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Vibration Monitoring System

Carlos Llanos
BTG Americas
Table of Content

Vibration Basics

Tissue Process & Blade Vibration

Making the most out of your vibration

monitoring system

Troubleshooting Examples
Blade vibration = friction vibration + structure vibration
Vibration is a mechanical phenomenon
whereby oscillations occur about an
equilibrium point

Vibration is quantified by the number of

occurrences of a repeating event or cycles
per unit time called Frequency

For counts per unit of time, the SI unit for

frequency is the hertz (Hz). 1 Hz means that
an event repeats once per second
Simple Harmonic Motion
A traditional unit of measure used with rotating mechanical devices
is revolutions per minute, abbreviated RPM
60 RPM equals one hertz.
y 1 revolution
Unbalance due to +
heavy weight

0 T

Displacement measurement
Rotation from 0 position over x axis

3600 RPM = 3600 cycles per minute = 60 Hz (60 cycles per second)
Vibration amplitude measurement
RMS Root Mean Square
Square root of the average of the squared values of the waveform
Average level of vibration
Arithmetical average calculation never used in vibration analysis


These two
are equal
Vibration amplitude measurement
Maximum excursion of the wave from the zero or equilibrium point

Vibration amplitude measurement
Peak Average

Peak to
Vibration signal analysis
Temporal analysis
Show evolution of vibration amplitude over the time
Allow detection of process event on vibration level


FFT Fast Fourier Transformation

It migrates from the Temporal to Frequency Domain
It separates the individual frequencies
It shows the vibration amplitudes for each frequency
Sources of vibration on tissue machine

Pumps Motor Fans Rolls Doctors

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Sources of vibration on tissue machine

Numerous elements can vibrate on tissue

Pump, motor, fan, etc..
Vibration transfered to machine structure

Most hazardous vibrations generated at

Friction with cylinder surface
Also undergoing structure vibration
Friction definition
Friction is the force resisting the relative motion
of elements sliding against each other
Deformation and wear
Friction welding

Pin jump = Adhesion points of pin

vibration (friction)
Vibration composition

Each element has its own vibration signature

Forced vibration

Vibration measurement at blade is a

Harmonic Vibrations
For blade, harmonics corresponds to the various
vibration/bending shape the blade can take alternatively
Harmonic Vibrations
Changing stick-out filtrate

Energy is max at 1st Harmonic

Decreasing for all other harmonics
Why Install Vibration Monitoring?

If you have a good alarm

response procedure, VM
is your first line of

Escalating response: Continuous Improvement:

Change blade Use Vibration Monitoring to
Adjust coating troubleshoot the blade
Clean felt holder and fine tune the
Stop, inspect, polish Yankee coating
What is Vibration Monitoring?

Vibration Monitoring..
a key tool to drive yankee dryer safety and machine productivity

Protect the Yankee from damage
Prevent chatter
Identify mechanical and operational impact on Yankee
Stabilise the production process.
Increase machine efficiency
Concerns about Vibration:
No magic solutions
Vibration sources are numerous and complex, usually a combination
Solutions requires time, involvement & investment from machine crew

What cant be measured cant be solved

Evaluating the situation requires a suitable vibration measurement
Improvement can only be followed with a monitoring solution
Level of vibration to trigger counter actions and procedures

Process induced chatter

Vibration is created at the blade tip due to degraded process conditions
Lower vibration comes from a process aligned with best practices
Vigilance System Principle
Detection of vibration through sensors mounted on blade
Acquisition and analysis of vibration data.
Display and comparison of vibration information to
highlight process conditions that could result in yankee
Installation Blade Holders
Software capabilities..
Vibration signal analysis
Sensor signal sampled every 50ms
To measure Peak value
To calculate RMS value

Software capabilities..
FFT analysis of the vibration signal
Signal broken down to the FFT format to allow..
Specific frequency bands to set and be monitored.
Measure RMS and Peak values.
Set warning and Danger levels
Monitor vibration over time trend analysis.
Software capabilities..
FFT analysis of the vibration signal
Machine vibration footprint or signature
Helps define critical vibration range
Enable to discriminate vibration source
Software capabilities..
Vibration indicators set-up
6-10 kHz 10-12 kHz 15-20 kHz

Software capabilities
Level of vibration for selected frequencies
Vibration monitoring by operator
Follows a specific critical frequency range
Configurable alarm & danger levels
Reaching alarm level triggers operator actions
What tools do I need?
In order to properly monitor vibration and the risk of
chatter, what tools do I need?
Vibration Monitoring System
Strobe Light
Basic understanding of the bandwidths
0 700Hz (Yankee headers, SPR, etc.)
2 8kHz (Yankee surface issues)
8 14kHz (Coating under the sheet)
16 20kHz (High frequency imbalances)
Document and spend time to understand relationship
between process changes and vibration levels
Utilize experience to develop a decision tree
Decision Tree Example
Indicator Yellow alarm Red alarm Long term actions

Inspect Blade holder condition during maintenance shutdown

Inspect Yankee edges with strobe
Use edge cleaning chemical
Change creping blade and keep high
Edge build-up
Load new cleaning blade release dosage
Use ceramic blades in creping and cleaning positions

Increase coating release

Audit of felt conditioning

Soften and increase coating water temperature to 55C

Change creping blade and keep high
release dosage Use a less reactive adhesive chemical

Load new cleaning blade

Check retention value Increase adhesive add-on at 1.5mg/m minimum
Coating hardness
Increase release add-on
Check cationic demand variations Use ceramic blades in creping and cleaning positions

Check refining Audit of the wet end chemistry by BTG experts

Load new cleaning blade

High frequencies Change creping blade and keep high
12-16kHz release dosage
Increase release add-on

Check sensor health

Inspect steam system parameters Reduce Yankee DeltaP

Yankee headers Audit of steam and condensate system during machine run with PROdry
Load new cleaning blade Change creping blade

Increase release add-on

Using Vigilance as a
Troubleshooting Tool
Example 1
Coating condition..

The coating layer is uneven and

there are some whitish bands
present across the yankee face.

Steam supply pressure is

unstable - the coating appeared
to be very sensitive to the
pressure variations resulting in
higher creping & cleaning blade
vibration as the coating layer is
either removed (high moisture)
or becomes hard (low moisture).
BTG 2014
Coating condition continued..

Light chatter marks

were seen in front side
edge contamination
this needs to be
controlled & removed
by correct use of edge
sprays on the Yankee.
Coating Adjusted & Cleaning
blade used

Coating Adjustment

Coating adjusted to give a slightly softer coating layer.

Correct base to release ratio and total add on implemented.
Cleaning blade used as required to refresh the coating and reduce vibration.
The softer and even coating is critical to eliminate excessive vibration.
Edge Spray Implementation

Hard coating on edges Note reduction in vibration from

adjustment of Yankee edge sprays
Using Vigilance as a
Troubleshooting Tool
Example 2
Yankee surface
Different Friction =
Different frequencies of vibration
Using Vigilance as a
Troubleshooting Tool
Example 3
Grade change
Felt cleaning
Using Vigilance as a
Troubleshooting Tool
Examples of History Trends
Vibration History Trends
Assess Blade Wear
via Vibration! New CR Blade

See Directly the Loaded CL Blade

Impact of Blade

Assess Coating

Crepe Blade
Loosing the Battle
Cleaner Helping to
Level the Surface
Vibration History Trends

Very high peak

Vibration History Trend
(Expanded View)

Creping Blade Change

Vibration History Trend

Situation where MAP flow concentration was incorrect and resulted

in making the coating too hard and vibration increased
Using Vigilance as a
Troubleshooting Tool

Benefits of the OPC Software

Comparative Analysis from Run to Run

Elevation of vibration levels over

subsequent runs requires
Comparative Analysis from Blade to Blade

Moves in the coating package

can be observed in the blade
Comparative Analysis Pre-grind to Post-grind

Vibration data used to help

re-centerline operating
conditions after a grind
Post Mortem Analysis from a Major Event

What happened?

Shut down to fix #5

condensate header
Practical Observations

Vibration monitoring is a valuable tool for looking into the

creping process
Proper set up of the accelerometer is critical to long term
Someone needs to own the system so there are no long term
delays in data collection when there is a failure
Using data to monitor process changes and/or predict blade
changes is possible but requires training and operational support
Understanding the shape of the wave form can provide
additional insight into the creping dynamics
Blade change frequency and wave forms can be grade specific
Vibration monitoring provides a means to learn where the blade
vibration needs to run for the grades being produced
Thank you for your attention
Any questions?
Case Study

Machine has had serious issues with chatter since the machine was
started up. About every 8 12 months the Yankee had to be ground to
remove chatter marks.

Just over 3 years after start-up, so much of the cast iron material was
removed the Yankee had to be metallized to avoid a de-rate situation.

The mill decided a vibration monitoring may be helpful to mitigate future

vibration excursions that could lead to chatter. A Vigilance system was
installed on the machine and activated prior to start-up. During start-up a
very large increase in vibration level was noticed. The operators became
very concerned and started looking for potential root causes.

What areas of the process would you look at and why?

Case Study
Over time this machine started to experience
increased levels of vibration. Nothing too
alarming but peak indicated started to become
more excited (not as stable as before). The most
relevant change was the increase in low
frequency vibration below 4kHz.

What things would you check in the process?

What recommendations would you make to
mitigate this problem?
FFT Vibration Signature
Case Study
Period A
Some trouble on machine
with unusual vibration, Period B
not too high but peak On week after, it was
indicator start to be decided to make a Yankee
excited (not stable as surface screen cloth and
before), and level of to recondition the Yankee
vibration slightly surface (MAP + coating)
increased. No drama, but and to clean also coating
enough changes to be spray bar and pipes. At
noticeable. Most relevant restart, effect was visible
change was the increase on vibration signature
of low frequency level
(below 4kHz).
Period A
High frequency peaks
High low frequency
corresponding to
vibration due to overusage
vibration into coating
of yankee drying, leading to
under the sheet
headers Bump

Period B
Low frequency vibration

Period A simplified line Lower level on

high frequencies
Lower level on medium
Summary of Results
Screen cloth definitively remove the thick hard layer of coating
we got on period A.
This thick layer probably required to push drying a little bit more
than normal to dry correctly the upper layer of coating in
contact with paper to get the desired adhesion.

Yankee headers were certainly provoking local coating

viscosity change leading to bump vibration in low frequency.
After screen cloth, with a new thin coating, less drying was
necessary, and fresh coating brought sufficient level of
lubrication to get lower vibration level on almost all the

Only remains the peak at 15kHz whose cause has not been
clearly determined yet.