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# 14/09/2017

## 1. Atoms, molecules and stoichiometry

Learning outcomes

## 1.1 Relative masses of atoms and molecules

a) define and use the terms relative atomic, isotopic, molecular and formula
masses, based on the 12C scale

## 1.2 The mole and the Avogadro constant

a) define and use the term mole in terms of the Avogadro constant

## 1.3 The determination of relative atomic masses, Ar

a) analyse mass spectra in terms of isotopic abundances (knowledge of the
working of the mass spectrometer is not required)
b) calculate the relative atomic mass of an element given the relative
abundances of its isotopes, or its mass spectrum

## 1.4 The calculation of empirical and molecular formulae

a) define and use the terms empirical and molecular formula
b) calculate empirical and molecular formulae, using combustion data or
composition by mass

## 1.5 Reacting masses and volumes (of solutions and gases)

a) write and construct balanced equations
b) perform calculations, including use of the mole concept, involving:
(i) reacting masses (from formulae and equations)
(ii) volumes of gases (e.g. in the burning of hydrocarbons)
(iii) volumes and concentrations of solutions
c) deduce stoichiometric relationships from calculations such as those in 1.5(b)

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Some definitions

## Relative atomic mass, Ar: average mass of one atom of the

element relative to the mass of carbon-12, which has a mass of
exactly 12

## Relative isotopic mass: mass of an isotope of an element relative

to the mass of carbon-12, which has a mass of exactly 12

## Relative molecular mass, Mr: mass of a molecule of the

compound relative to the mass of carbon-12, which has a mass of
exactly 12

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elements present

## Molecular formula: shows the total number of atoms of each

element present in a molecule of the compound

more
useful

## Calculation of empirical formula

- for example, if magnesium is burned in oxygen, magnesium
oxide is formed

## Magnesium and Oxygen

atoms are present in the
ratio 1:1
MgO

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Example

An oxide of copper has the following composition by mass: Cu, 0.635 g; O; 0.080 g.
Calculate the empirical formula of the oxide.

Cu O
Ar (Cu) = 63.5
Mass (g) 0.635 0.080 Ar(O) = 16
Amount (mol) = mass = mass
Ar Ar

0.635 0.080
= =
63.5 16

= 0.0100 = 0.00500
divide by the smallest amount:
Cu: 0.0100 / 0.00500 = 2 2 Cu
Cu2O
O: 0.00500 / 0.00500 = 1 1O

## CALCULATION OF EMPIRICAL AND MOLECULAR FORMULAE

Combustion analysis

## the composition by mass of organic compounds can be found by

combustion analysis.

## involves the complete combustion in oxygen of a sample of known

mass

all the carbon is converted to carbon dioxide and all the hydrogen
to water

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Combustion analysis

Example
- 0.500 g of an organic compound X produces 0.733 g of carbon dioxide and 0.300 g of water on
complete combustion
Ar (H) = 1
- the mass spectrum of the compound shows it has a molecular mass of 60 Ar (C) = 12
Ar(O) = 16

## 12g of carbon are present 2g of hydrogen are present

in 1 mol (=44g) CO2 in 1 mol (=18g) H2O

## divide by the smallest amount:

1C
C: 0.0167 / 0.0167 = 1
H: 0.033 / 0.0167 = 2 2H CH2O Mr = 30

C2H4O2

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## formulae are determined by the electronic configurations and

the ways in which elements combine to form compounds

## in the formula of an ionic compound, the total number of positive

charges must exactly equal the total number of negative charges:
Mg2+ 2 x Al3+ = 2 x (+3) = + 6
MgO Al2O3
O2- 3 x O2- = 3 x (-2) = - 6

## some compounds do not contain ions but contain covalent bonds.

The formulae of simple covalent compounds may be deduced from
the numbers of electrons required to complete the outer electron
shell of each atom present:
C (requires 4 electrons) H

H C H
H (requires 1 electron)
H

compounds

## many non-metals (and some metals) combine with other non-

metals such as oxygen to form negative ions;
they start with the name of the element and end in ate
(or sometimes ite) (e.g. sulphate (sulphite)

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## When iron(III) oxide is reduced to metallic iron

by carbon monoxide, the carbon monoxide is
oxidised to carbon dioxide

## When zinc is placed in aqueous copper(II)

sulphate, copper metal is displaced, forming a
red brown deposit on the zinc. In the reaction,
zinc dissolves to form zinc(II) sulphate.

- full equation

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## CALCULATIONS INVOLVING CONCENTRATIONS AND GAS VOLUMES

Concentrations of solutions

## one mole of a compound is dissolved in a solvent

to make one cubic decimeter (1dm3) of solution

## Concentration = 1 mol dm-3

Molarity
1M

n
C =

experimental
technique
Titration
very useful in determining an
unknown concentration

## 5 things you need to know:

the balanced equation for the reaction showing the moles of the
two reactants
the volume of the solution of the first reagent
the concentration of the solution of the first reagent
the volume of the solution of the second reagent
the concentration of the solution of the second reagent

## If we know four of these, we can

calculate the fifth

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Titration
In the titration 20.0 cm3 of 0.200 mol dm-3 aqueous sodium hydroxide exactly neutralises a
25.0 cm3 of the sulphuric acid.
What is the concentration of the sulphuric acid solution?

## 2NaOH (aq) + H2SO4 (aq) Na2SO4 (aq) + 2H2O (l)

V(NaOH) = 20.0 cm3 = 20.0 x 10-3 dm3 n(NaOH) = C x V = 0.200 x 20.0 x 10-3
C(NaOH) = 0.200 mol dm-3 = 4.00 x 10-3 mol

n(H2SO4) = x n(NaOH)
= x 4.00 x 10-3
V(H2SO4) = 25.0 cm3 = 25.0 x 10-3 dm3
= 2.00 x 10-3 mol
C(H2SO4) = ???

## C(H2SO4) = n / V = 2.00 x 10-3 / 25.0 x 10-3

M(H2SO4) = 2 x 1 + 32 + 4 x 16
= 0.080 mol dm-3 = 98 g mol-1
= 0.080 x 98 g dm-3

= 7.84 g dm-3

Gas volumes
In 1811, Avogadro discovered that equal volumes of all
gases contain the same number of molecules

room temperature
and pressure

occupies
1 mole of any gas V = 24.0 dm3

## we can use reacting volumes of gases to determine the

stoichiometry of a reaction

number of moles

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## e.g. 20 cm3 of hydrogen react with exactly 10 cm3 of

oxygen to form water

Example

## 10 cm3 of a gaseous hydrocarbon X burned completely in exactely

50 cm3 of oxygen to produce water and 30 cm3 of carbon dioxide
(room temperature and pressure).

We need to determine:

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## 3 mol of CO2 are obtained from 1 mol of X

each hydrocarbon molecule
contain 3 C atoms

53=2

## 2 mol of oxygen molecules combine with hydrogen atoms from the

hydrocarbon to form 4 mol of water 4x2H=8

Homework

## When 10 cm3 of the hydrocarbon is burned in 70 cm3 of oxygen (an

excess), the final gaseous mixture contains 30 cm3 of carbon
dioxide and 20 cm3 of unreacted oxygen.
All gaseous volumes were measured under identical conditions.

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