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HASSLE MAGTYPE NG FORMULA. AYT? :D directly varied by the modulating signal

ANGLE MODULATION PHASE MODULATION phase of the carrier is directly varied

by the modulating signal
Note: When frequency of a signal is varied, its phase is also
Noise reduction varied. When phase of a signal is varied, its frequency is also
Improved system fidelity varied
More efficient use of power
Requires wider bandwidth
Utilizing more complex circuit in both the DIRECT FREQUENCY MODULATION (FM) varying the
transmitters and the receivers frequency of a constant-amplitude carrier directly
proportional to the amplitude of the modulating signal at a
1931- Angle modulation was first introduced as an alternative rate equal to the frequency of the modulating signal
to AM
DIRECT PHASE MODULATION (PM) varying the phase of a
MAJOR E.H. ARMSTRONG - Developed the superheterodyne constant-amplitude carrier directly proportional to the
receiver amplitude of the modulating signal at a rate equal to the
frequency of the modulating signal
1936- first successful FM radio system
*POSITIVE modulating signal produces INCREASE in
July 1939 first regularly scheduled broadcasting of FM
signals began in Alpine, New Jersey
*NEGATIVE modulating signal produces DECREASE in
Commercial radio broadcasting
PHASE DEVIATION () relative angular displacement
Television sound transmission (shift) of the carrier phase in radians in respect to the
Two-way mobile radio reference phase
Cellular radio
Microwave and satellite communications systems FREQUENCY DEVIATION (f) relative displacement of the
carrier frequency in hertz in respect to its unmodulated wave
ANGLE MODULATION results whenever the phase angle ()
of the sinusoidal wave is varied with respect to time. UNMODULATED CARRIER FREQUENCY Carrier rests
The modulating signal can be expressed as:
v (t)=V sin( t) in the phase of the carrier at a given instant of time and
m m m
indicates how much the phase of the carrier is changing with
respect to its reference phase
= 2f = modulating signal radian frequency
m m The instantaneous phase deviation of an angle modulated
(angular velocity) V = modulating signal peak wave ((t)) can be expressed as:
amplitude (volts) (t) = F(v (t))
f = modulating signal frequency (hertz) INSTANTANEOUS PHASE precise phase of the carrier at a
given instant of Time
An angle modulated wave can be expressed as:
m(t) =V cos( t + (t)) Instantaneous phase = ct + (t) (radians)
c c
=V cos(2f t + (t)) = 2fct + (t) (radians)
c c
INSTANTANEOUS FREQUENCY DEVIATION instantaneous = frequency deviation per volt of modulating signal
(It is a measure of how much sensitive is a
change in the frequency of the carrier and is defined as the frequency modulator in deviating the frequency in
first time derivative of the instantaneous phase deviation proportion to the modulating signal voltage)

Instantaneous frequency deviation = (t) (radians per v (t) = modulating signal

second) m
MODULATION INDEX (m) peak phase deviation on radians
INSTANTANEOUS FREQUENCY precise frequency of the
For FM, m is proportional to the amplitude of the
carrier at a given instant of time; first time derivative of
modulating signal and inversely proportional to the
instantaneous phase
frequency of the modulating signal
DEVIATION SENSITIVITY output versus input transfer
m = (KV )/ (unitless)
function for the modulators which gives the relationship F m m
between what output parameter changes in respect to
specified changes in the input signal For PM, m is proportional to the amplitude of the
modulating signal
For FM, changes would occur in the output m = KV (radians)
P m
frequency in respect to changes in the amplitude of
The relationship of the modulation index for phase
the input voltage
modulation to the modulated signal can be
For PM, changed would occur in the output phase of
expressed as:
the output frequency in respect to changes in the
m(t) = Vccos[ct + mP cos (mt)]
amplitude of the input voltage

PHASE MODULATION angle modulation in which the FREQUENCY DEVIATION change in frequency that
instantaneous phase deviation is proportional to the occurs in the carrier when it is acted on by a modulating
amplitude of the modulating signal and the instantaneous signal frequency
frequency deviation is proportional to the slope or first CARRIER SWING peak-to-peak frequency shift in Hz
derivative of the modulating signal
FREQUENCY MODULATION angle modulation in which the

instantaneous frequency deviation is proportional to the % = 100

amplitude of the modulating signal and the instantaneous
phase deviation is proportional to the integral of the PHASE MODULATOR circuit in which the carrier is
modulating signal varied in such a way that its instantaneous phase is
proportional to the modulating signal
For a modulating signal v (t), the phase and frequency
modulation are: REST FREQUENCY unmodulated carrier which is a single
frequency sinusoid

Phase modulation = instantaneous phase deviation FREQUENCY MODULATOR frequency deviator circuit in
Phase modulation = (t) = K v (t) (rad) the carrier is varied in such a way that its
instantaneous phase is proportional to the integral of the
Frequency modulation = instantaneous frequency deviation
modulating signal
Frequency modulation = (t) = K v (t) (rad/sec)
1 m
1. PM MODULATOR = differentiator followed by an
Where: FM modulator
K = deviation sensitivity of phase modulator (constant in 2. PM DEMODULATOR = FM demodulator followed
radians per volt)
by an integrator
= phase deviation per volt of modulating signal (It is a
measure of how much sensitive is a phase modulator 3. FM MODULATOR = integrator followed by a PM
in deviating the phase in proportion to the modulator
modulating signal voltage) 4. FM DEMODULATOR = PM demodulator followed
K = deviation sensitivity of frequency modulator by a differentiator
(constant in radians per volt- second or hertz per
volt) The modulation index (m) determines the number of side
frequencies. khz, and the maximum frequency deviation is 5 khz.
If modulation index = 0, there are no side frequencies. Narrowband FM is usually used for communications
by police, military, and other similar services
The higher the modulation index (m), the more are the
side frequencies that have significant amplitudes.
DEVIATION RATIO (DR) worst-case modulation index and is
A side frequency is not considered significant unless it equal to the maximum PEAK FREQUENCY DEVIATION divided
has an amplitude equal to or greater than 1 % of by the maximum MODULATING SIGNAL FREQUENCY
unmodulated carrier amplitude (J >= 0.01)
*worst-case modulation index produces the widest output
The bandwidth of an angle modulated wave is a function
of the modulation index. frequency spectrum
The higher the modulation index, the higher is the ADJACENT CHANNEL INTERFERENCE interference produced
when the highest side frequencies from one channel are
The theoretical bandwidth required to pass all allowed to spill over into adjacent channels
frequencies in an angle modulated wave is infinite.
However, this is impractical and the bandwidth used in FM NOISE TRIANGLE spectral shape of the demodulated
practice are approximates of the theoretical (infinite)
The value of J eventually decreases, but not in a simple *the noise voltage at the output of a PM demodulator is
manner. It fluctuates as the value of n increases. constant with frequency
When m (modulation index) = 2.4 or 5.4 (or some
other values in Bessel table), J = 0, and there is no *the noise voltage at the output of an FM demodulator
increases linearly with frequency
component of the modulated wave whose frequency
c. * As the noise alters the amplitude of the phase modulated
This is called carrier null. wave, it also causes phase changes on the PM wave, thereby
The values of m where the carrier component creating noise at the output of a PM demodulator.
disappears is called
eigenvalues. *For FM receivers, a process called amplitude limiting, which
is limiting the amplitude of the received signal, is usually done
BESSEL FUNCTION IDENTITIES used for modulation by a to reduce noise
single frequency sinusoid
* For a given range of noise frequencies with the same
Angle modulated waves can be classified into: amplitudes, the output of a PM demodulator is the same for
Low-Index (narrowband) all the noise frequencies.
Peak phase deviation (modulation index) is
less than 1 radian. * FM is much more immune to noise than AM.

Medium-Index * FM is significantly more immune to noise than PM.

Peak phase deviation (modulation index is 1
For AM:
Peak phase deviation (modulation index) is Effects of noise with different frequencies on an AM
greater than 10 radians. wave are the same.
Only the amplitude of the noise affects the quality of the
demodulated AM
Bandwidth used for FM is dependent on its application. wave.
Wideband FM has been defined as that in which Changes in noise and modulating signal frequency do
the modulation index normally exceeds unity (1), which not affect the signal to noise ratio.
produces more significant side frequencies. Under conditions of very low signal to noise ratio, AM
is superior than PM
Wideband FM is usually used for entertainment such
and FM.
as FM radio broadcast.
The modulation index for narrowband FM is near For PM
unity, since the maximum modulating frequency is usually 3 PM has all the noise immunity properties of FM except
the noise triangle. PRE-EMPHASIS (high-pass filter)- emphasizing or boosting of
Effects of noise with different frequencies on a PM amplitude of high frequency modulating signals; done at the
wave are the same. Only the amplitude of the noise FM transmitter; This is done to improve S/N ratio
affects the quality of the demodulated PM wave.
DE-EMPHASIS (low-pass filter)- attenuating or deemphasizing
For FM: high frequency signals after demodulation; done at the FM
Under identical conditions, FM will be 4.75 db better
than PM for noise.
FM can be made more noise resistant through
break frequency- frequency where preemphasis and
higher frequency deviation, use of limiters , and
deemphasis begins
preemphasis / deemphasis.
Having a maximum frequency deviation of 75 khz and
75 s preemphasis, FM gives a noise rejection of
at least 24 db better than AM.
The prime requirements of an FM system are:
Variable output frequency which is proportional to the
(when Vc>Vn)
instantaneous amplitude of modulating signal

() Modulated signal must have constant peak

Frequency deviation must be independent of
frequency of modulating signal.
= (/)

The methods used in generating FM are:

= ()
Direct Method The frequency of oscillation is
directly varied, either through:
= ()
varying the capacitance or inductance of a tank
*the farther the noise frequency is displaced from the carrier circuit
frequency, the larger the frequency deviation
varying the voltage across a varactor diode in an
oscillator, to change the capacitance of the diode. (Varactor
diode capacitance changes as the voltage across it changes.)
Varying the reactance of a semiconductor device
= .
such as FET which is used as a load of a tank circuit.
Indirect Method FM is generated without varying
the frequency of an oscillator, such as varying the
( )
= 20 phase of a signal. This is sometimes called Armstrong
system. Advantage of this is more stable frequency.
( )

Integrated circuits designed for FM and possibly other
The following are considerations regarding FM generation:

= For Direct FM modulators:

Direct FM modulators based on LC oscillators have

the disadvantage of being not stable enough for
PRE-EMPHASIS AND DE-EMPHASIS communications or broadcast purposes.

Direct FM modulators use automatic frequency

control (AFC) to stabilize its frequency.
For Indirect FM modulators: FM signals can be demodulated by PM receivers, and
vice versa.
Indirect FM modulators using crystals have better
frequency stability than direct FM modulators. Amplitude variations caused by noise on FM or PM
waves can be removed by limiting (clipping) the peaks of the
FM modulators using crystals cannot have medium envelope prior to detection (demodulation).
or high modulation index as is. Frequency multipliers are used Signal to noise ratio could be improved in FM or PM
to achieve higher modulation indices. receivers.


Angle modulation receivers are very similar to Preselector, RF amplifier, mixer, local oscillators, IF
conventional amplitude modulation (AM) receivers, amplifiers, and audio amplifier are almost identical to those
except for the following basic differences: used in AM receivers.

Generally much higher operating frequencies for FM FM receivers generally have more IF amplification.

RF amplifiers are sometimes not required, due to the

noise suppression characteristics of FM systems.
Need for limiting and de-emphasis in FM
Limiter, frequency discriminator, and deemphasis
Totally different methods of demodulation network replaces the detector of AM receiver.
Different methods of obtaining AGC Limiter limits the amplitude of the IF signal prior to
demodulating the
An RF amplifier is almost always used in an FM
receiver to reduce the noise figure, and to match the IF signal to remove the noise in the envelope of the signal.
impedance of the receiver to the antenna.
Discriminator demodulates the IF signal and extracts
Local oscillators and mixers take any usual forms the information signal from the IF signal.
such as Colpitts.
De-emphasis network is a low pass filter which
Tracking is not normally much of a problem in FM broadcast attenuates high frequency signals to compensate for the
receivers because tuning frequency range is only 1.25:1, emphasis done at the transmitter.
much less than in AM broadcasting.
IF amplifiers do not differ much from those of AM.
Requires no tuned circuit.
FM receivers using the standard 88 to 108 Mhz
broadcast frequency range have an IF which is almost always Automatically compensates for changes in carrier
10.7 Mhz, with 200 khz bandwidth. frequency due to instability in transmitter oscillator.

An amplitude limiter must precede the FM VCO natural frequency is equal to IF center
demodulator to reduce noise, except when the FM frequency.
demodulator itself has limiter capability.
Output voltage (Vout) is proportional to the
Amplitude Limiter is a circuit that produces constant frequency deviation at the FM input, and is thus the
amplitude output for all signals above a prescribed minimum demodulated signal.
input level, which is sometimes called: threshold, quieting, or
capture level. IF signal amplitude is usually limited prior to feeding
to PLL demodulator for noise reduction.
Amplitude Limiter works on the principle of passing
the stronger signal and eliminating the weaker.

FM detectors (demodulator) output voltage is

directly proportional to the frequency deviation.

FM demodulator is a frequency to amplitude