Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 13
PolicyPolicy DimensionsDimensions ofof ClimateClimate Change:Change: SalientSalient MessagesMessages fromfrom IGESIGES
PolicyPolicy DimensionsDimensions ofof ClimateClimate Change:Change:
SalientSalient MessagesMessages fromfrom
IGESIGES PolicyPolicy DialoguesDialogues
Kentaro Tamura, PhD
Climate Policy Project
Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) 1
IGES Asia Pacific Policy Dialogues To promote constructive thinking on sustainable, low carbon development in
IGES Asia Pacific Policy Dialogues
To promote constructive thinking on
sustainable, low carbon development
in the Asia Pacific
To contribute to a climate regime that
reflects the concerns and aspirations
of stakeholders in the Asia Pacific
Round
Round 1
Round 2
Round 3
Round 4
2005
2006
2007
2008
5
• Country ‐
• Sub‐ regional
• Theme‐ based
• Theme‐ based
2009
based Korea,
Indonesia,
India, China,
Viet Nam,
Japan
on energy
security, CDM,
technology
and
adaptation
sectoral approaches, the Bali action plan
technology transfer,
sectoral approaches,
adaptation financing bioenergy,
mainstreaming, and
co ‐ benefits
inventories, co ‐
benefits, REDD,
adaptation, and
enabling conditions
2
IGES IGES 5 5 th Round Round of of Policy Policy Dialogues Dialogues 2009 2009
IGES IGES 5 5 th Round Round of of Policy Policy Dialogues Dialogues 2009 2009
th
Beijing
22‐ 23 September
New Delhi
22‐ 23 October
Low Carbon Scenarios
Domestic Mitigation Actions
Co‐ benefits
MRV
Green Stimulus
Adaptation
Bilateral Cooperation
Non‐ UNFCCC Processes
3
Key Messages Low carbon scenarios 1. Necessity of developing low carbon scenarios Long ‐term low
Key Messages
Low carbon scenarios
1. Necessity of developing low carbon scenarios
Long ‐term low carbon scenarios
Help policy makers identify cost‐effective policy options
Help people envision what low‐carbon society would be like.
Such visions also need to be endorsed by strong political will.
2. Technical feasibility
China could halve its GHG emissions from a BAU 2050 baseline (while
reaching the same quality of life in urban areas as Europe in 2030).
Japan could reduce its emissions by 70% by 2050.
3. Localizing models
City‐level low carbon models are needed to identify low carbon urban
planning and transport infrastructure options
4
Key Messages Domestic mitigation actions 4. Implementation issues (institutional feasibility) Actual implementation of
Key Messages
Domestic mitigation actions
4.
Implementation issues (institutional feasibility)
Actual implementation of policies becomes more difficult in an issue ‐
area where authority over policy ‐ making and implementation processes
is fragmented. Overcoming such institutional barriers is critical.
5.
Commitments not caps
A package of domestic actions such as China’s 20% intensity targets and
fuel economy standards could help form the basis for post‐2012
commitments but not caps
6.
Distributional impacts
Mechanisms to engage multi ‐stakeholders in decision ‐making are
needed to address distributional issues from low carbon policies
5
China’s energy intensity (1990=100) • 11 th Five Year Plan • Rapid increase in industry
China’s energy intensity
(1990=100)
• 11 th Five Year Plan
• Rapid increase in
industry product
outputs
• RE target
Source: ERI
• Competition
among provinces
to foster their own
local champions ,
economic growth
and tax revenue
• Energy saving
action for 1000
large‐ scale
enterprises
• Closing down of
backward capacity
• Linkage with
carrier promotion
6
Key Messages Green Stimulus 7. Green stimulus package as a short ‐term stimulus Green stimulus
Key Messages
Green Stimulus
7.
Green stimulus package as a short ‐term stimulus
Green stimulus packages can only have limited impacts on GHG
emissions by themselves: they should be a complement, not a
substitute, for climate and energy policies.
8. Institutional framework
Supporting legal and regulatory frameworks are necessary to align
short ‐term investments with long ‐term sustainability goals.
9.
Multiple motivations
A desire to address three problems simultaneously motivated the
Republic of Korea’s green growth programme: the economic slowdown,
every insecurity and climate change.
7
Key Messages Co‐benefits 10. More attention to barriers While further recognition of co‐benefit approaches has
Key Messages
Co‐benefits
10. More attention to barriers
While further recognition of co‐benefit approaches has led to call for
mainstreaming and estimation of co ‐benefits, few studies examine
technical, financial and institutional barriers to realise co‐benefits.
11. Integrate research and projects
Coordination between co‐benefits research and projects needs to be
enhanced.
12. Black carbon
Linkages between the sources of air pollution and climate forcers, such as
black carbon, need greater attention.
Key Messages MRV (measuring, reporting and verification) system 13. Central component of the Copenhagen Accord
Key Messages
MRV (measuring, reporting and verification) system
13.
Central component of the Copenhagen Accord
The objective of MRV is to guarantee the environmental effectiveness
and integrity of the system and build trust among countries through
enhanced transparency and accountability .
14. Flexible framework
The MRV framework needs to be flexible enough to accommodate
interventions with short ‐term and long ‐term GHG mitigation potential.
15.
Capacity to MRV
Capacity to address GHG data limitations needs to be strengthened.
9
Key Messages Adaptation 16. Mainstreaming • Mainstreaming adaptation into developmental planning has to happen at
Key Messages
Adaptation
16.
Mainstreaming
• Mainstreaming adaptation into developmental planning has to happen
at all levels (national, regional and local levels).
• Future regime should facilitate “mainstreaming” by
providing practical examples,
improving capacities and
mandating all development policies undergo an “adaptation check”.
17.
Adaptation governance
Enhanced coordination between adaptation funds and development
assistance, along with comparable measuring and reporting framework
could improve adaptation governance at all levels.
18.
Incentives for mainstreaming
Incentives, such as low‐risk insurance premiums for those who take
adaptation measures , would have to be in place for enhancing
“mainstreaming” at various levels including adaptation in the private
sector (including individuals).
10
Recent Outputs 11 Downloadable at the IGES website: www.iges.or.jp
Recent Outputs
11
Downloadable at the IGES website: www.iges.or.jp
Concluding thoughts • Economics and models stress cost‐effective policy options and economic and technical
Concluding thoughts
• Economics and models stress cost‐effective policy
options and economic and technical feasibility.
 Low carbon research should pay equal attention to
institutional feasibility and implementation problems.
• Enhanced information ‐sharing of both mitigation and
adaptation actions is important for building trust
between developing and developed nations in climate
change negotiation.
 High mitigation targets by developed countries,
voluntary efforts by developing countries and
adequate follow ‐ up of the Copenhagen Accord are
some effective trust‐building measures.
12
Thank you very much! 13
Thank you very much!
13