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Appendix A

AP BIOLOGY EQUATIONS AND


FORMULAS
Statistical Analysis and Probability
x = sample mean
Mean Standard Deviation*
n n = size of the sample
1
x=
n
xi ( xi x )2
i =1 S= n 1 s = sample standard deviation (i.e., the sample-based
estimate of the standard deviation of the
Standard Error of the Mean* Chi-Square population)

SEx =
s ( o e )2
n 2 = o = observed results
e
Chi-Square Table e = expected results
p Degrees of Freedom
value 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Degrees of freedom are equal to the number of
0.05 3.84 5.99 7.82 9.49 11.07 12.59 14.07 15.51
distinct possible outcomes minus one.
0.01 6.64 9.21 11.34 13.28 15.09 16.81 18.48 20.09

Laws of Probability Metric Prefixes


If A and B are mutually exclusive, then:
P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) Factor Prefix Symbol
If A and B are independent, then: 109
giga G
P(A and B) = P(A) P(B) 106 mega M
103 kilo k
Hardy-Weinberg Equations
10-2
centi c
p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1 p = frequency of the dominant allele
10-3 milli m
in a population
10-6 micro
p + q = 1 q = frequency of the recessive allele
in a population 10-9 nano n
10-12 pico p

Mode = value that occurs most frequently in a data set

Median = middle value that separates the greater and lesser halves of a data set

Mean = sum of all data points divided by number of data points

Range = value obtained by subtracting the smallest observation (sample minimum) from the greatest (sample maximum)

* For the purposes of the AP Exam, students will not be required to perform calculations using this equation; however,
they must understand the underlying concepts and applications.

Appendix A A1
Rate and Growth dY = amount of change Water Potential ()
Rate
dt = change in time = P + S
dY
dt
B = birth rate P = pressure potential
Population Growth
dN = B D D = death rate S = solute potential
dt
N = population size The water potential will be equal to
Exponential Growth
the solute potential of a solution in an
dN K = carrying capacity
= rmax N open container because the pressure
dt
potential of the solution in an open
Logistic Growth rmax = maximum per capita
container is zero.
growth rate of population

dN = r
max NK N The Solute Potential of a Solution
dt K T2 = higher temperature
S = iCRT
Temperature Coefficient Q10 T1 = lower temperature i = ionization constant (this is 1.0 for
sucrose because sucrose does not
k2 = reaction rate at T2 ionize in water)
Primary Productivity Calculation C = molar concentration
k1 = reaction rate at T1
mg O2 0.698 mL mL O2
= R = pressure constant (R = 0.0831 liter
L mg L
Q10 = the factor by which the bars/mole K)
mL O2 0.536 mg C fixed mg C fixed reaction rate increases when
=
L mL O2 L
the temperature is raised by T = temperature in Kelvin (C + 273)
(at standard temperature and pressure) ten degrees

Surface Area and Volume r = radius Dilution (used to create a dilute solution from a
Volume of a Sphere concentrated stock solution)
l = length
V = 4 r3 CiVi = CfVf
3 h = height
Volume of a Rectangular Solid
V = lwh w = width i = initial (starting) C = concentration of solute
Volume of a Right Cylinder f = final (desired) V = volume of solution
s = length of one
V = r2h side of a cube
Surface Area of a Sphere Gibbs Free Energy
A = surface area G = H TS
A = 4r2
Surface Area of a Cube V = volume G = change in Gibbs free energy
A = 6s2 = sum of all S = change in entropy
Surface Area of a Rectangular Solid H = change in enthalpy
A= surface area of each side T = absolute temperature (in Kelvin)
pH* = log10 [H+]
* For the purposes of the AP Exam, students will not be required to perform calculations using this equation; however,
they must understand the underlying concepts and applications.

For use with labs only (optional).

A2 Appendix A