Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 20

ii) Marking Criteria for Band A & B

Mark Range Description of Criteria

Language is entirely accurate. Very occasional first draft slips.


Sentence structures are varied.
A Vocabulary is wide and used with precision.
Punctuation is accurate and helpful.
44 50 Spelling is entirely accurate.
Paragraphs are well-planned, have unity and are linked.
Topic is addressed with consistent relevance.
Interest of the reader is aroused and sustained throughout the writing.

Language is accurate. Occasional errors are minor or first draft slips.


Vocabulary is wide enough with some precision.
Sentences show some variation of length and type with some complex
B sentences.
Punctuation is almost always accurate.
38 43 Spelling is nearly always accurate.
Paragraphs show some planning, have unity and are usually appropriately
linked.
Writing is relevant to the topic.
Interest of the reader is aroused and sustained through most of the time.

iii) Tips For Scoring High Marks

Here are the tips on how to write a good essay, based on each criterion:

1) Hardly any mistakes in grammar (including spelling and punctuation)

Good essays should be without any major grammatical, spelling and punctuation errors. So, focus on
these key aspects. Make sure that you know the grammar rules well and apply them when you write.

2) Effective use of varied sentence structures

Many students face problems with the sentence structure of the English language. The problem can
be solved through plenty of reading. When you read, your mind is fed with the correct sentence
structures over and over. In time, you will be able to write sentences with the right structure. When
you write an essay, use a variety of sentences - simple, compound, complex sentences, in both the
active voice and passive voice, etc. Thus, it is advisable to make good use of as much variety of
reading material as possible - storybooks, magazines, newspapers, etc. to expose yourself to
different types of sentence structures.

1
3) Wide vocabulary used expressively/precisely

Reading helps to increase your vocabulary. When you see a new word, look it up in a dictionary to
learn its meaning. To score high marks, you need to show that you have a wide vocabulary. For
example, you can use 'delighted' or 'overjoyed' instead of 'happy'. Instead of using 'sad', use 'upset'
or 'downhearted'. Try not to use the same word repeatedly. Use different words with the same
meaning to impress the examiner. It is also important that you use a word precisely or accurately.
Wrong use of words will result in mark deduction. So, make sure that a word is suitable to be used in
a sentence or a particular situation before using it. Reading helps you understand the meaning of a
word accurately. When you read extensively, you tend to be familiar with words and know when to
use them and when not to. Look it up in a dictionary again when you forget the meaning of a
particular word.

4) Good and relevant points

When writing an essay, it is important to write about relevant points, or write about what the
question ask for. For example, for the title 'Describe an outing with your friends', the whole essay
should be about the outing. If you write about other things such as your friends' hobbies, that would
be irrelevant. As long as you understand the title and write relevant points, you will be safe. The lack
of points or ideas is a common problem faced by students when writing essays. Reading model
essays helps a lot, since it gives you plenty of ideas.

5) Coherence in paragraphing & 6) Well-organised paragraphing

An Oxford dictionary defines 'coherence' as 'the situation in which all the parts of something fit
together well'. For instance, when writing an essay entitled 'My Hero', it is advisable to write about
things that are of the same nature in a paragraph. For example, after the introduction, you can write
about the childhood of your hero in the first paragraph. Then, in the second, third, fourth and fifth
paragraphs, you can write about his educational background, occupation, personalities and
accomplishments respectively. It is unwise to mix them up as it lacks coherence and is not well-
organised.

7) Essay is very interesting and shows originality

An interesting essay does not talk about the boring stuff. For example, you decide to write an essay
entitled 'Describe an enjoyable weekend you have experienced' or describe a camping trip at the
beach with your family. Avoid including stuff like:

"When I woke up that morning, I went to the toilet to brush my teeth and wash my face. After that, I
dressed up and went downstairs to have my breakfast. I had bread and butter for breakfast..."

You can put it this way:

"When I woke up that morning, I was excited as my whole family would be going on a camping trip at
the beach. After getting everything ready, we set off for the beach in my father's van..."

2
You can continue the essay by describing all the interesting things that you and your family saw and
did at the beach. It is a good idea to write about your own experience, since it shows originality.
When writing essays, it is also important to write about logical things.

Stated above are the important points to note. Apart from those based on the criteria, other points
to take note of include:

i) Practise writing essays, since 'practice makes perfect'. Besides school assignments, try to write
more essays and have someone qualified to correct them for you. When you make mistakes, learn
from them and make it a point not to repeat them , in order to improve your writing skills effectively.
When practising, learn to finish an essay within the time frame given. For instance, in SPM, you have
about an hour to complete an essay. Spend about 10 minutes, 35 minutes and 15 minutes on
planning, writing and checking the essay respectively.

ii) Remember, there are no short cuts to success. Essay writing skills take time to develop. There
goes the saying, 'Rome wasn't built in a day'. Diligence and perseverance are the keys to success. Do
not give up until you succeed.

iii) Look at the past year papers and study the examination format. Then, refer to the model answers
and familiarise yourself with the answering techniques in order to score high marks.

In short:

1 Learn and know the grammar rules well.

2 Do more reading, as it helps in all aspects of writing good essays.


Good luck
3 Practise writing essays and learn from your mistakes. In your SPM!

3
iv) Sample Essays :

Read aloud these sample essays and identify the strengths of each essay.

Narrative (1): A day I wished had never happened (2003)

My eyes are filled with tears as I look at a photo. It is a family photo taken three years ago, showing
my parents, my younger brother Alex and myself having fun while we were having a picnic at a
beach. I used to have a warm and happy family but now I am left with only memories.

I could still remember vividly what happened that day, the day I wished had never happened. It was
about two weeks after our family picnicked at the beach. My parents owned a business which
required them to travel once or twice per month. That morning when my brother and I were having
our breakfast before going to school, we saw our parents walking down from the stairs, all dressed
up. They were carrying their luggage and were ready to go on a business trip to Singapore. Normally,
they drove but this time, for a change, they decided to go by air.

Alex and I helped our parents to carry their luggage to a taxi waiting outside our house.

"Sally, we'll be in Singapore for only three days," said my mother, before getting into the taxi. "Take
care of your brother while we are gone."

"Don't worry, Mum," I replied. "I will."

"Alex, be obedient to your sister. Don't be naughty," said our father.

Alex, who was a year my junior, nodded his head. We bade our parents goodbye before they went
off in the taxi.

While my brother and I were schooling later that morning, we were requested to go and see the
principal.

"I'm sorry to inform both of you that the aeroplane which your parents were travelling on has
crashed, due to mechanical failure. No one survived the crash," said the principal, while we were in
his office.

Extremely shocked and grief-stricken to hear the tragic news, we burst into tears. I was so miserable
that I fainted. When I woke up, I found myself at home in my bedroom. I then went downstairs and
saw my brother in the living room. Some of our relatives were present as well. They comforted us
and asked us what we were going to do, since our parents had passed on. They invited us to stay
with them so that they could take care of us. I thanked them for their benevolence and replied that
my brother and I needed to think it over before making a decision.

Having considered our future for a few days, we decided to live in an orphanage as we did not wish
to trouble our relatives.

Three years have passed since we moved into the orphanage. At first, it was hard living without our
parents. Now we have settled down. In the orphanage, we have friends just like us - orphans. Our
relatives come to visit us once in a while. I am in Form 5 now and will be sitting for my SPM
examination at the end of the year. Alex is in Form 4. We take our studies seriously and hope to have
our own loving families one day.

4
Narrative (2): Write a story with the following title: Pride Goes Before A Fall.

Having held the interschool storytelling championship for the past three consecutive years, I was the
star of my school. When it came to choosing the right candidate to participate in such competitions, I
was always the first choice. Naturally, I was once again selected to represent my school in the
approaching contest this year.

Upon hearing the fact that I was chosen again, my classmates and friends acknowledged
unanimously that I would undoubtedly emerge as the champion again. Consequently, I became
conceited. I was so complacent that I neglected the importance of practising for the contest.

"Cindy, would you like to come in front of the class to rehearse for the contest?" asked my teacher, a
week before the contest was held.

"I'm sorry, teacher," I replied. "I'm having a sore throat."

That was what I would do, whenever my teacher requested me to practise in front of the class. I
always found excuses to avoid doing so as I had the opinion that I was too good and therefore the
practice was quite unnecessary. On one occasion, I even told her not to worry as I was well prepared
for the contest. I only managed to glance briefly through the story a day before the day of the
contest. As the best storyteller among the students of the local secondary schools, I was too vain to
practice and expected everything to be fine.

The contest was arranged to take place in a community hall. On the day of the contest, the hall was
packed. Apart from my school teachers and principal, many of my classmates and schoolmates were
present as well. I was the eighth contestant. Those who spoke before me did extremely well. On
seeing their captivating and outstanding performance, I began to lose confidence in myself. My
palms perspired heavily and I felt nervous.

Soon, it was my turn to talk. While walking up the steps leading to the stage, I tripped up on the step
and fell, drawing laughter from the audience. I was mortified and got up quickly to proceed to the
microphone. When I was facing the crowd, I suffered from stage fright. My legs shivered and so did
my voice. I spoke in an expressionless voice and even stuttered a few times as I had forgotten some
parts of the story. On seeing my terrible performance, the judges shook their heads. The supporters
from my school looked at me in disappointment. I had never been so embarrassed in my life. In the
end, I walked off the stage with my eyes filled with tears.

When the results were announced after the contest, I did not win any prizes - not even a consolation
prize. It was not surprising at all. I regretted underestimating my opponents. My vanity had cost me
the championship and I was remorseful for being so vainglorious. I had learnt my lesson well and
finally understood the meaning of the saying, 'pride goes before a fall'.

5
Descriptive (1): Describe the scene of a night market

One of the most interesting places in Malaysia is the night market. You may visit and experience the
night market yourselves. Both locals and foreigners agree that the night market is the most common
feature in the local society.

The night market begins when the vendors arrive in the late afternoon. More and more goods laden
vans arrive to begin a brisk day of business. Most of the vendors busily set out to set up their stalls
respectively in order to get ready for a brisk day of business.

The sun gradually sets and the night market picks up momentum. More cars and vans are arriving. By
now, the stalls are neatly and strategically arranged to entice their customers. There is an
assortment of goods sold ranging from food, toys and clothes, to name a few. A variety of goods is
sold at low prices.

Large rainbow-coloured parasols are used to shade the people from rain and shine. A concoction of
blaring music can be heard in the night market background amidst the constant shouting. It is an
amazing kaleidoscope of sights, sounds, smells and colours.

Local gourmets who can enjoy various kinds of mouth-watering local cuisine know the night market
as a haven. Still more people arrive, they come from all walks of life, mingling freely and
harmoniously. Crowds are walking up and down in an endless stream. Some of them are stopping by
the stalls and haggling before making purchases. Little children tag along, amused and excited.
Sprinklings of tourists join in to experience the lifestyle of typical Malaysian folks.

When night falls, lighted lamps brighten up the place, they add gaiety to this atmosphere, and it is
like a funfair. The night wears on and the traffic of people recedes. Vendors get a chance to rest their
weary legs besides bantering with each other.

By 10.00 pm, all the stalls call it a day. The vendors pack up and close the van doors. One by one,
they leave, leaving behind pieces of papers, plastic bags and discarded boxes. It is an eyesore!
Finally, the night market disappears. The place becomes quite and still once more.

6
Descriptive (2): Malaysia, A Unique Country

Malaysia is a multiracial country. Malaysia has a population of 23.27 million consisting of 61


percent Malays, 30 percent Chinese, 8 percent Indians and 1 percent of other ethnic groups.
Malaysia is unique because of its diversity of races, religions and cultures, the stability of the country
and many places of interests. Besides, there are many international achievements, which are the
pride of our nation.

Diversity of races, religions and cultures is a significant characteristic of our nation. Malaysia
is a multiracial country with a rich cultural heritage. Unique to Malaysia is the 'Open House' concept
where during the various cultural and religious festivals like Hari Raya, Chinese New Year, Deepavali,
Gawai Day and others, friends and families and even strangers would visit the homes of those who
are celebrating the festival, to wish them well and enjoy the feast prepared by the hosts. Although
the visitors may be from different races, they still can tolerate with each other and live under the
same roof where they celebrate the festival together. This will help to strengthen the ties among
themselves.

Moreover, the stability and peacefulness of Malaysia is also a uniqueness of us. We live
harmoniously in a country where there are no wars and conflicts among Malaysians. War is dreadful
and it may deteriorate human lives. We are fortunate that our country is safe and free from war. So,
people can live safely here. Besides, our country is freed from natural disasters such as earthquakes.
Earthquakes may bring death and destroy many buildings. Therefore, Malaysia is unique because of
the stable and peaceful environment.

On top of that, there are many places of interests in the country such as beaches, islands and
rain forest. Malaysia's rain forest is considered as the oldest in the world. The diverse species of
animals and plant life continue to excite a great deal of scientific research. Many believe that some
undiscovered plants may hold cures to many currently incurable human diseases. There are many
islands in our country such as Pulau Langkawi, Pulau Redang and Pulau Ketam. Pulau Langkawi has a
lot of historical information. Those who are in favour of history can go there to explore the history of
that place. All the beaches in those islands are beautiful. The sand is soft and white. The
accommodation is well established and that makes those islands ideal places to visit.

In short, Malaysia is unique that it has a diversity of races, religions and cultures, a stable and
peaceful environment, places of interest and some internal achievements. Those are important
characteristics of our nation. It is rich of cultural heritage; it would be worth to pay a visit here.

7
Argumentative (1): Money Brings Happiness. Do you agree?

It is truly undeniable that in this science and technology millennium, we can hardly live without
money. Even buying something small such as a sweet will cost you some money. However, this does
not mean that money can buy happiness, unlike the misconception of most people in the world. In
fact, wealth is a far cry from happiness. If you disagree with me, let's look at the reasons for my
stand.

Firstly, one of the main gates to happiness is to stay healthy. Maybe some people think that when
one is rich, he can be healthy or it does not matter even if they have diseases because these rich
men have lots of money to pay for their medication. This is totally wrong. Good health is acquired
from a healthy lifestyle progressively and not in a day. With lots of money we tend to tempt
ourselves with exotic and luxurious food. If this food is taken excessively, it will lead to obesity, heart
diseases, diabetes, hypertension and other serious illness. Moreover, rich people probably lack of
exercise as they hardly walk outdoor, putting them at a higher risk of unnecessary health problems.
How can a person enjoy his life and feel happy when he is confined to a wheelchair or bed-ridden.
He would not even be glad spending his money and time curing his sickness. Therefore, wealth
cannot bring happiness.

Professionals like doctors, lawyers, engineer and accountants earn a lot of money per month. They
are considered the high-class citizens who can afford large, expensive houses with huge beautiful
gardens. But do they really enjoy the pleasures of life? Most probably not , because they are simply
too busy with their work. They frequently burn the midnight oil at their work place. It is even more
miserable if they have to turn their home into a work place. Most specialists have to stand-by 24
hours in case of emergency calls from the hospitals. Hence, they can hardly spend any relaxing night
at their home even if they possess a huge two and a half storey bungalow with a beautiful garden
and artificial waterfall. Successful businessmen may always have the chance of flying to all parts of
the world when they go out station for business. However, very few of them can really take it as a
holiday or as a treat for themselves for their schedules are always full and they are so stressful with
their work. Even fewer businessmen can ignore urgent, pursuing calls from their clients or office
when they are going for holidays or resting. In other words, one can make lots of money but he may
not enjoy even the beauty of nature around them or the branded, expensive things with them. So
what is the use of money when we do not even enjoy a meal properly and are discontented with our
lives? One with a moderate income can feel happier if he leads a simple life and be grateful with
what he has.

Finally, a child or a teenager brought up in a moderate family is better than in a rich family. As the
sons or daughters of billionaires, their parents will give them whatever they want in material. These
children or teenagers get a lot of pocket money from their parents and can afford to buy many
expensive things like the latest handset, expensive clothes and branded sport shoes. But the
question is, are they happy if their parents are always working with only an Indonesian maid to
accompany them? If they are asked to choose between wealth and love from their parents, I believe
that they will undoubtedly choose love. These children are mentally not as healthy as those being
cared and loved by their parents. Children need parents who can listen to their problems and give
them words of wisdom, as well as teach them day by day. Parents who are not rich may not be able
to buy branded things to satisfy their children but with more communication and understanding,

8
these teenagers will understand the difficulty of their parents in earning money, and earn to be
thrifty. In short, money does not promise a happy, caring family.

Money may be able to buy a lot of things but not love, friendship, health and others. These are the
main ingredients for a happy life. Even, if we can afford many things we desire, we may not be
happy and enjoy our lives if we are always dissatisfied with what we have, always yearning for more.
Thus, I stand firm that money cannot bring happiness.

Argumentative (2): Sharing is Caring. Do you agree?

Some of us may be selfish to share our study tips yet deliberately disturbing the others while they
are doing their works. Some might agree that such an attitude is a secret weapon for crucial
examination, namely the UPSR, PMR and SPM. But don't you agree that sharing is actually the
happiest thing we can do? When we share, it means that we have the capability. Sharing brings more
knowledge and ideas to be exchanged. Nobody will improve much if they are reluctant to share. In
fact, when we initiate to share, we will definitely get more and more feedback which may be beyond
our knowledge. Two heads are better than one. More minds contribute more thoughts. That's why
group discussion is highly recommended for it is a proven and effective way to catalyst our
improvement in our studies.

Studying is only a part of our life routine and being a student is merely our temporary role. Actually
that is our precious moment to develop into a better person. One cannot know and experience
everything with limited source. However, we can gain unlimited knowledge and lesson once we start
to share and exchange. By sharing, we know more, we continue our learning and without realising,
we have foster good friendship and become a better individual. Let's have a very simple example.
Every one of us owns one box of biscuits. Every box of biscuits has a different flavour. If we are kind
enough to reciprocate our biscuits with each other, then we get to taste a variety flavour of biscuits.
Similarly, sharing and exchanging is something mutually profitable for each of us. Through sharing,
we apply our knowledge and subsequently we gain more. Do share your knowledge with others if
you intend for them to share theirs with you. Only those who are generous to share and humble to
keep on learning deserve to possess more power, wealth and knowledge.

Being students, we are still learning and painting our lives with endless colours and school should be
the safest platform for us to practice our behaviour. Here, sharing makes more sense to complement
each other. Nothing can be accomplished without a cohesive teamwork. One cannot be successful
without any assistance provided by the others. Frankly, have you ever shared your fortune, wealth
and knowledge with your friends? If not, try your best whenever you are still able to do so. When we
are stepping into the working world, seldom do we have such an opportunity to share and enjoy
anxiety-free student lives. A real success is more than just a straight A result or thousand and one
certificates but whether one really enjoys the process towards success. And sharing will be a must
for that particular joyful process.

9
v) Practices: Before & After

Improve on the following paragraphs for a better piece of writing.

Write a story ending with: "If only I had been more careful, that wouldn't
have happened."
Before After
Last Saturday, my mother asked me to take One Saturday afternoon, I had to babysit my
care of my little sister. She was three years three-year-old little sister. My mother was
old. My mother was going out. My father going out to run some errands while my
father had to work overtime. They were both
was working overtime. They were very
extremely busy.
busy.

My sister was cute. She had big eyes and a


nice face. Though I loved her, she was also
very annoying. Once she tore up my
Geography project and I became very angry.

After a while, my friend, Victor, phoned me.


He invited me to his house. I went and
decided to bring Angie along.

Victor came from a rich family. His father


was a wealthy businessman. Then we went
to his big house. It was a large mansion. His
servant brought us to meet Victor. Then
Victor took us up to his big bedroom on the
second floor.

Victor offered us some drinks. Then we


started to play a computer game. We kept
playing and playing and forgot about Angie.
About fifteen minutes later, we heard a
scream from the staircase.

10
Angie was missing.

We were very scared. We went to look for


Angie. She was lying at the bottom of the
stairs. She was not moving. Victor called the
ambulance. Angie was sent to the hospital.

Angie was injured. She had to stay in the


hospital. My parents scolded me because I
was not responsible. I felt very sorry. If only
I had been more careful, that wouldn't have
happened.

If only I had been more careful, that


wouldn't have happened.

11
Describe a regrettable incident.
Before After
My second term examinations were fast "Son, turn off the computer now and do your
approaching. My father reminded me to do revision immediately. Your second term
my revision and not play with my computer. exams are fast approaching," said my father,
as he was getting ready for work that
morning.

I did not listen to my father. I was very


stubborn. I continued to play the computer
game. Although the examinations were
near, I could not stop playing. I felt guilty.

A day before the examinations, I began to


worry. My father wanted me to do well. I
quickly studied till late at night. However,
there was too much to study. I really
regretted not listening to my father.

The next day, the examinations started. I


was shocked to find that I could not answer
most of the questions. I was worried and did
not want to disappoint my father. So I
cheated. I asked my friend for the answers.

I did the same thing in the next few


examinations. I was caught by our
disciplinary teacher. He called me to his
office.

12
In his office, he asked me why I cheated.

I said sorry to Mr Lee and promised not to


do it again. Since I did something wrong, he
still had to punish me. He caned me five
times on the palm. Then he said that I
would be suspended from school for three
days after the examinations were over. He
also gave me a letter for my father.

After school, I went home. I felt very sad


and guilty. I also felt ashamed. . I looked at
the letter I was holding in my hand. How will
I explain everything to my father?

13
Describe an accident you witnessed.

Before After
The school bell rang. I said goodbye to my
teacher. It was raining heavily, so I took out
my umbrella. There were many cars but
traffic was moving slowly.

At a junction near my school, I saw a girl


from my school. She was riding a scooter.
She had just stopped at the junction.
Suddenly, a van which was going very fast,
knocked into her from the back. The girl fell
to the ground. Her scooter also fell to the
ground. Her books were everywhere. She
was injured and in pain.

I quickly went to help the girl. Suddenly, the


van sped off. I was shocked. I then helped
the girl to the side. I told her it was alright
because help was on the way. Some
passers-by came to see if they could help.

Some Red Crescent Society members came


to treat her injuries. I collected the girls
books. Her scooter was still in good
condition.

Then a parent stopped by. She sent the girl


to the hospital. Then the policemen came.
They asked me some questions. I told them
what had happened. The policemen
thanked me for my help. They also praised
me.

After that, I went home. I felt happy. I


helped the girl and the policemen. I was
also very happy to see so many people
helping the girl. I realised that good people
are always there in this world.

14
SYNONYMS FOR 95 COMMONLY USED WORDS IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE

1. Amazing incredible, unbelievable, improbable, fabulous, wonderful, fantastic,


astonishing, astounding, extraordinary
2. Anger enrage, infuriate, arouse, nettle, exasperate, inflame, madden
3. Angry mad, furious, enraged, excited, wrathful, indignant, exasperated, aroused,
inflamed
4. Answer reply, respond, retort, acknowledge
5. Ask question, inquire of, seek information from, put a question to, demand,
request, expect, inquire, query, interrogate, examine, quiz
6. Awful dreadful, terrible, abominable, bad, poor, unpleasant
7. Bad evil, immoral, wicked, corrupt, sinful, depraved, rotten, contaminated,
spoiled, tainted, harmful, injurious, unfavourable, defective, inferior, imperfect,
substandard, faulty, improper, inappropriate, unsuitable, disagreeable, unpleasant,
cross, nasty, unfriendly, irascible, horrible, atrocious, outrageous, scandalous,
infamous, wrong, noxious, sinister, putrid, snide, deplorable, dismal, gross, heinous,
nefarious, base, obnoxious, detestable, despicable, contemptible, foul, rank, ghastly,
execrable
8. Beautiful pretty, lovely, handsome, attractive, gorgeous, dazzling, splendid,
magnificent, comely, fair, ravishing, graceful, elegant, fine, exquisite, aesthetic,
pleasing, shapely, delicate, stunning, glorious, heavenly, resplendent, radiant,
glowing, blooming, sparkling
9. Begin start, open, launch, initiate, commence, inaugurate, originate
10. Big enormous, huge, immense, gigantic, vast, colossal, gargantuan, large, sizable,
grand, great, tall, substantial, mammoth, astronomical, ample, broad, expansive,
spacious, stout, tremendous, titanic, mountainous
11. Brave courageous, fearless, dauntless, intrepid, plucky, daring, heroic, valorous,
audacious, bold, gallant, valiant, doughty, mettlesome
12. Break fracture, rupture, shatter, smash, wreck, crash, demolish, atomize
13. Bright shining, shiny, gleaming, brilliant, sparkling, shimmering, radiant, vivid,
colourful, lustrous, luminous, incandescent, intelligent, knowing, quick-witted,
smart, intellectual
14. Calm quiet, peaceful, still, tranquil, mild, serene, smooth, composed, collected,
unruffled, level-headed, unexcited, detached, aloof
15. Come approach, advance, near, arrive, reach
16. Cool chilly, cold, frosty, wintry, icy, frigid
17. Crooked bent, twisted, curved, hooked, zigzag
18. Cry shout, yell, yowl, scream, roar, bellow, weep, wail, sob, bawl
19. Cut gash, slash, prick, nick, sever, slice, carve, cleave, slit, chop, crop, lop,
reduce
20. Dangerous perilous, hazardous, risky, uncertain, unsafe
21. Dark shadowy, unlit, murky, gloomy, dim, dusky, shaded, sunless, black, dismal,
sad
22. Decide determine, settle, choose, resolve
23. Definite certain, sure, positive, determined, clear, distinct, obvious
24. Delicious savoury, delectable, appetizing, luscious, scrumptious, palatable,
delightful, enjoyable, toothsome, exquisite
25. Describe portray, characterize, picture, narrate, relate, recount, represent, report,
record
26. Destroy ruin, demolish, raze, waste, kill, slay, end, extinguish
27. Difference disagreement, inequity, contrast, dissimilarity, incompatibility
28. Do execute, enact, carry out, finish, conclude, effect, accomplish, achieve, attain
29. Dull boring, tiring tiresome, uninteresting, slow, dumb, stupid, unimaginative,
lifeless, dead, insensible, tedious, wearisome, listless, expressionless, plain,
monotonous, humdrum, dreary

15
30. Eager keen, fervent, enthusiastic, involved, interested, alive to
31. End stop, finish, terminate, conclude, close, halt, cessation, discontinuance
32. Enjoy appreciate, delight in, be pleased, indulge in, luxuriate in, bask in, relish,
devour, savour, like
33. Explain elaborate, clarify, define, interpret, justify, account for
34. Fair just, impartial, unbiased, objective, unprejudiced, honest
35. Fall drop, descend, plunge, topple, tumble
36. False fake, fraudulent, counterfeit, spurious, untrue, unfounded, erroneous,
deceptive, groundless, fallacious
37. Famous well-known, renowned, celebrated, famed, eminent, illustrious,
distinguished, noted, notorious
38. Fast quick, rapid, speedy, fleet, hasty, snappy, mercurial, swiftly, rapidly,
quickly, snappily, speedily, lickety-split, post-haste, hastily, expeditiously, like a
flash
39. Fat stout, corpulent, fleshy, beefy, paunchy, plump, full, rotund, tubby, pudgy,
chubby, chunky, burly, bulky, elephantine
40. Fear fright, dread, terror, alarm, dismay, anxiety, scare, awe, horror, panic,
apprehension
41. Fly soar, hover, flit, wing, flee, waft, glide, coast, skim, sail, cruise
42. Funny humorous, amusing, droll, comic, comical, laughable, silly
43. Get acquire, obtain, secure, procure, gain, fetch, find, score, accumulate, win,
earn, rep, catch, net, bag, derive, collect, gather, glean, pick up, accept, come by,
regain, salvage
44. Go recede, depart, fade, disappear, move, travel, proceed
45. Good excellent, fine, superior, wonderful, marvellous, qualified, suited, suitable,
apt, proper, capable, generous, kindly, friendly, gracious, obliging, pleasant,
agreeable, pleasurable, satisfactory, well-behaved, obedient, honourable, reliable,
trustworthy, safe, favourable, profitable, advantageous, righteous, expedient,
helpful, valid, genuine, ample, salubrious, estimable, beneficial, splendid, great,
noble, worthy, first-rate, top-notch, grand, sterling, superb, respectable, edifying
46. Great noteworthy, worthy, distinguished, remarkable, grand, considerable,
powerful, much, mighty
47. Gross improper, rude, coarse, indecent, crude, vulgar, outrageous, extreme,
grievous, shameful, uncouth, obscene, low
48. Happy pleased, contented, satisfied, delighted, elated, joyful, cheerful, ecstatic,
jubilant, gay, tickled, gratified, glad, blissful, overjoyed
49. Hate despise, loathe, detest, abhor, disfavour, dislike, disapprove, abominate
50. Have hold, possess, own, contain, acquire, gain, maintain, believe, bear, beget,
occupy, absorb, fill, enjoy
51. Help aid, assist, support, encourage, back, wait on, attend, serve, relieve,
succour, benefit, befriend, abet
52. Hide conceal, cover, mask, cloak, camouflage, screen, shroud, veil
53. Hurry rush, run, speed, race, hasten, urge, accelerate, bustle
54. Hurt damage, harm, injure, wound, distress, afflict, pain
55. Idea thought, concept, conception, notion, understanding, opinion, plan, view,
belief
56. Important necessary, vital, critical, indispensable, valuable, essential,
significant, primary, principal, considerable, famous, distinguished, notable, well-
known
57. Interesting fascinating, engaging, sharp, keen, bright, intelligent, animated,
spirited, attractive, inviting, intriguing, provocative, though-provoking, challenging,
inspiring, involving, moving, titillating, tantalizing, exciting, entertaining, piquant,
lively, racy, spicy, engrossing, absorbing, consuming, gripping, arresting,
enthralling, spellbinding, curious, captivating, enchanting, bewitching, appealing
58. Keep hold, retain, withhold, preserve, maintain, sustain, support
59. Kill slay, execute, assassinate, murder, destroy, cancel, abolish

16
60. Lazy indolent, slothful, idle, inactive, sluggish
61. Little tiny, small, diminutive, shrimp, runt, miniature, puny, exiguous, dinky,
cramped, limited, itsy-bitsy, microscopic, slight, petite, minute
62. Look gaze, see, glance, watch, survey, study, seek, search for, peek, peep,
glimpse, stare, contemplate, examine, gape, ogle, scrutinize, inspect, leer, behold,
observe, view, witness, perceive, spy, sight, discover, notice, recognize, peer, eye,
gawk, peruse, explore
63. Love like, admire, esteem, fancy, care for, cherish, adore, treasure, worship,
appreciate, savour
64. Make create, originate, invent, beget, form, construct, design, fabricate,
manufacture, produce, build, develop, do, effect, execute, compose, perform,
accomplish, earn, gain, obtain, acquire, get
65. Mark label, tag, price, ticket, impress, effect, trace, imprint, stamp, brand, sign,
note, heed, notice, designate
66. Mischievous prankish, playful, naughty, roguish, waggish, impish, sportive
67. Move plod, go, creep, crawl, inch, poke, drag, toddle, shuffle, trot, dawdle, walk, traipse,
mosey, jog, plug, trudge, slump, lumber, trail, lag, run, sprint, trip, bound, hotfoot,
high-tail, streak, stride, tear, breeze, whisk, rush, dash, dart, bolt, fling, scamper,
scurry, skedaddle, scoot, scuttle, scramble, race, chase, hasten, hurry, hump, gallop,
lope, accelerate, stir, budge, travel, wander, roam, journey, trek, ride, spin, slip,
glide, slide, slither, coast, flow, sail, saunter, hobble, amble, stagger, paddle, slouch,
prance, straggle, meander, perambulate, waddle, wobble, pace, swagger, promenade,
lunge
68. Moody temperamental, changeable, short-tempered, glum, morose, sullen,
modish, irritable, testy, peevish, fretful, spiteful, sulky, touchy
69. Neat clean, orderly, tidy, trim, dapper, natty, smart, elegant, well-organized,
super, desirable, spruce, shipshape, well-kept, shapely
70. New fresh, unique, original, unusual, novel, modern, current, recent
71. Old feeble, frail, ancient, weak, aged, used, worn, dilapidated, ragged, faded,
broken-down, former, old-fashioned, outmoded, pass, veteran, mature, venerable,
primitive, traditional, archaic, conventional, customary, stale, musty, obsolete,
extinct
72. Part portion, share, piece, allotment, section, fraction, fragment
73. Place space, area, spot, plot, region, location, situation, position, residence,
dwelling, set, site, station, status, state
74. Plan plot, scheme, design, draw, map, diagram, procedure, arrangement,
intention, device, contrivance, method, way, blueprint
75. Popular well-liked, approved, accepted, favourite, celebrated, common, current
76. Predicament quandary, dilemma, pickle, problem, plight, spot, scrape, jam
77. Put place, set, attach, establish, assign, keep, save, set aside, effect, achieve, do,
build
78. Quiet silent, still, soundless, mute, tranquil, peaceful, calm, restful
79. Right correct, accurate, factual, true, good, just, honest, upright, lawful, moral,
proper, suitable, apt, legal, fair
80. Run race, speed, hurry, hasten, sprint, dash, rush, escape, elope, flee
81. Scared afraid, frightened, alarmed, terrified, panicked, fearful, unnerved,
insecure, timid, shy, skittish, jumpy, disquieted, worried, vexed, troubled, disturbed,
horrified, terrorized, shocked, petrified, haunted, timorous, shrinking, tremulous,
stupefied, paralyzed, stunned, apprehensive
82. Show display, exhibit, present, note, point to, indicate, explain, reveal, prove,
demonstrate, expose
83. Slow unhurried, gradual, leisurely, late, behind, tedious, slack
84. Stop cease, halt, stay, pause, discontinue, conclude, end, finish, quit
85. Story tale, myth, legend, fable, yarn, account, narrative, chronicle, epic, sage,
anecdote, record, memoir

17
86. Strange odd, peculiar, unusual, unfamiliar, uncommon, queer, weird, outlandish,
curious, unique, exclusive, irregular
87. Take hold, catch, seize, grasp, win, capture, acquire, pick, choose, select, prefer,
remove, steal, lift, rob, engage, bewitch, purchase, buy, retract, recall, assume,
occupy, consume
88. Tell disclose, reveal, show, expose, uncover, relate, narrate, inform, advise,
explain, divulge, declare, command, order, bid, recount, repeat
89. Think judge, deem, assume, believe, consider, contemplate, reflect, mediate
90. Trouble distress, anguish, anxiety, worry, wretchedness, pain, danger, peril,
disaster, grief, misfortune, difficulty, concern, pains, inconvenience, exertion, effort
91. True accurate, right, proper, precise, exact, valid, genuine, real, actual, trusty,
steady, loyal, dependable, sincere, staunch
92. Ugly hideous, frightful, frightening, shocking, horrible, unpleasant, monstrous,
terrifying, gross, grisly, ghastly, horrid, unsightly, plain, homely, evil, repulsive,
repugnant, gruesome
93. Unhappy miserable, uncomfortable, wretched, heart-broken, unfortunate, poor,
downhearted, sorrowful, depressed, dejected, melancholy, glum, gloomy, dismal,
discouraged, sad
94. Use employ, utilize, exhaust, spend, expend, consume, exercise
95. Wrong incorrect, inaccurate, mistaken, erroneous, improper, unsuitable

LIST OF USEFUL IDIOMS/PHRASES

01. Absence makes the heart grow fonder


(we miss our friends and relatives more when they are away)
eg. She used to quarrel with her sister but now, she misses her. It is a case
of absence makes the heart grow fonder.

02. All and sundry


( everybody, all types of people)
eg. The governments new rule concerns all and sundry.

03. As different as night and day


( completely different)
eg. The twins sister may look alike but their mannerisms are as different as
night and day.

04. Bed of roses


( a happy, comfortable situation)
eg. Life is not always a bed of roses. At times, it can be challenging, too

05. Boiling point


( when one is very angry)
eg. When he repeated the mistake for the third time, the teachers
reached the boiling point.

06. Cost a bomb


(very expensive)
eg. His new bungalow house costs a bomb.

07. Curry favour with someone


(to sweet talk/ pretending to be nice to someone for owns advantage)

18
eg. Some students have been currying favour with the new form
teacher.

08. Cut your coat according to your cloth


(adjust the spending /expenses according to the money one has)
eg. That shirt is too expensive, so I have to cut my coat according to my cloth.

09. Dream come true


( a wish which has come true)
eg. Having you as a friend is a dream come true.

10. Dyed in the wool


(holds certain principles/believes strongly since small)
eg. For a person dyed in the wool, it was difficult for him to change his
ideas and values.

11. Eat humble pie


( to be apologetic when proven wrong)
eg. Youll have to eat humble pie if youre proved wrong.

12. Every nook and cranny


(everywhere)
eg. They searched every nook and cranny for the missing book but to no
avail.

13. Fall on deaf ears


( did not pay attention to the advice/warning)
eg. The teachers advice to him seemed to have fallen on deaf ears.

14. Few and far between


(very few/limited)
eg. Good jobs with bright chances for promotion are few and far between.

15. Fish out of water


(someone who is uncomfortable with the surroundings)
eg. I was like a fish out of water as I was not familiar with the place.

16. From A to Z
( to know everything in detail)
eg. You should know the details of the topic from A to Z.

17. From cradle to the grave


( throughout ones life)
eg. Whatever you learn now, you should remember it from cradle to the grave.

18. Give a big hand


( to clap/applause)
eg. Everybody gave a big hand after the dancers finished their eautiful performance.

19. Give a pat on the back


(to praise/congratulate someone)
eg. Although Lim did not excel in his exams, his parents gave him a pat on the back for
trying hard.

20. Green with envy


(feeling very envious)

19
eg. If you buy a new car, your neighbours will be green with envy.

21. Haste makes waste


(doing something in a hurry will spoil the work)
eg. She was in such a hurry that she spilt the milk on the floor. Haste makes waste.

22. In hot water


(in serious trouble)
eg. The principal caught him red-handed vandalizing. Now, he is in hot water.

23. On the dot


(at exactly the right time)
eg. We are expected to be at there at 2.30 on the dot.

24. On ones high horse


( very arrogant/proud)
eg. She has been on her high horse ever since she was admitted to the prestigious university

25. Pride and joy


(A special object that is someones love and pride)
eg. The table that he built on his own, is his pride and joy.

26. Shake like a leaf


(to tremble with fear)
eg. The boy who was caught stealing, was shaking like a leaf.

27. Show ones true colours


(to show ones true character)
eg. He pretended to be generous but he showed his true colours when he refused to donate
money to charity.

28. See red


(to become very angry)
eg. My mother saw red when she caught me coming home late at night.

29. Thick and fast


(comes in great numbers and fast)
eg. Offers to help the tragedy-stricken family came thick and fast.

30. Tom, Dick and Harry


(anybody)
eg. We do not want any Tom, Dick and Harry to enter the hall.

31. Ways and means


(methods or ways to do something)
eg. There are ways and means of making money through business deals.

20