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Learning Outcomes

Database Systems: Introduction


Thomas Connolly, Carolyn Begg, Database System, A Practical Approach to
Traditional File-based Systems
Design Implementation and Management, 4 th Edition, Addison Wesley Database Approach
Roles in the Database Environment
Advantages & Disadvantages of DBMS

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Introduction Examples of Database Application

Database System Purchases from the supermarket


Purchases using credit card
DBMS Booking a holiday at the travel
Using the local library
Taking out insurance
Database
Using the Internet
Database Apps. Studying at university

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File-based Approach File-based Processing

Traditional file-based system


An early file-based system (tradditionl way) use the manual filing
system
A mistake database system
We can learn from that mistake
Prefevent from reapeating the problem that coused by this mistake
Understanding how the file system works

Collection of application program that perform services for the


end users (e.g reports)
Program defines and manages its own data
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File-based Processing Limitations of File-based

Separation and isolation


When data is isolated in separate files, it is more difficult to access data that should
be available.
Duplication
Uncontrolled duplication of data accour
Program and data dependence
Because the physical structure and storage of the data files and records are defined
in the application code (program), so the changes to an existing structure are
difficult to make.

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Limitations of File-based Database

Incompatible file format Limitation of file-based factors:


Because the structure of files is embedded in the application programs, the (1) the definition of the data is embedded in the application programs,
structures are dependent on the application programming language. rather than being stored separately and independently;
Fixed queries and proliferation of application programs (2) there is no control over the access and manipulation of data beyond
The requirement for new or modified queries grew
that imposed by the application programs.

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Database Database

Definition Database characteristics


A shared collection of logically related data, and a description of this data, A large repository of data that can be used simultaneously by many departments
designed to meet the information needs of an organization. and users.
All data items are integrated with a minimum amount of duplication.
Logical Related Shared resource.
When we analyze the information needs of an organization, we attempt to identify Holds not only the organizations operational data but also a description of this data
entities, attributes, and relationships. (a self-describing and integrated data files)
Entities: is a distinct object (a person, place, thing, concept, or event) in the
organization that is to be represented in the database
System catalog
Metadata
Attributes: is a property that describes some aspect of the object that we wish to
Data dictionary
record.
Overhead data
Relationship: is an association between entities.

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Database Database Management System (DBMS)

Program-data independencies
The nature of database
Data abstraction
One advantage of this approach, is that we can change the internal definition of an
object without affecting the users of the object, provided the external definition
remains the same.

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Database Management System (DBMS) Database Approach as DBMS

A software system that enables users to define, create, maintain, Recovery control system - which restores the database to a previous consistent
state following a hardware or software failure.
and control access to the database.
User-accessible catalog - which contains descriptions of the data in the database.
Facilities:
Data definition language (DDL) - allows users to specify the data types and
structures and the constraints on the data to be stored in the database.
Data manipulation language (DML)/query language - allows users to insert,
update, delete, and retrieve data from the database.
Structured query language (SQL) standard language for DBMS.
Security system - which prevents unauthorized users accessing the database.
Integrity system - which maintains the consistency of stored data.
Concurrency control system - which allows shared access of the database.

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DBMS Environment DBMS Environment
Hardware Procedure
Client-server architecture Start, stop, log on, log off, back up, recovery
Software
dbms, os, network, application
Data
Schema, subschema, table, attribute
People
Data administrator & database administrator
Database designer: logical & physical
Application programmer
End-user: naive & sophisticated

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Roles in the Database Environment Advantages of DBMS


Data Administrator (DA) Control redundancy
Management of data resources Consistency
Ensure database development support corporate objectives Integrity
Database Administrator (DBA) Security
Physical realization of database
More technically oriented
Concurrency control
Database Designers Backup & recovery
Logical Data standard
Identifying data More information
Physical Data sharing & conflict control
Realization of logical database
Productivity & accessibility
Application Programmers
Implement application program for user Economy of scale
End Users (Nave and Sophisticated) Maintenance

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Limitations of DBMS
Complexity
Size
Database Systems:
Cost Thomas Connolly, Carolyn Begg, Database System, A Practical Approach to
Design Implementation and Management, 4th Edition, Addison Wesley
Software
Hardware
Conversion
Performance
Vulnerability

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