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Outline 1:

Thesis: While looking at natural sciences and human sciences we can see that group verification
is essential in the creation of knowledge.

Knowledge Questions:
1. To what extent is group verification crucial in knowledge production?
2. How reliable is group verification in the production of knowledge?
3. To what extent is group verification trustworthy?
4. To what extent is information presented by others reliable?

Claims:
1. In the natural sciences, group verification is crucial in the creation of knowledge as
scientific theories require peer review.
The early stages of the scientific method require imaginative and intuitive
processes, for example a hunch about a hypothesis. Until the theory has been
peer reviewed and verified by others it cannot be treated as a proper theory.
2. In the human sciences, a group is needed to make knowledge possible as studies have to
be shared and repeated to enhance the significance and precision of the knowledge
created.
When many researchers are performing the same study with same variables, when
they share their findings and consult one another they can create a significant and
accurate conclusion.
Areas of Knowledge:
1. Natural Sciences
2. Human Sciences

Personal Examples:
1. In my biology and chemistry class we often get the opportunity to work on labs which we
could approach individually or as a group. I prefer working independently and chose to
work on my lab alone. After creating my hypothesis for my lab, I became a little worried
my predictions may have not been very accurate. So, I asked some of my classmates for
help and received their input and corrections. This group interaction and verification
allowed me to expand my personal knowledge and create knowledge that was accurate.
Without this group interaction and shared knowledge experience, I would have not been
able to create reliable knowledge. This personal example showed me that in my everyday
life without a group consultation it is extremely difficult to create knowledge.
2. Recently, in biology class we were asked to perform a lab with potatoes involving
osmolarity. We performed this lab in groups, to get accurate results it was not enough to
only use the data from our own group. So, all the groups were asked to input their data in
a shared folder. In this case sharing our knowledge with others and helping them confirm
their data helped us create knowledge that was more precise and accurate.

Real Life Examples:


1. The Doppler Effect is the change in frequency or wavelength of a wave for an observer
moving relative to its source. It is a theory that is often used in physics.
This theory was first proposed by Austrian physicist Christian Doppler in 1842.
His hypothesis was then tested by a series of other physicist including Buys
Ballot, Hippolyte Fizeau and John Scott Russell.
This scientific theory was created by Doppler, although his personal knowledge,
imagination and intuition is what created this theory. It became a valid theory
only after a series of other physicist reviewed and approved his theory.
This RLS proves that although intuition and imagination are required in the
beginning process of the creation knowledge, only after the verification of a group
these theories presented become proper knowledge.
2. In psychology, it is crucial for studies to be repeated and findings to be shared, to
determine a precise outcome for the study. The Milgram experiment was a study to
which tested the behaviour of obedience to authority.
The experiment was first carried out by Stanley Milgram in 1963. He discovered
that when receiving instructions from a person of higher authority there is higher
obedience.
To verify his results this study was replicated many times with different sample
groups. These replicated studies also had the same results as the original study.
These replicated studies are why today we know that humans are more obedient
to authority. This group verification was necessary because without it the results
of the Milgram study would have just been assumptions rather then proved
knowledge.

Counterclaims:
1. In the natural sciences, group verification is not crucial in the creation of knowledge as
not all scientific theories require peer review. For example, when looking at evolution we
see many theories both biological and religious. It is very hard to peer review religious
theories because it is difficult to prove and thus group verification cannot be of help here.
2. In the human sciences, a group is not needed to make knowledge possible as it is not
possible to share and replicate all studies. For example, every psychological study will
have an anomaly, and the data found in the first study may have mixed results in the
replicated studies, this does not necessarily mean that knowledge was not created it could
just be inaccurate data.

Outline 2:

Thesis: While looking at the arts and history we can see that group verification is not necessary
in the creation of knowledge.

Knowledge Questions:
1. How do we know that unverified knowledge is still knowledge?
2. How reliable is shared knowledge than personal knowledge?
3. To what extent does the intuition of others overpower our own intuition?
4. To what extent is verified knowledge reliable?

Claims:
1. In the arts, group verification is not needed in the creation of knowledge as the opinions
of others do not authenticate art forms and only the opinion of the artist is of concern.
In the art world, although there are many opinions from critics and the fashion
world about the art piece only the message conveyed by the artist himself/herself
are of interest. Art has many interpretations and messages which means it can not
be verified by a group. It is a personal connection between the art work and the
artist.
2. In history, group verification is not needed in the creation of knowledge because with a
group to verify, knowledge is often held back from discoveries.
To generate new knowledge, it is essential that you have some innovation which
requires you to restrain yourself from shared knowledge. When a group is present
to verify knowledge, they often hold back your knowledge and do not allow you
to use your innovation.

Areas of Knowledge:
1. The Arts
2. History

Personal Examples:
1. When I was in grade 8, in art class we had to individually make a paining that would be
displayed in class. I was not a very great artist but I really enjoyed abstract paintings.
So, I chose to create an abstract paining with 3 distinct colours. The painting consisted of
black and white splatters with one red splatter. When creating this painting, I wanted
show that the red splatter was a unique individual in a room full of ordinary people.
After, finishing the painting I showed some my friends. Most of them did not understand
my message and only saw the splatters of paint. In this situation although group
verification was present it did not aid in the creation of knowledge as knowledge was
generated through my personal experiences and through my imagination. Here, a group
to verify was not needed.
2. Personally, I believe in god but I wouldnt say that I am an extremely religious person.
But I do have some beliefs and I know these to be true. This knowledge is created
through personal connection and feeling and because of my faith. Here group
verification would not prove useful because a group can not change my mind about the
beliefs I have in my religion. This type of knowledge is created through personal
connection and faith, thus making group verification unnecessary.

Real Life Examples:


1. Beethovens ninth symphony is universally acclaimed and one of the most frequently
played pieces in the world.
When Beethoven composed this piece, he was profoundly deaf.
Since, he was deaf this shows that he relied less on group verification as he was
more dependent on his memory to guide him in this piece
This example shows that knowledge is possible even though group verification
did not play a crucial role in the creation of this piece.
2. Alan Mathison Turing was an English computer scientist, mathematician, logician,
cryptanalyst and theoretical biologist. He created a machine during World War II that
cracked the enigma code.
Turing was placed along highly skilled men to crack the Nazi code.
When he shared his idea about the machine he did not get the support of the other
men as well the equipment and money needed. The other men (group) verified
his idea as unrealistic.
But Turing was able to create the machine and crack the code when the other men
were not close to finding a solution.
This example shows that group verification only hinders the knowledge
discoveries and it is not an essential part of knowledge creation.

Counterclaims:
1. In the arts, group verification is needed in the creation of knowledge as the opinions of
others do authenticate art forms and the opinion of the artist is not the only opinion of
concern. Critics are highly valued in the art world and everyone has the ability to do art
which does not mean that everyone is necessarily creating knowledge. That is why critics
are necessary to verify the artwork and prove that it is creating knowledge.
2. In history, group verification is needed in the creation of knowledge because with a group
to verify, knowledge is often discovered. In history, knowledge is often enhanced due to
group verification because you are stepping beyond your borders and getting input from
others which helps enhance your own personal knowledge. Thus, when a group is
present to verify your work and findings it often leads to greater success and innovation.

Outline 3:

Thesis: While looking at religion and the arts we can see that group verification creates biased
knowledge.

Knowledge Questions:
1. To what extent does society affect our perspective?
2. How do we know that shared knowledge is not biased?
3. To what extent is verified knowledge a reflection of the true beliefs of the group verifying
the knowledge?
4. How do we know that verified knowledge is not the biased assumptions of a group?

Claims:
1. In religion, due to shared knowledge and group verification it leads to a biased
assumption of certain groups of people.
In many cases, due to group verification in a set of close minded people, it often
leads to biased and false assumptions of a certain group.
2. In the arts, due to the opinions of certain people in groups an artist does not get the
recognition he deserves for his artwork due to the biased opinions of a few individuals.
Art is an AOK that is highly dependent on intuition and imagination. In art, only
the artist has the ability to completely portray his opinions and when others such
as critics intervene it results in a bias opinion of the artwork.

Areas of Knowledge:
1. Religion
2. The Arts

Personal Examples:
1. When I visit my cousins that do not live in Canada over the summer they always ask me
if I love maple syrup. Personally, I am not a huge fan of maple syrup because it is too
sweet but when I say this my cousins, they do not believe me. They say that I am
Canadian and therefore I must love maple syrup. These types of biased assumptions are a
cause of group verification as it creates a biased opinion of Canadians and restrains us
from new discoveries.
2. A difficulty me and many people in the world face today is racism. Being a person of
colour I often face situations that discriminate against me which I find in my day to day
life and in the media. This type of discrimination is a product of group verification. As a
group of believed certain characteristics are associated with certain ethnicities they
created a bias as this knowledge was only based on their perspective. This example
shows that often with group verification we find our selves with biased knowledge.
Real Life Examples:
1. A fourteen-year-old teenager by the name of Ahmed Mohamed was suspended from
school and arrested because he had brought a homemade clock from school which
resembled a bomb.
Due to shared knowledge from a close-minded group of people, it has become a
stereotype that Muslims may be threats to our safety and islamophobia has
become a major issue.
This example shows that our knowledge may be biased or faulty due to group
verification, as when one person assumes that a Muslim person may be a danger,
it is shared among a larger group, which leads to situations like this where an
innocent boy is convicted of such a dangerous crime.
2. Andrew Wyeth (1917-2009) is an artist well known for his highly-detailed depictions of
rural life.
Andrew Wyeth received love and admiration from the general public but was not
very much liked by critics.
In this case, the work of Mr. Wyeth was loved by the public but because of the
bias opinions of certain art critics he was not able the to get recognition he
deserved. Here because of group verification and the bias opinions involved in
the group this knowledge was not able to be widely known by others.

Counterclaims:
1. In religion, due to shared knowledge and group verification biased assumptions of certain
groups of people does not always occur. Group verification is not the only way that the
bias exists in religion. There are many more factors to this such as personal beliefs and
history. So, the verification done by a group cannot be the sole cause of bias as other
greater factors affect this.
2. In the arts, the opinions of certain people in groups does not effect the recognition the
artist deserves for his artwork. If an artist is truly talented and has the ability to create
knowledge, he should be able to display his artwork to others and get positive feedback.
Critics determine if the artist has created knowledge and there is no bias in the opinions
of the critics just honesty.