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Guidelines

for
Transportation Engineering
Survey

Transport Research Laboratory


2017
Edited by :

Yodya Yola Pertiwi, S.T., M.Sc.

Silvanus Nohan R, S.T., M.T.

Robby Yudo Purnomo, S.T.

Acknowledge by :

Ir. Tri Tjahjono, M.Sc., Ph.D.

Ir. Ellen Sophie Tangkudung, M.S.

Ir. Alan Marino, M.Sc.

Ir. Heddy R. Agah, M.Eng

Ir. Alvinsyah, M.Sc.


Module 1

Spot Speed (Manual Method)

Objective

Determine the spot speed of particular road segment and develop a cumulative speed distribution
curve

Equipment

1. Measuring Tape
2. Stopwatch
3. Survey Form
4. Stationary

Data Requirement

1. Travel time (s)

Procedures

Determine the location of the survey and measure and measure the length of the road that will
be used as survey road segment

Table 1 Recommended Trap Length

Average Speed of Traffic (km/h) Recommended Trap Length (meter)


<40 25
40-65 50
>65 75

Mark the start and end point of the road segment


Stay in such a good position so that can see the upcoming vehicles clearly
Start and stop the stopwatch as the vehicles enters and departs the starting and ending points
of the marked section
Write down the data collection in the worksheet

Data Processing

Convert all the data into appropriate required data (s into km/h)

Where:
= spot speed (km/h)
= the trap length (meter)
= the travel time of each vehicle which is pass the trap length (second)
Make a frequency distribution table to determine speed percentiles
Speed (mph) Frequency of Cumulative Cumulative Speed
Vehicles Frequency Percent Percentile

15 1 1 1%

18 2 3 3%

21 6 9 9%

24 12 21 21%

27 13 34 34%
50th
30 20 54 54%

33 18 72 72%
85th
36 14 86 86%

39 6 92 92%

42 6 98 98%

45 1 99 99%

48 1 100 100%

Determine the 50th and 85th percentile speed from the cumulative percent column

Where:
= Speed
= Percentile desired
in = Higher cumulative percent
ax = Lower cumulative percent
ax = Higher speed
in = Lower speed
Future Readings

CTRE. 2009. Traffic Studies Module 2: Spot Speed. Iowa State University. Institute for
Transportation
Link : http://www.ctre.iastate.edu/pubs/traffichandbook/2SpotSpeed.pdf (last accessed
L 24 Augsut 2015)
MassSAFE 2005. Spot Speed Study Workshop Instruction Manual. University of
Massachusetts, Amberst.
Link : http://bit.ly/massSAFEspotspeed (last accessed : 24 August 2015)
Roess, R. 2011. Traffic Engineering 4th Edition. New York. United States
Khisty, J; Mohammadi, J. 2012. Systems Engineering with Economics, Probability, and
Statistics 2nd Edition. Fort Lauderdale. J.Ross Publishing
WORKSHEET 1

SPOT SPEED STUDY

Date :
Locations :
Duration :

Spot Speed (km/h) Spot Speed (km/h)


No No
MC LV HV MC LV HV
1 26
2 27
3 28
4 29
5 30
6 31
7 32
8 33
9 34
10 35
11 36
12 37
13 38
14 39
15 40
16 41
17 42
18 43
19 44
20 45
21 46
22 47
23 48
24 49
25 50
Module 2

Spot Speed (Automatic Method)

Objective

Determine the spot speed of particular point of road segment and develop a cumulative speed
distribution curve

Equipment

1. Speed Gun
2. Survey Form
3. Stationary
Data Requirement

1. Vehicles Speed (km/h)

Procedures

Determine the location of the survey and determine the spot to shoot the vehicles
Stay in such a good position so that can see the upcoming vehicles clearly
Press the speed gun as the vehicles pass by to determine the speed of the vehicles
Write down the data collection in the worksheet

Data Processing

Make a frequency distribution table to determine speed percentiles

Speed (mph) Frequency of Cumulative Cumulative Speed


Vehicles Frequency Percent Percentile

15 1 1 1%

18 2 3 3%

21 6 9 9%

24 12 21 21%

27 13 34 34%
50th
30 20 54 54%

33 18 72 72%
85th
36 14 86 86%

39 6 92 92%

42 6 98 98%

45 1 99 99%

48 1 100 100%

Determine the 50th and 85th percentile speed from the cumulative percent column

Where:
= Speed
= Percentile desired
in = Higher cumulative percent
ax = Lower cumulative percent
ax = Higher speed
in = Lower speed
Future Readings

CTRE. 2009. Traffic Studies Module 2: Spot Speed. Iowa State University. Institute for
Transportation
Link : http://www.ctre.iastate.edu/pubs/traffichandbook/2SpotSpeed.pdf (last accessed
: 24 Augsut 2015)
MassSAFE 2005. Spot Speed Study Workshop Instruction Manual. University of
Massachusetts, Amberst.
Link : http://bit.ly/massSAFEspotspeed (last accessed : 24 August 2015)
Roess, R. 2011. Traffic Engineering 4th Edition. New York. United States
Khisty, J; Mohammadi, J. 2012. Systems Engineering with Economics, Probability, and
Statistics 2nd Edition. Fort Lauderdale. J.Ross Publishing
WORKSHEET 1

SPOT SPEED STUDY

Date :
Locations :
Duration :

Spot Speed (km/h) Spot Speed (km/h)


No No
MC LV HV MC LV HV
1 26
2 27
3 28
4 29
5 30
6 31
7 32
8 33
9 34
10 35
11 36
12 37
13 38
14 39
15 40
16 41
17 42
18 43
19 44
20 45
21 46
22 47
23 48
24 49
25 50
Module 3

Traffic Counting (Highway Capacity Manual)

Objective

Determine the capacity and the performance (Level of Service) of particular road segment based on
Highway Capacity Manual 2010

Equipment

1. Counter
2. Survey Form
3. Stopwatch
4. Stationary
5. Measuring Tape
Data Requirement

1. Volume of vehicles (pch)


2. Lane width (ft)
3. Left-side lateral clearance (ft)
4. Peak Hour Factor (PHF) : 0.85 0.98
5. Road classification (number of lane and direction)
Procedures

Determine the location of the survey and determine the spot to count the upcoming vehicles
Stay in such a good position so that can see the upcoming vehicles clearly
Count or record every passing vehicle based on vehicles classification (motorcycle, passenger
car, heavy vehicles)
Do the counting process until the specified duration (15 or 30 minutes)

Data Processing

Compute Free Flow Speed (FFS)

Where,
FFS = FFS of basic freeway segment (mi/h)
fLW = adjustment for lane width (mi/h)
fLC = adjustment for left-side lateral clearance (mi/h)
TRD = total ramp density
Select FFS curve based on the FFS calculation before (exhibit 11-3)
Adjust demand volume by consider adjustment factor for heavy vehicles

Where,
vp = demand flow rate under equivalent base conditions (pc/h/ln)
V = demand volume under prevailing conditions (ve/h)
PHF = peak hour factor
N = number of lanes in analysis direction
fHV = adjustment factor for presence of heavy vehicles in traffic stream
fp = adjustment factor for unfamiliar driver population

Where,
fHV = heacy-vehicle adjustment factor
Pt = proportion of trucks and buses in traffic stream
PR = proportion of RV in traffic stream
Et = passenger-car equivalent (PCE) of one truck or bus in traffic stream
Er = PCE of one RV in traffic stream
Estimate speed and density

D = Density (pc/mi/ln)
vp = demand flow rate (pc/h/ln)
S = mean speed of traffic stream under based conditions (mi/h)
Determine LoS

Future Readings

CTRE. 2009. Traffic Studies Module 3: Traffic Volume Count. Iowa State University. Institute
for Transportation
Link : www.ctre.iastate.edu/pubs/traffichandbook/3trafficcounts.pdf (last accessed: 24 August
2015)
Leduc, Guillaume. 2008. Road Traffic Data: Collection Methods and Applications. European
Commission. Joint Research Centre Institute for Prospective Technological Studies
Link: ftp.jrc.es/EURdoc/JRC47967.TN.pdf (last accessed: 24 August 2015)
Transportation Research Board. 2010. Highway Capacity Manual Volume 2 : Uninterrupted
Flow. TRB. Washington DC
WORKSHEET 2
TRAFFIC COUNTING
Time :
Date/Month/Year :
Weather :
From :
To :
Location :
Surveyor :

Passenger Public
15 Small Bus (Elf,
Time Car, Jeep, Transportation, Big Buses Truck (2 as) Truck (3 as) Motorcycle Unmotorized
mins Colt, L-300)
Pick up Minibus

1st

2nd

3rd

4th

5th

6th

Total
Module 4

Traffic Counting (Manual Kapasitas Jalan Indonesia)

Objective

Determine the capacity and the performance (Level of Service) of particular road segment based on
Manual Kapasitas Jalan Indonesia (MKJI) 1997

Equipment

1. Counter
2. Survey Form
3. Stopwatch
4. Stationary
5. Measuring Tape
Data Requirement

1. Volume of vehicles (pch)


2. Road wide (m)
Procedures

Determine the location of the survey and determine the spot to count the upcoming vehicles
Stay in such a good position so that can see the upcoming vehicles clearly
Count or record every passing vehicle based on vehicles classification (motorcycle, passenger
car, heavy vehicles)
Do the counting process until the specified duration (15 or 30 minutes)

Data Processing

Classify vehicles into 3 group (Light Vehicles, Heavy Vehicles, and Motorcycle)
Count the number of vehicle based on the result of the survey
Count the traffic flow (Q) and the capacity (C)
Q = QLV + (QHV x pceHV) + (QMC x pceMC)
C = Co x FCW x FCSP x FCSF x FCCS
Where,
C = Capacity (pcph)
Co = base capacity (pcph)
FCW = Adjustment factor for wide road
FCSP = Adjustment factor for separation direction (only for undivided roads)
FCSF = Adjustment factor for side barriers and roadside
FCCS = Adjustment factor for city size
Determine degree of saturation (DS)
DS = Q/C
Determine the Level of Service (LoS0 of the road
Compare the result with LoS from previous survey

Future Readings

CTRE. 2009. Traffic Studies Module 3: Traffic Volume Count. Iowa State University. Institute
for Transportation
Link : www.ctre.iastate.edu/pubs/traffichandbook/3trafficcounts.pdf (last accessed: 24 August
2015)
Leduc, Guillaume. 2008. Road Traffic Data: Collection Methods and Applications. European
Commission. Joint Research Centre Institute for Prospective Technological Studies
Link: ftp.jrc.es/EURdoc/JRC47967.TN.pdf (last accessed: 24 August 2015)
SWEROAD and PT Bina Marga. 1997. Manual Kapasitas Jalan Indonesia. Jakarta. Direktorat
Jenderal Bina Marga
WORKSHEET 2
TRAFFIC COUNTING
Time :
Date/Month/Year :
Weather :
From :
To :
Location :
Surveyor :

Passenger Public
15 Small Bus (Elf,
Time Car, Jeep, Transportation, Big Buses Truck (2 as) Truck (3 as) Motorcycle Unmotorized
mins Colt, L-300)
Pick up Minibus

1st

2nd

3rd

4th

5th

6th

Total
Module 5

Travel Time

Objective

To evaluate the traffic movement quality along a route and to determine the location type, and length
of traffic

Equipment

1. Test Vehicles
2. Stopwatch
3. Survey Form
4. Stationery

Data Requirement

1. Travel Time (minutes)


2. Distance (m)
3. Stop and/or Delay Time (m)
4. Traffic Volume
a. Opposing traffic
b. Overtaking traffic
c. Passed traffic

Procedures

Marked the start and end point of the road that observed
Activate the stopwatch to record the travel time
Write and record for every check point in accordance with operational criteria
Record the duration of the stop using stopwatch, the location, time, and the reason of obstacles
See and count the vehicles that pass (P), oppose (M), and Overtake (O)
Switch off the stopwatch and write down the total travel time from starting point to end point

Data Processing

Calculate the speed of the vehicles for every travel time


S = 60.D / T
Where,
S = Travel Speed (km/h)
D = Length of the study (km)
T = Travel Time (hr)
Calculate the average of travel time and space mean speed
S = 60.N.D / T
Where,
S = Average Travel Speed (km/h)
D = Length of the study (km)
T = Total Travel Time (hr)
N = Number of the test
Calculate the traffic volume
60 (O+M-P)
V=
T1+T2
Where,
V = Traffic Volume (Veh/Km/h)
M = Opposing vehcles
O = Overtaking vehicles
P = Passed vehicles
T1, T2 = Travel Time (minus delayed time)

Future Readings

Roess, R. 2011. Traffic Engineering 4th Edition. New York. United States

Travel Time Data Collection Handbook FHWA-PL-98-035


(https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/ohim/tvtw/natmec/00020.pdf)
WORKSHEET 3
MOVING OBSERVER FORM
City : Route :
Date/Month/Year : Surveyor :
Time Started at : Time Ended on :

Route Total Vehicles


No
From To Overtaking Opposing Passing
Module 6

Parking Study

Objective

To evaluate the characteristics of an existing parking area to determine the demand and supply of the
parking area

Equipment

1. Stopwatch
2. Survey Form
3. Stationary

Data Requirement

1. Number of vehicles (in/out)


2. Number of parking slot
3. Duration of parking (hr)
Procedures

Determine the location of the survey (middle size parking area)


Count and record the entering and departing vehicles in the parking area

Data Processing

Calculate parking volume


Volume = Nin + X
Where,
Nin = Number of entering vehicles
X = Number of existing/stayed vehicles
Calculate parking accumulation
Ai = Ai-1 + Ii Oi
Where,
Ai = Accumulation in ith period (veh)
Ai-1 = Accumulation in i-1th period (veh)
Ii = Entering vehicles in ith period (veh)
Oi = Departing vehicle in ith period (veh)
Calculate the average of parking duration
(Nx).(X).(I)
D=
(Nt)
Where,
D = Average of parking duration (hr/veh)
Nx = Number of vehicles that park during the survey period (veh)
X = Number of period/interval
I = Duration survey (hr)
Nt = Number of total vehicles during survey period
Category Information
1 Short Term Duration (<30 minutes)
2 Middle Term Duration (2-4 hours)
3 Long Term Duration (12-16 Hours)
4 More than one night

Determine parking index


Parking Accumulation
Parking Index = Parking Capacity
Where,
PI < 1, parking facility has no problems, where parking demand do not exceed parking
supply/capacity
PI = 1, parking demand meet the equilibrium with parking supply/capacity
PI > 1, parking facility has problems, where parking demand exceed parking supply/capacity
Calculate parking turnover
Nt
TR =
S.Ts

Where,
TR = Parking Turnover (veh/slot/hr)
Nt = Number of total vehicles during survey period (veh)
S = Number of parking slot
Ts = Duration of analysis/survey (hr)
Category Example
Low Turnover All-day parking
Medium Turnover Parking duration between 2-12 hours
(apartment and hotel)
High Turnover Short term parking duration (Department
Store)

Determine Activity Parking Index

Turnover Rate
API = Average Parking Duration x Parking Index

Determine Static Parking Capacity


Determine Dynamic Parking Capacity
Survey Period
DPC = Static Parking Capacity x
Parking Duration

Determine Parking Level of Service (LOS) by calculate Volume to Capacity Ratio (V/C Ratio)
Parking Volume
V/C Ratio = Dynamic Capacity

Future Readings

Iitb.vlab.co.in. 2011. Parking Analysis. NME ICT Initiative of MHRD (Licensing Terms)
Link : iitb.vlab.co.in/?sub=42&brch=132&sim=466&cnt=1 (last accessed: 24 August 2015)
Abubakar, I. 1998. Pedoman Perencanaan dan pengoperasian Fasilitas Parkir. Jakarta.
Direktorat Bina Sistem Lalu Lintas dan Angkutan Kota Direktorat Jenderal Perhubungan
Oppenlander, J; Box. P. 1976. Manual of Traffic Engineering Studies 4 th Edition. Washington
DC. Institute of Transportation Engneering Washington DC
WORKSHEET 4
PARKING STUDY
Date :
Day :
Starting Time :
Location :

Time In Out Accumulation Occupancy Parking Load