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Small Scale Vertical Axis Wind Power Generation

A Practical study with social perspective for rural India


, 1Himanshu Naik2R.M.Holmukhe,3Sailor Jignesh,4Irawati Naik
1, 2, 3,4
Bharati Vidyapeeth University, College of Engineering,
Pune, India
Naik.himanshu.a@gmail.com ( 08055743346)

Abstract-Electrical power has become a prime necessity for any resources is vital for steering the global energy supplies
country for economic development. And power shortage is a toward a sustainable path.
dominant problem, being faced by the most of the countries
today. On the top of this, the conventional fuel sources for power II. INDIAN ENERGY SCENARIO.
generation i.e. coal & oil deposits are fast getting depleted. The
Obvious way out, is to shift focus to renewable sources of energy.
Statistics reveal that a large amount of wind energy remains India is no stranger to renewable energy, whether its
untapped. solar energy, wind, hydro or biomass. We are using all four to
Although more invention has to be carried out still in some extent to another: hydro power where it is available
the use of non-conventional energy sources for power generation (hydro power is technologically the best understood, and so
to reach to most economic point, but every little effort in this among the most widely used); biomass in rural areas where
direction may provide a solution to power shortage problems. the required waste is available (cost of transportation becomes
Hence the same topic was selected as a part of the curriculum. prohibitive); and solar power more sporadically (usually also
The goal of the project is to construct a small scale wind power locally, for small domestic loads), given its high costs.
plant which is capable of producing electrical power even with
As glowing as this sound, however, India’s wind
the low wind velocity. It can be placed on the places like road
divider or remote places like villages those are not economical for power potential is 45,000 MW, making the amount harnessed
power transmission from a power plant. Earlier and conventional less than 7 % of total potential capacity. Wind energy cost
practices use horizontal axis wind turbine. But to meet the only marginally more per unit than conventional energy (RS
suitability of this task, the vertical axis wind turbine has been 4–4.5 crore/MW , compared with thermal power cost of Rs 3.7
employed. crore/MW), and even this difference becomes insignificant,
The power produced by the generator can be stored in a say proponent of the renewable energy sector, if not non-
battery and can later be used to power the street lights. These existent, when you factor in the great environmental costs of
wind turbines are portable and can therefore be used on any thermal energy. On top of this, wind is an indigenous resource
expressways or busy highways .the turbines can be used
that we can use almost unlimited amounts of, and it can be
commercially for low power applications. The implementation of
such a project would reduce the dependence of a company or generated locally.
industry on electricity board.
III. TYPE OF WIND TURBINE
I. INTRODUCTION
There are of two types:
Energy is the input to drive and improve the life  Horizontal axis wind turbine
cycle. Primarily, it is the gift of the nature to the mankind in  Vertical axis wind turbine
various forms. The consumption of the energy is directly 1. Vertical-axis wind turbines [VAWT] in which the
proportional to the progress of the mankind. With ever axis of rotation is vertical with respect to the ground
growing population, improvement in the living standard of the (and roughly perpendicular to the wind stream),
humanity, industrialization of the developing countries, the 2. Horizontal-axis wind turbines [HAWT] in which
global demand for energy expected to incurrence rather the axis of rotation is horizontal with respect to the
significantly in the near future. The primary source of energy ground (and roughly parallel to the wind stream.)
is fossil fuel, however finiteness of fossil fuel reserves and .
large scale environment degradation caused by their DIFFERNCE BETWEEN TWO WIND TURBINES
widespread use, particularly global warming, urban air
pollution and acid rain, strongly suggests that harnessing of
non conventional, renewable and environment friendly energy
Fig : Tip speed v/s Cp
From the above graph of coefficient of performance
HORIZONTAL AXIS VERTIACAL AXIS (Cp) v/s Tip Speed Ratio we get Cp corresponding to 0.35 as
WIND TURBINE WIND TURBINE 0.11.
1. In the case of horizontal axis 1. In case of vertical axis turbine
wind turbine air strikes from one air strikes from both directions.
direction only. From power equation P = 0.5 x ρ x A x Cp x V3
2. In horizontal axis wind turbine 2. In the case of vertical axis A = 0.5 x 1m²
generator, gearbox cannot be placed wind turbine the generator,
on the ground. gearbox etc. may be placed on
the ground. In above relation, 0.5 is horizontal length of striking
3. In horizontal axis wind turbine 3. In the case of vertical axis and 1is the height of blade and V is 9m/s
tower is essential hence cost of wind turbine tower is not
erecting is high. essential for the machine hence So, Mechanical power P = 0.5 x 1.225 x (0.5 x1) x
reducing the cost of erecting.
4. In horizontal axis wind turbine 4. In vertical axis wind turbine
0.11 x 9³
we need a yaw system. we don’t need yaw system. P = 25 W
5. On horizontal axis wind turbine 5. There is no requirement of
control system is required. control system which also Assume 40% efficiency to convert mechanical power in to
reduces the overall cost and electrical power.
frequent maintenance.
So, Electrical power = 0.4 × mechanical power =
IV. CALCULATION OF POWER AT VARIOUS 0.4 × 25 = 10 W.
STAGES
The power output of a wind generator is proportional  E.M.F (VOLTAGE) PRODUCED
to the area swept by the rotor - i.e. double the swept area and
the power output will also double. E=
The Power of Wind
Kinetic Energy = 0.5 x Mass x Velocity2 Where, E= Induced E.M.F in volt.
Air has a known density (around 1.23 kg/m3 at sea level), Φ = flux in Wb.
Mass/sec (kg/s) = Velocity (m/s) x Area (m2) x Density Z = no. of conductor in turns.
(kg/m3) N = Blade speed in r.p.m
P = no. of pole.
Power = 0.5 x Swept Area x Air Density x Velocity3 a = no. of parallel path.
P = 0.5 x ρ x A x Cp x V³
Where:
P = Power in watts E=
ρ= Air density (about 1.225 kg/m³ at sea level, less = 12 V
higher up)
A = Rotor striking area, exposed to the wind (m²)
Cp = Coefficient of performance Table: Calculation for electrical power output at various
V = Wind speed (m/s) wind velocities
Tip speed ratio (Tsr) = Wind Wind Calculated Electrical
speed speed mechanical power
Km/h m/s power in watt =0.4 ×
Tip Speed of blade at 60 rpm (1rps) = (2π) x (1) x (radius) mech.power
Radius = 0.5m watt
Therefore tip speed of blade = 3.14 m/s 0 0 0 0
Wind speed = 9 m/s. 5 1.385 0.089 0.035
Tsr = 3.14/9 = 0.35 10 2.770 0.715 0.286
15 4.155 2.410 0.966
20 5.540 5.720 2.290
25 6.925 11.180 4.470
30 8.310 19.320 7.730
35 9.695 30.690 12.270
40 11.080 45.810 18.320
45 12.465 65.230 26.090
50 13.850 89.470 35.790
55 15.230 119.09 47.630
Fig: Exploded PMG

The PMG consists of:


 A steel spine and shaft.
 A stator containing coils of wire
 Two magnet rotors
 A rectifier
Fig : Wind speed v/s power curve FILTER CIRCUIT
. Practically the filter circuit will try minimizing the ripple
Table : Generated E.m.f at various Blade speed as far as possible. A filter circuit generally consists of
Blade speed (r.p.m) E.m.f ( volts) capacitors, inductors or combination of both.
5 1 BATTERY CHARGING
10 2 We can use either lead acid or rechargeable Ni-Cd
15 3 batteries. In the case of a wind powdered system. The best
20 4 way to fully charge a battery is to use a small current for a
25 5 long time.
30 6
35 7 Battery Charging
40 8 Lead acid batteries should be kept in a charged
45 9 condition. In the case of a wind powered system, you may
50 10 have to wait for a wind to charge the battery. But be careful
55 11 not to discharge the battery too deeply, or to keep it too long
60 12 in a discharged state, or it will be damaged and become
65 13 useless. Stop using a battery before it is fully discharged. If
there is a problem with the wind generator, then charge the
battery from another source within two weeks.

Fig :Generated E.m.f v/s Blade speed

V. GENERATOR DESIGN: AXIAL FLUX


PERMANENT MAGNET, AIR CORED
GENERATOR

This section describes how to build a 'permanent


magnet generator' (PMG). We can also call it an 'alternator',
because it generates alternating current (AC). It will not
generate 'mains voltage' or 'utility power' AC. It generates low
voltage, 'three phase' AC, and then changes it into 'direct
current' (DC) for charging a 12 volt battery.
VII. FUTURE SCOPE
The actual process of blade designing is very
complex and need to b more aerodynamically sound. The use
of Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software would
enable a more correct design. Glass fiber Reinforced Plastic
(GRP) would have been the ideal choice for the blades as it is
lighter in weight and has good tensile and compressive
strength. Hence the blades would not damage and will have a
longer life.
Another improvement could be an arrangement to
channelize the wind on to the blades using a card board piece
placed on either side of turbine, on the turbine.
Another important change that we can incorporate is
to use a power controller circuit. As the input power is not
constant, the output power changes accordingly. Moreover
there is a mismatch in the generator output and the power
input to the battery. In order to rectify this problem we can use
a power controller circuit.
MECHANICAL DESIGN There lies huge amount of potential in the wind
power and we need to harness maximum energy available
from it by designing and using more efficient blades,
VI. ADVANTAGES & DISADVATGES OF VAWT generator, rectification process and storage of energy in the
Advantages of VAWT system: battery.
 Easier to maintain The VAWG eliminates the guessing. Wind speed,
 As the rotor blades are vertical, a yaw device is not turbine output, temperature and a host of other variables are
needed, reducing the need for this bearing and its collected and monitored in real time.
cost.
 Vertical wind turbines have a higher airfoil pitch
angle, giving improved aerodynamics while CONCLUSION
decreasing drag at low and high pressures. The implementation of vertical axis wind turbine on
 Low height useful where laws do not permit road dividers would be a great asset to the ministry of Non-
structures to be placed high. conventional energy Resources as it would reduce the burden
 Smaller VAWTs can be much easier to transport and on the consumption of conventional energy sources. They can
install. be installed on any highway with the width being the only
 Does not need a free standing tower so is much less constraint. These turbines are simple in construction and
expensive and stronger in high winds that are close to require less investment. Since, turbine is in small size, it can
the ground. harness a limited amount of wind. Therefore they can be used
 Does not need to be pointed into the wind, can turn for low power application such as for street lighting on any
regardless of the direction of the wind. busy road. Moreover it can also be use to light up the
advertisement hoardings. Other application could be in
Disadvantages of VAWT system: diversions on highways and traffic lights. Further more, these
 Most VAWTs produce energy maximum at only 50% turbines can find application in lighting up the toll plazas on
of the efficiency of HAWTs in large part because of highways. Since the battery is portable we can use it in some
the additional drag that they have as their blades other location for any low voltage purpose. Thus there is
rotate into the wind. balance between the cost and the power available. Future
 There may be a height limitation to how tall a vertical prospect, the addition of speed governing system and control
wind turbine can be built and how much sweep area circuit may make the model much acceptable. The emerging
it can have. trends in the technology have shown a way to the use of non-
 Most VAWTS need to be installed on a relatively flat conventional energy sources so efficiently and a little effort at
piece of land and some sites could be too steep for the side may find an effective solution for the boom of the
them but are still usable by HAWTs. electrical energy by the society.
 Most VAWTs have low starting torque, and may
require energy to start the turning. REFERENCES
 A VAWT that uses guy wires to hold it in place puts 1. http://www.windpower.org/en/core.htm
stress on the bottom bearing as all the weight of the 2. http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/V/AE_vertical-
axis_wind_turbine.html
rotor is on the bearing
3. http://www.awea.org/faq/wwt_basics.html
4. http://www.greenpowertalk.org/showthread.php?t=296
5. www.re-energy.ca/pdf/wind-turbine.pdf
6. www.geocities.com/suresh_bbsr2000/C_FMFP_Chandigarh_2001.
pdf
7. http://eco-web.com/index/category/9.4.1.html
8. http://www.practicalaction.org/?id=small_scale_wind_power
9. http://practicalaction.org/docs/energy/blades_manual.pdf
10. http://practicalaction.org/docs/energy/pmg_manual.pdf
11. http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/story?id=45371
12. http://club.cycom.co.uk/vertAxis.html
13. http://www.zenithcrusher.com/stm_vertical_mill.html?gclid=CKna
pPrM-ZMCFRgbewodN1iK4w
14. http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d04756.pdf
15. http://www.educypedia.be/education/windturbines.htm
16. http://www.windstuffnow.com/main/vawt.htm
17. www.scoraigwind.com/pmgbooklet/itpmg.pdf
APPENDIX
SPECIFICATIONS
1. Number of poles =8
2. Rated power =80W
3. Rated speed =60 Rpm
4. Rated voltage = 12 V
5. Air gap length, mm =0.6
6. No of coils =6
7. maximum current capacity =10 A
8. No of turns/coil =800
9. Resistance/coil =17Ω
10. Total no of magnets =32
11. Magnet dimensions, =50 x 50 x 10 mm
12. Flux density =1.5 Wb/m2
13. flux Φ = 3.75 mWb
14. Total height of structure =1600mm
15. Diameter of rotor =300mm

Author
(1) Himanshu A. Naik student of M.Tec. Power Syatems (2009-11) at
Bharati Vidyapeeth University, College of Engineering, Pune, India

(2) R.M.Holmukhe prof. of M.Tec. Power Syatems at Bharati Vidyapeeth


University, College of Engineering, Pune, India

(3) Sailor Jignesh student of M.Tec. Power Syatems (2009-11) at Bharati


Vidyapeeth University, College of Engineering, Pune, India

(4) Irawati A. Naik student of M.Tec. Power Syatems (2009-11) at Bharati


Vidyapeeth University, College of Engineering, Pune, India