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What are some of the scenes in the film that show prejudice against the speech of a particular region,

class, or social
group? What are the consequences of that social stigma on individuals and groups?

In the film, there were various scenes in which speakers discussed or expressed prejudice against
the speech of a particular region, class, and social group. For example, a Boston woman said that
she was engaged to a Yalie and noticed his accent changing as they were driving South to meet
his family. She said that she wasnt gonna have little Southern babies who talked like that and
got a plane home. She associated the accent with generational inferiority negated the educational
attainments of an individual and could be passed down. These social stigmas are reinforced in
media as characters with Southern accents are portrayed as stupid. These perceptions can
harmfully divide the country and result in social exclusion and prejudice. These divides have
become particularly evident in the recent presidential election. People from different regions
continue to stereotype each other and fail to understand each others perspectives, preventing
them from exchanging ideas and collaborating toward policies that can collectively benefit them.

There are a variety of attitudes toward dialects that are illustrated in "American
Tongues". Many of the participants reveal traditional mainstream attitudes
which view the local dialect negatively. However, there are also some attitudes
about vernacular dialects that are positive, and reinforce the local usage. In
certain contexts, and for particular social values, these attitudes about the
community dialect may be surprisingly positive.

() Prestigious speakers are illustrated by the two Boston men discussing


Charles Dickens and Jane Austen using the "Brahmin" dialect. Stigmatized
dialects are represented by some of the working-class Blacks, the Boston
North End teenager, the two New Orleans women discussing how people
think they are beautiful until they open their mouths, and so forth.

B. Dialect Prejudice

() There are certain stereotypes about dialects that have been perpetuated in
the media, including TV and the movies. To a large extent, dialect also
contributes to the establishment of a caricature. The Southern journalist
comments on the portrayal of Southern characters in early movies, for
instance, saying that the character with the Southern accent usually appeared
to be less intelligent and was the butt of others' jokes.

Learning a standard dialect can cause a dilemma for a person because of a conflict between the outside world and
the local community. What evidence do we see of this in the film? How does this illustrate the different forces at
work in dialect choice?
What do you think the implications of this film/topic are for teachers of English? For us as citizens of the U.S.? As
citizens of the world?

As teachers of English as well as citizens of the U.S. and the world, it is crucial to have a sense
of linguistic and cultural humility. By presenting the perspectives of individuals with diverse
accents and the prejudices they hold, the film reveals larger social implications. By teaching
students how accents were developed through migration, geography, and intermixing among
groups, teachers can show students how particular dialects are not inherently superior or inferior,
but interconnected and developed through historical circumstances. Students and teachers can
better understand the power dynamics of standard dialects, which comes with privileges and
the oppression of other groups. The film addresses the limitations in terms of the job market and
negative treatment that can come with not speaking a standard dialect. Teachers should help
students understand why they are learning standard dialect while valuing the expression of other
dialects in the classroom. To support students in navigating the world outside of the classroom,
teachers can address concepts of codeswitching, or changing ones linguistic expression to adapt
to circumstances while staying true to their cultural identity.

Lets face it. There are certain consequences for not speaking a standard
dialect. For example, people may make fun of you. Or you may have certain
limitations in terms of the job market. So, if you dont want to deal with the
negatives, it may be very helpful to learn a standard dialect for certain
situations. It may not be fair, but thats the way it is.

It'smorethanjustacceptingadialect,ityouhavetoreallyunderstandthatit'spolitics,
too.It'snotacceptingthepeoplethatspeakthatvariety.So,youcan'tjustsaythat,
okay,youguys,ifyouspeakStandardEnglish,you'regonnagetthatjob,youknow,
causethat'snottrue.Youknow,butyoumightnotgetthejobbecausestillthatyou're
Black,butatleastifyouspeakastandardvarietytheycan'tsayyoudidn'tgetthejob
becauseyoucouldn'tspeakStandardEnglish,youknow.Atleastyou'dknowthatthey
can'tlaythatonme.

As people change, so do our dialects. The more you listen, the more you realize
how our way of speaking relate to how we leive our lives

For Monday:
1) Watch the film "American Tongues" - there is a link in the Course Materials
folder for 6/5 to stream it from the Hunter Video Network, but it doesn't
always work with Blackboard, so as an alternative, you can click the link
below that and download the file to watch on a player on your computer.
2) Post in 2 of the 3 Discussion Board threads related to the film. You can
access these by clicking on the Discussion Board link to the left, or by using
the direct link to the 6/5 Discussion Board in the Course Materials folder for
Monday's class.

3) Post in the Data Collection Discussion Board thread (read the prompt).
Access this thread in the same way described above.

*All of the Discussion Board posts for Monday's class are due by 4pm
Wednesday.

The most important thing I learned today was the variables of development:
physical, cognitive, and social-emotional. The influences on a human being
can impact a person's life, especially during infancy and early childhood
development that we sometimes forget that they're learning MORE during
those years than others. I believe that infancy and early childhood are the
most critical time periods for an individual. While they may not express
themselves, their abilities to absorb everything is unmatched to other
periods.

2. What question remains in your mind?

1. What was the most important thing you learned today?

The most important idea I learned from Chapter 1 was to beware making either/or distinctions
within debates such as nature versus nurture. It is important to consider both sides of arguments
as both perspectives offer insights into influences on child development. For example, while
some scientists argue that children are born with a sense of numbers, others researchers claim
that they are able to detect differences in the amount of things they see, not specifically
differences in the number. As science is the process of testing and refuting hypotheses, these
debates can generate new insights and a more nuanced understanding of child development. I
also found the exploration of culture interesting as studies can dangerously attempt to generalize
about all children when they have only examined those within a particular cultural context. For
example, while authoritarian parenting styles may be problematic for white, middle-class
families, dangerous conditions in other neighborhoods may make stricter parental control
appropriate and even necessary. When considering studies, it is important to consider the
sociopolitical context from which they arise as science can seem misleadingly neutral but ignore
crucial perspectives.

2. What question remains in your mind?


How can we translate research into practice? Childhood development offers helpful general
insights into how children might behave and learn at different ages. However, each individual
child and context is different. Overgeneralizing research or applying it inappropriately can be
harmful to a childs learning. How can teachers thoughtfully and effectively use research to
inform their teaching?

What Is Child Development? Developmental scientists study human growth and change from
conception until death, often called lifespan develop ment. Child development focuses on the
time period from conception through adolescence, roughly the time from 0 to about 20 years old
the span covered by this book. The science of human development involves asking care fully
specified questions based on current understandings (theories), systematically gathering and
analyzing of all kinds of information (data) about the questions, modifying and improving
explanatory theories based on the results of those analyses, and then asking new questions based
on the improved theories. Organizing Child Development: Periods and Areas This book is
organized by periods of development beginnings (which includes prenatal development,
infants, and toddlers), early childhood, middle childhood, and adolescence. These time periods
are commonly used to organize discussions of child development because they tend to be
characterized by particular patterns of limita tions, capabilities, expectations about the child, and
envi ronments for development. Children progress from being infants who need care to survive
to becoming toddlers who can crawl, then walk; babble, then talk; and interact with family to
form social bonds. The new environment for the infant is the world outside the womb, but mostly
the fam ily. The period of early childhood brings new environments outside the home such as
preschool or kindergarten; de veloping children are expected to assume more and more
responsibility for their own carefeeding themselves, Does this policy promote child safety
from accidents, disasters, or disease? Does this policy make preventative and healthy measures
(proper housing, hygiene, or early education) more accessible to children? Does this policy
support proximal caregivers and help them access or execute proper care of their children?
Policy and Child Well-Being by Lauren Bailes. toilet-learning, getting along with other children,
and so on. During middle childhood, ages 6 or 7 to 11, most chil dren in postindustrial cultures
are in the world of school. Their developing brains, language, and self-control allow them to
learn reading, writing, arithmetic, science, history, and many other subjects. They can play
organized games and sports, form and abandon friendships, and understand more abstract
concepts such as intention and morality. The transition to adolescence is marked by the physical
and psychosocial changes of puberty. Everything changes. In addition to physical changes, there
are growing cognitive capabilities to think abstractly, leading to greater idealism and the ability
to handle more advanced abstract learning. The new environment is the world of peers, high
school, work, and even college for some, because adolescence continues until ages 18 to 22 years
or so. Child development can be divided into physical devel opment (changes in the body and
brain), cognitive devel opment (changes in problem solving, memory, language, reasoning, and
other aspects of thinking), and emotional/ social development (changes in the individuals
feelings, personality, self-concept, and relations with other people). We discuss physical,
cognitive, and emotional/social de velopment in separate chapters for each time period, but these
domains are not separate in children. Basic Themes and Debates in Development Three current
debates in child development are: (a) Is human development a continuous process of adding to
and increasing abilities, or are there leaps or moves to new stages when abilities actually change?
Are changes

(P. Bryant & Nunes, 2004, p. 414). COUNTERPOINT WE nEEd to lEarn aBout nuMBErS But
are these experiments really about number? Other research ers claim that although these babies
are detecting differences, they are not differences in number, just differences in the amount of
stuff in the displays. to test this, researchers tried using 3 small dots in the first habituation
phase, and then showed 3 larger dots in the checking phase. after habituating (growing
uninterested) in the 3 dots, the babies increased their attention to the larger dots, even though the
number was still 3. So it seemed that the babies were noticing greater size, not a change in
number (Clearfield & mix, 1999). Peter Bryant and terezinha Nunes (2004) believe that basic
mathematical ideas about num bers are not innate. they are a source of genuine difficulty for
children, and the idea that they come as an innate and universal gift is misguided and actually
harmful, for it distracts us from giving help to children where they need it (p. 349).

There are many definitions of culture. Most include the knowledge, skills, rules, traditions,
beliefs, and values that guide behavior in a particular group of people, as well as the art and
artifacts pro duced and passed down to the next generation (Betancourt & Lopez, 1993; Pai &
Adler, 2001). The group creates a culturea program for livingand communicates the
program to members. Groups can be defined along regional, ethnic, religious, gender, social
class, or other lines. Each of usrecent immigrant or longtime residentis a member of many
groups, so we all are influenced by many different cultures. Sometimes the influences are
incompatible or even contradictory. For example, if you are a feminist but also a Roman
Catholic, you may have trouble reconciling the two different cultures beliefs about the
ordination of women as priests. Your personal belief will be based, in part, on how strongly you
identify with each group (Banks, 2002).

There are many definitions of culture. Most include the knowledge, skills, rules, traditions,
beliefs, and values that guide behavior in a particular group of people, as well as the art and
artifacts pro duced and passed down to the next generation (Betancourt & Lopez, 1993; Pai &
Adler, 2001). The group creates a culturea program for livingand communicates the
program to members. Groups can be defined along regional, ethnic, religious, gender, social
class, or other lines. Each of usrecent immigrant or longtime residentis a member of many
groups, so we all are influenced by many different cultures. Sometimes the influences are
incompatible or even contradictory. For example, if you are a feminist but also a Roman
Catholic, you may have trouble reconciling the two different cultures beliefs about the
ordination of women as priests. Your personal belief will be based, in part, on how strongly you
identify with each group (Banks, 2002).