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An Introduction to BPMN 2.

0
A guide to the core elements within the business process modelling notation

1. Anatomy of a Process Model


2. Three Levels of BPMN
3. Core Concepts

www.bpmn.co.uk
The Anatomy of a Process Model
Introduction to BPMN 2.0 | Anatomy of a Process Model 2

Core BPMN Elements

Message Flow Data Object


Task
Association

Pool

Intermediate
Start Event Sequence Flow Event
End Event

Gateway

Lane Sub Process


Three Levels of BPMN
Introduction to BPMN 2.0 | Three Levels of BPMN 3

The BPMN specification defines three levels of BPMN..

Descriptive Process Models


Suitable for high level modelling should be comfortable
for analysts that have used flowcharts.

Analytic Process Models


Contains the concepts most commonly used and covered in
BPMN training

Common Executable Process Models


Focuses on the elements required for executable process
models
Notation: Descriptive Process Models
Introduction to BPMN 2.0 | Three Levels of BPMN | Descriptive 4
Notation: Analytic Process Models
Introduction to BPMN 2.0 | Three Levels of BPMN | Analytic 5
Pools and Lanes
Introduction to BPMN 2.0 | Core Concepts | Pools and Lanes 6

Pools Lanes
A pool is used to define either a group of participants such as an area within an A lane is used to define a specific
organisation or an external entity that collaborates within a process. participant or role within a process.

A process model is normally created from the perspective of a single participant A lane may be contained within a
the white box pool, and contains the detail of that process. Black box pools are pool..
considered external to the scope of the process (although not necessarily outside of
the organisation), and do not show flow and activities. Black box pools may be
collapsed and rotated, but do not have to be.

Black
Box
..or may itself be broken down into
other lanes:
White
Box
Events
Introduction to BPMN 2.0 | Core Concepts | Events 7

An event is an indicator that something has happened within a process.

Start Event Intermediate Events End Event


A process commences because Intermediate events happen A process finishes when an end
something has happened, such within the flow of the process is reached. Because a process
as a message received or a (between the start and end may have several outcomes,
date is reached.z events). z z
there may be multiple end
events.
Activities
Introduction to BPMN 2.0 | Core Concepts | Activities 8

Within the flow of a process, one or more lanes (roles) will perform a number of activities.

Collapsed
Task Sub Process
A task is something that a lane A sub process summarises
(role) does during the process. a group of activities, and can
A task is a granular (atomic) be expanded out into further
Expanded
z or does not
activity that cannot detail. Sub processes can z
need to be broken down any be shown as collapsed (with
further. the [+] symbol), or
expanded.
Flow
Introduction to BPMN 2.0 | Core Concepts | Flow 9

Sequence Flow, Message Flow and Associations

Association
Used to attach artefacts
Message Flow (such as data objects)
The flow of to activities.z
information as
z
Messages
between
Participants

Sequence Flow
The sequential flow of the process between events that
z the lanes and decisions
occur, activities performed by
that are made (gateways).
Gateways
Introduction to BPMN 2.0 | Core Concepts | Gateways 10

Gateways Inclusive
Gateways represent decisions Follow one or more paths
within the process, and control the
splitting and merging of sequence
flow.
z z
The simplest examples are shown:

Exclusive Parallel
Follow only one path Follow all paths

z z
Artefacts
Introduction to BPMN 2.0 | Core Concepts | Artefacts 11

Artefacts allow additional information to be provided on a process model.

Data Object Data Store Group


Data objects are A data store is somewhere that A visual way of informally
inputs to and outputs the process can read or write grouping items on a diagram,
from activities. Data data, that persists beyond the for example to highlight an area
objects could be scope of the process. that requires further
z analysis.
used to represent
documents, data or
other objects that
are passed between
the activities in a
process.
z z
Annotation
Annotations allow additional
information relevant in
documenting the process to be
shown on the diagram
z
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12

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Available from 21st April 2011