 4
dx 15. ( x 1)(x 2)(x 3)
x2 2 3x 2 10
16. x2
dx 17. x 2 4x 4
dx

x 5 2x 2 1 x 2 x 16
18. x3 x
dx 19. ( x 1)( x 3) 2
dx

x2 2x 2 1
20. ( x 2) 2 dx 21. (4 x 1)(x 2 1)
dx

x 3 3x 2 2 x 3 cos
22. x2 1
dx 23. sin 2
4 sin 5
d
1
dx x 2 2x 1
24. 1 ex
25.
0
( x 2 1) 2
dx

2 2
x 3 dx dx
26. 0
x2 1
27. x 2
(1 x 2 ) 2
x 2 dx
28. ( x 2) 2 ( x 1)

Answers

A B A B C Dx E A B
1. ; 2. 2 3 2 ;3.
x 1 x 3 x x x x 2 x 1 ( x 1) 2
C D A Bx C Dx E
; 4. 2 2 ;
( x 1) 3
( x 1) 4
x 1 x x 1 ( x x 1) 2
2 3 2 1 3 3 5 11
5. ; 6. 2 ; 7. ;
x x2 x x x 1 2 x x 1 2( x 2)

229
2 3x 2 1 1 1 x
8. 2 ; 9. ; 10. 3 2 ;
x 1 x 2x 2 x 1 x 1 x x 1
1 5 ( x 1)( x 2)
11. x 1 ; 12. ln C;
x x 1 x
5
13. ln 5 ( x 1) 2 ( x 4) 8 C ; 14. ln 2 x 1 3 ln x 4 C ;
2
1 1 1 1
15. ln x 1 ln x 2 ln x 3 C ; 16. x 2 2 x
6 15 10 2
2 1
6 ln x 2 C ; 17. 3x 12 ln x 2 C ; 18. x 3 x
x2 3
( x 1)(x 1) 2
( x 3) 2
1
ln C ; 19. ln C ;20. ln x 2
x x 1 x3
4 2 7 6
C ;21. ln 4 x 1 ln(x 2 1)
x 2 ( x 2) 2
34 17
3 1 1
tan1 x C ; 22. x 2 3x ln(x 2 1) C ;
17 2 2
1 sin 1 ex 2
23. ln C ; 24. ln C ; 25. ; 26. 4 ln 3 ;
6 sin 5 1 e x
4
1 1 x 3 4
27. tan1 x C ; 28. ln x 1 C.
x 2 1 x 2
2 x2

8.7. Special techniques of integration

There are some integrals that do not fit into any of categories
previously studied.

Example: Find sec x dx
Solution:
sec x tan x
sec x dx sec x sec x tan x dx
sec 2 x sec x tan x u sec x tan x
dx
sec x tan x du (sec 2 x sec x tan x)dx

230
du
ln u C ln sec x tan x C .
u

Integrals containing rational functions of sin x and cos x , such


sin x cos2 x cos x
as , etc. can be evaluated by
sin x 5 cos x 1 sin x cos2 x
x
substitution u tan .
2
x
u tan x x 2 tan1 u
2
2u 1 u2 2
sin x cos x dx du .
1 u 2
1 u 2
1 u2
dx
Example: Evaluate 1 sin x
Solution:
x 2 2u
Let u tan . Then dx du and sin x
2 1 u 2
1 u2
Hence
dx 1 2 2
1 sin x

2u 1 u 2
du
1 2u u 2
du
1
1 u2
2 2 2
(1 u ) 2
du
1 u
C
x
C .
1 tan
2
dx
Example: Evaluate sin x tan x
Solution:
x 2u
u tan , sin x ,
2 1 u2
2u 2
tan x , dx du
1 u 2
1 u2

231
Then
dx 1 2
sin x tan x 2u

2u 1 u 2
du

1 u2 1 u2
(1 u 2 )(1 u 2 ) 2 1 1
= 4u

1 u 2
du u du
2 u
1 u2 1 x 1 x
= ln u C ln tan tan2 C
2 2 2 2 2 2
x 3 x2 6 x
Example: Evaluate x(1 3 x )
dx

Solution:
2 1 1
The integrand involves x 3 , x 6 and x 3 . The least common
multiple of denominator is 6, so we make substitution x u 6 .
Then
dx 6u 5 du , 3
x u2 , 6
x u, 3
x2 u4
We obtain
x 3 x2 6 x u6 u4 u
x(1 3 x )
dx u (1 u )
6 2
6u 5 du

u5 u3 1 du
6
1 u 2
du 6 u 3 du 6
1 u2

3 3
u 4 6 tan1 u C 3 x 2 6 tan1 6 x C
2 2
dx
Example: Evaluate
2 x
Solution:
1
The integrand contains x x 2 , so we make substitution
x u 2 and dx 2udu . This yields
dx 2udu 1
2 x

2 2u
(1
1 u ) du u ln 1 u C

232
x ln 1 x C

1 3 x
Example: Evaluate 3
x2
dx

Solution:
First of all let us rewrite the given integral as
1

1 x 3
1 2

2

3 2
dx 1 x

3

x 3 dx
x
1
and then introduce (1 x 3 ) t 2 . It yields
1 2 2
1 3
x3 t 1,
2
x dx 2tdt , x 3 dx 6tdt
3
After substituting we obtain
3

1 x3
t
1 2 3


2

dx t 6t dt 6 t dt 6 C 2 1 x 3 C .
3
x2 3

2x 1
Example: Evaluate 3
2 x ( 2 x) 2
dx

Solution:
2x 3
Let t . Solving for x yields
2 x
2 2t 3 2 2t 3 4t 3
x , 2 x 2 ;
1 t3 1 t3 1 t3
1 (1 t 3 ) 2 12t 2
and dx dt
(2 x) 2 16t 6 (1 t 3 ) 2
Thus
2x 1 (1 t 3 ) 2 (12t 2 )
3
2 x ( 2 x) 2
dx t
16t 6

(1 t 3 ) 2
dt

2 x
2
3 dt 3 3

4 t 3
2 C 3
8t 8
C .
2 x
233
Exercises

In exercises 1-17 evaluate the integrals.



dx dx
1. 1 sin x cos x
2.

1 cos x
/2
cos x dx
3.
2 cos x
dx 4. 4 sin x 3 cos x
8
x4

5. x x 5 dx 6.
4
x
dx

4
1
7. 3
0 x
dx
8. x 5 x 3 1 dx

dx dv
9. x x 3
10. v(1 v 1/ 4
)
dt
11. 1 1
12. sin x dx
t2 t3
dx x 3 dx
13. ex 1
14. 1 x2
dx x 3 x2 6 x
15. 3
x 2 (1 3 x 2 )
16.
x1 3 x dx

Answers
x 4 x
1. ln tan 1 C ; 2. 1;3. tan1 3 tan x C ;
2 3 2
x 1
tan
1
4. ln 2 3 C ;5. 2 ( x 5) 5 10 ( x 5) 3 C ; 6. 4 ;
5 x 5 3
tan 3
2
5 2 3 5 2 3 1 1
7. 4 6 ln ;8. ( x 1) 2 ( x 3 1) 2 C ; 9. 2 x 2 3x 3
3 15 9

234
1
1 1 v 4 1 1
6x 6 6 ln(x 6 1) C ; 10. 4 ln 1
C ;11. 2t 2 3t 3
1 v 4

1 1
6t 6 6 ln t 6 1 C ; 12. 2 x cos x 2 sin x C ;

ex 1 1 1 3 1
13. ln C ; 14. (1 x 2 ) 2 (1 x 2 ) 2 C ;
ex 1 1 3
3
15. 3 tan1 3 x C ; 16. 3 x 2 6 tan1 6 x C .
2

235
Chapter 9
Improper integrals

9.1. Definition of improper integrals


b
In the definition of f ( x)dx it is assumed that
a
1) the interval [a, b] is finite
2) integrand f (x) is defined and continuous on [a, b]
If at least one of two conditions above fails then integral
b

f ( x)dx is called improper integral.


a
Let us consider two cases
Case 1: If f is continuous on the interval [a, ) , then we define

improper integral f ( x)dx as
a
b
(1)
a
f ( x)dx lim
b f ( x)dx
a
If this limit exists, the improper integral is said to converge, and the
value of the limit is the value assigned to the integral. If the limit does
not exist, then the improper integral is said to diverge.

dx
Example: Evaluate x
1
3

Solution:
Replacing the infinite upper limit with a finite upper limit b
yields
b b
dx dx 1 1 1 1
1
x 3
lim
b x
1
3
lim 2 lim 2
b 2 x
1
b 2b 2 2
so the given integral converges to 1/2.

236
If f is continuous on the interval (, b] , then we define improper
b
integral f ( x)dx as

b b
(2)

f ( x)dx lim
a f ( x)dx
a
Again, the improper integral is said to converge if limit in (2) exists.
b
Otherwise f ( x)dx diverges.

1

e
x
Example: Evaluate dx
-
Solution:
Replacing the infinite lower limit with a finite lower limit a
yields
1 1 1


-
e x dx lim
a
a
e x dx lim e x
a - a
lim [e1 e a ] e
a

If f is continuous on the interval (,) , then we define improper



integral f ( x)dx as

b
(3) f ( x)dx lim f ( x)dx

a
b a

If this limit exists, the improper integral is said to converge, if the limit
does not exist, then the improper integral is said to diverge.

dx
Example: Evaluate 1 x
-
2

Solution:
Replacing infinite limits with a finite limits yields

237


b
dx dx

b
lim lim tan1 x
1 x 2 a 1 x 2 a a 2 2
- b a b

dx
So 1 x
-
2
converges to .


Remark: We may define

f ( x)dx as
c b



f ( x)dx lim
a a
f ( x)dx lim
b f ( x)dx
c
Case 2:
If f is continuous on [a, b) but fails to have limit as x appro-
b
aches b from the left, then we define improper integral f ( x)dx as
a
b l
(4) f ( x)dx lim f ( x)dx
a
l b
a
2
dx
Example: Evaluate
0 2x
Solution:
The integral is improper because the integrand approaches as x
approaches 2 from the left.
From (4)
2 l l
dx dx

0 2x
lim
l 2
0 2x
lim-[2 2 x ]
l 2 0

lim [2 2 l 2 2 0 ] 2 2
l 2
If f is continuous on (a, b] but fails to have limit as x appro-
b
aches a from the right, then we define improper integral f ( x)dx as
a

238
b b
(5)
a
l a
f ( x)dx lim f ( x)dx
l
3
dx
Example: Evaluate 2x
2
Solution:
The integral is improper because the integrand approaches
as x 2 . From (5) we obtain
3 3
dx dx

3
lim lim ln 2 x
2
2x l 2
l
2x l 2 l

lim ln 1 ln 2 l lim ln 2 l
l 2 l 2
3
dx
so 2x
2
diverges.

xe
x2
Example: Evaluate dx
0
Solution:
b b
1 2

xe x dx lim
xe x dx lim e x
2 2

b b 2 0
0 0

1 1 2 1
lim e b
b 2 2 2

dx
Example: Evaluate x
a
p

Solution:
b
dx
b
dx x p 1

a
x p
lim
b x p
a
lim
b p 1


a
1 1
lim b p 1 a1 p
1 p b 1 p

239

dx 1
if p 1, then lim b p 1 0 , and
b x a
p
converges to
1 p
a 1 p


dx
if p 1, then lim b p 1 , and
b x
a
p
diverges.


dx
Example: Evaluate e
1
x

Solution:


a
dx dx 1

a
lim lim e x lim e a e 1 ,
e x a e x a 1 a e
1 1
so

dx 1
e
1
x
converges to
e
.

Warning: It is sometimes tempting to apply


b

f ( x)dx F ( x)
b
F (b) F (a)
a
a
directly to an improper integral without taking the appropriate limits.
To illustrate what can go wrong let us suppose that we ignore the fact
3
dx
that integral (x 2)
1
2
is improper and write

3 3
dx 1 1 4

1
(x 2) 2

x21
1
3 3
3
dx
Since ( x 1) is always positive and (x 2)
2
2
can not be negative. To
1
evaluate the given integral correctly we should write
3 2 3
dx dx dx

1
(x 2) 2

1

(x 2) 2
(x 2)
2
2
.

240
Then
2 a a
dx dx 1

1
( x 2) 2
lim
a 2
1

( x 2) 2
lim
a 2 x 2
1

1 1
lim ,
a 2 a 2 2
3
dx
so (x 2)
1
2
diverges.

9.2. Tests for convergence and divergence

Theorem1: Let f (x) and g (x) be integrable functions over [a, b] and
0 g ( x) f ( x) for all x a , then

a)
a
g ( x) dx converges if
a
f ( x) dx converges

b) f ( x) dx diverges if g ( x) dx diverges.
a a
Example:

dx
Determine whether the integral 1 x
1
10
diverges or converges.


dx
Solution: 1 x
1
10
converges


1 1 dx
because
1 x 10
10 for all x from [1,) and
x x
1
10
converges

Theorem2: Let f (x) and g (x) be positive and integrable functions


over [a, b] and that
f ( x)
lim L , 0 L
x g ( x)

241

Then
a
f ( x) dx and g ( x) dx both converge or both diverge.
a
Example:

dx
Determine whether the integral 1 e
1
x
converges or diverges.

Solution:
1 1
With f ( x) , g ( x) x we have
1 e x
e
f ( x) ex
lim lim 1 and 1 (0,) .
x g ( x) x 1 e x

dx dx
Therefore
1
1 exconverges, because e
1
x
converges.

Example:

dx
Determine whether the improper integral
1 1 x4
is

convergent or divergent.
Solution:
Let us solve the problem by both of two tests:
1 1 1
1)
1 x4 1 1
1
x 4 4 1 x
2

x x4
1 1
and
1 x2
x2 1
x4

dx dx
Since
1
x2
converges, so does
1 1 x4
.

1 1
2) Let f ( x) and g ( x)
1 x4 x4

242
f ( x) x4
lim lim 1 . Limit has a positive finite value and we
x g ( x ) x 1 x 4

make conclusion that :



dx dx dx
1 1 x4
converges, because
1 x4
x
1
2
converges.

Exercises

In exercises 1-10 evaluate the integrals.



dx
1.
0
e x dx 2.
1
x 3


1 xdx
3. x ln
e
3
x
dx 4. (x
a
2
1) 2
0 1
dx dx
5. (2 x 1)
-
3
6. x
-1
2


1 1
x sin e
2x
7. 2
dx 8. dx
2
x 0

x
e ex
9.
0x
dx
0 1 e
x
dx 10.
In exercises 11-25 determine whether the improper integrals
diverge or converge.

dx dx
11.
1
x 1
4
12.
1
x 5/ 2
1

dx
( x 2) x
0.999
13. 3
14. dx
0 1

ln x xdx
15. 1
x
dx 16. x
0
4
1

243
1
dx 2
17.
0
3
x
18. x
2
2
1
dx


6
cos x dx
19. 0 1 2 sin x
dx 20. x
0
2

3
dx dx
21. x2
0
22. 0 x8 1

x 1 x2
23. 1 cos dx
1
2
24.
1
x3
dx

e
2 x
25. sin 3xdx
0

Answers

1 1 1 1
1. 1; 2. ; 3. ; 4. ;5. ; 6. ; 7. 1; 8. ; 9. 2; 10. 2;
2 2 2(a 1)
2
4
11. converges; 12. converges; 13. converges; 14. diverges;15. diverges;
16. converges; 17. converges; 18. converges; 19. converges;
20. diverges;21. diverges; 22. converges; 23. diverges; 24. diverges;
25. converges.

244