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Quick Reference

Chapter
1: STATISTICA: General Overview 1
2: Step-by-Step Examples 9
Analytics 11
Data Management 72
Enterprise Installations 98
3: User Interface 125
4: Output from Analyses 145
5: STATISTICA Documents 167
6: Graphs 187
7: Customizing STATISTICA 211
8: STATISTICA Visual Basic 219
9: STATISTICA Query 241
10: STATISTICA and .NET 247

Appendixes
A: Getting More Help 255
B: STATISTICA Enterprise Server 261
C: STATISTICA Family of Products 273


QuickReference

iiSTATISTICAQuickReference

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QuickReference:Contents

STATISTICA Quick Reference


Contents
1. STATISTICA: A GENERAL OVERVIEW OF FEATURES ....................................... 1
2. STEP-BY-STEP EXAMPLES................................................................................. 9
Analytics..............................................................................................................11
Example1:Correlations................................................................................11
Example2:ANOVA........................................................................................34
Example3:VariableBundles.........................................................................40
Example4:ByGroupAnalyses.....................................................................43
Example5:SummaryResultsPanels(Quality,Process,GageSixpacks).....51
Example6:STATISTICADataMiner..............................................................57
DataManagement..............................................................................................72
Example1:SpreadsheetFormulasandBatchFormulas..............................72
Example2:InputDataDirectlyfromExcel...................................................77
Example3:AccessingDataDirectlyfromaSQLServerDatabase................79
Example4:DataPreparationCleaningandFiltering.................................84
Example5:UsingSTATISTICAETL(Extract,Transform,andLoad)...............93
EnterpriseInstallations.......................................................................................98
Example1:STATISTICAEnterpriseServerDownload/Offload
Analysesfrom/toServers........................................................................98
Example2:UsingSTATISTICAinRegulatedEnvironments.........................102
Example3:STATISTICAEnterprise..............................................................109
TheSTATISTICAEnterpriseServerOption...................................................124
OtherExamples
STATISTICAVisualBasic:RecordinganAnalysis.........................................230
STATISTICAQuery:AccessingExternalDatabases......................................244
3. USER INTERFACE .......................................................................................... 125
GeneralFeatures...............................................................................................127
CustomizedOperation................................................................................127
AlternativeAccesstotheSameFacilitiesCustomStylesofWork...........128
MultipleAnalysisSupport.................................................................................128

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InteractiveUserInterface.................................................................................130
Overview.....................................................................................................130
TheFlowofInteractiveAnalysis.................................................................131
FeaturesofAnalyses...................................................................................134
DocumentTypes.........................................................................................137
STATISTICAVisualBasicandControllingSTATISTICAfrom
OtherApplications.......................................................................................140
WebBrowserBasedUserInterface:STATISTICAEnterpriseServer.................141
MicrosoftOfficeintegration.............................................................................142
4. SIX CHANNELS FOR OUTPUT FROM ANALYSES ........................................ 145
Overview...........................................................................................................147
1.STATISTICAWorkbooks.................................................................................148
2.StandAloneWindows...................................................................................150
3.Reports..........................................................................................................151
STATISTICAReports.....................................................................................151
ReportsfromWorkbooks............................................................................152
RTF(RichTextFormat)Reports..................................................................152
Acrobat(PDF)Reports................................................................................153
HTMLReports.............................................................................................154
4.MicrosoftWord.............................................................................................154
5.OutputtotheWeb........................................................................................155
KnowledgePortal........................................................................................155
PublishingContentfromSTATISTICAEnterpriseServer.............................157
PublishingContentfromSTATISTICADesktopApplications.......................160
6.SharePointorSTATISTICADocumenTManagementSystem(SDMS)...........163
SharePoint...................................................................................................163
STATISTICADocumentManagementSystem(SDMS)................................165
5. STATISTICA DOCUMENTS ............................................................................. 167
Workbooks........................................................................................................169
NavigatingtheWorkbookTree...................................................................171
Spreadsheets(MultimediaTables)...................................................................173
Inputvs.OutputSpreadsheets...................................................................177
STATISTICASpreadsheetOLEDBProvider..................................................178
Reports..............................................................................................................180
NavigatingtheReportTree.........................................................................181

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Graphs...............................................................................................................182
Macros(STATISTICAVisualBasicPrograms).....................................................183
STATISTICAProjects..........................................................................................184
6. GRAPHS ......................................................................................................... 187
Overview...........................................................................................................189
CustomizationofGraphs..................................................................................190
GeneralCategoriesofGraphs...........................................................................198
GraphsofInputData.........................................................................................199
GraphsofBlockData.........................................................................................202
GraphsMenuGraphs........................................................................................204
GraphBrushingandCaseStates.......................................................................205
OtherSpecializedGraphs..................................................................................208
CreatingGraphsviaSTATISTICAVisualBasic....................................................209
7. CUSTOMIZING STATISTICA .......................................................................... 211
CustomizationoftheInteractiveUserInterface..............................................213
CustomizationofDocuments...........................................................................214
Localvs.PermanentCustomizations................................................................215
GeneralDefaults...............................................................................................215
GraphCustomization........................................................................................217
MaintainingDifferentConfigurationsofSTATISTICA.......................................218
CustomizedConfigurationsforIndividualUsersonaNetwork.......................218
8. STATISTICA VISUAL BASIC ........................................................................... 219
RecordingSTATISTICAVisualBasic(SVB)Macros(Programs)..........................224
AnalysisMacros,Master(Log)Macros,andKeyboardMacros.................224
Example:RecordinganAnalysis.......................................................................230
ActiveXObjectsandDocuments(ATechnicalNote)........................................238
9. STATISTICA QUERY ....................................................................................... 241
Overview...........................................................................................................243
STATISTICAQuery:QuickStepbyStepInstructions........................................244
InPlaceProcessingofDataonRemoteServers(theIDP
TechnologyOption).....................................................................................245
OLAPCUBES......................................................................................................246
LargeDatabaseFiles.........................................................................................246

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10. PROGRAMMING STATISTICA FROM .NET................................................. 247


AddingtheSTATISTICAObjectLibraryintoYour.NETProject...................249
ManuallyCreatingtheCOMInteropLibrary..............................................251
SupportingMultipleVersionsofSTATISTICA..............................................251
InstantiatingSTATISTICA.............................................................................252
TheLibraryVersionofSTATISTICA..............................................................252
APPENDIXES
A.GettingMoreHelp........................................................................................255
B.STATISTICAEnterpriseServer........................................................................261
C.STATISTICAFamilyofProducts.....................................................................273
INDEX ................................................................................................................. 289

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1

CHAPTER

STATISTICA:
A GENERAL OVERVIEW
OF FEATURES

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1

CHAPTER

STATISTICA:
A GENERAL OVERVIEW
OF FEATURES

STATISTICAisacomprehensiveanalytic,research,andbusinessintelligencetool.It
isanintegrateddatamanagement,analysis,mining,visualization,andcustom
applicationdevelopmentsystemfeaturingawideselectionofbasicandadvanced
analyticproceduresforbusiness,datamining,science,andengineering
applications.

Analytic Facilities
STATISTICAincludesnotonlygeneralpurposeanalytic,graphical,anddatabase
managementprocedures,butalsocomprehensiveimplementationsofspecialized
methodsfordataanalysis(e.g.,predictivedatamining;business,socialsciences,
andbiomedicalresearch;orengineeringapplications).Allanalytictoolsofferedin
theSTATISTICAlineofsoftwareareavailableaspartofanintegratedpackage.
Thesetoolscanbecontrolledthroughaselectionofalternativeuserinterfaces
including:
ahighlyoptimizedinteractiveuserinterface(withoptionstoexecute
STATISTICAfromwithinMicrosoftOfficeandotherapplications),
acompletethinclient,browserbaseduserinterface(inSTATISTICA
EnterpriseServer)thatenablesyoutooffloadtimeconsumingtaskstothe
serverandworkcollaboratively,and

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acomprehensive,industrystandard,.NETcompatibleprogramming
interface(includingthebuiltin,.NETcompatibleVisualBasic),offering
accesstomorethan14,000externallycallablefunctions.
Interactiveuserinterfacescanbeeasilyautomatedviamacrosandcustomized
usingavarietyofmethods,andtheyarerecordableintheformofindustry
standardVBscripts.Thebuiltindevelopmentenvironmentcanbeusedto
interfaceSTATISTICAwithotherapplicationsandenterprisewideinfrastructures
ortobuildcustomextensionsofanycomplexity,fromsimpleshortcutsto
advanced,largescaledevelopmentprojects.

Unique Features
SomeoftheuniquefeaturesoftheSTATISTICAlineofsoftwareinclude:
thebreadthofselectionandcomprehensivenessofimplementationof
analyticalprocedures,
theunparalleledselection,quality,andcustomizabilityofgraphics
integratedseamlesslywitheverycomputationalprocedure,
aselectionofefficientanduserfriendlyuserinterfaces,
theeaseofcustomizabilityusingthetrulyopenarchitecturecompatible
withvirtuallyallenterpriseanddevelopmentenvironments(including
.NET),thatexposesSTATISTICAsmorethan14,000functions,
awideselectionofadvancedsoftwaretechnologies(seeSoftware
Technology,page6)thatisresponsibleforSTATISTICAspractically
unlimitedcapacity,performance(speed,responsiveness),andapplication
customizationoptions,
nativeRscriptscanberundirectlywithinSTATISTICAandRoutputcanbe
retrievedasnativeSTATISTICASpreadsheetsandGraphs.
OneofthemostuniqueandimportantfeaturesoftheSTATISTICAfamilyof
applicationsisthatthesetechnologiesenableeveninexperienceduserstotailor
STATISTICAtotheirspecificpreferences.Youcancustomizepracticallyevery
aspectofSTATISTICA,includingeventhelowlevelproceduresofitsuserinterface.
ThesameversionofSTATISTICAcanbeused:

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BynovicestoperformroutinetasksusingthedefaultanalysisStartup
dialogQuicktab(containingjustafew,selfexplanatorybuttons),oreven
byaccessingSTATISTICAwiththeirWebbrowsers(andahighlysimplified
frontend),and
Byexperiencedanalysts,professionalstatisticians,andadvanced
applicationdeveloperswhocanintegrateanyofSTATISTICAshighly
optimizedprocedures(morethan14,000functions)intocustom
applicationsorcomputingenvironments,usinganyofthecuttingedge
.NETandWebcompatibletechnologies.

The General Philosophy of the


STATISTICA Approach
STATISTICAsdefaultconfiguration(itsgeneraluserinterfaceandsystemoptions)
isaresultofyearsoflisteningcarefullytoourusers.
Wehavereceivedfeedbackfromtensofthousandsofourusers,representing
hundredsofthousandsofourusersfromallcontinentsand,practicallyspeaking,
allwalksoflife.Oneofthemostimportantfactsthatwehavelearnedfrom
theseusersishowdifferenttheirneedsandpreferencesare(bothacross
individualsandprojectsorapplications).Inordertomeetthosedifferentiated
needs,STATISTICAisdesignedtoofferperhapsoneofthemostflexibleandeasily
customizableuserinterfacesofanycontemporaryapplication.
AlthoughSTATISTICAprovidesaccesstoapowerfularsenalofadvancedsoftware
technologies(seeSoftwareTechnology,page6),youdonotevenneedtoknow
aboutthem,becausetheyaredesignedtoworkautomaticallyandintuitively.A
noviceusermayneverseemorethanafewselfexplanatorybuttons.Advanced
options,however,areonlyonetabormouseclickaway.Practicallyeveryaspectof
STATISTICA(fromthestartupconfiguration,tothewaytheoutputisgenerated
andmanagedbythesystem,tohowSTATISTICApromptsyoutochooseyournext
step)canbechangedwithamouseclick.Moreover,STATISTICAremembersyour
selectionsuntilyouchangeyourmind.Practicallyalldialogsusedtoselectan
analysisorperformaroutineoperationcanbeeasilyreplaced(e.g.,simplified,
enhanced,orcombinedwithcustom,userdesignedprocedures).STATISTICAwill
alwayslookandworkthewayyouwant.

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Software Technology
(A Technical Note)
Theperformance,customizability,andwideselectionofoptionsthatcanbe
tailoredtoyourneedsmentionedintheprevioussectionwouldnotbepossibleif
STATISTICAdidnotfeaturetheadvancedtechnologiesthatdriveallfunctionsof
theapplication.
STATISTICAusesand/orsupportsvirtuallyalltherelevantleadingedgesoftware
technologiesavailabletoday.Everyoneofthemorethan14,000STATISTICA
functionsisaccessibletoexternalapplications.Practicallynolimitationsare
imposedintermsofeithertheamountorcomplexityofdatathatcanbestored
andaccessed.STATISTICAalsoisoptimizedforWebandmultimediaapplications.
Computationalandgraphicsproceduresaredrivenbycountlessproprietary
optimizationssuchas,forexample,thequadrupleprecisioncomputational
technologythatenablesustoovercomethelimitationsoftheIEEEfloatingpoint
storagestandardsanddeliverscomputationalaccuracynormallyfoundonlyin
designatedmathapplications(thatfeaturearbitraryprecisionoptions)butnotin
highvolumedataprocessingapplicationssuchasstatisticalordatamining
programs.
Asaresult,STATISTICAoffersunmatchedspeed,numericalprecision,and
responsiveness,whichisaidedbymultithreading(andtheadvanced
supercomputerlikedistributed/parallelprocessingarchitectureofferedin
theClientServerversion,i.e.,STATISTICAEnterpriseServer).
DataaccessisbasedonaflexiblestreamingtechnologythatenablesSTATISTICAto
workeffortlesslywithboththesimpleinputdatafilesstoredonthelocaldriveand
queriesofmultidimensionaldatabasescontainingterabytesofdataandstoredin
remotedatawarehousesandprocessedinplace(i.e.,withouthavingtoimport
themtoalocalstorage;thisfeatureisavailableinenterpriseversionsof
STATISTICA).
Forexample,youcansimultaneouslyrunmultipleinstancesofSTATISTICA[inany
combinationoflocal,network,andClientServer(Webbased)environments],each
runningmultipleanalysesofdatafrommultipleandsimultaneouslyopeninput
datafilesandqueries,andtheresultscanbeorganizedintoseparateprojects.
STATISTICAsinputandoutputdatafilesandgraphscanbeofpracticallyunlimited

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size,comprisinghierarchiesofdocumentsofvarioustypes.Theoutputcanbe
directedtoamultitudeofoutputchannelssuchasmultimediatables,high
performanceworkbooks,reports(including.pdffilesandMicrosoftOffice
documents),andtheInternet,aswellastheoptionalSTATISTICADocument
ManagementSystem,whichcanbeseamlesslyintegratedwithanySTATISTICA
application.

Web Enablement
Oneoftheuniquefeaturesofthe STATISTICAfamilyofapplicationsisthatitisfully
Webenabled,andifSTATISTICAEnterpriseServerisinstalled,youcannotonly
offloadtimeconsumingtaskstotheserver,butalsoaccessthecomprehensive
functionalityoftheSTATISTICAsystemusingathinclient(browser)interface.This
includestheoptiontoexecutepreparedscriptsandaplethoraofinteractive
functionality,includingsuchoperationsasinteractivelybuildingpredictivedata
miningmodelsbydraggingarrowsintheinteractiveworkspaceofSTATISTICAData
Miner(usingonlythebrowser,withoutanyclientsoftwareinstalled).Formore
information,pleaserefertoAppendixBSTATISTICAEnterpriseServer,page263.
NotethatmostfeaturesdescribedinthismanualareavailableinallSTATISTICA
products,althoughsomesectionsofthemanualreferonlytospecificproducts
suchastheSTATISTICAEnterpriseServerfacilitiesortheSTATISTICADataMiner
lineofproducts.

Record of Recognition
Wearepleasedtoreportthat,asofthisprinting,STATISTICAhasreceivedthe
highestratingineverypublishedindependentcomparativereviewinwhichithas
beenfeatured.Inthehistoryofthesoftwareindustry,veryfewproductshaveever
achievedsucharecord.
FormoreinformationaboutStatSoftandSTATISTICAsrecordofrecognition,
pleasevisitourWebsiteatwww.StatSoft.com.

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CHAPTER

STEP-BY-STEP EXAMPLES
ANALYTICS
Example 1: Correlations..................................................................... 11
Example 2: ANOVA.............................................................................. 34
Example 3: Variable Bundles............................................................. 40
Example 4: By-Group Analyses .......................................................... 43
Example 5: Summary Results Panels
(Quality, Process, Gage-Sixpacks) ............................................... 51
Example 6: STATISTICA Data Miner .................................................. 57
DATA MANAGEMENT
Example 1: Spreadsheet Formulas and Batch Formulas ............... 72
Example 2: Input Data Directly from Excel ...................................... 77
continued

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Example 3: Accessing Data Directly from a SQL


Server Database ...........................................................................79
Example 4: Data Preparation Cleaning and Filtering ...................84
Example 5: Using STATISTICA ETL (Extract,Transform,
and Load) .......................................................................................93
ENTERPRISE INSTALLATIONS
Example 1: STATISTICA Enterprise Server
Download/Offload Analyses from/to Servers ............................98
Example 2: Using STATISTICA in Regulated Environments.......... 102
Example 3: STATISTICA Enterprise ................................................. 109
The STATISTICA Enterprise Server Option ...................................... 124
OTHER EXAMPLES
STATISTICA Visual Basic: Recording an Analysis .......................... 230
STATISTICA Query: Accessing External Databases ....................... 244

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CHAPTER

STEP-BY-STEP EXAMPLES

ANALYTICS
Example 1: Correlations
Starting STATISTICA.AfterinstallingSTATISTICA,youcanstarttheprogramby
selectingSTATISTICAfromtheWindowsStartAllProgramssubmenu.


YoucanalsodoubleclickoneitherSTATIST.exeinWindowsExplorerortheiconof
anySTATISTICAfile,e.g.,aspreadsheet,tostarttheprogram.
WhenyoustartSTATISTICAforthefirsttime,theUserInterfacedialogisdisplayed,
whereyoucanchoosetousetheribbonbarortheclassicdropdownmenus.All
examplesinthismanualusetheribbonbar.

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Notethatitiseasytoswitchbetweentheribbonbarandtheclassicmenusatany
time.Whentheribbonbarisdisplayed,clickthemenuicon ontheQuickAccess
toolbar(locatedintheupperleftcorneroftheribbonbar)todisplaytheclassic
menus.Whentheclassicmenusaredisplayed,selectRibbonBarfromtheView
menutodisplaytheribbonbar.
Tocreatemorespaceintheapplicationwindow,youcanminimizetheribbonbar.
Eitherdoubleclickontheselectedtabheader,orrightclickontherightsideofthe
rowoftabsandfromtheshortcutmenu,selectMinimizetheRibbon.
AfteryouclickOKintheUserInterfacedialog,theWelcometo
STATISTICAdialogisdisplayed,whichcontainsoptionsthatare
usefultoaccesscommonfunctionsinSTATISTICA.
Ifyouprefer,youcanselecttheDontshowthisdialogagain
checkboxlocatednearthebottomofthedialog,andthisdialog
willnotbedisplayedwhenyoustartSTATISTICA.Dependingon
theversionofSTATISTICAyouhave,theremaybeotherdialogs
displayedaswell.
Customization of STATISTICA.Practicallyallaspectsofthe
behaviorandappearanceofSTATISTICA(evenmanyelementary
featuresillustratedinthisexample,suchaswhereoutputis
directed)canbepermanentlycustomizedtomatchyour
preferences.Forexample,eventhefirststep(openingSTATISTICA)canbe
customized;youcanchangethedefaultfullscreenopeningmode,theappearance

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ofthedataspreadsheet,andmanyotheraspectsofSTATISTICA,whichwillbe
illustratedthroughoutthismanual.
Selecting a data file.Forthisexample,openAdstudy.sta:ontheHometabinthe
Filegroup,clicktheOpenarrow.Fromthedropdownmenu,selectOpen
ExamplestodisplaytheOpenaSTATISTICADataFiledialog.Doubleclickonthe
Datasetsfolder,anddoubleclickonAdstudy.Youcanalsoopendatafilesby
1)selectingOpenDocumentfromtheOpendropdownmenutodisplaytheOpen
dialogwhereyoucanbrowsetotheappropriatelocation,2)clickingthe
buttonlocatedoneachStartupPanel(thefirstdialogdisplayedwhenstarting
analysisorgraphspecifications),or3)clickingthefoldericonaboveOpenonthe
Hometab.
Data spreadsheets (multimedia tables).STATISTICAdatafilesaredisplayedina
spreadsheet(i.e.,onespreadsheetisonedatafile).AllSTATISTICASpreadsheets
aredisplayedusingStatSoftspowerfulmultimediatabletechnology,andtheycan
containnotonlypracticallyunlimitedamountsofdata,butalsosound,video,
embeddeddocuments,automationscripts,andcustomuserinterfaces.
Itispossibletohavemorethanonedataspreadsheetopenatatime(witheach
spreadsheetconnectedtoadifferentanalysis).
DatamanagementfacilitiesareavailableontheDatatab,whichisdisplayed
wheneveraspreadsheetisopen.Commandsonthetabsareorganizedinlogical
groups;e.g.,theDatatabcontainstheTransformations,Cases,Variables,
Manage,andModegroups.


AllthecommandsontheribbonbarandclassicmenusaredescribedinSTATISTICA
Help;pointto(highlight)acommand,andpressF1onyourkeyboardtodisplaythe
respectiveHelptopic.
Variable specifications.Thevariable(column)headersinthespreadsheet
containthevariablenames.DoubleclickonthefirstvariableheaderGENDER
todisplayitsVariablespecificationsdialog.

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Spreadsheet formulas.Usingtheoptionsinthisdialog,youcanchangethe
variablenameand/orformat,enteraformulatorecalculatethevaluesofthe
variable,etc.IftheentryintheLongname(labelorformulawithFunctions)box
startswithanequalsign(=),STATISTICAinterpretsitasaformula[acommentcan
followafterasemicolon(;)].Forexample,ifyouenterintotheLongnamebox
(ofvariableone)=(v2+v3+v4)/3or=mean(v2:v4),thecurrentvaluesofthat
variablewillbereplacedbytheaverageofvariablestwothroughfour,separately
foreachcase(row)ofthespreadsheet.
Specificationsofallvariablescanalsobereviewedandeditedtogetherina
combinedVariableSpecificationsEditordialog,accessedbyclickingtheAll
SpecsbuttonintheVariablespecificationsdialog.


Shortcut menus accessed from spreadsheets.Ausefulfeatureofthe
spreadsheetisthelistofcommandsavailablefromitsshortcutmenus.Shortcut
menusaredynamicmenusthataredisplayedbyrightclickingonanitem(e.g.,a
cellinthespreadsheet,asshownintheillustrationbelow).Thespreadsheet
shortcutmenusincludeaselectionofspecificdatamanagementoperationsand

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otheroptionsrelatedtothecurrentlyselectedvariable(column),case(row),block
ofcells,orotheritem.


Six ways of handling output.Youcancustomizethewayoutputismanagedin
STATISTICA(seeFiveChannelsforOutputfromAnalyses,page147).Youcandirect
alloutputtofivebasicchannels:
Workbooks,seepage148,
Standalonewindows,seepage150,
Reports,seepage151,
MicrosoftWord,seepage154,
TheWeb,seepage155,and
SharePointorSTATISTICADocumentManagementSystem(SDMS),see
page163
Thefirstfouroutputchannelslistedabovearecontrolledbytheoptionsinthe
OutputManageroptionspaneoftheOptionsdialog[accessiblebyselectingthe
ToolstabandclickingOptions;intheOptionsdialog,selectOutputManagerin
thetreeview(theleftpane)toviewrelatedspecificationsintheoptionspane(the
rightpane)].SharePointoptionsarelocatedontheHometabintheSharePoint
group.STATISTICADocumentManagementSystem(SDMS),acompletesolution
formanagingdocuments,isavailablefromStatSoft.SeeAppendixCSTATISTICA
FamilyofProductsformoreinformation.

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ThereareanumberofwaystooutputtotheWeb,dependingontheversionof
STATISTICAyouhave.Thesemeansforoutputcanbeusedinmanycombinations
(e.g.,aworkbookandreportsimultaneously),andeachoutputchannelcanbe
customizedinavarietyofways.Also,alloutputobjects(spreadsheetsandgraphs)
cancontainotherembeddedandlinkedobjectsanddocuments,soSTATISTICA
outputcanbehierarchicallyorganizedinavarietyofways.
Calculating a correlation matrix.Now,letscomputeacorrelationmatrixforthe
variablesintheAdstudy.stadatafile.TodisplaytheBasicStatisticsandTables
StartupPanel,selecttheStatisticstab,andintheBasegroup,clickBasicStatistics,

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orselectStatisticsBasicStatistics/TablesfromtheSTATISTICAStartmenu in
thelowerleftcornerofthescreen.


Atthispoint,ensurethatablock(agroupofselectedcells)isnotselectedinthe
spreadsheet.Todeselectablock,clickinanycellinthespreadsheet.Ifablockis
selected,STATISTICAassumesthatthevariablescorrespondingtotheblockare
intentionallypreselectedfortheanalysis,andwhenyoulaterclicktheOKor
Summarybuttontoproducetheanalysisresults,insteadofpromptingyouto
selectvariables,STATISTICAwillautomaticallyproducethecorrelationsforthe
selectedblockvariables.
IntheBasicStatisticsandTablesStartupPanel(showninthenextillustration),


selectCorrelationmatricesandclicktheOKbutton(ordoubleclickCorrelation
matrices)todisplaytheProductMomentandPartialCorrelationsdialog.

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Quick vs. advanced analyses.Aswithmostanalysisspecificationdialogs(and
othertypesofSTATISTICAdialogs),theProductMomentandPartialCorrelations
dialogisorganizedbytabsaccordingtothetypeofoptionsavailable.Typically,at
leasttwocategoriesofoptionsareavailable.
TheQuicktabofadialogcontainsthemostcommonlyusedoptions,enablingyou
toquicklyspecifyabasicanalysiswithouthavingtosearchthroughnumerous
options.


TheAdvancedtabtypicallycontainsthesameoptionsavailableontheQuicktab
aswellasavarietyoflesscommonlyusedoptions(e.g.,inthiscase,optionsto
savematrices,producelesscommonlyrequestedstatistics,andcreateavarietyof
plots).Additionaltabsareoftenavailableaswell,dependingonthetypeof
analysisbeingspecified.

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Notethatinsomecases,onlyaQuicktabisavailable.Aswithalldialogsin
STATISTICA,youcanpressF1onyourkeyboardorclickthe buttonintheupper
rightcornertodisplayaHelptopiccontaininginformationabouttheoptions
availableonthecurrentlyselectedtab.
The self-prompting nature of STATISTICA dialogs.AlldialogsinSTATISTICA
followtheselfpromptingdialogconvention,whichmeansthatwheneveryou
arenotsurewhattoselectnext,simplyclicktheOKbuttonortheSummary
buttonandSTATISTICAwillproceedtothenextlogicalstep,promptingyouforthe
specificinputneeded(e.g.,variablestobeanalyzed).
Variables button.EveryanalysisspecificationdialoginSTATISTICAcontainsoneor
moreVariablebuttonsusedtodisplaythevariableselectiondialogtospecify
variablestobeanalyzed.
Variable selection dialog.Forthisexample,clicktheOnevariablelistbutton(or
pressALT+Vonyourkeyboard)todisplaytheSelectthevariablesfortheanalysis
dialog.Notethatthevariableselectiondialogisalsodisplayedifyouclickthe
Summarybuttonbeforevariablesareselected.(Asmentionedpreviously,ifa
blockofvariablesisselectedinthedatafile,thosevariableswillbespecified
automaticallyfortheanalysis,andwhenyouclicktheSummarybutton,a
correlationmatrixwillbeproducedforthevariablesselectedintheblock,notall
variablesinthedatafile.)


Thevariableselectiondialogsupportsvariouswaysofselectingvariables(including
thestandardWindowsSHIFT+clickandCTRL+clickconventionstoselectrangesand
discontinuouslistsofvariables).
Youcanalsousevariousshortcutsandoptionsinthevariableselectiondialogto
reviewthecontentsofthedatafile.Forexample,youcanspreadthevariablelist

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toreviewthevariableslongnamesorformulas(clicktheSpreadbutton),oryou
canzoominonavariable(clicktheZoombutton)toreviewasortedlistofall
valuesanddescriptivestatisticsfortheselectedvariable(seethenextillustration).


Forthisexample,selectvariables1through10inthevariableselectiondialog.


ClicktheOKbutton.Amessagewillbedisplayedinformingyouthattherearetext
variablesselected.ClicktheContinuewithcurrentselectionbuttontoreturnto
theProductMomentandPartialCorrelationsdialog.Next,clicktheSummary
buttontogenerateacorrelationmatrixfortheselectedvariables.


NotethatinsteadofclickingtheSummarybutton,youcouldhaveclickedthe
Summary:CorrelationsbuttonontheQuicktaborontheAdvancedtabwiththe

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sameresults.Also,dependingonthedefaultsyouhavespecifiedforhandling
output(intheOutputManageroptionspaneoftheOptionsdialog),the
Correlationsspreadsheetcanbedisplayedinareportorastandalonewindowor
senttoaWorddocument,ratherthaninaworkbookasshownabove.
Summary graphs.STATISTICAprovidesextremelyflexibletoolsandmethodsfor
summarizingkeyresultsingraphsand/ortables.Forexample,resumetheanalysis
byclickingtheProductMomentandbuttonontheAnalysisbarinthelowerleft
cornerofthescreenorbypressingCTRL+Ronyourkeyboard,andclickthe
buttontodisplaysummarygraphsforeachpairofvariablesinthecorrelation
matrix.


Thesegraphsnotonlyshowthescatterplotofpointsforeachcorrelation,butalso
thedistributions(histograms)foreachvariable,aswellastherespective
correlationcoefficientandregressionequation.
STATISTICAincorporatesmanysuchdisplaystosummarizebasicdescriptive
statistics,correlations,theresultsofGageorProcesscapabilitystudies,orother
typesofdataanalyses.
Results spreadsheets (multimedia tables).Inadditiontostoringdata,
spreadsheetsareusedinSTATISTICAtodisplaymostofthenumericoutput.Note
thatspreadsheetsoffermanydisplayfeaturesandoptions,andinthisexample,
significantcorrelationsaremarkedwithadifferentformattohelpdistinguish
them;bydefault,thecolorisred(intheCorrelationsspreadsheet,seethecell
adjacenttoMEASURE07underGENDER).Spreadsheetscanholdanywherefroma
shortlinetogigabytesofoutput,andtheyofferavarietyofoptionstofacilitate
reviewingtheresultsandvisualizingtheminpredefinedandcustomdefined

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graphs,aswillbeseenlaterinthisexample.Also,asmentionedpreviously,
STATISTICASpreadsheetsaremanagedusingStatSoftspowerfulmultimediatable
technology.Theycanhandlenotonlyvirtuallyunlimitedamountsofdata,butalso
video,sound,customuserinterfaces,andautoexecutingscripts,aswellasoffer
virtuallyunlimitedcustomizationoptions(seepage173forfurtherdetailson
spreadsheets).
Spreadsheet options.Mostspreadsheetfacilitiesareaccessibleviaoptionson
theDatatabandtheshortcutmenus(displayedbyrightclickinginthe
spreadsheet).Youcantrytheseoptionstoseehowtheywork,oryoucanreview
theirdescriptionsbypressingtheHelpkey(F1).Youcanchangeallaspectsofthe
displayformatsforeachspreadsheetcolumn,edittheoutput,orappendblank
casesandvariablestomakeroomfornotesoroutputpastedfromothersources.
Spreadsheetscanbeprintedinavarietyofways(bydefault,inpresentation
qualitytableswithgridlines).Also,sincespreadsheetsareusedforinput,youcan
easilyspecifyananalysisusingtheresultsfromapreviousanalysis(forexample,
youcouldusethiscorrelationmatrixtospecifyamultidimensionalscaling
analysis).Tousearesultsspreadsheetasaninputspreadsheet,selecttheInput
checkbox(locatedontheDatatabintheModegroup)whenthatspreadsheetis
active.
Analysis workbooks and other output options.Allresultscanbedisplayed(and
stored)instandalonewindows,reports,Worddocuments,orworkbooks,which
representthedefault(andperhapsthemostversatile)wayofhandlingoutput
fromanalyses(seepage148andpage169forfurtherdetailsonworkbooks).
DependingonyourselectionsintheOutputManager(accessiblebyselectingthe
HometabandclickingOptionsintheToolsgroup,andthenselectingOutput
Manager,locatedunderAnalyses/Graphs),resultscanbeputinasingle
workbookthatholdstheresultsfromallanalyses,aseparateanalysisworkbook
thatholdstheresults(spreadsheetsandgraphs)fromasingleanalysis,the
workbookthatcontainstheoriginaldatafile,orapreexistingworkbook.
Additionally,youcanchoosetohavetheresultssenttoaworkbookautomatically,
oryoucansendthemtotheworkbookyourselfbyclickingAddtoWorkbookon
theHometabintheOutputgrouptosendselectedstandalonespreadsheetsor
graphstoaworkbook.

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Chapter2:StepbyStep Examples

Output Manager.Whichtypeofworkbookyouchoose,orwhetheryouchooseto
useaworkbook,dependsentirelyonhowyouprefertostoreyourdataand
results.Tochangetheoutputdestinationfortheresultsofaparticularanalysis
only,clickthe buttononanyanalysisorgraphspecificationdialog,and
selectOutputtodisplaytheAnalysis/GraphOutputManagerdialog.


Tochangeoutputoptionsforallanalyses,usethe(global)OutputManager(the
OutputManageroptionspaneoftheOptionsdialog,accessiblebyselectingthe
HometabandclickingOptionsintheToolsgroup),orselecttheUseglobalOutput
settings(changesherewillaffecttheglobalsettings)optionbuttoninthe
Analysis/GraphOutputManagerdialog.
Aswithallworkbooks,individualdocuments(e.g.,spreadsheetsorgraphs)or
groupsofdocumentscanbeprinted,extracted,copied,anddeletedfroman
analysisworkbook.SeetheoverviewofWorkbooksonpage169formoredetails;
seealsotheElectronicManual(STATISTICAHelp).
Copy vs. Copy with Headers.Contentsofspreadsheetscanbecopiedtothe
ClipboardbypressingCTRL+C(whichcopiesonlythecontentsoftheselectedblock).
Tocopytheblockalongwithitsrespectivevariableandcasenames,selecttheEdit
tab,andintheClipboard/Datagroup,clicktheCopyarrowandselectCopywith
Headersfromthedropdownmenu.Whenspreadsheetsarepastedintoaword
processordocument,theywillbeactive(inplaceeditable)STATISTICAobjects,

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standardRTFformattedtables,unformattedtext,pictures,orHTML(depending
onyourchoiceinthePasteSpecialdialogofthewordprocessor).
Printing spreadsheets.Toproduceahardcopyofanoutputspreadsheet,select
theHometab,andintheFilegroup,clickPrint(orpressCTRL+P)todisplaythePrint
Spreadsheetdialog,inwhichyouspecifyprintingoptions.Youcanalsousethe
shortcutmethodofclickingtheprintericon locatedontheQuickAccesstoolbar
intheupperleftcorneroftheribbonbar.Thisshortcutmethoddoesnotdisplay
thePrintSpreadsheetdialog,butprintstheentirecurrentdocument.Ifyouwant
toprintadocumentfromwithinaworkbook,ensurethatthedocumentisselected
intheworkbook,andselecttheSelectionoptionbuttoninthePrintSpreadsheet
dialog.Youcanalsoextractacopyofthedocumentfromtheworkbook(dragit
fromthetreepane,orselectthedocumentandclickMoveontheWorkbooktab
intheExtractgroup)andthenprintit.
Optional reports of all output.Workbooksofferperhapsthemostflexible
optionstomanageyouroutput(seepages148and169).Insomecircumstances,
however,itmaybeusefultoautomaticallyproducealogofallresults(contentsof
allspreadsheetsand/orgraphs)inatraditionalwordprocessorstylereportformat
wherecommentsandannotationscanbeinsertedinarbitrarylocations,objects
canbeplacedsidebyside,etc.(seepage151andpage180forfurtherdetails
onreports).

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UsetheoptionsintheOutputManagertocreatesuchareport.Todisplaythe
OutputManager,selecttheToolstab,clickOptions,andintheOptionsdialog,
selectOutputManagerlocatedunderAnalyses/Graphs(forglobalchanges).To
displaytheAnalysis/GraphOutputManagerdialog,clickthe buttonin
anyanalysisorgraphspecificationdialog,andselectOutput(forlocalchanges).
IntheOutputManageroptionspaneoftheOptionsdialogorinthe
Analysis/GraphOutputManagerdialog,clicktheReportOutputarrow.Fromthe
dropdownmenu,selecteitherSendtoMultipleReports(oneforeach
Analysis/Graph),SingleReport(commonforallAnalyses/graphs),or[SelectFile]
(whichwilldisplaytheOpendialogwhereyoucanselectanalreadyestablished
report).
IntheOutputManager,youcanalsospecifytheamountofsupplementary
informationtobeincludedwiththespreadsheetresults.UsetheSupplementary
detailoptiontospecifyeitherBrief(includesonlytheselectedspreadsheetsand
graphs),Medium(includestheselectedspreadsheetsandgraphsaswellasthe
currentdatafilename,informationoncaseselectionconditionsandcaseweights
ifanywerespecified,alistofallvariablesselectedforeachanalysis,andthe
missingdatavaluesforeachvariable),Long[includesallinformationfromthe
Mediumformatandthelongvariablelabels(e.g.,formulas),reservingonelineof
output(ormore)foreachvariable],orComprehensive(includesallinformation
includedintheLongreportformataswellasacompletelistofallofthetextlabels
foreachselectedvariable).

Interpretation of the results STATISTICA Electronic Manual (Help) and the


Electronic Statistics Textbook.Nowletsreturntotheexampleandthe
correlationmatrixthathasbeenproduced.

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Eachofthecellsofthecorrelationmatrixrepresentsavalue(intherangeof1.00
to+1.00)thatreflectstherelationbetweenthevariables(seetherespective
variableandcaseheaders).Thehighertheabsolutevalueofthecorrelation
coefficient,theclosertherelation;ifthevalueispositive,therelationispositive
(highvaluesofonevariablecorrespondtohighvaluesoftheothervariable;
likewise,lowvaluesofonevariablecorrespondtolowvaluesoftheother
variable).Ifthevalueisnegative,theoppositeistrue(lowvaluesofonevariable
correspondtohighvaluesoftheothervariable).
Tolearnmoreabouthowtointerpretvaluesofcorrelations,youcanreviewa
comprehensive,illustrateddiscussionofthetopicintheElectronicManual
(STATISTICAHelp),whichfeaturesthecompletecontentsoftheStatSoftElectronic
StatisticsTextbook.TodisplaytheElectronicManual,selecttheHelptab,andin
theHelpgroup,clickHelp.OntheSearchtaboftheElectronicManual,enterthe
respectiveterm(e.g.,Correlations)intotheTypeintheword(s)tosearchforbox,
clicktheListTopicsbutton,andthenselectthedesiredtopicintheSelecttopic
box(inthiscase,CorrelationsIntroductoryOverview):

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Chapter2:StepbyStep Examples

AnothervaluablereferencetoolistheStatSoftElectronicStatisticsTextbook(an
awardwining,Webbasedgeneralresourceonstatisticsthathasbeen
recommendedbyEncyclopediaBritannicaforitsQuality,Accuracy,Presentation,
andUsability).


Toopenthetextbook,selecttheHelptab,andintheHelpgroup,clickElectronic
StatsTextbook.
Also,manytopicsinSTATISTICAHelpcontainalinktothetextbook.


Clickthelinkintheupperrightcornerofthetopictodisplaytherespectivepagein
theElectronicTextbook.

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Producing graphs from spreadsheets.Oneoftheimportant(andoften
overlooked)issuesdiscussedintheElectronicManualistheimportanceof
scatterplotsinexaminingcorrelations.Forexample,evenverylargeandhighly
statisticallysignificantcorrelationcoefficientscanbeentirelyduetooneunusual
datapoint(outlier),andifthatisthecase,thenthecorrelationcoefficient(even
ifstatisticallysignificant)wouldhavenovaluetous(i.e.,itwouldhaveno
predictivevalidity).Followingthisconcern,andtheadviceoftheElectronic
Manual,letsexamineascatterplotthatwillvisualizearelationbetweenthe
variablesand,thus,visualizeaparticularcorrelationcoefficientfromthetable.
Whileexaminingthespreadsheet,youcanviewthecorrelationsgraphically,for
example,tovisualizethecorrelationbetweenvariablesMeasure06and
Measure04.Toproduceascatterplotforthesetwovariables,rightclickonthe
respectivecorrelationcoefficient(0.162269).Intheresultingshortcutmenu,
selectGraphsofInputDataScatterplotbyMEASURE06Regression,95%conf.,
asshowninthenextimage.

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Chapter2:StepbyStep Examples


Thespecifiedgraphwillbedisplayed.


Aswecanlearnfromthegraph,therearenounusualpatternsofdata,thus,there
isnoreasontobeconcernedaboutoutliers(seetheshortdiscussionofoutlierson
page28;seealsothetopiconoutliersintheElectronicManual).
Graph customization.Notethatnow,whenthefocusisonthegraphwindow,the
Edittabcontainsdifferentoptionsthanitdidforthespreadsheets.


Itcontainsavarietyofgraphcustomizationanddrawingtools.Manyofthese
optionsarealsoavailablefromshortcutmenusaccessedbyrightclickingon
specificpartsofthegraph.Notethattheoptionsonshortcutmenusare

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hierarchical,meaningthatthefirstoneortwooptionsapplyspecificallytothe
graphelementyouhaveselected,whileloweroptionswilldisplaydialogsthat
offermoreoptionsonagreatervarietyofgraphelementsrelatedtotheelement
youhaveselected.Ifyourightclickanywhereinthespaceoutsidethegraphaxes,
amenuofglobaloptionsisdisplayed(asshowninthenextimage).


Formoreinformationongraphcustomization,seepage190andtheElectronic
Manual.
Nowletsreturntothespreadsheet.
Split scrolling in spreadsheets.Spreadsheetscanbesplitintouptofoursections
(panes)bydraggingthesplitbox(thesmallrectangleatthetopofthevertical
scrollbarortotheleftofthehorizontalscrollbar).Thisisusefulifyouhavealarge
amountofinformationandyouwanttoreviewresultsfromdifferentpartsofthe
spreadsheet.Whenyoumovethemousepointertothesplitbox,themouse
pointerchangesto or .Now,topositionthesplit,dragittothedesired
position.

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Youcanchangethepositionofthesplitbydraggingthesplitbox(nowlocated
betweenpanes)toanewposition.


Notethatverticallysplitpanesscrolltogetherwhenyouscrollhorizontally;
horizontallysplitpanesscrolltogetherwhenyouscrollvertically.Forinformation
abouthighlightingblocksofdataacrosssplitpanesandaboutvariablespeed
highlightingofblocksofdata,seeHowcanIexpandablockinthespreadsheet
outsidethecurrentscreen?intheElectronicManual.
Drag-and-drop.STATISTICAsupportsthecompletesetofstandardspreadsheet
(MicrosoftExcelstyle)draganddropfacilities.Forexample,inordertomovea
block,pointtotheborderoftheselection(themousepointerchangestoan
arrow)anddragittothenewlocation.


Tocopyablockofdata,pointtotheborderoftheselection(themousepointer
changestoanarrow),anddragtheselectiontoanewlocationwhilepressingthe
CTRLkey.Notethatwhenyouaredraggingtheselection,aplussign(+)isdisplayed
nexttothemousepointertoindicateyouarecopyingthetextratherthanmoving
it(seethenextimage).

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Toinsertablockbetweencolumnsorrows,pointtotheborderoftheselection
(themousepointerchangestoanarrow)andthendragtheselectionwhile
pressingtheSHIFTkey.
Ifyoupointbetweenrows,aninsertionbarisdisplayedbetweentherows,and
whenyoureleasethemousebutton,theblockisinsertedbetweenthosetworows
[creatingnewcase(s)].Ifyoupointbetweencolumns,aninsertionbarisdisplayed
betweenthecolumns,andwhenyoureleasethemousebutton,theblockis
insertedbetweenthosetwocolumns[creatingnewvariable(s)].
NotethatifyoualsopresstheCTRLkeywhileyouaredraggingtheselection,the
blockwillbecopiedandinsertedinsteadofmovedandinserted;apluswillappear
nexttothemousepointer(asshowninthenextillustration).


Additionally,aseriesofvalueswithinablockcanbeextrapolated(AutoFilled)by
draggingtheFillHandle(thesmall,solidsquarelocatedonthelowerrightcorner
oftheblockborder).

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Electronic Manual.STATISTICAprovidesanElectronicManualwith
comprehensivedocumentationonallprogramproceduresandalloptions,
availableinacontextsensitivemanner(thereisatotalofmorethan100
megabytesofcompresseddocumentationincluded).Toaccessthemanual,select
theHelptabandclickHelpintheHelpgroup,orclickthe iconintheupperright
corneroftheribbonbar.Youcanalsopointto(highlight)amenucommandor
selectatabinadialogforwhichyouwantinformation,andpressF1onyour
keyboardtodisplaytherespectiveHelptopic,orclicktheHelpbutton thatison
thecaptionbarofalldialogs.
Duetoitsdynamichypertextorganization,organizationaltabs(Contents,Index,
Search,andFavorites),andvariousfacilitiesusedtocustomizetheHelpsystem,it
isfastertousetheElectronicManualthantolookforinformationinthetraditional
manuals.
Also,ToolTipsdisplayshortexplanationsofthecommandswhenthemouse
pointerhoversoverthem.
Statistical Advisor.AStatisticalAdvisorfacilityisbuiltintotheSTATISTICA
ElectronicManual.OntheHelptabintheHelpgroup,clickStatisticalAdvisorto
displayasetofsimplequestionsaboutthenatureoftheresearchproblemandthe
typeofyourdata.Clickontheappropriatelinkstoanswerthequestions,and
suggestionsforthestatisticalproceduresthatappearmostrelevantwillbe
displayed,containinglinkstoguideyoutothespecificproceduresinthe
STATISTICAsystem.

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Directjumps(hypertextlinks)intheStatisticalAdvisortopicsguideyouto
correspondingIntroductoryOverviews,whichdiscussindetailtherespective
statisticalmethodsandprocedures.

Example 2: ANOVA
Calling the ANOVA module.Forthisexampleofa2x2(between)x3(repeated
measures)design,opentheAdstudy.stadatafile.Then,tostartthe
ANOVA/MANOVAanalysis,selecttheStatisticstab,andintheBasegroup,click
ANOVAtodisplaytheGeneralANOVA/MANOVAStartupPanel.


Thisdialogisusedtospecifyverysimpleanalyses(e.g.,viaOnewayANOVA
designswithonlyonebetweengroupfactor)andmorecomplexanalyses(e.g.,via
RepeatedmeasuresANOVAdesignswithbetweengroupfactorsandawithin
subjectfactor).
Design.SelectRepeatedmeasuresANOVAastheTypeofanalysisandQuick
specsdialogastheSpecificationmethod,andthenclicktheOKbuttoninthe
GeneralANOVA/MANOVAStartupPaneltodisplaytheANOVA/MANOVA
RepeatedMeasuresANOVAdialog.


Specifying the design (variables).Thefirst(betweengroup)factorisGender
(with2levels:MaleandFemale).Thesecond(betweengroup)factorisAdvert
(with2levels:PepsiandCoke).Thetwofactorsarecrossed,whichmeansthat

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therearebothMaleandFemalesubjectsinthePepsiandCokegroups.Eachof
thosesubjectsrespondedtothreequestions(thisrepeatedmeasurefactorwillbe
calledResponse;ithasthreelevelsrepresentedbyvariablesMeasure01,
Measure02,andMeasure03).
ClicktheVariablesbutton(intheANOVA/MANOVARepeatedMeasuresANOVA
dialog)todisplaythevariableselectiondialog.SelectMeasure01through
Measure03asdependentvariables(fromtheDependentvariablelistfield)and
GenderandAdvertasfactors[fromtheCategoricalpredictors(factors)field].


ThenclicktheOKbuttontoreturntotheANOVA/MANOVARepeatedMeasures
ANOVAdialog.
The repeated measures design.Thedesignoftheexperimentthatwearegoing
toanalyzecanbesummarizedasfollows:
Between-Group Between-Group Repeated Measure Factor: Response
Factor #1: Factor #2: Level #1: Level #2: Level #3:
Gender Advert Measure01 Measure02 Measure03
Subject 1 Male Pepsi 9 1 6
Subject 2 Male Coke 6 7 1
Subject 3 Female Coke 9 8 2
. . . . . .
. . . . . .
. . . . . .

Specifying a repeated measures factor.Theminimumnecessaryselectionsare


nowcomplete,and,ifwedidnotwanttoselecttherepeatedmeasuresfactor,we
wouldbereadytoclicktheOKbuttonandseetheresultsoftheanalysis.However,
forourexample,weneedtospecifythatthethreedependentvariableswehave
selectedbeinterpretedasthreelevelsofarepeatedmeasures(withinsubject)
factor.Unlesswedoso,STATISTICAassumesthatthosearethreedifferent
dependentvariablesandrunsaMANOVA(i.e.,MultivariateANOVA).

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Inordertodefinethedesiredrepeatedmeasuresfactor,clicktheWithineffects
buttonontheQuicktabtodisplaytheSpecifywithinsubjectsfactordialog.


NotethatSTATISTICAhassuggestedtheselectionofonerepeatedmeasuresfactor
with3levels(defaultnameR1).Youcanspecifyonlyonewithinsubject(repeated
measures)factorviathisdialog.Tospecifymultiplewithinsubjectfactors,usethe
GeneralLinearModelsmodule(availableintheoptionalAdvanced
Linear/NonlinearModelspackage).PresstheF1keyonyourkeyboardwhilethe
Specifywithinsubjectsfactordialogisdisplayed(orclickthe buttoninthe
upperrightcornerofthedialog)todisplaytheElectronicManualtopicthat
describesalloptionsinthisdialogandcontainslinkstocomprehensivediscussions
ofrepeatedmeasuresandexamplesofdesigns.
Forthisexample,editthenameforthefactor:intheFactorNamebox,changethe
defaultR1toRESPONSE,andclicktheOKbuttontoexitthedialog.
Codes (defining the levels) for between-group factors.Youdonotneedto
manuallyspecifycodesforbetweengroupfactors[i.e.,thereisnoneedtoinstruct
STATISTICAthatvariableGenderhastwolevels:1and2(orMaleandFemale)]
unlessyouwanttopreventSTATISTICAfromusing,bydefault,allcodes
encounteredintheselectedgroupingvariablesinthedatafile.Toentersuch
customcodeselection,clicktheFactorcodesbuttontoaccesstheSelectcodesfor
indep.vars(factors)dialog.


Beforeyoumakeyourselections,youcanusetheoptionsinthisdialogtoreview
valuesofindividualvariablesbyclickingtheZoombutton,scanthefile,andfillin
thecodesfields(e.g.,GenderandAdvert)foranindividualvariableorallvariables,
etc.Fornow,clicktheOKbuttonintheSelectcodesforindep.vars(factors)

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dialog;STATISTICAautomaticallyfillsinthecodesfieldswithalldistinctivevalues
encounteredintheselectedvariables,


andclosesthedialog.
Performing the analysis.ClicktheOKbuttonintheANOVA/MANOVARepeated
MeasuresANOVAdialog.TheanalysisisperformedandtheANOVAResultsdialog
isdisplayed,whichcontainsvariousoutputspreadsheetsandgraphsoptions.


Thisdialogcontainsseveraltabsthatenableyoutoquicklylocatethedesired
resultsoptions.Forexample,ifyouwanttoperformplannedcomparisons,select
theCompstab.Toviewresidualstatistics,selecttheResidstab.Forthisexample,
wewillonlyusetheresultsoptionsavailableontheQuicktab.
Reviewing ANOVA results.LetsstartbylookingattheANOVAsummaryofall
effectstablebyclickingtheAlleffectsbutton(theonewiththeSUMMicon ).


Theonlyeffect(ignoringtheIntercept)inthisanalysisthatisstatisticallysignificant
(p=.007)istheRESPONSEeffect.Thisresultmaybecausedbymanypossible
patternsofmeansoftheRESPONSEeffect(formoreinformation,consultthe

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ANOVAIntroductoryOverviewintheElectronicManual).Wewillnowlookatthe
marginalmeansforthiseffectgraphicallytoseewhatitmeans.
TodisplaytheANOVAResultsdialogagain(thatis,resumetheanalysis),press
CTRL+RorclicktheANOVAResultsbuttonontheanalysisbar.Then,clicktheAll
effects/GraphsbuttontodisplaytheTableofAllEffectsdialogtoreviewthe
meansforindividualeffects.


Thisdialogcontainsasummarytableofalleffects(withmostoftheinformation
youhaveseeninthealleffectsspreadsheet)andisusedtoreviewindividual
effectsfromthattableintheformoftheplotsoftherespectivemeans(or,
optionally,spreadsheetsoftherespectivemeanvalues).
Plot of means for a main effect.IntheTableofAllEffectsdialog,doubleclickon
thesignificantmaineffectRESPONSE(theonemarkedwithanasteriskinthep
column)toproducetherespectiveplot.


Thegraphindicatesthatthereisacleardecreasingtrend;themeansforthe
consecutivethreequestionsaregraduallylower.Eventhoughthereareno
significantinteractionsinthisdesign(seethediscussionoftheTableofalleffects,

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page37),wewilllookatthehighestorderinteractiontoexaminetheconsistency
ofthisstrongdecreasingtrendacrossthebetweengroupfactors.
Plot of means for a three-way interaction.Toseetheplotofthehighestorder
interaction,intheTableofAllEffectsdialog,doubleclickontherowmarked
RESPONSE*GENDER*ADVERT,representingtheinteractionbetweenfactors1
(Gender),2(Advert),and3(Response).Anintermediatedialog,Specifythe
arrangementofthefactorsintheplot,isdisplayed,whichisusedtocustomize
thedefaultarrangementoffactorsinthegraph(notethat,unlikethepreviousplot
ofasimplefactor,thecurrenteffectcanbevisualizedinavarietyof ways).


ClicktheOKbuttontoacceptthedefaultarrangementandproducetheplotof
means.


Asyoucansee,thispatternofmeans(splitbythelevelsofthebetweengroup
factors)doesnotindicateanysalientdeviationsfromtheoverallpatternrevealed
inthefirstplot(forthemaineffect,RESPONSE).Nowyoucancontinueto
interactivelyexamineothereffectsrunposthoccomparisons,planned
comparisons,extendeddiagnostics,etc.tofurtherexploretheresults.
Interactive data analysis in STATISTICA.Thisexampleillustratesthewayin
whichSTATISTICAsupportsinteractivedataanalysis.Youarenotforcedtospecify

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alloutputtobegeneratedbeforeseeinganyresults.Evensimpleanalysisdesigns
canproducelargeamountsofoutputandcountlessgraphs,butusuallyyoucannot
knowwhatwillbeofinterestuntilyouhaveachancetoreviewthebasicoutput.
WithSTATISTICA,youcanselectspecifictypesofoutput,interactivelyconduct
followuptests,andrunsupplementarywhatifanalysesafterthedataare
processedandbasicoutputreviewed.STATISTICAsflexiblecomputational
proceduresandwideselectionofoptionsusedtovisualizeanycombination
ofvaluesfromnumericaloutputoffercountlessmethodstoexploreyourdataand
verifyhypotheses.
Automating analyses (macros and STATISTICA Visual Basic).Anyselections
thatyoumakeinthecourseoftheinteractivedataanalysis(includingboth
specifyingthedesignsandchoosingtheoutputoptions)areautomatically
recordedintheindustrystandardVisualBasiccode.Youcansavesuchmacrosfor
repeateduse(youcanalsoassignthemtotoolbarbuttons,modifyoreditthem,
combinethemwithotherprograms,etc.).Formoreinformation,seeChapter8
STATISTICAVisualBasiconpage219ortheSTATISTICAVisualBasicPrimer.

Example 3: Variable Bundles


STATISTICAoffersauniqueoptionvariablebundlestolocateasubsetofdata
quicklyandeasilyinalargedatafile.Bundlescanbecreatedtoorganizelargesets
ofvariablesandtofacilitatetherepeatedselectionofthesamesetofvariables.
OpenEnginePerformance.sta.Thisdatasetdescribestheperformanceoflarge
enginesandcontainsvariousprocessparametersrecordedduringtheir
manufacture.Itincludes128engines;theirEfficiency,FuelEconomy,andPoweras
measuredduringtesting;and74processparameterscollectedduringthe
manufactureofeachengine.
Forthisexample,wewillproceedwiththepremisethatweoftenneedtogenerate
analysesinwhichthesamesetofvariablesisrepeatedlyused.
SelecttheDatatab,andintheVariablesgroup,clickBundlestodisplaythe
VariableBundleManagerdialog.

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ClicktheNewbuttontodisplaytheNewBundledialog,


enterthenameProductionintheBundlenamefield,andclicktheOKbutton.The
Selectvariablesforbundledialogisdisplayed,whichcontainsallthevariablesin
theEnginePerformance.stadataset.


Forouranalyses,weneedtoselectthevariablesInput01Input05,Input20,
Input30Input35,andInput70.Youcanselectthesevariablesusingthestandard
WindowsSHIFT+clickandCTRL+clickconventionstoselectrangesanddiscontinuous
listsofitems,respectively.
ClicktheOKbuttontoclosetheSelectvariablesforbundledialogandreturnto
theVariableBundleManager.

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Theleftpaneofthisdialogdisplaysthenamesofallbundlesthathavebeen
definedforthisspreadsheet(youcancreatenumerousbundlesineach
spreadsheetifneeded).Therightpanedisplaysthecontentsofthebundlethatis
currentlyselectedintheleftpane.Ifbothofthesepanesareempty,nobundles
havebeencreatedforthisspreadsheet.
YoucanmakechangestoabundlebyclickingtheEditbutton,discardabundleby
clickingtheDeletebutton,changethetitleofabundlebyclickingtheRename
button,andproduceaspreadsheetcontaininginformationaboutthebundlesfor
theactivedataspreadsheetbyclickingtheOutputtoSpreadsheetbutton.
Forthisexample,clicktheOKbuttontoacceptthebundlewecreatedandclose
theVariableBundleManagerdialog.
Then,selecttheStatisticstab,andintheBasegroup,clickMultipleRegressionto
displaytheMultipleLinearRegressionStartupPanel.OntheQuicktab,clickthe
Variablesbuttontodisplaythevariablespecificationdialog.
Bundlesaredisplayedinbracketsandlisted(inalphabeticalorder)atthetopof
thevariablelist.IntheIndependentvariablelist,selecttheProductionbundleto
specifywithoneclickofthemousebuttonInput01Input05,Input20,Input30
Input35,andInput70astheindependentvariablesfortheanalysis.

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Ifyouarentsurewhatvariablesareincludedinabundle,movethemousepointer
overthebundlenameinthevariableselectiondialog,andaToolTipwilldisplay
thevariablenumbers.


Additionally,youcanviewthelistofvariables(byname)byclickingthe[Bundles]
buttoninthevariablespecificationdialog.ThisdisplaystheVariableBundles
Manager.
Notethatbundlesaredefinedforasinglespreadsheet,andtheyareonlyusedfor
variableselection.Hence,theyareneverlistedinreportsorotheroutput.
Asyoucanseewiththisexample,youwillsaveconsiderabletimebyselectinga
bundleratherthanlookingforthecorrectvariablestochooseinalargedataset.

Example 4: By-Group Analyses


STATISTICAoffersapowerfuloptiontoturneverystatisticalorgraphicsanalysis
intoananalysisbygroup.Whenreviewingresultsintheresultsdialogofpractically
anyanalysis,orusingthegraphsoptions,youcanselectoneormoregrouping
variables,andthencreateresults1)forallcasesinthedatacombined,and/or
2)brokendownbyeachcombinationofuniquevaluesinthegroupingvariables.

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Thisisaverypowerfultoolforinteractiveandexploratorydataanalysis,allowing
youtoreviewquicklywhetheranypatternsorspecificresultsholdinall
subgroups,samples,orstratainyourdata.
Forexample,youmaybeperformingamultipleregressionanalysisanddecideto
review,withoutexitingthecurrentdialog,theresultsbrokendownbyGenderand
anothergroupingvariableinyourdata.Afterselecting(enabling)thisoption(by
clickingthe ByGroupbutton),everytimeyouclickanyoftheresultsbuttons
(e.g.,tocreateasummaryresultsspreadsheetorgraph),allresultsarecomputed
notonlyforallgroups(optionally),butalsoforeachuniquecombinationof
groupingvariablesthatwerespecified(e.g.,byGenderandanothergrouping
variable).
TheresultsoftheByGroupanalysiscanbeplacedeitherinthedefaultresults
workbookintotheirownfolder,labeledwiththerespectivebygroupcondition
(e.g.,Gender=Female;Time=After1),orintothesamefolderwithallotherresults.

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Forexample,youcouldcreatemultiplelineplotstodescribeamultivariatebatch
process,creatingaseparategraph(trajectories)foreachbatch.

Exploring Experimental Data Using


the By Group Option
ThisexampleisbasedonthedatafileTomatoes.sta,whichisoneoftheexample
datafilesdescribedingreaterdetailintheExperimentalDesignsectionofthe
STATISTICAElectronicManual(seetheexampleDesigningandAnalyzinga2332
Experiment).ConnorandYoung(inMcLeanandAnderson,1984)reportan
experiment(takenfromYoudenandZimmerman,1936)onvariousmethodsof
producingtomatoplantseedlingspriortotransplantinginthefield.
StartbyopeningtheexampleTomatoes.stadataset.SelecttheHometab.Inthe
Filegroup,clicktheOpenarrowandselectOpenExamplesfromthedropdown
menutodisplaytheOpenaSTATISTICADataFiledialog.Doubleclickonthe
Datasetsfolder,andthenselectandopentheSTATISTICAdatasetTomatoes.sta.

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Shownhereareafewrows(cases)ofthatdatafile.Youcanrefertothe
ExperimentalDesignElectronicHelpexampletopicforacompleteanalysisofthese
data.
Exploring Patterns by Variety
Thisexampleillustratesatypicalworkflowasitoftenappliestotheanalysisof
discreteorbatchmanufacturingdata,i.e.,thegoaloftheanalysisistoverify
(graphicallyoranalytically)thatsomepatternsordistributionsequallyapplytoall
samples,parts,orbatches.
WewillexploretheeffectofProductionMethod,SoilCondition,andPotsizeon
yield(Pounds),andevaluatewhetheranypatternsholdforeachVarietyinthe
study.Insteadofperformingacompleteanalysisofvariance(asisdescribedinthe
ExperimentalDesignexampleoftheElectronicHelp),wewillusemostlygraphical
methodsandvisualinspection.
Specifying variability plots.SelecttheGraphstab.IntheMoregroup,click2D,
andfromthedropdownmenu,selectVariabilityPlotstodisplaytheVariability
Plotdialog.ClicktheVariablesbutton,andintheSelectVariablesforVariability
Plotdialog,selectPOUNDSastheDependentvariable,andSOILCONDITION,
POTSIZE,andPRODUCTIONMETHODfromtheGroupingvariablelist.

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Furtheronintheexample,wewillcreatethegraphbyVARIETYtoillustratetheBy
Groupfeatures.Now,clicktheOKbuttoninthevariableselectiondialog.
Reordering variables for variability plot.Forthemostinformativeplot,lets
reorderthevariablessothatPRODUCTIONMETHODwillbethefirstfactorinthe
listofFactors.ClickonthatvariableintheFactorslist,andthen,whilepressingthe
leftmousebutton,dragittothetopofthelist.


Finally,alsointheVariabilityPlotdialog,ensurethatPRODUCTIONMETHODis
selectedintheFactorslist,andselectthePutboxesaroundgroupscheckbox.
Specifying by grouping.WewanttocreatethevariabilityplotforPRODUCTION
METHOD,SOILCONDITION,andPOTSIZEforallvarietiesoftomatoescombined,
andbrokendownbyVARIETY(onegraphperVARIETY).ClicktheByGroupbutton
todisplaytheByGroupdialog.


ClicktheGroupingVariable(s)buttontodisplaytheSelectByVariablesdialog,
andspecifyVARIETYastheByGroupvariable.

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NotethatyoucanspecifymorethanoneByGroupvariable,inwhichcaseall
subsequentanalyseswillbeperformedbrokendownbyeachuniquecombination
ofvaluesfoundintheByGroupvariables.
Reviewing the variability plots.NowclickOKtoclosetheSelectByVariables
dialog,andclickOKtoclosetheByGroupdialog.IntheVariabilityPlotdialog,
clickOKtocreatethegraphs.


NoticehowtheVariabilityPlotiscreated1)forAllGroups,and2)foreachVariety
(BonnyandMarglobe).
Ifyoureviewthesegraphscarefully,youwillseethattheProductionMethod
appearstomakelittledifference(intheobservedvaluesforPounds)for
Variety=Bonny,whileforVariety=Marglobe,theFibrePlmethodshowstheleast
variabilityinvalues,whicharegenerallyatthehigherendofthedistributionofall
valuesforvariablePounds.
Descriptive Statistics By Group
Letsnextusethedescriptivestatisticsoptionstofurtherexplorethis.Selectthe
Statisticstab.IntheBasegroup,clickBasicStatisticstodisplaytheBasicStatistics

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andTablesStartupPanel.SelectBreakdown&onewayANOVA,andclicktheOK
buttontodisplaytheStatisticsbyGroups(Breakdown)dialog.ClicktheVariables
button,andintheSelectthedependentvariablesandgroupingvariablesdialog,
specifyPoundsastheDependentvariableandProductionMethodastheGrouping
variable.ThenclickOKtoclosethevariableselectiondialog,andclickOKinthe
StatisticsbyGroups(Breakdown)dialogtodisplaytheStatisticsbyGroups
Resultsdialog.
WewanttocomputeStatisticsbyGroups,brokendownfurtherbytomatoVariety.
So,clicktheByGroupbutton,andintheByGroupdialog,clicktheGrouping
Variable(s)button.IntheSelectByVariablesdialog,selectVarietyastheBy
Groupvariable.


Now,clickOKinthisdialogandclickOKintheByGroupdialog.IntheStatisticsby
GroupsResultsdialog,clickinsequence,1)theSummarybutton,2)theAnalysis
ofVariancebutton,and3)theInteractionplotsbutton.

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Allresultsareplacedintotherespectivefolder,eithertheAllGroupsfolderorthe
Variety=BonnyorVariety=Marglobefolders.
Youcannowreviewtheseresultsforallgroupscombinedandbrokendownby
Variety;asyouwillsee,indeed,ProductionMethodappearstohaveaneffecton
yield(Pounds)forVariety=Marglobe,whilethereisnoindicationofsuchaneffect
forVariety=Bonny.

Summary
WithSTATISTICA,youcanperformadhocbygroupanalysesfromvirtuallyany
resultsdialog,reviewingresultsforallgroupscombinedorbrokendownbyoneor
moregroupingvariable.Thisverypowerfulfeatureforexploratorydataanalysis
canbeusedtocomparegroupsandverifyconsistencyofresultsacrossgroupsfor
anyanalysis.
Beforeconcludingthistopic,afewcommentsaboutthetechnicaldetailsregarding
theimplementationofthisfeaturemaybeuseful.Whenperformingbygroup
analyses,asillustratedinthisexample,theprogramwillactuallyrerunthe
analysesforeachgroup(andallgroups),leveragingtheSTATISTICAVisualBasic
macrocodethatisrecordedautomaticallyduringtheinteractiveanalyses,and
whichcanbesavedasmacrosasdescribedelsewhereinthismanual(seeChapter
8STATISTICAVisualBasic).Whenanalyzingverylargedataproblems(e.g.,very
largeunbalancedexperimentaldesignsorcomplexanalysesthatrequireiterated
computationsbeforeresultscanbedisplayed),theindividualanalysesmaytakeup
significantamountsofcomputingtime,inparticularwhentherearemanyunique

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groupsidentifiedinthedata(e.g.,imagineacomplexgeneralizedlinearmodel
estimatedforeachof100groups).
Therefore,itisgenerallyagoodideatobegineachexploratoryanalysisby
computingsimpledescriptivestatistics,frequencytables,andgraphsto
understandthestructureofthedataandidentifythenumberofuniquegroups
(combinationofvaluesinthegroupingvariables)inthedata.

Example 5: Summary Results Panels


(Quality, Process, GageSixpacks)
SeveralanalysesinSTATISTICAsupportsummarygraphsandreportsarrangedinto
asingle(graphics)document.InSixSigmaandmanufacturingapplications,these
typesofdisplaysaresometimesreferredtoasQualitySixpacksbecausethey
summarizethequalityofasinglevariablewithsix(orfewer)individualgraphs
andtables.


STATISTICAincorporatesmanysuchdisplaystosummarizebasicdescriptive
statistics,correlations,theresultsofgageorprocesscapabilitystudies,orother
typesofdataanalyses,asshowninthefollowingillustration.

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Process Capability Analysis Consistent


with DIN 55319 and ISO 21747
Inrecentyears,European(andotherinternational)manufacturershavedeveloped
standardsforthecomputationofprocesscapabilityindicesthatwillexplicitly
accountforsystematicandrandomprocessvariationovertime,aswellasnon
normaldistributions.Theseindiceshave,forexample,beenadoptedthroughout
theautomanufacturingindustryandtheirsuppliers,andSTATISTICAfullysupports
thesestandards.
Processcapabilityindicesmeasurethenumberoftimesthattheobserved
(normal)distributionofvaluescanfitinsidethespecificationlimitsforthe
respectivepartunderconsideration.Thus,theseindicessummarizethequalityofa
processtoproduceproductsorpartsthatareconsistentwithdesignspecifications.
Inshort,DIN(DeutscheIndustrieNorm)55319andISO21747describetherulesto
applywhenchoosingamongvariousdistributionmodelsandhowtoaccountfor
timedependentvariationintheprocess.
Forexample,evenifadistributionofdatapointswithineachsampleisNormal,if
thereissystematicorrandomvariationthatoccursovertimeassuccessive
samplesaretaken,theresultantdistributionofvalueswillnotbeNormal.
Therefore,inmanycasesthenormaldistributionbasedprocesscapability
computationswillnotbeapplicable.Also,itisusuallyofinteresttoidentifyany

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timedependentvariabilityortrendsbecausetheycanindicatemachinewearor
otherprocessproblems.
Thefollowingexampleillustratesstepbystephowtocomputeprocesscapability
indicesconsistentwiththeseinternationalstandards,andhowtocreatean
efficientsingledocumentsummaryreport.
Select data.ThisexampleisbasedonadatasetreportedinMontgomery(1985,
page177,1991,page234).WellusethedatafilePistons.stathatislocatedin
STATISTICAsexamplesdirectory.Specifically,weareinterestedinmonitoringthe
size(diameter)ofpistonringsforautomotiveengines.Therefore,constant
samplesoffiveobservationseachhavebeentakenfromtheongoing
manufacturingprocess.Asisthecaseinmanyongoingmanufacturingprocesses,
samplesaretakenovertime,soanyvariabilityintheprocessqualityovertimewill
affecttheoverallvariability.
OntheHometab,clicktheOpenarrow,andfromthedropdownmenu,select
OpenExamplestodisplaytheOpenaSTATISTICADataFiledialog;openthe
Datasetsfolder,anddoubleclickonPistons.staorselectitandclicktheOpen
button.
Specify analysis.SelecttheStatisticstab.IntheIndustrialStatisticsgroup,click
ProcessAnalysis.IntheProcessAnalysisProceduresStartupPanel,selectProcess
CapabilityISO/DIN(Timedependentdistributionmodel).


ClicktheOKbuttonintheProcessAnalysisProceduresStartupPanel.Onthe
QuicktaboftheISO21747ProcessCapabilitySetupdialog,clicktheVariables
button.IntheSelectVariables(andoptionalgroupingvariable)dialog,select
variableSizeintheVariablesfortheanalyseslist,andSampleintheby...
(Time/Groupingvar.)list,andclickOK.

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IntheISO21747ProcessCapabilitySetupdialog,clicktheProcessspecsbutton
todisplaytheEnter/editspecificationlimitsdialog,whereyoucanenterthe
processspecificationlimits.Specificationordesignlimitsdefinethemaximumand
(or)minimumallowablevaluesfortherespectivepart;inthiscase,specifythe
lowerandupperspeclimits(LSL,USL)as74+/0.05(LSL=73.95,USL=74.05).Enter
74intheNominalfield,andenter0.05intheDeltafield.


ClickOKtofinalizethischoiceandreturntotheISO21747ProcessCapability
Setupdialog.


Inthisdialog,therearenumerousotheroptionsavailabletomodifytherulesthat
areappliedtoselectthemostappropriatedistributionandtimedependent
distributionmodelforthedatasothattheappropriateprocesscapabilityindices
canbecomputed.Youcanclickthe buttonintheupperrightcornerofthe
dialogorpressF1todisplaytheSTATISTICAElectronicHelptopiccontainingspecific
detailsregardingalloptionsinthisdialog.Forexample,thedetailsregardingthe
(small)differencesintheDINandISOspecificationsarediscussedthere.
NowclicktheOKbuttonintheISO21747ProcessCapabilitySetupdialogto
performtheanalysesforvariableSize.
Reviewing results.IntheISO21747ProcessCapabilityResultsdialog,clickthe
Summarybuttontoreviewtheanalysissummarydisplay.

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Asyoucansee,allrelevantdetails(asrecommendedinISO21747and/orDIN
55319)aresummarizedonasinglepage(document),whichcontainsall
informationnecessarytojudgetheprocessascapableornotcapable(or
questionable).

Attribute Gage Analysis


Foranotherexampleofthistypeofsummary(compound)displaysinSTATISTICA,
wewillperformanattributegageanalysis.
Ingeneral,anymeasurementsystemusedinmanufacturingmustbevalidatedto
ensurethattherespectivegagesmeasurethequalitycharacteristicofinterestwith
sufficientaccuracyandprecision.Often,agageofparticularimportanceistheone
thatdetermineswhetheramanufacturedpartisofsufficientqualitytobe
acceptedorrejected;inotherwords,thegagemeasuresasimpleaccept/reject
attribute.
Todeterminethequalityofthegage,astudyisperiodicallyperformedwherethe
gage(accept/rejectdecision)isappliedtoreferencepartswithknowndeviations
fromthedesiredspecifications.Thisprocessisdescribedintherespectivesection
oftheSTATISTICAElectronicManual,aswellastheAIAG(AutomotiveIndustry
ActionGroup)MeasurementSystemAnalysis(MSA)manual(2000).

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ThisexampleillustratestheanalysisdescribedintheMSAmanualonpages8186.
Select data.OpentheAttributeGageStudy.stadatafile.Thisfilecontainsthedata,
alreadysummarizedtoacceptancedata,oftheattributegagestudydescribedin
theMSAmanual,(p.84)
Specify analysis.SelecttheStatisticstab.IntheIndustrialStatisticsgroup,click
ProcessAnalysis.IntheProcessAnalysisProceduresStartupPanel,select
Attributegagestudy(Analyticmethod),andclicktheOKbutton.
IntheAttributegagestudy(Analyticmethod)dialog,clicktheVariablesbutton.
SelectPart#inthePartnumberslist,ReferenceintheReferencevalueslist,and
AcceptanceintheAcceptance/Responselist,andthenclicktheOKbuttontoclose
thisdialogandreturntotheAttributegagestudy(Analyticmethods)dialog.In
theTolerancelimitforcalculationgroup,specify0.01astheLowerlimit,select
theDisplaytheotherlimitcheckbox,andthenspecify0.01asthatlimit.


Weareinterestedinevaluatingthegageperformanceforaprocessortypeof
manufacturedpartthatshouldbeidentifiedasunacceptable(shouldberejected),
whenitsreallowerlimitdropsbelow0.01(expressedhereasadeviationfromthe
spec).Inthedatafile,theAcceptanceprobabilitiessummarizethenumberof
referencepartsmeasurements,fromatotalof20suchpartsandmeasurements
each,thatweredeclaredasunacceptable(i.e.,thatwererejected).
Reviewing results.NowclickOKintheAttributegagestudy(Analyticmethods)
dialog.IntheResultsdialog,clicktheSummarybuttontoreviewthesummary
results.

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Allimportantresultstodeterminethebiasandrepeatability(ofmeasurements)of
theattributegagearesummarizedonasinglepage.Fordetailsonthe
interpretationofthereportedstatisticsandgraphs,refertotheElectronicManual.

Example 6: STATISTICA Data Miner


STATISTICADataMiner(SDM)isacomprehensivesystemforpredictivemodeling
thatoffersawidevarietyofanalytictechniquesandmodelbuilding,validation,
andmodeldeploymentoptions.Thedefault,andperhapstheindustrystandard,
typeofuserinterfaceprovidedinSDMfollowsthegeneralinteractivedatamining
workspaceapproachthatenablesuserstobuildmodelsbydraggingicons
representingstepsofdataacquisition,datapreparation,modeling,and
deploymentandconnectthemwitharrows.Theworkspaceuserinterfaceoption
inSDMrepresentsapowerfulalternativetothetraditionalinteractivedata
analysisuserinterface,anditcanbeusednotonlyasatoolfordevelopingand
testingpredictivedataminingmodes,butalsoasapowerfulgeneraltooltobe
usedforvisualprogrammingofanalyticworkflowsformanytypesofanalyses.

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Toopenanew(blank)dataminingworkspace,selecttheDataMiningtab.Inthe
Toolsgroup,clickWorkspacesandfromthemenu,selecteitherNewWorkspace
MyProceduresorNewWorkspaceAllProcedures.


Ablankdataminingworkspacewillbedisplayed.


Now,click onthetoolbartodisplaytheSelectDataSourcedialog,
usedtoselectadatafileforanalysis.Next,theSelectdependentvariablesand
predictorsdialogisdisplayed;clickthe buttontodisplaythevariable
selectiondialog,usedtospecifythedependentvariablesandpredictors.Then,
click tocreateanalyticnodes,andconnectthemwith arrows
tospecifythedesiredprojectworkflow.

ThefollowingsectionincludesastepbystepexampleofDataMinerRecipesan
innovativeuserinterfacefordataminingintroducedbyStatSoftwhichoffersa
powerfulalternativetotheworkspacebasedapproachtomodelbuilding,andcan
beusedbybothnovicesandadvancedanalysts.

Overview
ThisexamplepertainstoSTATISTICADataMinerRecipes,aStatSoftproductthat
offersawideselectionofmethodsforpredictivedatamining.

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Ageneraltrendindataminingistheincreasingemphasisonsolutionsbasedon
simpleanalyticprocessesratherthanthecreationofevermoresophisticated
generalanalytictools.STATISTICADataMinerRecipes(SDMR)offersaneasyto
usealternativetothetraditionaldataminerworkspaceuserinterfaceforbuilding
predictivedataminingmodels.Thisapproachprovidesanintuitivegraphical
interfacetoenablethosewithlimiteddataminingexperiencetoexecutearecipe
likestepbystepanalyticprocess.Withtheseintuitivedialogs,youcanperform
variousdataminingtaskssuchasregression,classification,andclustering.Other
recipescanbebuiltquicklyascustomsolutions.
Completedrecipescanbesavedanddeployedasprojectfilestoscorenewdata.
TheprojectfilescanbegeneratedasC/C++languageorPMMLscript,orsentto
STATISTICAEnterprise.
TheSDMRuserinterfacecanalsobeusedbyadvancedanalyststoautomateand
storespecificdataminingalgorithms.
SDMRspanstheentiredataminingprocessfromqueryingexternaldatabasesto
thefinaldeploymentofsolutionsand,ingeneral,consistsofthefollowingsteps.
1.Identifiesthedatafromwhichtolearn
ConnectstoODBCorOLEDBcompliantdatabases
ConnectstoSTATISTICAdatafiles
2.Cleansdataandremovestheredundantpredictors
Flexibleandefficientmethodsforsamplingthedata(simple,stratified,
systematic,etc.)
Moreflexiblewaystoidentifyandrecodethemissingdata
Identificationofoutliers
Transformthedatapriortoperformingthesubsequentsteps
Identifyandeliminateredundantpredictors
3.Identifiesimportantpredictorsfromalargepoolofpredictorsthatarestrongly
relatedtothedependent(outcomeortarget)variableofinterest
Featureselectionforverylargedatasets(e.g.,thousandsofvariables)
Detectionofimportantinteractionsamongthepredictorsbyusingtree
basedmethods

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4.Generatesapoolofeligiblemodels
Leveragethecomprehensiveselectionofcuttingedgetechniquesfor
predictivedataminingavailableinSDMR
OffloadcomputationallyexpensivetaskstoSTATISTICAEnterpriseServer,
freeingyourlocalcomputerforothertasks
5.Performsautomaticcompetitiveevaluationofmodelstoidentifytheoptimum
modelwithrespecttoperformanceandcomplexity
6.Deploysthemodeltoscorenewdatausingtheinbuiltefficientdeployment
engine
STATISTICADataMinerRecipesprovidesthesolutionthatmapsthestepsofthe
dataminingworkflowintoaresultsorienteduserinterface.Fromdatacleaningto
modelvalidation,SDMRguidesyouranalysisfromstarttofinishsothatyoucan
getactionableresultsandanswersquickly.Atthesametime,SDMRstillapplies
themostcomprehensivecollectionofdataminingalgorithmsinasinglepackage
withoutrequiringtheusertoknowthedetailsofthosealgorithms.
STATISTICADataMinerRecipescontainsthelargestcollectionofdatamining
methodsandalgorithmsinasinglepackageorlibrary.Inmostgeneralterms,
thesealgorithmsborrowinsightsandmethodologiesfromvariousdomainssuchas
statistics,engineering,artificialintelligence,cognitivescience,etc.,tolearn
patternsfromdatathatcanbeusedtomakepredictions(aboutinsuranceorcredit
risk,processorproductquality,equipmentfailure,medicaldiagnoses,andsoon).
TheSTATISTICAElectronicManualandtheonlineElectronicStatisticsTextbook
providedetailedintroductionstothevariousmethodsandtechniquesthatare
usuallysummarilydescribedasdatamining.
Inpractice,specificdomainsandtypesofdataarebestanalyzedusingparticular
typesofmethodsandalgorithms.Forexample,thedataminingtechniquesthat
workbestformodelinginsurancelossdataaredifferentfromthosethatworkbest
forpredictingemissionsfromafurnace.However,thereisatypicalworkflow
fromthedefinitionofthedataandanalysisproblemthroughsampling,model
building,andevaluationthatisapplicabletoallpredictivedatamining.

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DataMinerRecipesenablethosewithoutextensiveexperiencewithdatamining
toolstomoveveryquicklyfromthedefinitionofaproblemtotangibleand
actionableresults.


Inthisapproach,yousimplyfollowarecipelikeuserinterfacetocompletethe
necessarystepstomovetoasolution.Infact,mostofthesestepsareentirely
automatedsothattheonlyrequiredinputistodefinethedataandvariablesfor
theanalyses,whiletheprogramautomaticallydoestherestdetermineslearning
andtestingsamples,performsfeatureselection,triesvariousdatamining
algorithmsandmethods,andevaluatesresultstoselectthebestdatamining
model.Thesecomputationsandanalysescanbeperformedwitheitherthe
desktopSTATISTICADataMinersoftwareor,ifavailable,ontheSTATISTICAData
MinerServer.

Data Miner Recipes Project Files


WhenyousaveaDataMinerRecipesprojectatanystageofcompletion,two
separatefilesarecreated:
ADataMinerRecipesfilewiththefilenameextension.dmrproj
ASTATISTICAWorkbookfilebythesamename,butwiththefilename
extension.stw,containingresultsanddetailedinformationforeachstepof
therecipe

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Itisimportantthatbothfilesresideinthesamefiledirectory.So,ifyouwantto
copyaDataMinerRecipeprojectcalledMyDataMinerProjecttoanewfile
directory,emailittoacolleague,orcheckitintotheSTATISTICADocument
ManagementSystem,thenbothfilesMyDataMinerProject.dmrprojand
MyDataMinerProject.stwmustbecopiedtothenewdestination.
Followingareadditionaldetailsaboutthesetwofiles.
Data Miner Recipes file (.dmrproj).TheDataMinerRecipesareXML(extensible
markuplanguage)formatfilesthatcontainallinformationregardinguserschoices
(orchoicesautomaticallymadebytheprogram),including:
Datafileinformation(ordataconnectioninformation)
Variableselectionsandvariablemetadata(e.g.,definingcontinuousand
categoricalpredictorsandoutcomes)
Choicesaboutdatapreprocessingsteps(e.g.,missingdatahandling,
filteringofduplicaterecords,transformations,etc.)
Finalvariableselectionsbasedontheapplicationoffeatureselection
algorithms
Resultsfrommodelbuildingandfinalevaluationandchoicesofmodels
Allinformationnecessarytodeploypredictivemodelsandtopredictnew
cases(e.g.,toscoredatabases,computecomponentscores,inferredsensor
values,predictedriskorfailureprobabilities,etc.)
Therefore,whendeployingDataMinerRecipestotheSTATISTICAEnterprise
softwaretoautomaticallycomputepredictedvaluesinanenterpriseapplication
(automatedcreditscoring,multivariatecontrolchartingandfailureanalysis,etc.),
allinformationnecessarytocomputepredictedvalues,classifications,or
classificationprobabilities(e.g.,probabilityofdefault,loss)iscontainedinside
theseXMLformatfiles.
Data Miner Recipes Workbook file (.stw).Thesefilescontaindetailed
informationdescribingtheresultsforeachstep.

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Theresultsstoredinthisworkbookprovidecompletedocumentationforthe
computationsandanalysesperformedastheDataMinerRecipewas(orisinthe
processofbeing)completed.Therefore,ifthedatamininganalysesareperformed
inaregulated(e.g.,FDA,ISO,etc.)environment,orifdataminingispartofan
organizationsmissioncriticalactivitiesperformedundertheguidanceandin
compliancewithspecificstandardoperatingprocedures(SOPs),thenitisusually
recommendedthatthisfilebestoredintheSTATISTICADocumentManagement
SystemalongwiththeDataMinerRecipeprojectfile(.dmrproj).

Using STATISTICA Data Miner


Recipes (SDMR)
Thisexampleillustrateshowquicklyandefficientlydataminingprojectscanbe
completedusingSTATISTICADataMinerRecipes,evenifthebestsolutiontothe
(prediction)problememergesonlyafter(automatically)comparingtheefficacyof
variousadvanceddataminingalgorithms.
Inthisexample,wewillexploretheuseofSDMRforcreditscoringapplications.
TheexampleisbasedonthedatafileCreditScoring.sta,whichcontains
observationson18variablesfor1,000pastapplicantsforcredit.Eachapplicant
wasratedasgoodcredit(700cases)orbadcredit(300cases).Wewantto
developacreditscoringmodelthatcanbeusedtodetermineifanewapplicantis
agoodcreditriskorabadcreditrisk,basedonthevaluesofoneormoreofthe

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predictorvariables.AnadditionalTrain/Testindicatorvariableisalsoincludedin
thedatafileforvalidationpurposes.
InSTATISTICA,selecttheDataMiningtab.IntheRecipesgroup,clickDataMiner
RecipestodisplaytheDataminerrecipesdialog.OntheRecipestab,clicktheNew
buttontocreateanewproject.TheStepstabwillbeselectedautomatically.


ThestepnodepanelislocatedintheupperleftareaoftheStepstab.Itcontains
fourmajornodes:Datapreparation,Dataforanalysis,Dataredundancy,and
Targetvariable.
Nodes (steps).Eachnode(orstep)canexistinoneoffourstates,dependingon
whetherallrequiredoptionshavebeenspecified.Eachstateisrepresentedbyan
icon:ared indicatesawaitstate,meaningastepcannotbestartedbecauseitis
dependentonapreviousstepthathasnotbeencompleted;ayellow indicatesa
readystate,meaningyouarereadytostartthestepbecausepreviousstepshave
beencompleted;agreen indicatesacompletedstep.Notethatyoumustclick
theNextstepbuttontochangetheyellow (readystate)tothegreen
(completedstate).Thechangewillbemadeonlyifthestephasbeensuccessfully
completed(i.e.,allrequiredinformationhasbeenspecified).Lastly,ifyouhave
openedadatasetandselectedvariables,andyoudonotwanttoproceedstepby
stepthroughalltheoptions,youcanselecttheConfigureallstepscheckboxon
theStepstab.Thestepswillnowberepresentedbyanavy icon.Youcanselect
anyofthestepsandmodifytheoptions,oryoucanleavealloptionsattheir

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defaults.Then,clicktheNextsteparrow,andfromthedropdownlist,selectRun
tocompletion.STATISTICADataMinerRecipeswillruntheanalysisandcreatethe
modelresults.
Options tab.TheOptionstabofSTATISTICADataMinerRecipesisusedtoset
globaloptionsforrecipesusingverylargedatafiles.Optionsincludespecifications
forsamplingandformaximumfilesizetosaveintheProjectWorkbook.Since
mostoftheseoptionsareappliedtotheDatapreparationstep,theyshouldbeset
priortostartingworkonanewrecipe.Modificationstothevaluesonthistab
applyonlytothecurrentrecipeunlessyouclicktheSavedefaultsbutton.
Data Preparation
Connecting data.OntheDatapreparationtab,clicktheOpen/Connectdatafile
button.IntheSelectDataSourcedialog,clicktheFilesbuttontobrowsetoand
opentheCreditScoring.stadatafile(locatedintheDatasetsfolderinstalledwith
STATISTICA).Ifthedatafileisalreadyopen,itwillbelistedintheOpen
SpreadsheetDocumentsfolder;doubleclickittoopenit,orselectitandclickthe
OKbutton.
OntheDatapreparationtab,clicktheSelectvariablesbutton,andintheSelect
variablesdialog,select:
Variable1(CreditRating)astheTarget,categoricalvariable,
Variables3,6,and14asInput,continuouspredictors
Variables2,45,713,and1518asInput,categoricalpredictors,and
Variable19TrainTestastheTestingsamplevariable.


Then,clicktheOKbutton.

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SelecttheAdvancedtabintheDataminerrecipesdialog,andselecttheUse
sampledatacheckbox.SelecttheStratifiedrandomsamplingoptionbuttonas
thesamplingstrategytoensurethateachclassofthedependentvariableCredit
Ratingisrepresentedwithapproximatelyequalnumbersofcasesintrainand
validationsets.ThenclicktheMoreoptionsbuttontodisplaytheStratified
samplingdialog.ClicktheStratavariablesbutton,selectCreditRatingasthe
stratavariable,andclickOKinthisdialogandintheStratifiedsamplingdialog.
ClicktheNextstepbuttonfortheDatapreparationsteptoensurethatthisstep
hasbeensuccessfullycompleted(inthestepnodepanelnexttoDatapreparation,
theyellow changestoagreen ).
Data for Analysis
AftertheDatapreparationstepiscompleted,theDataforanalysisstepwillbe
selectedautomatically.OntheDataforanalysistab,clicktheSelecttesting
samplebutton,andintheTestingSampleSpecificationsdialog,selectthe
Variableoptionbutton.Verifythatthecategory(value)Trainisenteredinthe
CodefortrainingsamplefieldandTestisenteredintheCodefortestingsample
field.


Then,clicktheOKbutton.Themodelswillbefittedusingthetrainingsampleand
evaluatedusingtheobservationsinthetestingsample.Byusingobservationsthat
didnotparticipateinthemodelfittingcomputations,thegoodnessoffitstatistics
computedfor(predictedvaluesderivedfrom)thedifferentdataminingmodels
(algorithms)canbeusedtoevaluatethepredictivevalidityofeachmodeland,
hence,canbeusedtocomparemodelsandtochooseoneormoreoverothers.
Descriptive statistics.Thisstepwillalsocomputedescriptivestatisticsforall
variablesselectedintheanalysis.Descriptivestatsprovideusefulinformation
aboutrangesanddistributionsofthedatausedfortheproject.

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ClicktheNextstepbuttontoensurethatthisstepissuccessfullycomplete.
Data Redundancy
Now,theDataredundancystepwillbeselected.Thepurposeofthisstepisto
eliminatehighlyredundantpredictors.Forexample,ifthedatasetcontainedtwo
measuresforweight,oneinkilogramtheotherinpounds,thenthosetwo
measureswouldberedundant.
OntheDataredundancytab,selecttheCorrelationcoefficientoptionbutton,and
specifytheCriterionvalueas0.8.ClicktheNextstepbuttontoeliminatethe
redundantpredictorsthatarehighlycorrelated(r0.8).Sincethereisno
redundancyinthedatasetweareusinginthisexample,amessagedialogwillbe
displayedstatingthis.


ClicktheOKbutton.Thedatacleaningandpreprocessingformodelbuildingisnow
complete.
Target Variable: Building Predictive Model
Next,weneedtobuildpredictivemodelsforthetargetinthisexample.Inthe
stepnodepanel,theTargetvariablenodehasabranchingstructurewiththe
parentnodeconnectingtofourchildnodesincludingImportantvariables,Model
building,Evaluation,andDeployment.

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Dimension reduction.TheImportantvariablesnodeisselectedautomatically.In
thisstep,thegoalistoreducethedimensionalityofthepredictionproblem,i.e.,to
selectasubsetofinputsthatismostlikelyrelatedtothetargetvariable(inthis
exampleCreditRating)and,thus,ismostlikelytoyieldaccurateanduseful
predictivemodels.Thistypeofanalyticstrategyisalsosometimescalledfeature
selection.
Twostrategiesareavailable.WhentheFastpredictorscreeningoptionbuttonis
selected,theprogramwillscreenthroughthousandsofinputsandfindtheones
thatarestronglyrelatedtothedependentvariableofinterest.Whenthe
Advancedscreeningoptionbuttonisselected,treemethodsareusedtodetect
importantinteractionsamongthepredictors.
Forthisexample,selecttheAdvancedscreeningoptionbuttonasthefeature
selectionstrategy,andthenclicktheAdvancedscreeningbuttontodisplaythe
Advancedscreeningdialog.Enter12intheNumberofpredictorstoextractfield,
andselectEqualinthePriorclassprobabilitiesfield.


ClicktheOKbuttoninthisdialog,andthenclicktheNextstepbuttontocomplete
thisstep.Toreviewasummaryoftheanalysisthusfar,ontheStepstab,clickthe
Reportbutton,andfromthedropdownlist,selectSummaryreporttodisplaythe
Resultsworkbook.

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Thesepredictorswillbefurtherexaminedusingvariouscuttingedgedatamining
andmachinelearningalgorithmsavailableinSDMR.
Building models.TheDataminerrecipesdialogwasminimizedsothatyoucould
seetheResultsworkbook.ClicktheDataminerrecipesbuttonlocatedonthe
AnalysisBar(inthelowerleftcorneroftheapplication)todisplaythedialogagain.
Now,theModelbuildingnodeisselected.Inthisstep,youcanbuildavarietyof
modelsfortheselectedinputs.OntheModelbuildingtab,C&RT,Boostedtree,
andNeuralnetworkareselectedbydefaultasthemodelsoralgorithmsthatwill
automaticallybetriedagainstthedata.
Thecomputationsforbuildingpredictivemodelscanbeperformedeitherlocally
(onyourcomputer)orontheSTATISTICAEnterpriseServer.However,thelatter
optionisavailableonlyifyouhaveavalidSTATISTICAEnterpriseServeraccount
andyouareconnectedtotheserverinstallationatyoursite.Forthisexample,click
theBuildmodelbuttontoperformthecomputationslocallyonyourcomputer.
Thiswilltakeafewmoments;whenfinished,clicktheNextstepbuttonto
completethisstep.
Evaluating and selecting models.Now,theEvaluationnodeisselected.Onthe
EvaluationtabintheSelectmodel(s)field,ensurethatallmodelsareselected
(eachcheckboxisselected).ClicktheEvaluatemodelsbuttontoperformthe
competitiveevaluationofmodelsforidentifyingthebestperformingmodelin
termsofperformanceinthevalidationsample.
NoticethattheBoostingTreesmodelhastheminimumerrorrateof31.48%.In
otherwords,68.52%ofthecasesinthevalidationsamplearecorrectlypredicted
bythismodel.Notethatyourresultsmayvaryslightlybecausetheseadvanced
dataminingmethodsrandomlysplitthedataintosubsetsduringtrainingto
producereliableestimatesoftheerrorrates.
Thefollowingspreadsheetshowstheclassificationperformanceofthebestmodel
onthevalidationdataset.Thecolumnsrepresentthepredictedclassfrequencies,
aspredictedbytheBoostingTreesmodel,andtherowsrepresenttheactualor
observedclassesinthevalidationsample.

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Inthismatrix,youcanseethatthismodelpredicted68outof103badcredit
riskscorrectly,butmisclassified35ofthem.Thisinformationisusuallymuch
moreinformativethantheoverallmisclassificationrate,whichsimplytellsusthat
theoverallaccuracyis68.52%.
DisplaytheDataminerrecipesdialogagain,andclicktheNextstepbutton.A
messageisdisplayedwithinstructionstoselectonlyonemodelfordeployment.
ClickOK,andclearthecheckboxesadjacenttoC&RTandNeuralnetwork.Wewill
deploytheBoostingTreesmodelthatgaveusthebestpredictiveaccuracyonthe
testsample.Now,clicktheNextstepbuttonagain.
Deployment
ThefinalDeploymentstepinvolvesusingthebestmodelandapplyingittonew
datainordertopredictthegoodorbadcustomers.Thisstepalsoprovidesthe
optionforwritingbackthescoringinformation(classificationprobabilities
computedbythebestmodel,predictedclassification,etc.)totheoriginalinput
datafileordatabase.Thisisextremelyusefulfordeployingmodelsonverylarge
datasetstoscoredatabases.
OntheDeploymenttab,clicktheDatafilefordeploymentbuttonandopenthe
CreditScoring.stadatafile(locatedintheDatasetsfolderinstalledwith
STATISTICA).Fordemonstrationpurposes,weareusingthesamedatafilefor
deploymentofthebestmodel.

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ClicktheNextstepbuttontoscorethisdatafileusingthebestmodel.Thescoredfile
withclassificationsandpredictionprobabilities(titledSummaryofDeployment)is
locatedintheDeploymentfolderintheprojectworkbookasshownbelow.


Summary
Thepurposeofthisexampleistodemonstratetheefficiencyofthedataminer
workflowimplementedinSTATISTICADataMinerRecipes.Withonlyafewclicks,
theprogramwilltakeyouthroughthecompleteanalyticprocessfromthe
definitionofinputdataandanalysisproblem,throughdatacleaningandpreparation
andmodelbuilding,allthewaytofinalmodelselectionanddeployment.

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Eventhoughmostofthecomputationalcomplexitiesofdataminingareresolved
automaticallyinSTATISTICADataMinerRecipes,whichenablesyoutomovefrom
problemdefinitiontoasolutionveryquicklyevenifyouareanovice,theprogram
willapplyandtryalargenumberofadvanceddataminingalgorithmsand
automaticallydeterminewhichapproachismostsuccessful.
Thus,theSTATISTICADataMinerRecipesmethodologyanduserinterfaceenables
youtoleveragethelargestcollectionofdataminingalgorithmsinasinglepackage
tosolveyourproblems.

DATA MANAGEMENT
Example 1: Spreadsheet Formulas
and Batch Formulas
YoucandefinenewvariablesforSTATISTICASpreadsheetsintermsofother
variables,sometimesreferredtoasvariabletransformations.Additionallyyoucan
verifydata,transformdata,andrecodedataonasinglevariable(asopposedtoa
setoftransformationformulas,i.e.,batchformulas).Thisisaccomplishedwith
spreadsheetformulas.
Toaccessspreadsheetformulas,doubleclickonavariableheaderinaSTATISTICA
SpreadsheettodisplaytheVariablespecificationdialog.Theformulaisentered
intotheLongname(labelorformulawithFunctions)field(alsocalledtheformula
editor)locatedatthebottomofthedialog.Whenyouenteralongvariablename
intheformulaeditorthatstartswithanequalsign,STATISTICArecognizesitasa
formulaandwillverifyitforformalcorrectness.
Theformulacanreferenceothervariableseitherbyname(MEASURE01,TIME),or
byabsolutevariablenumberusingtheVxsyntax,wherexistheabsolutevariable
number.Forexample,V3isvariablenumber3.V0hasspecialmeaning,andrefers
tothecurrentcasenumber.
Spreadsheetformulasareevaluatedacase(row)atatime.Foreachcaseinthe
spreadsheet,theformulaisevaluated,andreferencestotheothervariablesare
substitutedwiththeirvaluesfromthecurrentcase.

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InSTATISTICA,randomaccessspreadsheetfunctionsenabletheformulatoaccess
variablevaluesfromothercases.AcommonexampleofthisistheLagfunction,
whichwillreferenceavariable,andlagitforwardorbackwardacertainnumberof
cases.
Thefollowingtablelistsseveralspreadsheetformulasandtheirresults.
Formula Result

Returns1ifthetextB12Cisfoundinvariable1.Returns0ifno
=contains(v1,"B12C")
matchisfound.

=(v1+v2+v3)/3 Computesthemeanofthefirstthreevariables.

=(v0<=10)*1+(v0>10)*2 Recodescases110as1.Theothercasesaresetto2.

=((v1=1)AND(v2=5))*5 Returnsthevalueof5ifv1=1andv2=5,otherwisesetto0.

ReturnsprobabilitydensityvaluesoftheStudentstdistribution
=student(v4,15)
basedonthevaluesofv4and15degreesoffreedom.

=cusum(v3) Performsacumulativesumofvariable3.

Concatenatestwotextvariables:Ifv1='A'andv2='B',thenthe
=v1+v2
resultis'AB'

GeneratesrandomnumbersfromaNormaldistribution
=vnormal(rnd(1),50,3)
(=50,=3)

Returnsnumberrepresentingmonthoftheparameter,e.g.,3if
=DTMonth(DTToday)
itiscurrentlyMarch

Comparesfirstvaluetoasetofvalue/resultpairs,returningthe
firstresultifthecorrespondingvaluematches.Ifnomatch,then
=match(v1,1,0,2,0,v1)
afinaldefaultresultisused.Forexample,returns0ifv1is1or
2,elsereturnsv1.

Assignsconsecutiveintegerstotheconsecutivesetsof10cases
=trunc((v01)/10) (i.e.,casesnumber1through10willbeassigned0,cases
number1120willbeassigned1,andsoon

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Notethatyoucanclickthe buttonintheVariablespecificationdialogto
displaytheFunctionBrowserdialog,whichcontainsthecompletelistofformulas
andoperators(=,+,>,and,or,etc.).
Example: Spreadsheet Formula
OpentheAdstudy.stadatafile.Wewillcreateanewvariablethatisthemeanof
variables3through25(i.e.,MEASURE01throughMEASURE23).
Doubleclickonthefirstblankvariableheader(aftervariable25).TheAddCases
and/orVariablesdialogwillbedisplayed.ClicktheOKbuttontoacceptthe
default,whichistoaddonevariable.
TheVariablespecificationdialogforthenewvariablewillbedisplayed.Inthe
Displayformatgroup,selectNumber.IntheLongnamefieldatthebottomofthe
dialog,enter:=mean(v3: v25).


ClicktheOKbutton.Adialogwillbedisplayedthatinformsyouwhetherthe
formulaisformallycorrect.ClicktheYesbuttontoproceed.Thenewvariableis
nowfilledwiththemeanofvariables3through25foreachcase.
Sinceyoucanrefertovariablesbytheirnamesortheirnumbers,theformulawe
justcreatedcouldalsobeexpressedas:=mean(MEASURE01:MEASURE23).

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Example: Batch Formulas


Spreadsheetformulasareusefulfordefiningaformulaforonevariableatatime.
However,therearemanysituationsinwhichyouneedtoevaluateseveral
formulasfordifferentvariablessimultaneously.Thiscanbedonewiththebatch
formulasfacilitiesinSTATISTICA.
OpentheCharacteristics.stadatafile.Thisdatafilecontainsinformationabout
patientsinastudy.Forthisexample,wewill1)calculatepatientBodyMassIndex
(BMI)and2)convertheighttocentimeters(cm),andaddthesetwovariablesto
thedataset.
OntheDatatab,intheTransformationsgroup,clickTransformstodisplaythe
BatchTransformationFormulasdialog.


Theonlydifferencesinsyntaxbetweenthebatchtransformationformulasandthe
spreadsheetformulasisthesupportformultipleformulasinthebatchoption,and
thefactthatbecausethebatchformulasarenotattachedtoanyspecificvariable
(infacttheycanbefreelycopiedfromdatafiletodatafile),theycannotstartwith
anequalsign,butmusthaveatargetvariable(e.g.,v1=...orMeasure03=...)sothat
STATISTICAknowstowhichvariableeachformulashouldapply.Thereisalsoan
optiontodistributeallbatchformulasintotherespectivevariablesinthe
spreadsheetandsavethemwiththedatafile,effectivelyreplacingthe
spreadsheetformulas(ifthereareany).
FollowingarethecalculationsusedtocalculateBMIandtoconvertHeight(in)to
centimeters,andtheformulastoenterintheBatchTransformationdialog:

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Calculation Batch Transformation Dialog Entry

BMI=('weight(lb)'/'Height(in)'**2)*703

'Height(cm)'='height(in)'*2.54

IntheFormulasfield,enterthelistoftransformationformulastobeappliedtothe
activedataspreadsheet.Separateeachtransformationformulabyareturn(press
ENTERonyourkeyboard).


ClicktheOKbuttonintheBatchTransformationFormulasdialog.TheAddNew
Variables?dialogwillbedisplayed;clicktheYesbuttontoaddthetwonew
variablestotheCharacteristics.stadatafile.Amessagewillbedisplayedtoinform
youwhethertheexpressionsyouenteredintheBatchTransformationdialogare
correct.IftheyareOK,clickYestoproceed.STATISTICAcalculatestheformulas
andaddsthetwovariables,BMIandHeight(cm),tothespreadsheet.

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TheoptionsintheBatchTransformationFormulasdialogareparticularlywell
suited(optimized)fortransforminglargedatasets.Theformulaswillbeevaluated
onebyone,insequence,sothattheresultsofonetransformationinthelistcan
serveastheinputforthenext.Thus,itispossibletocreateanewvariablewith
oneformulaandthenusethatvariableinsubsequentformulas.
Clickthe buttonintheupperrightcorneroftheBatchTransformation
FormulasdialogtodisplaytheSTATISTICAElectronicManualtopicrelatedtothese
optionsandlinkstovariousothertopicscontainingexamplesofformulasand
syntaxrules.

Example 2: Input Data


Directly from Excel
InadditiontousingthetraditionalSTATISTICAspreadsheet,youcanopenExcel
filesinaSTATISTICAwindowandthenperformanalysesusingtheExcelfileasyour
datasource.
OntheSTATISTICAHometab,intheFilegroup,clicktheOpenarrowandselect
OpenExamplesfromthedropdownmenutodisplaytheOpenaSTATISTICAData
Filedialog.
FromtheFilesoftypedropdownlistatthebottomofthedialog,selectExcelFiles
(*.xls;*xlsx;*.xlsm).DoubleclicktheDatasetsfolder,andthenselecttheWeather
reportdatafile,whichisanExcelfile.ClicktheOpenbutton,andtheOpeningfile
dialogwillbedisplayed.
ClicktheOpenasanExcelWorkbookbutton,andtheExcelfilewillbedisplayed.
NotethatwhenanExcelworksheetisopenedinSTATISTICA,theExceland
STATISTICAmenusmerge,enablingyoutoaccesskeyfunctionalityforboth
applications.

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FromtheStatisticsmenu,selectBasicStatistics/Tables.TheSelectExcelRange
fortheAnalysisdialogwillbedisplayed.


ThisdialogisdisplayedwheneveryouselectacommandfromtheStatistics,Data
Mining,orGraphsmenuafteropeninganExcelworksheetintheSTATISTICA
application.NotethatSTATISTICAhasdeterminedthelogicalspecifications,but
theseoptionscanbechangedifnecessary.Whenvariablenamesarenotincluded
withtheExcelworksheet,STATISTICAwillassignvariablenames:Var1,Var2,Var3,
etc.AswithSTATISTICAspreadsheets,allvaluesinacolumnwillbeusedforthe
selectedanalysisunlesscaseselectionconditionsarespecified.
Forthisexample,clicktheOKbuttonintheSelectExcelRangefortheAnalysis
dialogtoacceptthedefaults;thedialogwillclose,andtheReview/EditColumn
Typesdialogwillbedisplayed.

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InSTATISTICA,youcandefinethedatatypeforthespecificcolumns.Datatypes
includenumeric,text,mixednumericandtext,andmissingdata.Emptycellsinan
Excelworksheetarealwaystreatedasmissingdata,andwhenanumericcolumn
containstextvalues,thosevaluesarealsotreatedasmissingdata.STATISTICA
providesdefaultdatatypesforallcolumnsbasedonthefirstfewrowsofdata(in
fact,youcancleartheReview/Modifycolumntypesbeforeimportingcheckbox
intheSelectExcelRangefortheAnalysisdialogbeforeclickingOKinthatdialog,
andtheReview/EditColumnTypesdialogwillnotbedisplayed).However,youcan
changethedefaulttypesifneeded:selectthenameofthecolumnyouwantto
changeandclicktheEditbutton(ordoubleclickonthenameofthecolumnyou
wanttochange)todisplaytheChangeImportColumnTypedialog,whereyoucan
specifythetypeyouprefer.


Forthisexamplewewillacceptthedefaults,soclicktheCancelbuttoninthe
ChangeImportColumnTypedialog,andclicktheOKbuttonintheReview/Edit
ColumnTypesdialog.AfteryouclickOK,theStartupPanelfortheselectedanalysis
orgraphwillbedisplayed(inthisexample,theBasicStatisticsandTablesStartup
Panel),andyoucanproceedwiththeanalysisasusual.

Example 3: Accessing Data Directly


from a SQL Server Database
STATISTICAprovidesaccesstovirtuallyalldatabases(includingmanylargesystem
databasessuchasOracle,Sybase,etc.)viaSTATISTICAQuery,accessiblefrom

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eithertheHometab(intheFilegroup,clicktheOpenarrowtoaccesstheOpen
ExternalDatasubmenu)ortheDatatab(intheManagegroup,clickExternal
Data).ForimportingdatafromadatabasedirectlyintoaSTATISTICASpreadsheet
sothatitcanbesaved,thetooltouseisSTATISTICAQuery.
WithSTATISTICAQuery,youcaneasilyaccessdatausingOLEDBconventions.OLE
DBisadatabasearchitecture[basedontheComponentObjectModel(COM)]that
providesuniversaldataintegrationoveranenterprisesnetwork,frommainframe
todesktop,regardlessofthedatatype.
STATISTICAQuerysupportsmultipledatabasetables;specificrecords(rowsof
tables)canbeselectedbyenteringSQLstatements.STATISTICAQuery
automaticallybuildstheSQLstatementforyouasyouselectthecomponentsof
thequeryviaasimplegraphicalinterfaceand/orintuitivemenuoptionsand
dialogs.Hence,anextensiveknowledgeofSQLisnotnecessaryinorderforyouto
createadvancedandpowerfulqueriesofdatainaquickandstraightforward
manner.Multiplequeriesbasedononeormanydifferentdatabasescanalsobe
createdtoreturndatatoanindividualspreadsheet;hence,youcanmaintain
connectionstomultipleexternaldatabasessimultaneously.
Forthisexample,createanewdatabasequery:selecttheHometab,andinthe
Filegroup,clicktheOpenarrow.Fromthedropdownlist,selectOpenExternal
DataCreateQuery.STATISTICAQuerywillstart,andtheDatabaseConnection
dialogwillbedisplayed.


Fromthisdialog,youcanchooseexistingdatabaseconnectionsordefinenew
ones.Forthisexample,wellcreateanewdatabaseconnection,soclicktheNew
buttontodisplaytheDataLinkPropertiesdialog.

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YoucanchooseeithertheOLEDBproviderthatwassuppliedbyyourdatabase
vendor,oroneoftheMicrosoftdefaultOLEDBprovidersthatiscompatiblewith
yourdatabasesystem.
Forthisexample,wellusetheNorthwindsampledatabaseinstalledwith
MicrosoftSQLServer,soselectMicrosoftOLEDBProviderforSQLServerandclick
theNext>>button.TheDataLinkPropertiesdialogConnectiontabwillbe
displayed.


SelectaserverfromtheSelectorenteraservernamedropdownlist.
Then,selectthelogonoptionbuttonappropriatetoyourSQLServerNorthwind
databaseinstallation.SelecteithertheUseWindowsNTIntegratedsecurity
optionbutton,orselecttheUseaspecificusernameandpasswordoptionbutton
andenteraUsernameandPasswordintherespectivefields.
Next,selectNorthwindfromtheSelectthedatabaseontheserverdropdownlist.

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ClicktheTestConnectionbuttontoattemptaconnectiontothespecifieddata
source.Iftheconnectionfails,ensurethatthesettingsarecorrect.Forexample,
spellingerrorsandcasesensitivitycancausefailedconnections.Iftheconnection
succeeds,clicktheOKbuttoninthemessagedialog.
ClickOKintheDataLinkPropertiesdialogtodisplaytheAddaDatabase
Connectiondialog.EnterNorthwindintheNameeditbox,andclickOK.
TheDatabaseConnectiondialogwillbedisplayedagain,withthenewNorthwind
connectiondefined.


Selectthisconnection,andclickOK.TheSTATISTICAQuerywindowwillbe
displayed,withallthedatabasetablesinthetreeviewontheleft.


RightclickontheOrderDetailstable,andfromtheshortcutmenu,selectAddto
addthetabletothetableviewpane(theupperrightpaneintheSTATISTICAQuery
window).Then,rightclickontheProductstable,andaddittothetableviewpane.
SincebothtablescontaintheProductIDfield,STATISTICAQueryautomaticallyjoins
thetwotablesonthiskey.

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Toselectthefieldstoincludeinthequery,rightclickintheOrderDetailstablein
thetableviewpane,andfromtheshortcutmenu,selectSelectAllFields.Inthe
Producttable,selecttheProductNamefield.
ClickthePreviewDatatabinthelowerrightpanetodisplayapreviewofthe
query.


ClicktheSQLStatementtabtodisplaytheSQLStatementgeneratedbythequery.
ToreturnthedatatoaSTATISTICASpreadsheet,clickthegreenarrowonthe
STATISTICAQuerytoolbar.TheReturningExternalDatatoSpreadsheetdialogwill
bedisplayed,whereyoucancontrolwhetherthequerywillbeplacedintoanew
orcurrentspreadsheetandadjustotherqueryparameters.SelecttheNew
Spreadsheetoptionbutton,andclicktheRunNowbuttontorunthequery.Ifthe

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ConnecttoOLEDBProviderdialogisdisplayed,clicktheOKbutton.Afterafew
moments,thedataisreturnedtotheSTATISTICASpreadsheet.


NowthedatacanbeanalyzedwithanyoftheSTATISTICAtools.Notethatthe
spreadsheetretainsthedatabaseconnection,andyoucanrerunthequeryatany
time:selecttheDatatab,andintheManagegroupclickExternalData.Select
RefreshDatafromthedropdownmenu.YoucanalsopressF5onyourkeyboard
whenthespreadsheetisopen.

Example 4: Data Preparation


Cleaning and Filtering

Summary of Options for Data


Filtering/Recoding
Inpractice,mostofthetimerequiredtocompleteadataanalysisordatamining
projectisspentonthepreparationofdata.Sometimesasmuchas90%ofalltime
andeffortrequiredtocompleteaprojectisrelatedtothepropercleaningand
preparationofthedata.
Whenbuildingpredictionmodelsusingdataminingtools,orevenwhenjust
computingsimpledescriptivestatistics(averages,frequencydistributions),results
ofanalysescanbeverymisleadingif,forexample,largenumbersofduplicate
recordsareincluded(e.g.,thesamepartnumbersarerecordedmultipletimes)or
thedataincludeoutliersormiscodedvalues(outsidethevaliddataranges)or
excessivenumbersofmissing(blank)data.
OntheDatatab,intheTransformationsgroup,clickFilter/Recodetodisplaya
dropdownmenucontainingcommandstoaddresssuchdataqualityissuesquickly
andeffectivelysothatmeaningfulandvaliddataanalysesordataminingprojects
canbecompletedinlesstime.

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Filter Duplicate Cases


Usethisoptionwhenyoususpectthatyourdatafilemaycontainduplicaterecords
(e.g.,duplicate/identicalcustomerrecords).
Forexample,supposethatinananalysisofcustomerrecords,toidentifytypical
customerdemographics(profiles),youwanttocounteachcustomeronlyonce;
however,yourcustomerdatabaseisorganizedbytransactions,soeachcustomer
mayappearmultipletimes.Inthiscase,youcanusetheFilterDuplicateCases
optionstocreateadatafilefortheanalysescontainingonlyuniquerecords(i.e.,
whereeachcustomerIDislistedonlyonce).
Duplicate information example.OpentheDuplicates.stadatafile.Fromthe
Filter/Recodemenu,selectFilterDuplicateCasestodisplaytheFilterDuplicate
Casesdialog.IntheInputgroupbox,theVariablesoptionisusedtospecifythe
basisofdistinctionforduplicates.ClicktheVariablesbutton,andinthevariable
selectiondialog,selectRespondentsothatallrespondentswillbecheckedfor
duplicates.ClickOKinthevariableselectiondialogtoreturntotheFilterDuplicate
Casesdialog.


IntheInputgroupbox,clicktheCasesbuttontodisplaytheSpreadsheetCase
SelectionConditionsdialog,whichcontainsoptionstoselectonlyspecified
observationsorcasesforthededupingoperations.Inthisexample,wewillfilter
allthecases,soclicktheCancelbuttonintheSpreadsheetCaseSelection
Conditionsdialog.
TheUsecasenamescheckboxisclearedbydefault;wewillleavethisoptionasis
forthisexample.Whenthischeckboxisselected,casenamesareusedasoneof
thebasesfordistinction,i.e.,STATISTICAwilltreatasduplicatesanycasesthat
havethesamecasename(providedthecasesmatchonanyotherspecified

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variablesaswell).Whenthecheckboxiscleared,duplicatecasenamesare
ignored.
CleartheDataaresortedcheckbox(becausethecurrentdatafilehasnotbeen
sortedwhenyouhaveanextremelylargedatafile,itismoreefficienttosortthe
datafirst).
IntheOutputgroupbox,verifythatallvariablesareselected(ALLwillbeadjacent
totheVariablesbutton).Thisoptionisusedtoselectthevariablesintheinput
spreadsheetthatwillbeincludedintheoutput(filtered)spreadsheet;thedefault
isALL.
VerifythattheCreatenewspreadsheetcheckboxisselected(thedefault),and
selecttheCreateduplicatesspreadsheetcheckbox.Leavethelasttwooptionsat
theirdefaults:thePreserveordercheckboxiscleared[thenewspreadsheetswill
besortedbythevariable(s)thatwereselectedasthebasisofdistinction,inthis
example,Respondent],andtheCopyformattingcheckboxisselected.ClickOK.
Twonewspreadsheetswillbegenerated.Oneofthespreadsheetsis10vby51c
(10variablesby51cases)andcontainstherespondentsfromtheoriginal
spreadsheetexcludingtheduplications.Theotherspreadsheetis10vby9cand
containstheduplicaterespondentsthatwereextractedfromtheoriginal
spreadsheet.
Lookattheoriginalspreadsheet,Duplicates.sta,andnoticethatsomeofthe
variableheadersRespondent,State,andColorsareformatteddifferently.Then
lookatthetwonewspreadsheets;thevariableheadersforRespondent,State,and
Colorshavethesameformattinginallthreespreadsheets.STATISTICAusessub
settingtocreatethenewspreadsheetsandensuresthatvariablepropertiesofthe
parentspreadsheetaremaintainedinthechildspreadsheets.
Now,closethetwonewspreadsheets,butleavetheDuplicates.staspreadsheet
open.Noticethatitis10vby60c.FromtheFilter/Recodemenu,selectFilter
DuplicateCasestodisplaytheFilterDuplicateCasesdialogagain.IntheInput
groupbox,clicktheVariablesbutton,andinthevariableselectiondialog,select
RespondentandclickOK.IntheInputgroupbox,cleartheDataaresortedcheck
box.IntheOutputgroupbox,cleartheCreatenewspreadsheetcheckbox.Click
OK.Thedialogclosesand,insteadofcreatinganewspreadsheetwiththe

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duplicatesexcluded,theDuplicates.staspreadsheetismodified.Allduplicatecases
areremovedfromit;itnowhas10vby51c.
Notethatthefilterduplicatecasesfunctionalitydoesnotusecasesensitivity
(uppercase,lowercaseletters)foracomparisonofuniqueness,i.e.,ifyouhave
tworespondentsC.BarrettandC.BARRETTthesecondrespondentwillbe
excluded.
Filter Sparse Data
Itisnotuncommonthatsomevariables(parameters,ordatafields)availablefor
(forexample)predictivemodelinghaveveryfewvaliddata.Forexample,ina
customerdatabaseselfreported(bycustomers)Incomemayberecorded;
however,veryfewcustomersactuallyvolunteeredtheircurrentincomes,somost
ofthedata(inthatfieldofthedatabase)isblank(ormissing).Inmanufacturing
data,adatafieldmayexisttorecordaspecificparameter,butthesensormightbe
faultyforanextendedperiodoftime,recordingmostlymissing(invalid)data.


Includingsuchsparselypopulated(withdata)variablesinananalysismayleadto
erroneousresults,orpreventyoufrombuildingpredictivemodelsaltogether
(dependingonhowthemissingdataarehandledlaterintheanalyses).Therefore,
youmaywanttoidentifysuchsparsevariablesaheadoftimeusingtheFilter
SparseDataoptions(accessiblefromtheFilter/RecodemenulocatedontheData
tabintheTransformationsgroup),andeliminatethemfromsubsequent
consideration.

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Process Invariant Variables


Asimilar(tothesparsedatacase)dataqualityissuethatoftenoccurs,inparticular
inindustrialmanufacturing(process)data,isthatsomevariables(parameters)that
arerecordedandincludedintheanalysesareinvariant,i.e.,allvaluesarethe
same.


Suchvariablesarenotusefulforpredictivemodeling,andtheProcessInvariant
Variablesoptions(accessiblefromtheFilter/RecodemenulocatedontheData
tabintheTransformationsgroup)enableyoutoidentifythosevariables
automatically,andexcludethemfromfurtheranalyses.
Recode Outliers
Extremedatavaluesoroutlierscangreatlyaffectvariousanalysesandcausepoor
accuracyofprediction(datamining)models.Thereisnoformaldefinitionofwhat
constitutesanoutlierorextremevalue,andSTATISTICAsgraphicaltoolsmay
providethebestwaytoreviewdatatoidentifysuchunusualobservations(e.g.,
youcouldcreateboxplotsofthekeyvariablestoidentifyextremeobservations
andbrushorflagtheminthedata).
Toautomaticallyprocesslistsofvariablestoidentifyandremoveoutliers,the
RecodeOutliersoptions(accessiblefromtheFilter/Recodemenulocatedonthe

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DatatabintheTransformationsgroup)provideseveraltestsforoutliers
(approachesforidentifyingextremevalues).


Outlierscanberecodedtomissingdataortovaliddatavalues(e.g.,tothe
respectivepercentileboundaryvalues,etc.).
Process Missing Data
Missingdataorinvaliddatavaluesmustobviouslybedealtwithinamannerthatis
consistentwiththegoalsoftheanalyses.Insomecases,missingorinvaliddata
maythemselvesprovideusefulinformationaboutaprocessorvariableofinterest.
Forexample,inmarketingresearch,itiscommonthatrespondentswillrefuseto
providedetailedpersonalinformationregardingtheirhealth,financialstatus(e.g.,
savings),etc.,andsuchrefusalitselfmaybecorrelatedwithothersignificant
variablesofinterest(e.g.,refusaltoanswerquestionsrelatedtoincomemayitself
beagoodindicatorofhighincome,ifindeedwealthierindividualsinthesurvey
tendednottoanswerthosequestions).

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TheProcessMissingDataoptions(accessiblefromtheFilter/Recodemenu
locatedontheDatatabintheTransformationsgroup)enableyoutorecode
missingdataflexibly,definemultiplemissingdatavaluesorcodesforasingle
variable(whichcanthenberecodedtothevariablemissingdatacode),orjustto
flagvariablesthathavemorethanacertainpercentageofmissingdata.
Imputation of Missing Data
(k-Nearest Neighbor)
Itisoftennotclearhowbesttorecodemissingdata,andinfact,sometimesby
recodingmissingdataforaparticularvariabletoaspecificvalue(e.g.,themean),
thefinalresultsmaybebiased.Forexample,supposeinasurveyallrespondents
whorefusetoreporttheirincometendtobeinthehigherincomebracket.Inthat
case,assigningthemeanincometothoseindividuals(i.e.,recodingmissingdata
forvariableIncometothemeanincomeforthewholesample)mayyieldhighly
misleadingresults.
STATISTICAincludesaveryefficientmethod(applicabletoverylargedatasetsand
databases)forreplacingmissingdatawithvaliddatavaluesthatareconsistent
withtheotherobservationsinthesample.Detailsregardingtheknearest
neighbormethodandalgorithmareprovidedintheElectronicHelpforthe
MachineLearningmoduleofSTATISTICADataMiner.
Inshort,usingtheMDImputationoptions(accessiblefromtheFilter/Recode
menu),inafirstpassthroughthedata,theknearestneighboralgorithmwillselect

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a(smaller)samplefromallavailabledata.Inthesecondpassthroughthedatafile,
whenmissingdataareencountered,theyarereplacedwithvalid(observed)values
foundinsimilarobservationsinthesmallersample(withrespecttoallother
variablesthatwereselected).Sotocontinuethisexample,ifindeedhigherincome
respondentsarelesslikelytoreportthisfact,butdoreportotherindicatorsof
highincome(e.g.,ownershipofaluxurycar,moresquarefootageoftheirhome,
etc.),thentheknearestneighboralgorithmwillaccuratelyassignthoseindividuals
(whofailedtoreporttheirincome)tothehighincomebracket.


Theknearestneighboralgorithmisfastandefficient,andprovidesaneffective
methodforreplacingmissingdataintheinputfilewithreasonableguesses
basedonsimilardatapointsinthesample.Thisapproachdoesnotmakeany
particularassumptionsaboutthenatureoftherelationshipsbetweenvariables
(i.e.,requirethatamodelbeestimatedforeachvariabletopredictmissingdata
values),butsimplyusestheobserveddataasthemodel.

Merge Data Files


TheSTATISTICAMergeOptionsdialogenablesyoutomergetwodatafileseither
bythevariablesorbythecasessothatyoucancentralizealloftheobservationsto
onetable.SelecttheDatatab,andintheManagegroup,clickMergetodisplay
theMergeOptionsdialog.

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ClicktheHelp buttonintheupperrightcornerofthedialogtoaccessHelp
topicsdescribingalltheoptionsinthisdialog.

Creating Subsets
Ifyouhavealargespreadsheet,youmaywanttocreateanewspreadsheet
containingaspecifiedsubsetofthecurrentspreadsheet.Forexample,open
Boston2.sta.Thisdatasetcontainsoverathousandcases.Wewanttoextract
housingtractswithlowmedianprices.
SelecttheDatatab,andintheManagegroup,clickSubsettodisplaytheCreatea
Subsetdialog.


ClicktheCasesbuttontodisplaytheSpreadsheetCaseSelectionConditions
dialog,whichcontainsoptionstocreateconditionstodefinetheselectionofcases
tobeconsideredforthesample.
SelecttheEnableSelectionConditionscheckboxtoactivatetheoptions,andthen
selecttheSpecific,selectedbyoptionbuttonintheIncludecasesgroupboxto
specifywhichcasestoincludeintheanalysis.Typev1=LOWintheExpressiontext
box.

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ClicktheOKbuttontosettheselectionconditionsandreturntotheCreatea
Subsetdialog,andclicktheOKbuttoninthisdialogtocreatethenewspreadsheet.
Theresultantspreadsheetcontains334cases(insteadoftheoriginal1,012cases)
andall15variablesfromtheoriginalspreadsheet.ForthePRICEvariable,allcases
haveavalueofLOW.

Example 5: Using STATISTICA ETL


(Extract, Transform, and Load)
TheSTATISTICAETL(Extract,Transform,andLoad)moduleprovidesunique
capabilitiesforprocessingandmergingdata,inparticular,processdatathatare
difficulttomanageusingstandarddatabasetools.ETLautomatestheprocessof
validatingandaligningmultiplediversedatasourcesintoasinglesourcesuitable
foradhocorautomatedanalyses.
ETLofferstwooptionsforaligningdata:Timeindexed,whichaggregatesdatafrom
multipledatasourcesbasedonadate/timestampvariableandalignsdataby
minute,hour,day,week,month,quarter,oryear;andIDbased,whichaggregates
datafrommultipledatasourcesbasedonanidentifiervariableandanoptional
timevariable,andoptionallyalignsdatabyNequalintervalsorNuserspecified
intervals.
ThisexampleillustrateshowtheETLmodulehandlesstockrelateddatasetswith
differenttimeintervals.Stocksareboughtandsoldatvaryingpricesthroughout
eachday.Microsoft(tickerMSFT)andOracle(tickerORCL)aresoftwarecompanies

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thattradeontheNASDAQelectronicstockexchange.Inthisexample,wewill
comparedatasetscontaininghistoricalstockpriceswithdifferentdate/time
stamps.ThefirstsetcontainsdailyMicrosoftpricequotesfromNASDAQ,whilethe
secondsetcontainsweeklyOraclepricequotesfromanothersource.
OpenMicrosoftPrices.staandOraclePrices.sta:ontheHometabintheFilegroup,
clicktheOpenarrow.Fromthedropdownmenu,selectOpenExamplestodisplay
theOpenaSTATISTICADataFiledialog.DoubleclickontheDatasetsfolder,select
MicrosoftPrices.staandOraclePrices.sta,andclicktheOpenbutton.
Bothdatafilescontainthefollowingcolumns(variables):DATEthedayonwhich
atradetakesplace;OPENopeningpricefortheday,firsttradeoftheday;HIGH
thehighestpriceoftheday;LOWthelowestpriceoftheday;CLOSEclosing
pricefortheday,lasttradeoftheday;andVOLUMEthedailynumberoftraded
sharesofasecurity.
However,theyhavedifferentdateranges:Microsoft10/22/200701/04/2008;
Oracle10/18/200712/28/2007.Inordertocomparethedata,therangeswill
needtobealigned.
SelecttheDatatab.IntheManagegroup,clickExternalData,andselectTime
indexedProcessDatafromtheExtract,Transform,andLoad(ETL)submenu.The
STATISTICAExtract,Transform,andLoad(ETL):TimeindexedStartupPanel
isdisplayed.


ClicktheAdddatasourcebuttontodisplaytheSelectDataSourcesdialog.

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ClicktheDocumentsbuttontodisplaytheSelectDocumentsdialog.Selectthe
OpenSpreadsheetsDocumentscheckboxtoselectbothdatafiles
(MicrosoftPrices.staandOraclePrices.sta).


ClicktheOKbuttonintheSelectDocumentsdialog,andthenclicktheOKbutton
intheSelectDataSourcesdialog.TheSTATISTICAExtract,Transform,andLoad
(ETL):TimeindexedStartupPanelwillappearasshownbelow:


SelectMicrosoftPrices.stainthefilelistatthetopofthedialog,andclickthe
VariablesbuttontodisplaytheSelectvariablesdialog.SelectDATEfromthe
Date/Timestamplist,andselectCLOSEfromtheVariableslist.

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ClicktheOKbuttontoclosethisdialogandreturntotheSTATISTICAExtract,
Transform,andLoad(ETL):TimeindexedStartupPanel.
NowselectOraclePrices.stainthefilelist.ClicktheVariablesbutton,andselect
variable1fromtheDate/Timestamplistandvariable5fromtheVariableslist,
andthenclicktheOKbutton.
IntheAggregationintervalforalldatasource(s)groupbox,selecttheWeekly
optionbutton,andchangethestartfromfieldtoFriday.


Foradditionaldate/timeoptions,selecttheOptionstab.SelecttheFilterallinput
datasourcesbythefollowingDate/Timecheckbox.Tolimitthedatathatis
returnedfrombothoftheselecteddatafiles,enter11/2/2007intheStartdate
fieldand12/28/2007intheEnddatefield.Thiswillreturneightweeksofdata
(FridaytoFriday).


Now,clicktheResultsbuttontomergethedataintoaspreadsheet.

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Thetwodatafilesarenowalignedweeklybydatefortherange11/2/2007to
12/28/2007.ThedailyclosingMicrosoftpricesareaggregatedasmeans,whilethe
weeklyclosingOraclepricesareunchanged.
TheResultsspreadsheetdisplaysdate/timestampsascasesnamessothatthey
canbeusedforgraphingtheaggregatedandaligneddata.
SelecttheGraphstab.IntheMoregroup,click2DandselectLinePlots(Variables)
todisplaythe2DLinePlotsVariablesdialog.
ClicktheVariablesbutton,andinthevariableselectiondialog,selectvariables2
and3.Then,clicktheOKbutton.Inthe2DLineplotsVariablesdialog,select
MultiplefortheGraphtype,andclicktheOKbutton.Thefollowingimageshows
theresultantgraphplottingMicrosoftandOracleprices.

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ENTERPRISE INSTALLATIONS
Example 1: STATISTICA Enterprise
Server Download/Offload Analyses
from/to Servers
STATISTICAEnterpriseServerextendsthecapabilitiesoftheSTATISTICAplatform,
turningseveralstandaloneworkstationsintoapowerful,enterprisewide
collaborativeintelligencesystem.OneofthekeyfeaturesofSTATISTICAEnterprise
Serversclientserverarchitectureisthatitenablesyoutoutilizeserverside
resourcestorunmultiple,possiblytimeconsuming,orrepetitivestatistical
analyses(offloadtaskstotheserver)whileatthesametimefreeingthelocal
systemforothertasksthatrequireimmediateattention.Thiscanbeachieved
usingeitheraWebbrowser(thinclient)ordesktopversionofSTATISTICA
(thickclient,STATISTICAEnterpriseServerclient).Whiletheformerallowsaccess
toSTATISTICAEnterpriseServerusingonlyabrowser,thelatterrequires
STATISTICAinstallationonyourcomputer.STATISTICAEnterpriseServerstight
integrationwiththeSTATISTICAapplicationprovidescommonuserexperienceand
workflowforbothclientandserversideoperations,agenerallymorefeaturerich
andresponsiveuserinterface,andalltheadditionalcomponentsandtoolsof
desktopSTATISTICA.
Offloading an analysis (or a custom script) to STATISTICA Enterprise Server.
First,ensurethatSTATISTICAEnterpriseServerintegrationisenabled.Selectthe
Hometab,andintheToolsgroupclickOptionstodisplaytheOptionsdialog.In
thetreeview,selectServer/Web.SelecttheEnableSTATISTICAEnterpriseServer
Integrationcheckbox.TheonlyrequiredparameterisSTATISTICAEnterprise
Serversnetworkpath(andconnectionsettings,iftheyaredifferentfromthe
default).Askyournetworkadministratorforthesevalues.ItispossibletoEnable
IntegratedLoginifitissupportedandenabledontheserver;otherwiseyouwill
needtoenteryourusernameandpasswordwhenloggingintoSTATISTICA
EnterpriseServer.

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Afterspecifyingtheoptionsonthistab,clicktheOKbutton.
TheServertabhasnowbeenaddedtotheribbonbar.IntheUsergroup,clickLog
In,andenteryourusernameandpasswordifrequested.Uponsuccessfully
establishingaconnection,theoptionsontheServertabwillbecomeavailable.
TheOpen,Save,andSaveAscommandsintheFilegroupareusedtouploada
currentlyopenfiletotheserverordownloadafileandopenitlocally.Thereare
alsoexplicitoptionsintheTransfergrouptoDownloadFiletoandUploadFile
fromspecificfoldersontheserverandtheclient.
Note:Asrealworldexamplesoftimeorresourceconsuminganalysesareusually
basedonlargedatasetsand/orinvolveiterativealgorithmsrepresentedby
STATISTICAcomponentsthatarenotincludedinallconfigurationsofSTATISTICA,
wearedeliberatelygoingtouseanexamplethatdoesnotrequiremuchtimeto
complete.Buteveninasituationwhereasingleanalysisisquickandnotresource
intensive,youmightneedtorunafairlycomplicated,timeconsumingsequenceof
tasks,possiblyscheduledatcertaintimeintervals.Inthiscase,theSTATISTICA
EnterpriseServerschedulingfacilitiescouldbeusedonceyouhavecreatedand
uploadedacustomscriptthatrepresentstherequiredtasks(forexample,by
combiningthemacrosrecordedduringaSTATISTICAsession).
Now,recordasampleanalysismacro;forexample,completethestepsdescribed
inExample2:ANOVA(page34).
Aftercompletingtheexample,intheANOVAResultsdialog,clicktheOptions
button(locatedatthebottomofthedialog),andfromthedropdownlist,select
CreateMacro.IntheNewMacrodialog,acceptalldefaults,andclickOK.Testthe

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generatedmacrobyrunningit(pressF5)toensurethatitproducesresultsas
expected.Clickonthemacrocodewindowtoensureithasthefocus.
Then,ontheServertabintheTasksgroup,clickOffloadtodisplaytheOffloada
taskdialog.


Weneedtoselectatasktooffload(ascriptoraDataMinerproject)and,
optionally,adatasetonwhichthetaskwilloperate(thedatasetcouldbean
optionalcomponentsinceDataMinerprojectsmayhavetheirdatasetsembedded
andmacrosmightexplicitlyloaddatasetsornotrequirethematall).
Sincethereisanopenactivedataset(Adstudy.sta)andanopenSTATISTICAMacro
(oursampleanalysis),thedefaultsettingsoftheoptionsintheOffloadatask
dialogspecifytousethemforoffloading.Instead,thisexamplewilldemonstrate
howtoreferenceataskandaserversidedataset.Thisoptionisusefulsinceit
givesyoutheadvantageofcentralserversidestorage,whichisespecially
beneficialinthecaseoflargedatasets(possiblydynamicallyupdated)thatare
usedbymultipleusers.
Toreferenceaserversidedataset,intheDataSourcegroupbox,selecttheSelect
datafilestoredontheserveroptionbuttontodisplaytheSTATISTICAEnterprise
ServerRepositorydialog.

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ThedirectorystructureinthetreeviewofthedialogrepresentstheSTATISTICA
EnterpriseServerRepository(possiblyabridgedaccordingtoyourparticular
permissions).ClickontheDatasetsfolderintheleftpane,andselectAdstudy.sta
intherightpane(oryoucanenterthepathintheeditboxatthebottomofthe
dialog).
ClickOKintheSTATISTICAEnterpriseRepositorydialogandintheOffloadatask
dialog.STATISTICAwillsubmitthetasktotheserver,uploadingfilesifneeded.
Nowyoucanswitchtootheractivities,whileperiodicallymonitoringthestatusof
offloadedtasksbyclickingStatusintheTasksgroupontheServertabtodisplay
theTaskStatusdialog.ThefollowingillustrationshowsaTaskStatusdialog
containingseveraloffloadedtasks.


ThetaskliststatuscanbeupdatedmanuallybyclickingtheRefreshbuttonor
automaticallybyselectingtheAutomaticcheckboxinthelowerrightportionof
theTaskStatusdialog.TasksgothroughPendingandRunningstatestoeither
CompletedorScriptError.

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Ifyourtaskfails,doubleclickonthetaskentrytoviewadditionalinformation
aboutthefailure.Whentheerrorisfixed(e.g.,SVBscriptorDataMinerworkspace
isupdated),selectthefailedtaskandclicktheResubmitbutton.
Oncethetaskcompletessuccessfully,youcanretrievetheresults.Notethatsince
theresultsarelocatedontheserver,theyareavailablefromanySTATISTICAclient
workstationaslongasyouareloggedinunderthesamecredentials.TheResults
groupboxcontainsaTaskcheckboxandaDatacheckboxtoretrievethetask
sourceandthedataset(ifapplicable)backtotheclient.WhentheInBrowser
checkboxisselected,theresultswillbeopenedinthebrowser,switchingtoathin
client.Thisoptionisusefuliftheresultsareexpectedtobesignificantinsize;e.g.,
iftheanalysisgeneratesmanydatasetsand/orgraphs,youcansearchthrough
theminthebrowserandselectonlythespecificresultsyouwanttoretrieveto
yourdesktop.Tracereportprovidesadiagnosticreportoftaskexecution.
Tosavediskspaceontheserver,itisagoodpracticetodeletetaskresultsthatare
nolongerneeded.Amessagewillbedisplayedeverytimeresultsarerequested
askingiftheresultsshouldbedeletedafterretrieval(unlesstheDeletetaskafter
retrievalcheckboxiscleared).ClickOKtodeletetheresults.
Onceourtaskcompletes,weretrievetheresultsandclosetheTaskStatusdialog.
Resultsareequivalentwhetherrunlocallyorontheserver.

Example 2: Using STATISTICA in


Regulated Environments
Inaregulatedenvironment,analysesconductedforGxP(GoodManufacturing
Practices,GoodClinicalPractices,GoodLaboratoryPractices)applicationsareones

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thatimpactconsumersafetysuchasinclinicaltrials,manufacturing,andquality
control.WhenabusinessconductsanalysesforaGxPapplication,regulatory
bodiesrecommendthatthecompanybeabletoprovethattheresultsofthe
validatedanalysissystem(e.g.,STATISTICA)areundercontrol.STATISTICA,through
itsaudittrailandspreadsheet/reportlockingfeatures,offersthetoolsyouneedto
meetthisregulatoryrequirement.
InordertomeettraceabilityrequirementsforGxPapplications,thereareatleast
threeconcerns:1)controloftheinputdatabeingsubmittedtotheanalysis(i.e.,
knowingwhomadewhatchange,atwhattime,forwhatreason;andtheold
valuesandnewvalues),2)controloftheresultstablesandgraphs(e.g.,
demonstratethattheywerenotalteredinanywayaftertheywerecreated),and
3)traceabilitybetweentheversionoftheinputspreadsheetandtheresults
outputs.STATISTICAprovidesthisinformationthroughitsSpreadsheetAuditTrails
andGxPReportsfunctionality.
SeealsoSTATISTICADocumentManagementSystemintheElectronicHelpfor
moredetailsaboutversioning/historyofSTATISTICAdocuments.

Control of Input Data


Enable Audit Trail Logging
OpenaSTATISTICASpreadsheet.SelecttheToolstab,clickAuditTrail,andselect
Settingsfromthedropdownmenu.TheSpreadsheetAuditLogSettingsdialog
willbedisplayed.SelecttheEnableaudittrailloggingcheckboxtoenableaudit
trailloggingforthecurrentspreadsheet.


Notethatwhenspreadsheetaudittrailloggingisenabled,thespreadsheetis
automaticallysettodirectmode,i.e.,changesmadetothespreadsheetwillbe
immediatelywrittentodisk.Thus,whenaudittrailloggingisenabled,changesto
thedatafilecannotbeundone.
SelecttheRequireuserstoenterreasoncommentsforeachchangecheckboxto
requireuserstoexplaineachchangemadetothespreadsheet.

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TheTruncatelogbuttonisavailableonlyifaudittraillogginghaspreviouslybeen
specified,andthereisacurrentSpreadsheetAuditLogViewerattachedtothe
spreadsheet.Clickingthisbuttonwilltruncatethespreadsheetloganddeleteall
existingentries.Youwillbepromptedtoconfirmthisactionbeforethecurrent
entriesaredeleted.Oncethelogistruncated,thetruncateactionwillberecorded
inthenewlytruncatedlogfile.
ClickOKintheSpreadsheetAuditLogSettingsdialog,andaudittrailloggingwill
beenabled;infact,theEnterreasonforchangedialogwillbedisplayed
immediatelyinordertoenterthereasonforenablingtheloggingfunction.Entera
comment,andclickOK.
Now,rightclickintheheaderofthelastvariableinthespreadsheet,andselect
AddVariablesfromtheshortcutmenu.IntheAddVariablesdialog,wewillaccept
alldefaults,soclickOK.TheEnterreasonforchangedialogwillbedisplayed;you
mustenteracommentandclickOKbeforethechangewillbemade.Whenaudit
trailloggingisenabled,everychangemadetothespreadsheetwillbe
documented,andwhentheRequireuserstoenterreasoncommentsforeach
changecheckboxisselected,usercommentsalsowillbestoredanddisplayedin
theSpreadsheetAuditLogViewer.
Next,ontheToolstab,clickAuditTrailandselectViewLogtodisplaythe
SpreadsheetAuditLogViewer.


Thelogviewerdisplaysagridofinformationregardingtheauditedactions
includingthesequencenumber,timeofchange,thecomputerusedtomakethe
change,userinformation,thenatureofthechange,andthereasonforthechange.
Columnwidthsintheloggridcanbeincreasedanddecreasedusingstandard
Windowstechniques.TheSpreadsheetAuditTrailsaresavedandembeddedinto
eachrespectivespreadsheet.
Password encryption vs. locking.Aspreadsheetcanbepasswordencryptedso
thatitcannotbeopenedwithoutthecorrectpassword.Onlyuserswhoknowthe

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passwordcanopenthespreadsheet.Onceapasswordencryptedspreadsheetis
opened,itcanbemodified.
Alternatively,lockingaspreadsheetmakesportionsofthespreadsheetreadonly,
enablingyoutopreventchangestosomeorallaspectsofthespreadsheet.The
spreadsheetcanbeopenedbyanyone,butlockedportionscannotbealtered.
Boththepasswordencryptionoptionsandspreadsheetlockingfacilitiescanbe
usedsimultaneously.
Password Encrypt a Spreadsheet
OpenaSTATISTICASpreadsheet.ClicktheStartbutton intheupperleftcorner
oftheribbonbar,andfromthedropdownmenuselectPropertiestodisplaythe
DocumentPropertiesdialog.SelectthePasswordtab.


EnterapasswordintheDocumentPasswordfield,andclicktheOKbutton.The
Passworddialogwillbedisplayed,whereyoureenterthepasswordtoconfirmit;
passwordsarecontextsensitive.


ClicktheOKbuttoninthePassworddialog,andclosethedatafile.Adialogis
displayedwhereyoucanchoosetosavethechanges;clicktheYesbuttonsothat
thepasswordwillbeencrypted.Thenexttimeanyoneattemptstoopenthis
spreadsheet,thePassworddialogwillbedisplayed,andthecorrectpassword
mustbeenteredbeforethespreadsheetwillopen.
Lock a Spreadsheet
Inordertomeetcompliancerequirements,itisnecessarytohavecontrolofthe
reliabilityofinputdata.Usingthespreadsheetlockingoptions,youcanprevent
changestoallspreadsheetfeatures,fromtheappearanceofthedata(i.e.,display

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elements,variablespecifications)totheactualdataandanycaseselection
conditionsorweightsthataredefinedforthespreadsheet.Ofcourse,sometimes
changeshavetobemade(e.g.,whendataareincorrectlyentered).The
STATISTICASpreadsheetAuditTrailfacility,whenenabled,willrecordeachchange
madetothespreadsheet.
WithSTATISTICAEnterpriseproducts,onlyuserswithSystemAdministrator
permissionscanmodifySpreadsheetAuditTrailsettings.Formoreinformation,
seetheElectronicHelpforSTATISTICAEnterprisefacilities.
Withaspreadsheetopen,selecttheToolstab.ClickLockingtodisplaytheLock
Spreadsheetdialog.


Here,youcanspecifywhichaspectsofthespreadsheetthatyouwanttolock.
Whenuserstrytochangealockedfeature,amessagewillbedisplayed,informing
themthatthespreadsheetislocked.
SelecttheSpreadsheetdatacheckboxtopreventchangestotheactualdata
containedinthespreadsheet.Userswillbeunabletochangethedatavaluesand
themissingdatacode.Theywillalsobeunabletoperformanydatamanagement
operationsthataffectthespreadsheet(e.g.,changethedatatypeorthelengthfor
textvariables).Ifthischeckboxiscleared,userswillbeabletoeditthedata(e.g.,
byupdatingqueriesandSpreadsheetFormulasorbysimplytypinginnewvalues).
SelecttheDisplayelements(fonts,formats,etc.)checkboxtoprohibitthe
modificationoffontsandformatsusedinthespreadsheet.Optionsforchanging
thefontsize,color,type,andstyle(i.e.,bold,underline)willbedimmed.
Additionally,theoptionsforapplyingspreadsheetlayouts(accessiblebyselecting
theFormattabandclickingLayoutsintheSpreadsheetgroup)willbeunavailable.
SelecttheCaseselectionandweightscheckboxtopreventusersfromchanging
caseselectionconditionsandcaseweightsforthelockedspreadsheet.Userswill
notbeabletotoggletheuseofselectionconditionsorchangethecurrently

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definedselectionconditions.MostoptionsontheSelectiontaboftheSpreadsheet
CaseSelectionConditionsdialogwillbedimmed;however,optionsontheother
tabsofthatdialog(e.g.,creatingsubsamples,applyingformatstoselection
conditions)arestillavailable.OptionsontheCaseWeightsdialogwillbe
unavailable.
SelecttheVariablespecificationscheckboxtopreventchangestothevariable
specifications(e.g.,measurementtype,missingdatacode,displayformat,long
variablename).Userswillstillbeabletoviewtheindividualvariablespecification
dialog(accessiblebydoubleclickingthevariableheader)andtheVariable
SpecificationsEditor;however,optionsforchangingthesespecificationswillbe
dimmed.
SelecttheAudittrailcheckboxtopreventchangestotheaudittrailsettings.Users
willbeunabletomodifytheaudittrailsettings.
Enterapasswordtousewhenlockingandunlockingthespreadsheet,confirmthe
password(whichiscontextsensitive),andclickOK.Althoughapasswordisnot
required,itisstronglyrecommended.Ifapasswordisnotenteredandconfirmed,
anyusercanunlockspreadsheetfeaturesbysimplyclearingtheselectedcheck
boxes.Notethatiflockshavealreadybeendefined,youmustenterthecorrect
passwordbeforelockscanbechangedormodified.
Nowtrymakingchangesinthespreadsheet;amessagewillbedisplayedinforming
youthattheoperationcannotbecompletedbecausethespreadsheetislocked.

Controlling Results and Traceability


Tomeetcompliancerequirements,anotherstepistoensurethatreportedresults
areundercontrol.STATISTICAprovidesoptionsforcreatingGxPreports.InGxP
mode,allresultsaresenttoareportwindow,andthewindowislocked.All
optionsforremovingresults(Cut,ExtractOriginal,Clear,etc.)andaddingresults
(Paste,Insert)aredisabled.STATISTICAcanalsoincludeacreationdateinall
reportsaswellasatimestampforallresultsthatareaddedfromresultsdialogs.
Theappearanceandcontentofthecreationdateandtimestamparecompletely
configurableandcanincludeuserandcomputerinformationinadditiontothe
timeanddate.Thus,inGxPmode,youcanknowwhentheresultswerecreated
andbywhom.Youcanalsobecertainthatresultshavenotbeenremoved.

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AnadditionalfeatureofGxPmodeisatraceabilityoption.WhenrunninginGxP
mode,STATISTICAautomaticallyverifieswhetherspreadsheetaudittrailsare
enabled.Iftheyare,STATISTICAincludesthespreadsheetnameandversion
numberinthereport.Sometimesversionnumbersarenotavailable,forexample,
ifaudittrailsarenotenabledortheresultsarecreatedfromanInplaceDatabase
connection.Whenthatisthecase,STATISTICAwillprovideanexplanationforwhy
aversionnumberisnotavailable.

Create a GxP Report


SelecttheHometab.IntheToolsgroup,clickOptionstodisplaytheOptions
dialog.Inthetreeview,selectOutputManager,locatedunderAnalyses/Graphs.
FromtheReportOutputdropdownlist,selecteitherSendtoMultipleReports
(oneforeachAnalysis/Graph)orSingleReport(commonforallAnalyses/
Graphs).
SelecttheLockedcheckboxtomaketheReportLocking(GxPReports)options
becomeavailableandtoensurethatdocumentscannotberemovedfromthe
report.OptionspertainingtoreportssuchasCut,Paste,Delete,Extract,etc.,will
bedisabled.

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Toincludeacreationstampatthetopofthefile,youcanacceptthedefault
formatintheCreationStampfield,orenteryourown.Thefollowingcodescanbe
usedinthisfield:&[Date],&[Time],&[User],and&[Computer].Anytextyouenter
willbedisplayedasis.
Toincludeatimestampaboveeachobjectasitisaddedtothereport,youcan
acceptthedefaultformatintheTimeStampfield,orenteryourown.The
followingcodescanbeusedinthisfield:&[Date],&[Time],&[User],and
&[Computer].
ClickOKintheOptionsdialog,andnowperformanyanalysis;e.g.,useBasic
StatisticstocreateaquickDescriptiveStatisticssummaryspreadsheet.Whenyou
clicktheSummarybutton,theresultswillbesenttoalockedreportthatliststhe
creator,date,time,etc.,oftheanalysis.

Example 3: STATISTICA Enterprise


STATISTICAEnterpriseproductsextendthefunctionalityofSTATISTICAapplications
byofferingcollaborativework,centraladministration,systemlevelcustomization,
andotherfeaturesnecessarywhenusingSTATISTICAapplicationsaspartofthe
enterpriselevelcomputersystems.
STATISTICAEnterpriseManagerisacomponentoftheSTATISTICAEnterprise
systemthatenablesuserstoconfigurevariousaspectsoftheEnterprisesystem
includinguseradministration,systemvieworganization,databaseconnection
maintenance,dataconfigurations,andanalysisconfigurations.

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Forthisexample,wewill:
1. Createanewuser
2. Createanewgroup
a. Assignpermissionstothegroup
b. Addtheuser(seeNo.1)tothegroup
3. Createasystemviewnode
4. Createanewdatabaseconnection
5. Createadataconfiguration
6. Createananalysisconfiguration
7. Runtheanalysisconfiguration
System View vs. Object View
Beforestartingthisexample,onethingshouldbenoted.InSTATISTICAEnterprise
Manager,ontheViewtab,youcanselecteitherSystemVieworObjectView.In
SystemView,objects,e.g.,dataconfigurationsandanalysisconfigurations,are
shownaschildnodes.InObjectView,objectsareshownaschildnodeswithin
theirrespectivecategories.Forthisexample,SystemViewshouldbeselected.

1. Create a New User


LaunchtheEnterpriseManager,andloginasauserwhoispartofthedefault
Administratorgroup.Inthetreeview(theleftpane),clicktheplussign nextto
theUserAdministrationnodetoexpandit,andthenselecttheUsersfolder.Inthe
propertiespage(therightpane),clicktheNewUserbuttontodisplaytheoptions
tocreateanewuser.IntheNamefield,enterTestUser1,anddefineapassword
andconfirmthepassword.

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Then,clicktheCommitChangesbutton locatedatthetopoftheapplicationon
theQuickAccesstoolbartosavethechanges.Amessagewillbedisplayedthat
informsyouthattheuserdoesnthavepermissiontologin.ClicktheYesbuttonto
continue.
Wewillnowcreateagroup,givethegrouppermissions,andassignthenewuser
tothatgrouptoallowtheusertohavepermissiontologontotheEnterprise
Manager.Withthismethod,anypermissionchangeswillonlyneedtobeapplied
tothegroupinsteadoftheindividualusers,makingmaintenanceofusersin
STATISTICAEnterpriseeasier.

2. Create a New Group


IntheUserAdministrationnode,selecttheGroupsfolder,andintheproperties
page,clicktheNewGroupbuttontodisplaytheoptionstocreateanewgroup.In
theNamefield,enterTestGroup1.IntheGroupMembersframe,selectthecheck
boxadjacenttoTestUser1.Thiswilladdthepreviouslycreatedusertothegroup.
IntheGroupPermissionsframe,selectthecheckboxesadjacenttoAnalysisAdmin
(AADM)andWebUser(WUSR).Inthetreeview,clicktheplussign adjacentto
theTestGroup1nodetoexpandit,andselectAnalysismodules.Intheproperties
page,clicktheSelectAllbuttontoselectallofthemodulesintheAvailable
analysismodule(s)list.

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ThiswillgiveusersofthisgrouppermissiontologontobothWebanddesktop
STATISTICAandrunalloftheavailableanalysesandreports.
ClicktheCommitChangesbutton tosavethechanges.
Wehavenowcreatedthenecessaryuserandgroupsecuritytorunanalysesand
reports.Whencreatingthedata,analysis,andreportconfigurationsinthenext
steps,wewillassignthisgrouptothoseobjectstoallowonlyuserswithinthe
grouptorunthem.

3. Create a System View Node


NowwewillcreateaSystemViewnodetoholdthisexamplesdata,analyses,and
reportconfiguration.Inthetreeview,clicktheplussign adjacenttotheSystem
Viewnodetoexpandit.RightclickontheSTATISTICAEnterprisefolder,andfrom
theshortcutmenu,selectNewFolder.IntheFoldernametextboxinthe
propertiespage,enterTestExample1asthenewfoldersname.

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ClickCommitChangestosavethechange.Thisfolderwillnowbeusedtohouse
thedata,analyses,andreportconfigurations.

4. Create a New Database Connection


RightclickontheDatabaseConnectionsnodeinthetreeview,andfromthe
shortcutmenu,selectNewDatabaseConnectiontodisplaytheDataLink
Propertiesdialog.


Forthisexample,wellusetheNorthwindsampledatabaseinstalledwith
MicrosoftSQLServer,soselectMicrosoftOLEDBProviderforSQLServer,andclick

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theNext>>button.TheDataLinkPropertiesdialogConnectiontabwillbe
displayed.
SelectaserverfromtheSelectorenteraservernamedropdownlist.
Then,selectthelogonoptionbuttonappropriatetoyourSQLServerNorthwind
databaseinstallation.SelecteithertheUseWindowsNTIntegratedsecurity
optionbutton,orselecttheUseaspecificusernameandpasswordoptionbutton
andenteraUsernameandPasswordintherespectivefields.
Next,selectNorthwindfromtheSelectthedatabaseontheserverdropdownlist.


ClicktheTestConnectionbuttontoattemptaconnectiontothespecifieddata
source.ApromptwillbedisplayedthatacknowledgesthattheTestconnection
succeeded.Ifitdidntsucceed,checkyouraccesspermissionstothefileand
ensurethatthesettingsarecorrect.Forexample,spellingerrorsandcase
sensitivitycancausefailedconnections.


ClickOKintheprompt,andclickOKintheDataLinkPropertiesdialog.Inthe
resultingpropertiespage,enterTestExampleConnection1intheNamefield.

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Then,clicktheAccessPermissionsbutton.FromthelistofAvailableUsersand
Groups,selectTestGroup1,andthenclickthetoparrowbutton tomoveTest
Group1totheAccessPermissionslist.


Now,clicktheCommitChangesbutton.
WiththedatabaseconnectioncreatedtotheNorthwinddatabase,wewillnow
createadataconfigurationtoextractdatafromthedatabase.

5. Create a Data Configuration


RightclickontheTestExample1folderinthetreeview,andfromtheshortcut
menu,selectNewDataConfiguration.Inthepropertiespage,enterTestExample
1intheNamefield.ClickthearrownexttotheConnectionfield,andfromthe
dropdownlist,selectTestExampleConnection1.

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ClicktheNextStepbuttontodisplaythenewqueryoptions.

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ClicktheSQLWizardbuttontodisplaytheNewQuerydialog,whichwillopenin
STATISTICA.


DragtheOrderstablefromtheleftpaneintotheeditorviewer(theupperright
pane),andthenselect,inthefollowingorder,theOrderID,ShipVia,ShipCountry,
andFreightfields.


SelectthePreviewDatatabinthequerypropertiesview(lowerrightpane)and
clicktheRefresh toolbarbutton(theredexclamationmark).Thiswilltestthe
querytoensurethatvaluesarebeingretrievedfromthedefinedquery.

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ClicktheReturnDatatoSTATISTICA toolbarbutton(greenarrow)tosubmitthis
querybacktothedataconfiguration.


ClicktheOrderIDrowtohighlightit,andthenclicktheEditbuttontodisplay
optionstoedittheOrderIDcolumn.ClicktheAutoUpdatearrow,andfromthe
dropdownlist,selectFirstupdatecolumn.Thisenablesyoutodetectchangesin
theOrderIDcolumn.Inaddition,thecolumnissorted.


ClicktheNextStepbuttontoedittheShipViacolumn.ClicktheFilteringbuttonto
displaythefilteringoptions,andselecttheEnabledcheckboxtoallowfilteringon
theShipViacolumn.

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ClicktheNextStepbuttontoreturntoShipViacolumneditingoptions,andthen
clicktheNextStepbuttontoedittheShipCountrycolumn.ClicktheFiltering
buttontodisplaythefilteringoptions,andselecttheEnabledcheckboxtoallow
filteringontheShipCountrycolumn.ClicktheNextStepbuttontoreturntothe
ShipCountrycolumneditingoptions,andthenclicktheNextStepbuttontoeditthe
Freightcolumn.ClicktheTargetTypearrow,andfromthedropdownlist,select
VariableCharacteristic.Thisoptionwillmakethiscolumnavailabletoperform
packagedSPCanalyses(thisisthecolumncontainingthedatatobeanalyzed).


Next,clicktheNextStepbuttontodisplaytheAccessPermissionsoptionsforthis
object.FromthelistofAvailableUsersandGroups,selectTestGroup1,andthen
clickthetoparrowbutton tomoveTestGroup1totheAccessPermissionslist.
Nowthisdataconfigurationwillbeexecutable(butnoteditable)bytheusersof
TestGroup1.

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ClicktheCommitChangesbuttontocommitthisnewdataconfigurationto
STATISTICAEnterpriseManager.

6. Create an Analysis Configuration


NowthatadataconfigurationhasbeendefinedtoextractdatafromtheNorthwind
database,ananalysisconfigurationtoanalyzethedataneedstobecreated.
Inthetreeview,rightclickontheTestExample1folder,andfromtheshortcut
menu,selectNewAnalysisConfigurationtodisplaytheSelectaData
Configurationdialog.SelecttheTestExample1object,andclicktheOKbutton.Ifa
dialogisdisplayedwiththestatement:Whenselected,thisoptionwillreplacethe
permissionsofthisAnalysiswiththoseoftheselectedData,clickOK.


ClicktheNextStepbuttontocontinuecreatingtheanalysisconfiguration(leaving
thedefaultnamethesameasthedataconfigurationforexpediencyonly).Click
theNextStepbuttononceagaintocontinueeditingtheanalysisconfiguration.

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InthepropertiespagefortheSPCCharacteristicsFreightcolumn,changethe
ChartTypetoIndividuals&MovingRange(asshownintheaboveillustration).
NootherSPCoptionsneedtobeconfigured,soselecttheRunoptionsnodeinthe
treeview,andselecttheShowSQLCriteriadialogcheckboxinthepropertiespage.


ThisoptionwillspecifythatSTATISTICApromptforfilteringonthosecolumnsthat
haveFilteroptionsinthedataconfiguration(if,whendefiningtheFilteroptions,
theyweresettoRequiredwhenfiltering,thisstepwouldnotberequiredasit
wouldalwaysforceafilteringpromptwhenrunninginthisexampleitwasnot
requiredtoforcefiltering).ClicktheCommitChangesbuttontosavethisanalysis
configurationtoSTATISTICAEnterprise.

7. Run the Analysis Configuration


ClosetheEnterpriseManager,andlogontoSTATISTICAastheTestUser1user
createdinStep1.SelecttheEnterprisetab,andintheEnterprisegroup,clickRun
Analysis/ReporttodisplaytheRunAnalysisorReportdialog(thisdialogmaybe
displayedautomaticallydependingonyourconfiguration).SelecttheTestExample
1analysis,andclicktheOKbutton;theSQLCriteriadialogwillbedisplayed.

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ClicktheColumnarrow,andselectShipCountryfromthedropdownlist.Clickthe
browsebutton todisplaytheValueofShipCountrydialog,whichcontainsthe
listofavailableShipCountryvalues.SelectBrazilandclicktheOKbutton.


ClicktheFinishbuttontocompletethefilteringstep,extractthedata,andperform
apackagedanalysisontheFreightcolumn.


Custom User Interfaces
Notethatthissimpleexampleillustrateshowtoenableandrunananalysis
configurationusingthestandardSTATISTICAuserinterfaceandoutput
components.
However,oneofthemajorstrengthsofSTATISTICAEnterpriseistheeaseof
creatingcustomuserinterfaces(e.g.,fordifferentcategoriesofusersdepending
ontheirrolesintheorganization,expertise,ordataaccessprivileges).

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Youcaneasilycreateacustomizeduserinterfaceatanydegreeofcomplexity,
fromhighlysimplifiedones,e.g.,onethatcontainsonlythreeoptions:


toveryelaborateuserinterfacesofvirtuallyunlimitedflexibility:

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PleaserefertotheSTATISTICAEnterprisedocumentation(ElectronicManual)for
moredetailsandexamples.

The STATISTICA Enterprise


Server Option
STATISTICAEnterpriseServerprovidesallofthefunctionalitydescribedinthis
exampleandalsoenablesoffloadingtaskstotheserverandremoteaccessviaa
browserinterface.


SeeAppendixBSTATISTICAEnterpriseServer,page263,formoreinformation.

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3

CHAPTER

USER INTERFACE
General Features ................................................................................... 127
Multiple Analysis Support ..................................................................... 128
Three Alternative User Interfaces:
Interactive User Interface ................................................................ 130
STATISTICA Visual Basic and Controlling STATISTICA
from Other Applications .............................................................. 140
Web Browser-Based User Interface:
STATISTICA Enterprise Server .................................................... 141
Microsoft Office Integration ................................................................. 142

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CHAPTER

USER INTERFACE

GENERAL FEATURES
Customized Operation
TheSTATISTICAsystemcanbecontrolledinseveralways.Thefollowingsections
summarizethefeaturesofthemainalternativeuserinterfacesofSTATISTICA:
1. Interactiveinterface(seepage130)
2. STATISTICAVisualBasic(seepage140)
3. Webbrowserbasedinterfaces(seepage141)
4. MicrosoftOfficeIntegration(seepage142)
However,notethat:
Manyaspectsoftheseuserinterfacesdonotexcludeeachother;thus,
dependingonyourspecificapplicationsandpreferences,youcancombine
them;
ThecustomizableQuickAccessToolbarandclassicmenuscanbeusedto
integratethealternativeuserinterfacesand,forexample,toprovidequick
accesstomacro(VisualBasic)programsorcommonlyusedfiles;and
Almostallfeaturesofthesealternativeuserinterfacescanbecustomized
(leadingtoadifferentappearanceandbehaviorofSTATISTICA);itis
generallyrecommendedthatyoucustomizeyoursysteminordertotake
fulladvantageofSTATISTICAspotentialtomeetyourpreferencesand

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optimalrequirementsofthetasksthatyouneedtoaccomplish(see
CustomizationoftheInteractiveUserInterfaceonpage213).

Alternative Access to the Same


Facilities - Custom Styles of Work
Evenwithoutanycustomization,thedefaultsettingsofSTATISTICAoffer
alternativeuserinterfacemeansandsolutionstoachievethesameresults.This
alternativeaccessprinciplepresentineveryaspectofitsuserinterfaceenables
STATISTICAtosupportdifferentstylesofwork.Forexample,mostofthe
commonlyusedtoolscanbeaccessedalternatively:
Fromtheribbonbarortheclassicmenus
Viakeyboardshortcuts
Byusingtheclickablefieldsonthestatusbar
ViathecustomQuickAccesstoolbar(userdefinedtoolbarwithbuttonsand
specialcontrols,whichcanincludemacrosandcommands)
Fromtheshortcutmenusassociatedwithspecificobjects(cells,workbookicons,
partsofgraphs),whicharedisplayedbyrightclickingontheitem.
Itissuggestedthatyouexplorethealternativeuserinterfacefacilitiesof
STATISTICAbeforebecomingattachedtoonestyleoranother.

MULTIPLE ANALYSIS SUPPORT


Asmentionedbefore,youcanhaveseveralinstancesofSTATISTICAopenatthe
sametime.Eachofthemcanrunthesameordifferenttypesofanalyses
(traditionallycalledmodules),suchasBasicStatistics,MultipleRegression,ANOVA,
etc.Moreover,inoneSTATISTICAinstance,multipleanalysescanbeopen
simultaneously.Theycanbeofthesameoradifferentkind(e.g.,fiveMultiple
RegressionsandtwoANOVAs),andeachofthemcanbeperformedonthesameor
adifferentinputdatafile(multipleinputdatafilescanbeopenedsimultaneously).

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Individual analyses functional units of your work.Inordertofacilitate


takingadvantageofthismultitaskingfunctionality,yourworkwithSTATISTICAis
organizedintofunctionalunitscalledanalysesthatarerepresentedwithbuttons
ontheanalysisbaratthebottomoftheapplicationwindow(abovethestatusbar,
seethefollowingillustration,whereDescriptiveStatistics,ClusterAnalysis,and
CanonicalAnalysisarerunningsimultaneously).Consecutivebuttonsareaddedas
youstartnewanalyses.Avarietyofoptionsareprovidedtocontrol(and/or
permanentlyconfigure)thisaspectofSTATISTICA.


Bydefault,whenyouselectspecificoutputfromaresultsdialog,theoutput(a
spreadsheetoragraph)isdisplayedandthedialogisautomaticallyminimizedinto
itsrespectiveanalysisbuttonatthebottomofthescreen.Clickthatbutton(or
pressCTRL+R)todisplaythedialogagainandresumetheanalysis.
Aselectionofoptionspertainingtoanalysismanagementareavailableonthe
shortcutmenu(accessedbyrightclickingonananalysisbuttonontheanalysis
bar)relatedtoeachrespectiveanalysisbutton(asshownabove).
A useful hint for those with large screens. Ifyouhavealargescreen,youcan
turnoffthedefaultminimizationoftheanalysisdialogsandtakeadvantageofthe
factthatmostofthesedialogsaresmalland,thus,canremainontheworkspace
withoutinterferingwiththeviewingofanalysisresults.Youcanadjustthisoption
eitherforaparticularanalysis(cleartheAutoMinimizecommandontheanalysis

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buttonshortcutmenu,showninthepreviousimage),orgloballyfortheentire
program[selectAnalyses/GraphsinthetreepaneoftheOptionsdialog
(accessiblebyselectingtheToolstabandclickingOptions),andcleartheAuto
minimizedialogswhendisplayingoutputcheckbox].
WhenyourunmultipleanalysesandtheSTATISTICAworkspacebecomes
cluttered,youcanhideallwindowsrelatedtospecificanalyses(orclosethem
altogetherviatheanalysisbuttonshortcutmenucommandCloseAllAnalyses).
YoucanalsoopennewSTATISTICAinstances,whichoffersanothersimplewayto
organizeandmanageyour work.

INTERACTIVE USER INTERFACE


Overview
Main components of the interactive user interface of STATISTICA. Although
theinteractiveuserinterfaceofSTATISTICAisnottheonlyoneavailable(see
Chapter7CustomizingSTATISTICA,page213,andChapter8STATISTICAVisual
Basic,page219),inmostcasesitistheeasiestandmostcommonlyused.Many
componentsofthisuserinterfacecanbeseenintheSTATISTICAapplication
window.
First,similartomostsoftwareprograms,tabs,menubarsandvarioustoolbarsare
displayedatthetopofthewindow.Thesearecustomizableanddisplayedinthe
mostappropriatemannerforyourtasks.
Atthebottomofthewindow,theanalysisbar(containingminimized
analysis/graphdialogs)andthestatusbararedisplayed.Additionally,shortcut
menusareavailablewhenyourightclickinappropriateplaces.
Datafilescanbedisplayedinspreadsheets,workbooks,reports,orindividual
windows.Resultsspreadsheetsorgraphscanbedisplayedinworkbooks,reports,
orindividualwindows.Notethatadditionaldocuments(suchasWordorBitmap
images)canalsobedisplayedinspreadsheets,workbooks,orreports.Finally,
STATISTICAVisualBasiccodeisdisplayedinmacrowindows.
Normallyyouwouldnotsimultaneouslyseeallofthesefacilitiesandtoolsatone
time.YoualwayshavetheabilitytomaketheuserinterfaceofSTATISTICAas

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simpleorcomplexasyourparticularneedsandcomfortleveldemand(seepage
213).ThesevarioustoolsandfacilitiesaredescribedindetailintheElectronic
Manual(STATISTICAHelp).
Modules.WhileSTATISTICAoffersavarietyofstatisticalandgraphicalprocedures,
eachprocedurecanbeperformedinthesameinstanceofSTATISTICA.Thismeans
that,forexample,itispossibletocalculateresidualstatisticsusingoptionsinthe
MultipleRegressionmodule,thenimmediatelyusethatoutputintheFactor
Analysisoranotherexploratorymodulewithoutfirststartinganotherinstanceof
STATISTICA.Formoreinformationonusingresultsasinputdata,seeCanIUsethe
ResultsofMyAnalysistoPerformAnotherAnalysis?intheElectronicManual.

The Flow of Interactive Analysis


Startup Panel.WhenastatisticalprocedureisselectedfromtheStatistics,Data
Mining,orGraphstabs,itsrespectiveStartupPanelisdisplayed(asshownbelow;
BasicStatisticswasselectedfromtheStatisticstabBasegrouptodisplaythe
BasicStatisticsandTablesStartupPanel).


EachStartupPanelcontainsalistofthetypesofanalysesavailableinthat
particularmodule.Clickinganywhereoutsidethepanelautomaticallyminimizesit
asabuttonontheanalysisbar.Ifyoursystemincludesahighresolutionscreen,
youcanchangethisdefaultandkeeptheconsecutivedialogs(ineachanalysis
sequence)displayedontheworkspace.
Analysis specification and output selection (results) dialogs. Whenthe
desiredanalysisisselectedintheStartupPanel,theanalysisspecificationdialogis
displayed,inwhichyouselectthevariablestobeanalyzedandotheroptionsand

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featuresofthetasktobeperformed.Often,thesedialogscontainseveraltabsthat
grouptheoptions,analyses,and/orresultsinlogicalcategoriestomakeiteasierto
locatespecificfeatures.


Insomesimpleanalyses(suchasDescriptiveStatistics,shownintheillustration
above),theanalysisspecificationdialogalsoservesasanoutputselectiondialog
whereyoucanspecifythetypeandformatoftheoutput(e.g.,specific
spreadsheetsorgraphs).Mostanalyses,however,haveaseparateanalysis
specificationdialogandresultsdialog.
Spreadsheet facilities for scenario (what-if) analyses and customized
appearance.STATISTICAprovidesyouwiththecapabilitytoappend
supplementaryinformationaboutvariablemeasurementtypesandcasestatesto
yourspreadsheets.Thismetadatacanbeusedtocreateamorecomprehensive
descriptionofyourdataset,facilitatewhatiftypesofexploratoryanalyses,and
customizetheappearanceofcasesingraphs.
Case states and brushing.Youcanassigncasestatestocasesinorderto
customizetheappearanceofpointsingraphicaldisplays,thusmakingitveryeasy
toidentifyinfluentialandinterestingpoints.Awideselectionofsymbolsand
colorsisavailabletocustomizetheappearanceofselectedpoints.Notonlycan
casestatesbeassignedinthespreadsheetbeforeagraphiscreated,theycanalso
beassignedinteractivelyinthegraphviatheBrushingfacilities(accessibleby
clickingtheBrushingbutton intheCustomizeGraphgroupontheEdittab
whenagraphisdisplayed).Thecasestatesassignedinthegraphpropagateback
tothespreadsheet.Theabilitytoassigncasestatesineitherthespreadsheetor
graphfurtherfacilitatestheexploratoryvisualanalysisofdata.

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Measurement types and automatic variable pre-screening. Themodelingor


measurementtypeofavariablecanbeexplicitlydefinedinordertoindicatewhat
analysesandgraphsareappropriateforsuchavariable.Thesemeasurementtypes
willmapdirectlytosubsequentanalysesandgraphs,identifyingappropriate
variablesineachcase(e.g.,variablesoftypecategoricalwillbepresentwithinthe
listofcategoricalpredictorsavailableinaFactorialANOVA).


Inallvariableselectiondialogs(suchastheoneshownabove),theShow
appropriatevariablesonlyoptionisprovided,whichenablesyoutoprescreenor
filtervariablesaccordingtotheirMeasurementType(specifiedintheVariable
specificationdialog,accessiblebydoubleclickingonavariableheaderina
spreadsheet);ifthattypeisAuto,thentheAutomaticvariableprescreeningand
classificationoptions(locatedintheAnalysis/GraphoptionspaneoftheOptions
dialog,accessiblebyselectingtheToolstabandclickingOptions)determinehow
STATISTICAwillautomaticallydeterminetheMeasurementType.
Auto filtering (cloaking variables and cases).Filtering(accessiblebyselecting
theDatatabandclickingAutoFilterintheTransformationsgroup)isaquickand
easywaytodisplayaspecificportionofthedatainyourspreadsheetwithout
sortingthedataorcreatingasubset.Whenavariableisfiltered,onlythevalues
thatmeetthespecifiedcriteriaaredisplayedinthespreadsheet.Casesthatdonot
meetthecriteriaarehiddenfromsightbutnotremovedfromthespreadsheet
(e.g.,inthespreadsheetshownbelow,onlythecasesforGENDER=MALEare
displayed).


Althoughhidden,theyarestillavailableforstatisticalandgraphicalanalyses.

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Output.AsdescribedinmoredetailinChapter4FiveChannelsforOutputFrom
Analyses(page147)andasillustratedinExample1:Correlations(page11)and
Example2:ANOVA(page34),theconsecutiveoutputspreadsheetsandgraphsare
displayedinworkbooksbydefault.Theseworkbookscanbesavedandlater
reopened,makingiteasytoreturntospecificresultsasneeded.
Additionally,youcansendalloutputtoananalysisreport(seepage151),which
producesaneasilyorganized(viathereporttree),formatted,andprintedreportof
aspecificanalysis.Youcanalsochoosetosendallresults,regardlessofwhat
analysisitcomesfrom,toasinglereport.Lastly,theoutputcanbedirectedto
separatewindows.
Tospecifyoutputoptionsforasingleanalysisorsession,clickthe
buttonintheanalysisorgraphspecificationdialogandselectOutputtodisplaythe
Analysis/GraphOutputManagerdialog.
Toaccessglobaloutputoptions,selecttheToolstab.ClickOptionstodisplaythe
Optionsdialog,andselectOutputManager.Or,selecttheHometabandclick
OptionsintheToolsgroup.Formoreinformation,seetheElectronicManual.

Features of Analyses
STATISTICAprovidesdirectaccesstoallstatisticalanalysesviatheStatisticstab:


andtheDataMiningtab:


andprovidesdirectaccesstoallgraphicalanalysisdialogsviatheGraphstab:

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Thesetabsareneverdisabled,i.e.,theyareavailablewheneveranyinputdata
documentisopen.
TheStatisticsandDataMiningtabsprovideaccesstoallavailableanalysistypes
withinSTATISTICA.TheGraphstabprovidesdirectaccesstoavarietyofcommonly
usedgraphtypes(e.g.,scatterplots,histograms,means/errorplots,etc.)aswellas
hierarchicalaccesstoallgraphtypesinSTATISTICAincluding2DGraphs,3D
SequentialandXYZGraphs,CategorizedGraphs,UserdefinedGraphs,BlockData
Graphs,InputDataGraphs,andMultiGraphLayouts.Comprehensivediscussions
ofallthevarioustypesofstatisticsandgraphsofferedbySTATISTICAareavailable
intheglossaryoftheElectronicManual.Seealso,AppendixC:STATISTICAFamily
ofProducts(page275)formoreinformationonallmembersofthecomprehensive
selectionofdataanalysisapplicationsfromtheSTATISTICAfamilyofproducts.

Using the analysis bar. TotakeadvantageofSTATISTICAsmultitasking


functionality(seeMultipleAnalysisSupport,page128),STATISTICAanalysesare
organizedasfunctionalunitsthatarerepresentedwithbuttonsontheanalysisbar
atthebottomoftheapplicationwindow(abovethestatusbar,seethenext
illustration,whereDescriptiveStatistics,ClusterAnalysis,andCanonicalAnalysis
arerunningsimultaneously).Consecutivebuttonsareaddedasyoustartnew
analyses.

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Minimizing dialogs (and a hint for users with large screens). Dependingon
yourpreferences,youcanchoosetominimizeallanalysisdialogswhenyouselect
anotherwindowinSTATISTICAoranotherapplication.BydefaulttheAuto
Minimizecommandisselected;however,whenyourscreenislargeenoughto
accommodateseveralwindows,itisrecommendedthatyouclearthiscommand.
Thiskeepstheanalysisdialogsonscreenwhiletherespectiveoutputcreatedfrom
thesedialogsisproduced,thusenablingyoutousethedialogsastoolbarsfrom
whichoutputcanbeselected.Seepage129forinformationonhowtoadjustthis
command.
Continuing analyses/graphs. Itiseasytocontinueananalysisorgraph(i.e.,to
changethefocustothecurrentdialogforaparticularanalysis).SelecttheTools
tab,clickAnalysisBar,andselectResumefromthedropdownmenu;orpress
CTRL+R;orclicktheanalysis/graphbuttonontheanalysisbar.Whenmultiple
analysesarerunning,youcanalsoselectthespecificanalysisfromtheSelect
Analysis/Graphsubmenu(asshowninthenextillustration).


Hiding windows. Tofurtherfacilitatetheorganizationofwindowsfromvarious
analyses,youcanhideallwindowsassociatedwithaparticularanalysiswhenthat
analysisisdeselected:selecttheToolstab,clickAnalysisBar,andfromthe
Optionssubmenu,selectHideonDeselect.Bydefault,thiscommandisnot
selected.Notethatthiscommandonlyapplieswhentheresultsaresentto

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individualwindows;seethediscussionoftheOutputManager(page147)for
moredetailsonmanagingoutputfromanalyses.Inaddition,thereisacommand
ontheHometabintheWindowsgrouptoclosealldocumentwindows:clickClose
All(orpressCTRL+Lonyourkeyboard),andacommandontheToolstabtocloseall
analyses:clickAnalysisBarandselectCloseAllAnalysesfromthedropdown
menu.
Bringing windows to the top. OntheToolstabclickAnalysisBar,andfromthe
OptionssubmenuselectBringtoToponSelecttoactivate(bringtothetopof
STATISTICA)allwindowsassociatedwithaparticularanalysiswhenthatanalysisis
selected,replacingwhateverdialogswereontop.Thiscommandalsofacilitates
theorganizationofindividualwindowsfromvariousanalyses.Bydefault,this
commandisselected.Notethatthiscommandonlyapplieswhentheresultsare
senttoindividualwindows;seethediscussionoftheOutputManager(page147)
formoredetailsonmanagingoutputfromanalyses.
Hiding the summary box. Bydefault,asummaryboxislocatedatthetopof
certainresultsdialogs(suchasMultipleRegressionResults)andcontainsbasic
summaryinformationabouttheanalysis.Youcanhideanindividualsummarybox
byclickingthe buttoninthelowerrightcornerofthesummarybox.Youcanalso
suppressthedisplayofallsummaryboxesgloballybyselectingtheToolstab,
clickingAnalysisBar,andselectingHideSummaryBoxfromtheOptionssubmenu.

Document Types
STATISTICAusessevenprincipaldocumenttypes:
Workbooks(seepages148and169)
Spreadsheets(multimediatables)(seepage173)
Reports(seepages151and180)
Graphs(seepages182and189)
Macros(STATISTICAVisualBasicprograms)(seepages183and219)
STATISTICAProjectFiles(seepage184)
DataMinerRecipesProjectFiles(seepage61)

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Usingthesesevendocumenttypes,youcanmanagedataofvarioustypes,
performdataentryandanalyses,generategraphsofthehighestquality,develop
customapplicationsofanydegreeofcomplexity,andcreatecustomformatted
reports.
Youcanquicklyaccessthemostrecentlyuseddocuments.ClicktheSTATISTICA
Startmenu (inthelowerleftcornerofthescreen)andselectDocuments.


IntheGeneraloptionspaneoftheOptionsdialog(accessiblebyselectingthe
ToolstabandclickingOptions),youcanspecifyhowmanyrecentlyused
documentstodisplay(thedefaultis16).Formoredetailedinformationabouteach
documenttype,seetheoverviewsforworkbooks,spreadsheets,reports,graphs,
andmacrosonpage169;forfurtherinformation,seetheElectronicManual.
Tabs related to types of active document windows.Eachofthemaintypesof
STATISTICAdocumentwindows(seepage137)managesdatainadifferentway
and,thus,offersdifferentcustomizationandmanagementoptions.These
differencesarereflectedinthetabsthataccompanyeachtypeofwindow.Menu
commandsandbuttonsforeachofthemaintypesofdocumentsaredescribedin
detailintheElectronicManual.
Thetabsthatareavailablewhenworkbooksareopendependonthetypeof
documentthatiscurrentlyselectedintheworkbook.Therefore,whenyouare

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editingaspreadsheet,graph,report,ormacrowithinaworkbook,thetabs
relevantforthatdocumenttypeareavailable.Whenyouselectanemptynode
intheworkbooktreepane,bydefault,theWorkbooktabisdisplayed.
User-defined toolbars. Inadditiontothevarietyoftoolbarsprovidedonthe
STATISTICAclassicmenus(ontheribbonbar,clickthe iconintheupperleft
cornertodisplaytheclassicmenus),youcanalsocreateuserdefinedtoolbars.
ThesetoolbarscanincludeanycommandavailableinSTATISTICA,aswellasspecial
controls(i.e.,fontname,fontsize,graphstyles,etc.).Thetoolbarscanbegiven
anynameandcanbedesignatedtoopendependingontheactivedocumenttype.
Also,youcancustomizealltoolbars(includingexistingtoolbars)byadding
commandsandspecialcontrols.
Tocreateatoolbar(oreditanexistingone)usetheoptionsontheToolbarstabof
theCustomizedialog,accessiblebyselectingCustomizefromtheToolsmenu.
Customizingatoolbarisaseasyasdraggingcommandsfromthedialogtothe
toolbar,asshownintheillustrationbelow.


Shapesandlocationsoftoolbarscanbeeasilyadjusted(e.g.,alltoolbarscanbe
dockedorfreefloating).Alloftheseoptionsmakeitpossibleforyoutocreate
uniquetoolbarsthatprovideyouwithaveryspecializeduserinterface.The
ElectronicManualincludessimpletofollow,stepbystepinstructionsonhowto

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makecustomizations.Specifically,seeCreateaNewToolbarintheElectronic
Manualformoredetails.
TheQuickAccesstoolbarlocatedatthetopoftheribbonbarcanbecustomizedas
well;seeCustomizeQuickAccessToolbarintheElectronicManual.
User-defined menus. Customizingtheclassicmenusisequallyeasyandcanbe
performedusingtheMenutaboftheCustomizedialog(seetheElectronicManual
fordetails).

STATISTICA VISUAL BASIC


AND CONTROLLING STATISTICA
FROM OTHER APPLICATIONS
TheindustrystandardSTATISTICAVisualBasiclanguage(integratedinto
STATISTICA)providesanalternativeuserinterfacetotheentirefunctionalityof
STATISTICA,anditoffersincomparablymorethanjustasupplementary
applicationprogramminglanguagethatcanbeusedtowritecustomextensions.
STATISTICAVisualBasictakesfulladvantageoftheobjectmodelarchitectureof
STATISTICAandcanbeusedtoaccessprogrammaticallyeveryaspectandvirtually
everydetailofthefunctionalityofSTATISTICA.Eventhemostcomplexanalyses
andgraphscanberecordedintoVisualBasicmacrosandlaterberunrepeatedlyor
editedandusedasbuildingblocksofotherapplications.STATISTICAVisualBasic
addsanarsenalofmorethan14,000newfunctionstothestandard
comprehensivesyntaxofVisualBasic,thuscomprisingoneofthelargestand
richestdevelopmentenvironmentsavailable.FormoreinformationonSTATISTICA
VisualBasic,seeChapter8(page219).
Controlling STATISTICA from other applications. Oneofthefeaturesthat
makestheSTATISTICAVisualBasicenvironmentsopowerfulistheabilityto
integrateandmanipulatevariousapplicationsandtheirenvironmentswithina
singlemacro.Forexample,youcanrecordorwriteaSTATISTICAVisualBasic
programthatcomputespredictionsviatheSTATISTICATimeSeriesmoduleand
executethatprogramfromwithinanExcelspreadsheetoraWorddocument.The
exchangeofinformationbetweendifferentapplicationsisaccomplishedby
exposingthoseapplicationstotheVisualBasicprogramsasObjects.So,for

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example,youcanrunstatisticalanalysesintheSTATISTICABasicStatisticsmodule
fromaVisualBasicprograminExcelbydeclaringinsidetheprogramanobjectof
typeStatistica.Application.
Onceanobjecthasbeencreated,theVisualBasicprogramthenhasaccesstothe
propertiesandmethodscontainedinthatobject.Propertiescanbemostly
thoughtofasfunctions,methodscanbemostlythoughtofassubroutinesthat
performcertainoperationsorcomputationsinsidetherespectiveapplication
object.YoucancallSTATISTICAproceduresdirectlyfrommanyotherapplications
andprogramminglanguages(e.g.,C++,Java,andothers).

WEB BROWSER-BASED USER


INTERFACE: STATISTICA
ENTERPRISE SERVER
Inadditiontothetwobasictypesofuserinterfacesdescribedintheprevious
sections,theentireSTATISTICAfamilyofproductsalsooptionallyoffersabrowser
baseduserinterface,whereallinteractionswiththeapplicationinvolvingquerying
databases,datamanagementoperations,dataanalysis,ordatamining,aswellas
generatingreportsandcollaborativework,canbeperformedwithouthavingany
STATISTICAapplicationinstalledonthelocalcomputer,usingonlyabrowser.This
alternativeuserinterfacerequiresthataClientServerversionoftherespective
STATISTICAapplicationbeinstalled.
STATISTICAEnterpriseServerisahighlyscalable,enterpriselevel,fullyWeb
enableddataanalysisanddatabasegatewayapplicationsystemthatisbuilton
distributedprocessingtechnologyandfullysupportsmultitierClientServer
architectureconfigurations.STATISTICAEnterpriseServerexposestheanalytic,
query,reporting,andgraphicsfunctionalityofSTATISTICAthrougheasytouse,
interactive,standardWebinterfaces.Alternatively,itenablesusersofthedesktop
version(thickclient)tooffloadcomputationallyintensiveanalyticsanddatabase
operationstotheServer.Itisofferedasacomplete,readytoinstallapplication
withaninteractive,Internetbrowserbased(pointandclick)userinterface
(thinclient)thatmakesitpossibleforuserstointeractivelycreatedatasets,run
analyses,andreviewoutput.However,STATISTICAEnterpriseServerisbuiltusing

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openarchitectureandincludes.NETcompatibledevelopmentkittools(based
entirelyonindustrystandardsyntaxconventionssuchasVBScript,C++/C#,HTML,
Java,andXML)thatenablesITdepartmentpersonneltocustomizeallmain
componentsofthesystemorexpanditbybuildingonitsfoundations,for
example,byaddingnewcomponentsand/orcompanyspecificanalyticor
databasefacilities.
Asmentioned,STATISTICAServerisprovidedwithanInternetbrowserbaseduser
interface(intheformofsimpletonavigateandeasytousedialogs)enablingyou
tospecifyanalysesandreviewresults.However,toolsareprovidedtocustomize
thesedialogsandeasilysetupnewuserinterfacesortoaddnewfunctions.For
example,asimpledialogwithonlythreebuttonscanbecreatedinthebrowser,
andclickingeachbuttonwillrunaseriesofanalysesandgenerateadetailed
report.STATISTICAEnterpriseServerapplicationsaddanewdimensionandan
endlessarrayofpossibilitiestotheentirelineofSTATISTICADataAnalysis,Data
Mining,andQualityControl/SixSigmasoftware.
ThesystemiscompatiblewithallmajorWebserversoftwareplatforms(e.g.,UNIX
Apache,andMicrosoftIIS),worksinbothMicrosoft.NETandSun/Java
environments,anddoesnotrequireanychangestotheexistingfirewalland
Internet/Intranetsecuritysystems
Formoreinformation,pleaserefertoAppendixBSTATISTICAEnterpriseServer,
page263.

MICROSOFT OFFICE INTEGRATION


IfMicrosoftOfficeisinstalledonthesamemachineasSTATISTICA,Excel
spreadsheetscanbeopeneddirectlywithinSTATISTICAandusedasadatasource
foranalyses,andWorddocumentscanbeusedasadestinationforreports(see
page143;seealsopage154).
Excel as a data source.STATISTICAcanopenExceldocumentsintheSTATISTICA
workspacethroughthestandardOpendialog.WhenanExcelworkbookis
selected,adialogwillbedisplayedthatenablesyoutoimportthefileintoa
standardSTATISTICASpreadsheetortokeepthedocumentinExcelform,i.e.,as
anExcelwindowwithinSTATISTICA.

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OncetheExceldocumentisopened,youhaveaccesstoallthemenusandtoolbars
thatExcelsupports.Thus,youcaneditandupdateformulas,changethe
formatting,copy/paste,drag/dropeverythingthatyouwouldnormallydoifyou
werewithintheExcelapplication.
ThemainstrengthinExcelintegrationisthattheExceldocumentscanbeusedasa
datasourceforanalyses.SimplyhavetheExceldocumentwindowselectedwhen
startingananalysis,andtheanalysiswillsourcefromtheExceldocument.When
initiallyrunningtheanalysis,STATISTICAwilldisplayadialoginwhichyoucan
specifywhatrangeoftheExceldocumentshouldbeusedasthedatasourceandif
aparticularroworcolumnistobeusedasvariablenamesorcasenames.These
settingsareassignedtotheExceldocumentsoyouwillonlyneedtospecifythem
once.
NotonlycanSTATISTICAusetheExcelfileasadatasource,butautoupdatingcan
bespecifiedaswell.Ifyoucreateanautoupdatinggraphandthenchangethe
Excelfilebyenteringnewdataorreevaluatingformulas,thegraphwillalsobe
updated.
Word as a report destination.YoucanalsoopenandeditWorddocuments
withintheSTATISTICAworkspace.Worddocumentscanbeopenedusingthe
standardOpendialog,andwhenperformingstatisticalanalysesorcreatinggraphs,
outputcanbeingdirectedtoaWorddocument.Anyoutputthatcanbedirectedto
aSTATISTICAReportiscapableofbeingdirectedtoaWorddocument.
AswithExcel,whentheWorddocumentisopen,youhaveaccesstoallthe
toolbarsandmenusthataresupportedwithintheWordapplication.Youcan
performanyformattingandeditingthatWordsupportswithinitsapplication.
WhensendingspreadsheetanalyticalresultstoWord,STATISTICAwilltake
advantageofWordstableeditingfacilityandconvertthespreadsheetintoatable.
Formultipagespreadsheets,youcancontrolwheretobreaktherowsand
columns.Thesespreadsheetswillbebrokenbycolumnssuchaswillbeallowed
withoutexceedingthepagewidth.Allrowsforagivensetofcolumnswillbe
renderedbeforethenextsetofspreadsheetcolumnsisrenderedintheWord
document.ThissolutionenablesthepresentationofspreadsheetsinWordthat
arenativelyeditableinWord,displaytheentirecontentsofthespreadsheet,and
printandpaginatecorrectly.

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4

CHAPTER

SIX CHANNELS FOR


OUTPUT FROM ANALYSES
Overview ................................................................................................. 147
1. STATISTICA Workbooks .................................................................... 148
2. Stand-Alone Windows ....................................................................... 150
3. Reports ............................................................................................... 151
4. Microsoft Word .................................................................................. 154
5. Output to the Web ............................................................................. 155
6. SharePoint or STATISTICA Document Management
System (SDMS)........................................................................... 163

CHAPTER

SIX CHANNELS FOR OUTPUT


FROM ANALYSES

OVERVIEW

Whenyouperformananalysis,STATISTICAgeneratesoutputintheformof
multimediatables(spreadsheets)andgraphs.Therearesixbasicchannelsto
whichyoucandirectalloutput:
1. STATISTICAWorkbooks(page148)
2. StandaloneWindows(page150)
3. Reports(page151)
4. MicrosoftWord(page154)
5. TheWeb(page155)
6. SharePointorSTATISTICADocumentManagementSystem(SDMS)(page
163)
Thefirstfouroutputchannelslistedabovearecontrolledbytheoptionsinthe
OutputManager(accessiblebyselectingOutputManagerfromtheStartbutton
dropdownmenulocatedintheupperleftcorneroftheribbonbar,seepage
23forfurtherdetailsonboththeglobalOutputManagerintheOptionsdialog
andtheAnalysis/GraphOutputManagerdialog).Thereareanumberofwaysto
outputtotheWeb,dependingontheversionofSTATISTICAyouhave.SharePoint
isaccessiblefromwithinSTATISTICA,andSDMSisanadditionalproductavailable
fromStatSoft.

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Thesemeansforoutputcanbeusedinmanycombinations(e.g.,aworkbookand
reportsimultaneously)andcanbecustomizedinavarietyofways.Also,alloutput
objects(spreadsheetsandgraphs)placedineachoftheoutputchannelscan
containotherembeddedandlinkedobjectsanddocuments,soSTATISTICAoutput
canbehierarchicallyorganizedinavarietyofways.EachoftheSTATISTICAoutput
channelshasitsuniqueadvantages,asdescribedinthefollowingsections.More
comprehensiveoverviewsofeachofthedocumenttypesassociatedwiththe
respectivechannelsofoutputareincludedinChapter5STATISTICADocuments
(page167).
The auto save and recovery features.AllSTATISTICAdocuments(i.e.,input
spreadsheets,workbooks,reports,andmacros)thataccumulatetheresultsof
yourwork(e.g.,dataentry,editing,oroutputcollection)overanextendedperiod
oftimesupporttheAutoSavefeature,whichisconfigurableintheGeneral
optionspaneoftheOptionsdialog(accessiblebyselectingtheToolstaband
clickingOptions).Thisfacilitywillautomaticallysavethecontentsofyourwork
periodically(e.g.,every10minutes)and,thus,giveyoutheoptiontoretrievedata
thatotherwisecouldbelostincaseofapoweroutageorasystemfailure.

1. STATISTICA WORKBOOKS
Workbooksarethedefaultwayofmanagingoutput(formoreinformation,see
page169).Eachoutputdocument(e.g.,aSTATISTICASpreadsheetorGraph,as
wellasaWordorExceldocument)isstoredasatabintheworkbook.
Documentscanbeorganizedintohierarchiesoffoldersordocumentnodes(by
default,oneiscreatedforeachnewanalysis)usingatreeview,inwhichindividual
documents,folders,orentirebranchesofthetreecanbeflexiblymanaged.

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Forexample,selectionsofdocumentscanbeextracted(e.g.,dragcopiedordrag
moved)toareportwindowortotheapplicationworkspace(i.e.,theSTATISTICA
applicationbackgroundwheretheywillbedisplayedinstandalonewindows).
Entirebranchescanbeplacedintootherworkbooksinavarietyofwaysinorderto
buildspecificfolderorganization,etc.
Technicallyspeaking,workbooksareActiveXdocumentcontainers(seepage238
forinformationonActiveXtechnology,seealsotheElectronicManual).
Workbooksarecompatiblewithavarietyofforeignfileformats(e.g.,Office
documents)thatcanbeeasilyinsertedintoworkbooksandinplaceedited.
User notes and comments in workbooks.Workbooksofferpowerfuloptionsto
efficientlymanageevenextremelylargeamountsofoutput,andtheymaybethe
bestoutputhandlingsolutionforbothnovicesandadvancedusers.Itmight
appearthatonepossibledrawbackisthatusercomments(e.g.,notes)and
supplementaryinformationcannotbeastransparentlyinsertedintothestream
oftheworkbookoutputastheycanintraditional,wordprocessorstylereports,
suchasSTATISTICAReports(seethenextsection).However,notethat:
AllSTATISTICAdocumentscaneasilybeannotated,botha)directly,by
typingtextintographs,tables,andreports,andb)indirectly,byentering
notesintotheCommentsboxoftheDocumentPropertiesdialog(accessed
byselectingPropertiesfromtheStartbutton dropdownmenulocated
intheupperleftcorneroftheribbonbar),and
Formatteddocumentswithnotesandcomments(intheformoftextfiles,
STATISTICAReportdocuments,WordPadorwordprocessordocuments,
etc.)caneasilybeinsertedanywhereinthehierarchicalorganizationof
outputinworkbooks.Moreover,suchsummarynotesorcomment
documentscanbemadenodesforgroupsofsubordinateobjectstowhich
thenoteisrelatedtofurtherenhancetheirorganization.
Saving workbooks as Web pages.Workbookscanbesavedas*.html(Web)files
byselectingSaveAsontheHometabintheFilegroupfromtheSavemenu,andin
theSaveAsdialog,choosingWebPage(*.htm;*.html)fromtheSaveastype
dropdownlist.SavingasaWebpagewillcreatean*.htmlfileinthespecified
directorythatcanbeopenedwithstandardinternetbrowserssuchasMicrosoft

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InternetExplorer.WhensavingtheworkbookasaWebpage,STATISTICAalso
createsasubdirectorythatcontainsalltheimagesreferencedbytheWebpage.


TheWebpageoutputcontainsan.htmlbasedtreecontrolthatenablesyouto
navigateanddisplaythevariousworkbookimages,similartotheactualworkbook.

2. STAND-ALONE WINDOWS
STATISTICAoutputdocumentscanalsobedirectedtoaqueueofstandalone
windows;theQueueLengthcanbecontrolledintheOutputManageroptions
paneoftheOptionsdialog(accessiblebyselectingtheToolstabandclicking
Options).


Thecleardisadvantageofthisoutputmodeisitstotallackoforganizationandits
naturaltendencytocluttertheapplicationworkspace(someprocedurescan
generatehundredsoftablesorgraphswithaclickofthebutton).

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Oneoftheadvantagesofthiswayofhandlingoutputisthatyoucaneasilycustom
arrangetheseobjectswithintheSTATISTICAapplicationworkspace(e.g.,tocreate
multiple,easytoidentifyreferencedocumentstobecomparedtothenew
output).However,notethatinordertoachievethateffect,youdonotneedto
configuretheoutputaheadoftimeandgeneratealargenumberof(mostly
unwanted)separatewindowsthatcancluttertheworkspace.Instead,individual,
specificoutputobjectsdirectedtoandstoredintheothertwochannels
(workbooksandreports)caneasilybedraggedoutfromtheirrespectivetree
viewsontotheapplicationworkspaceasneeded.

3. REPORTS
Whenperformingananalysis,theultimategoalistocreatemeaningfuloutputin
ordertogainanunderstandingofthedata.Themannerinwhichtheoutputis
producedisimportantaswell.STATISTICAoffersavarietyofmethodstoproduce
reportsthataccommodatethediverseneedsofusers.

STATISTICA Reports
STATISTICAReports(formoreinformation,seepage180)offeramoretraditionalway
ofhandlingoutputwhereeachobject(e.g.,aSTATISTICASpreadsheetorGraph,oran
Excelspreadsheet)isdisplayedsequentiallyinawordprocessorstyledocument.


However,thetechnologybehindthissimpleeditoroffersyouveryrich
functionality.Forexample,liketheworkbook(seeSTATISTICAWorkbooks,page
148),theSTATISTICAReportisalsoanActiveXcontainer(forinformationon

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ActiveXtechnology,seepage238ortheElectronicManual)whereeachofits
objects(notonlySTATISTICASpreadsheetsandGraphs,butalsoanyotherActiveX
compatibledocuments,e.g.,Excelspreadsheets)remainsactive,customizable,and
inplaceeditable.
Theobviousadvantagesofthiswayofhandlingoutput(moretraditionalthanthe
workbook)aretheabilitytoinsertnotesandcommentsinbetweentheobjectsas
wellasitssupportforthemoretraditionalwayofquickscrollingthroughand
reviewingtheoutputtowhichsomeusersmaybeaccustomed(e.g.,theeditor
supportsvariablespeedscrolling).Also,onlythereportoutputincludesand
preservestherecordofthesupplementaryinformation,whichcontainsadetailed
logoftheoptionsspecifiedfortheanalyses(e.g.,selectedvariablesandtheir
labels,longnames,etc.,dependingonthelevelofsupplementaryinformation
specifiedintheOutputManager,seepage25).
Theobviousdrawback,however,ofthesetraditionalreportsistheinherentflat
structureimposedbytheirwordprocessorstyleformat,althoughthatiswhat
someusersorcertainapplicationsmayfavor.

Reports from Workbooks


WhenyouhaveaSTATISTICAWorkbookcontaininganalysesoutput,youmay
decideyouwanttotransferittoareport.
OpenaSTATISTICAWorkbookandselectallofthefiles,i.e.,selectthefirstfile,
presstheSHIFTkeyonyourkeyboard,andselectthelastfile.Then,clickAddto
ReportontheHometabintheOutputgroup.Allthefilesintheworkbookwillbe
duplicatedinaSTATISTICAReport.

RTF (Rich Text Format) Reports


RTF(RichTextFormat)isaMicrosoftstandardmethodofencodingformattedtext
andgraphicsforeasytransferbetweenapplications.Whenreportsaresavedin
RichTextFormat(*.rtf),allfileformattingispreservedsothatitcanbereadand
interpretedbyotherRTFcompatibleapplications(e.g.,Word).

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TheSTATISTICAReportformat(.str)adherestoRTFconventions;however,saving
reportsinthedefaultSTATISTICAReportformatensuresthatthereportswillbe
openedinSTATISTICA,givingyoucompleteaccesstothereporttree.
InordertoopenaSTATISTICAreportinanRTFcompatibleapplication,openthe
report,selecttheHometab,clicktheSavearrow,andselectSaveAsfromthe
dropdownmenutodisplaytheSaveAsdialog.FromtheSaveastypedropdown
list,selectRichTextFiles(*.rtf),enteranameintheFilenamefield,andclickthe
Savebutton.YoucanthenopenthefileinanyRTFcompatibleapplication.

Acrobat (PDF) Reports


PDFistheacronymforPortableDocumentFormat;itistheindustrystandard
formatforstoringtextualandgraphicaldata.PDFoffersagraphicallyrich
appearanceandstructurethatmakesitidealforpresentationpurposes.
Additionally,PDFdocumentscanbeviewedinbothimageandtextualmode,i.e.,
youcaneitherselectdataasaformattedimageorasregulartext.
PDFisplatformindependent,andmostoperatingsystemsofferfreePDFviewing
applications(e.g.,AdobeAcrobatonWindowsandGhostscriptonLinux).
PDFhasbeenapprovedasanacceptabledocumentstorageformatforregulated
environmentsaccordingtotheFDAs21CFRPart11.
TosaveaSTATISTICAReportasaPDFfile,openthereport,selecttheHometab,
andthenselectSaveAsPDFfromtheSavemenu.TheOutputOptionsdialogwill
bedisplayed,whereyoucanchoosewhethertooutputspreadsheetsasObjects
(astheyaresizedinthereportwindow)orFullsizedSpreadsheets(onseparate
pages).Ifyoualwayswanttooutputspreadsheetsinthesamemanner,selectthe
Usethecurrentsettinganddonotdisplaythisdialogagaincheckbox.Clickthe
OKbuttontoclosetheOutputOptionsdialoganddisplaytheSavereportasPDF
dialog.UsetheSaveinfieldtoselecttheappropriatelocationinwhichtosavethe
document,enteranameintheFilenamefield,andclicktheSavebutton.
STATISTICAReports,Spreadsheets,andGraphscanallbesavedinPDFformat.
NotethatthesearenotsimplifiedPDFfiles(representingcompressedbitmapsof
therespectivedocumentpageimages)butfullfeaturedPDFfilesthatsupport
suchoperationsasselectivecopyingoftextinformation.

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HTML Reports
YoumaywanttopostaSTATISTICAReportorWorkbookontheInternetforothers
toreview.WithSTATISTICA,youcansavereportsandworkbooksinHTML(an
acronymforHyperTextMarkupLanguage)format.HTMLusestagstoidentify
elementsofthedocument,suchastextorgraphics.
OpenaSTATISTICAReportorWorkbook,andselectSaveAsfromtheSavemenu
(locatedontheHometabintheFilegroup)todisplaytheSaveAsdialog.Fromthe
Saveastypedropdownlist,selectWebPage(*.html;*.htm)tosavethefilewith
an*.htmextension.
Notethatgraphsinthereportorworkbookaresavedas*.pngfilesinthesame
folderastheHTMfile.YoucansavegraphsasJPGfiles,instead.Todothis,click
Options(ontheHometabintheToolsgroup)todisplaytheOptionsdialog.Select
eitherReportsorWorkbooksinthetreeview,accordingtowhichdocumentyou
intendtosendtoan.htmdocument,selecttheJPEGformatoptionbuttoninthe
ExportHTMLimagesasgroupbox,andclickOK.

4. MICROSOFT WORD
WithSTATISTICA,youcanalsorouteoutputdirectlytoWordviatheOffice
Integrationfeatures.WhenWordisopenwithinSTATISTICA,Wordtoolbarsand
menusarealsoavailablethroughstandardActiveXDocumentinterfaces
technology.InSTATISTICA,youcanperformanyformattingandeditingthatWord
supportsinitsapplication.
WhensendingspreadsheetanalyticalresultstoWord,STATISTICAwilltake
advantageofWordstableeditingfacility,andconvertthespreadsheettoatable.
Formultipagespreadsheets,youcancontrolwheretobreaktherowsand
columns.Thesespreadsheetswillbebrokenbycolumnssuchaswillbeallowed
withoutexceedingthepagewidth.Allrowsforagivensetofcolumnswillbe
renderedbeforethenextsetofspreadsheetcolumnsisrenderedintheWord
document.ThissolutionenablesthepresentationofspreadsheetsinWordthat

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arenativelyeditableinWord,displaystheentirecontentsofthespreadsheet,and
printsandpaginatescorrectly.
AswithstandardSTATISTICAReports(seepage151),Worddocumentscanstore
andpreservetherecordofsupplementaryinformation(e.g.,selectedvariables,
longnames,etc.).
TosendoutputtoaWorddocument,usetheoptionsintheOutputManager
(accessiblebyselectingOutputManagerfromtheStartbutton dropdown
menulocatedintheupperleftcorneroftheribbonbar;orbyselectingtheHome
tab,clickingOptionsintheToolsgroup,andselectingOutputManagerinthe
Optionsdialogtreeview).IntheMicrosoftWordOutputdropdownlist,select
eitherMultipleWorddocuments(oneforeachanalysis/graph),CommonWord
document(onesharedforallanalyses/graphs),or[SelectFile]tobrowsetoa
preexistingWorddocument.
AlthoughWorddocumentsdonotprovidethenavigationaltreeofaSTATISTICA
WorkbookorReport,theadvantagesinsendingoutputtoWorddocumentsare
many.BysendingresultstoaWorddocument,youhaveallthewordprocessing
featuresofWordavailable.Forexample,youcanattachtemplatestocreate
customizeddocuments,addtablesofcontentandindices,trackchanges,etc.
WheninsertingalargespreadsheetintoaWorddocument,STATISTICA
automaticallydetectshowmanyvariablescanfitoneachpageandpartitionsthe
spreadsheetintoseveralWordtables.Ifthespreadsheetusescasenames,those
nameswillbethefirstcolumnineachtable.
AdditionalbenefitsofsendingresultstoaWorddocumentincludeincreased
printingfunctionality(e.g.,printingtofiles,manualduplex)andtheabilitytosave
resultsasWebpages.

5. OUTPUT TO THE WEB


Knowledge Portal
STATISTICAEnterpriseServerReports,oranySTATISTICAReports(seeHTML
Reports,page154),canbedistributedthroughtheKnowledgePortal.The

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KnowledgePortalenablesyoutopublishSTATISTICAdocuments(spreadsheets,
graphs,reports,orworkbooks)totheInternet.UserswithlimitedKnowledge
Portalpermissionscanthenviewthosedocuments.Youcancontrolwhocan
accessthesedocumentsbysettingpermissionsonthedocumentsanddirectories
usingstandardSTATISTICAEnterpriseServerrepositorytools.
TopublishcontentintheKnowledgePortal,firstcreateadirectoryinthe
STATISTICAEnterpriseServerrepositoryinthePortalfolder:logontothe
STATISTICAEnterpriseServerasauserwithAdministratorrights,andfromtheFile
menu,selectMyDirectoryOperationstodisplaytheMyDirectorydialog;the
contentwilllooksimilartothefollowingillustration.


TocreateafolderinthePortaldirectorytocontainyourreports,selectthePortal
folder,andthenclicktheCreatebuttontodisplaytheExplorerUserPrompt
dialog.Intheeditfield,enterthenewdirectorynameofSamplePortalFolder,and
clickOK.Adialogwillbedisplayedconfirmingthatthedirectory/Portal/Sample
PortalFolderwascreated.ClicktheShowMyDirectorybutton,andyouwillbe
returnedtotheMyDirectorydialog.SelecttheShowEmptyDirectoriescheckbox,
andthenclicktheRefreshbutton.ExpandthePortaldirectorybyclickingthe+
nexttothatfolder,andthenewSamplePortalFolderwillbedisplayed.

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Notethatyoucancontrolwhocanreadandwritetothisfolderbyselectingthe
SamplePortalFolder,clickingtheSecuritybutton,andusingtheoptionstosetthe
userandgrouppermissionsforthefolderappropriately.

Publishing Content from STATISTICA


Enterprise Server
Nowthatthefolderhasbeencreated,youcanaddanalysisresultstoitforPortal
userstoviewusingeitherSTATISTICAEnterpriseServerorSTATISTICA.
InSTATISTICAEnterpriseServer,startwithatypicalanalysis.FromtheFilemenu,
selectOpenDataSpreadsheet.IntheSelectDataSourcedialog,selectthe
Datasetsfolderintheleftpane,selectthedatafileAdstudy.staintherightpane,
andclickOK.

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ClosetheresultingSpreadsheetEditorwindow(wewontneeditinthisexample),
leavingjustthebrowserwindowdisplayingtheactivedatasourcesummary
informationforAdstudy.sta.
FromtheStatisticsBasicStatisticsandTablessubmenu,selectDescriptive
StatisticstodisplaythevariableselectiondialogandtheDescriptiveStatistics
specificationsdialog.Inthevariableselectiondialog,selectMEASURE01and
MEASURE02intheContinuousvariablescolumn.


IntheDescriptiveStatisticsspecificationsdialog,selectAllresultsintheDetailof
computedresultsreportedfield.


ClickOKtodisplaytheresultsforthisanalysis,consistingofseveralspreadsheets
andgraphs.

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Now,topublishthispagesothatotheruserscanseeitfromtheKnowledgePortal,
clickthePublishbuttonintheupperrightportionofthewindow.ThePublish
Destinationdialogwillbedisplayed.HereyoucanselecttheSamplePortalFolder
thatyoucreated.Youalsocancontrolwhocanhaveaccesstothisparticularpage
byselectingtheIwanttodefinewhocanaccessthisoutputpagecheckbox.


ClicktheNextbutton,andthepagewillbesavedtotheselecteddestination.

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Now,whenaKnowledgePortaluserlogson,theywillseethenewSamplePortal
Folderintheiroutputbrowser,fromwhichtheycanselectthenewlyadded
DescriptiveStatisticspage.

Publishing Content from


STATISTICA Desktop Applications
WiththeSTATISTICAEnterpriseServerintegrationfeatureofdesktopSTATISTICA,
youcanalsopublishSTATISTICAdocuments(spreadsheets,graphs,reports,and
workbooks)totheKnowledgePortaldirectlyfromwithintheSTATISTICA
application.
ThefirststepistoenableSTATISTICAEnterpriseServerintegration.SelecttheHome
tab,andintheToolsgroupclickOptionstodisplaytheOptionsdialog.Select
Server/Webinthetreeview,andintheoptionspane,selecttheEnableSTATISTICA
EnterpriseServerIntegrationcheckbox.Then,specifytheURLoftheSTATISTICA
EnterpriseServerandanyoptionalcustomconfigurationsettingsthatmayhave
beendefinedbyyoursystemadministratorwheninstallingSTATISTICAEnterprise
Server.Inthefollowingillustration,STATISTICAEnterpriseServerhasbeeninstalled
onserverx23;theinformationinyourdialogwillbedifferentdependingonwhere
STATISTICAEnterpriseServerisinstalledonyournetwork.

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AfteryouclicktheOKbuttonintheOptionsdialog,notethatthereisanowa
ServertabdisplayedinSTATISTICAnexttotheHometab.Theonlycommandon
theServertabthatisavailableinitiallyisLogIn;selectthatcommand.Ifyouhave
enabledintegratedlogin(andyourWindowsaccountisenabledonthe
STATISTICAEnterpriseServer),youwillbeloggedinautomatically.Otherwise,you
willbepromptedforaSTATISTICAEnterpriseServerusernameandpassword.
Onceyouhaveloggedin,theothercommandsareavailableontheServertab.
Now,wewillcreateananalysisanduploadtheresultstotheKnowledgePortal.
OpentheAdstudy.stadatafile:selecttheHometab,clicktheOpenarrow,and
selectOpenExamplesfromthedropdownmenu;intheOpenaSTATISTICAData
Filedialog,doubleclickontheDatasetsfolder,andthendoubleclickonthe
Adstudy.stafiletoopenthatspreadsheetforuseinSTATISTICA.
Next,selecttheStatisticstab,andintheBasegroup,clickBasicStatisticsto
displaytheBasicStatisticsandTablesStartupPanel.SelectDescriptivestatistics.


ClickOKtodisplaytheDescriptiveStatisticsdialog.

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Toensurethatalltheoutputfromthisanalysiswillbesenttoaworkbook,clickthe
Optionsbuttonontherightsideofthedialog,andfromthedropdownlist,select
Output.IntheAnalysis/GraphOutputManager,verifythattheWorkbookoption
buttonisselectedinthePlaceallresults(Spreadsheets,Graphs)ingroupbox.
ThenclickOKtoreturntotheDescriptiveStatisticsdialog.
ClicktheVariablesbuttontodisplaythevariableselectiondialog,select
MEASURE01andMEASURE02,andclickOKtoreturntotheDescriptiveStatistics
dialog.OntheQuicktab,clicktheSummary:Statisticsbuttontosendthoseresults
totheworkbook.TheDescriptiveStatisticsdialogwillbeminimizedsoyoucansee
theresults;restoreitbyclickingtheDescriptiveStatisticsbuttonontheAnalysis
Barinthelowerleftofthescreen.NowclicktheHistogramsbuttontogenerate
histogramsforeachselectedvariable.Theanalysisdialogisminimizedagain,and
theworkbookshouldlookasfollows.


ThisisthedocumentwewanttopublishtotheKnowledgePortal.OntheServer
tabintheFilegroup,clickSaveAs.TheSTATISTICAEnterpriseRepositorydialog
willbedisplayed,containingalistoffoldersyoucanreferenceintheSTATISTICA
EnterpriseServer.OpenthePortalfolder,selectSamplePortalFolder,andclickthe
OKbutton.ThiswilluploadtheworkbooktothatKnowledgePortaldirectory.


YoucanreviewthedocumentfromwithinSTATISTICAbyopeningabrowser
windowinsideoftheSTATISTICAworkspace.OntheServertabintheToolsgroup,

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selectOpeninBrowser,andanewbrowserwindowwillbeopened,allowingyou
tologontotheSTATISTICAEnterpriseServer.
FromtheSTATISTICAEnterpriseServerFilemenu,chooseMyDirectory
Operations;inMyDirectory,youcannavigatetotheSamplePortalDirectory,and
seetheWorkbook1.stwfilethatwasuploaded.SelectthisfileandclicktheView
button,andtheworkbookwillbeopenedwithinthebrowser.

6. SHAREPOINT OR STATISTICA
DOCUMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
(SDMS)
WithSTATISTICA,youcanalsorouteoutputtoeitherMicrosoftSharePointorto
theSTATISTICADocumentManagementSystem(SDMS).

SharePoint
WithSTATISTICASharePointintegration,youcanopen,checkout,checkin,and
uploadnewSTATISTICAfilestoSharePoint.
ToopenadocumentinSTATISTICAthatislocatedinSharePoint,selecttheHome
tab.ClicktheOpenarrow,andselectOpenDocument.IntheOpendialog,inthe
Lookindropdownlist,selecttheWebFoldertotheSharePointserverlocation

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(seepage165),andthennavigatetothedocumentyouwanttoopen.Youwill
needtologontoSharePoint.
TosaveaSTATISTICAdocument(spreadsheet,workbook,macro,etc.)to
SharePoint,selecttheHometab.ClicktheSavearrow,andselectSaveAs.Inthe
SaveAsdialog,intheSaveindropdownlist,selecttheWebFoldertothe
SharePointserverlocation,andthennavigatetothelocationinwhichyouwantto
savethedocument.YouwillneedtologontoSharePoint.
TheSharePointoptionsCheckOut,CheckIn,andDiscardarelocatedontheHome
tabintheSharePointgroup.


TheseoptionscanalsobeaccessedbyclickingtheStartbuttonlocatedinthe
upperleftcorneroftheribbonbar.Theseoptionsbecomeavailableafteryouhave
openedadocumentfromSharePoint.

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Beforeusingtheseoptions,youmustfirstcreateaWebFoldertotheSharePoint
serverlocation.Todothis,clicktheStartbuttoninthelowerleftcornerofthe
Windowstaskbar,andclickComputer.Rightclickinanyopenareaintheright
paneoftheComputerdialog,andfromtheshortcutmenu,selectAddanetwork
locationtodisplaytheAddNetworkLocationdialog.ClicktheNextbutton.
DoubleclickChooseacustomnetworklocation.IntheInternetornetworkaddress
field,entertheWebaddressofyourSharePointlocation:https://sharepoint...,or
clicktheBrowsebuttontobrowsetoandselectthelocation.ClickNext.
LogontoSharePoint,andclickOK.EnteranamefortheWebFolderintheTypea
nameforthisnetworklocationfield,andclickNext.YouwillseeCompletingthe
AddNetworkLocationWizard;selecttheOpenthisnetworklocationwhenIclick
Finishcheckbox,andthenclickFinish.ANetworkLocationWebFolderhasbeen
createdintheNetworkLocationsectionofComputerwiththelabelyouchose.

STATISTICA Document Management


System (SDMS)
STATISTICADocumentManagementSystem(SDMS)isacompletedatabase
solutionpackageformanagingdocuments.SDMSenablesyoutoquickly,
efficiently,andsecurelysavedocumentsofanytypetoasecurerepository
database,andthenmanagethem[e.g.,findthem,accessthem,searchfor
content,review,organize,edit(withtrailloggingandversioning),approve,etc.].

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TheintuitiveuserinterfaceofSDMSmakesiteasytoperformalldocument
managementoperationsfromanycomputeronyournetworkorevenviathe
Internet.
IntheSTATISTICADocumentManagementSystem,everythingisdocumentedand
traceable.Forexample,documentsareneverdeleted.Whenadocumentisedited,
anewversionofthatdocumentiscreated,properlyauthenticated,andannotated
withelectronicsignatures.Authorizeduserscanberequiredtoexplicitlycheckout
thedocumentsfromtherepositoryandcheckthenewversionsintotherepository
withnotesanddocumentationregardingthenatureandpurposeoftheedits.
SDMSisspecificallydesignedtoensurecompliancewithFDA21CFRPart11
regulationsandSarbanesOxleylegislation,aswellasISO9000,9001,14001
documentationrequirements.
STATISTICADocumentManagementSystemseamlesslyintegrateswithall
STATISTICAproducts,fromdesktopandnetworkversions,toenterprisewide
installationssuchasSTATISTICAEnterpriseServerbasedworldwideinstallationsor
STATISTICAEnterprise/QC(forprocessanalysisandqualitycontrol/improvement).
SDMScanalsobeusedasastandalonesystem.
SDMSishighlyconfigurable,anditsfunctionalityiscompatiblewithotherapplications,
sothesystemcanbecustomizedtoaccommodateyourspecifictasksandcanbe
integratedseamlesslyintoexistingsystemsfordataanddocumentmanagement.

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5

CHAPTER

STATISTICA
DOCUMENTS
Workbooks ............................................................................................. 169
Spreadsheets (Multimedia Tables) ...................................................... 173
Reports ................................................................................................... 180
Graphs .................................................................................................... 182
Macros (STATISTICA Visual Basic Programs) ..................................... 183
STATISTICA Projects.............................................................................. 184


Chapter5:STATISTICADocuments

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CHAPTER

STATISTICA DOCUMENTS

WORKBOOKS

Workbooks(introducedbrieflyonpage148)arethedefaultwayofmanaging
output.Theystoreeachoutputdocument(e.g.,aSTATISTICASpreadsheetor
Graph,aswellasaWordorExceldocument)asatab.


Technicallyspeaking,STATISTICAWorkbooksareoptimizedActiveX(seepage238)
containersthatcanefficientlyhandlelargenumbersofdocuments.The
documentscanbeorganizedintohierarchiesoffoldersordocumentnodes(by
default,oneiscreatedforeachnewanalysis)usingatreeview,inwhichindividual
documents,folders,orentirebranchesofthetreecanbeflexiblymanaged.
Forexample,selectionsofdocumentscanbeextracted(e.g.,dragcopiedordrag
moved)tothereportwindowortotheapplicationworkspace(i.e.,theSTATISTICA
applicationbackgroundwheretheyaredisplayedinstandalonewindows).

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Entirebranchescanbeplacedintootherworkbooksinavarietyofwaysinorderto
buildaspecificfolderorganization,etc.
Eachworkbookcontainstwopanels:anExplorerstylenavigationtreeontheleft
andadocumentviewerontheright.
Thenavigationtree(workbooktree)canbesplitintovariousnodesthatareused
toorganizefilesinlogicalgroupings(e.g.,allanalysisoutputsorallmacroscreated
foraproject).
Tabsatthebottomofthedocumentviewer(workbookviewer)areusedtoeasily
navigatethechildrenofthecurrentlyselectednode.Youcanmovethetabstothe
top,right,orleftoftheworkbookviewerbyrightclickingononeofthetabsand
selectingadifferentlocationfromtheshortcutmenu.Oneadvantageoftheside
placementoftabsisthatmultiplerows(ratherthanonelongrow)areprovided(as
shownbelow).Thismakesiteasytoselectthedesiredtab.


Displayingtabscanalsobesuppressedtosavespace.UnlikemanyExplorerstyle
navigationandorganizationapplicationsthatonlyallowfolderstohavechildren,
theSTATISTICAWorkbookallowsanyiteminthetreetohavechildren.For
example,youcanaddaspreadsheettoyourworkbook,andthenaddallthe
graphsproducedusingthedatainthespreadsheetaschildrentothespreadsheet.
AvarietyofdraganddropfeaturesandClipboardproceduresareavailabletoaid
youinorganizingtheworkbooktree.
TheworkbookcanholdallnativeSTATISTICAdocumentsincludingspreadsheets,
graphs,reports,andmacros.ItcancontainothertypesofActiveXdocumentsas
well,includingExcelspreadsheets,Worddocuments,andothers.Ifyouwantto

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editthesedocuments,youcandosousingtheworkbookviewerpane.Toedita
Worddocument,doubleclickontheobjectintheworkbooktree.TheWord
documentopensintheviewer,andtheworkbookmenubarmergeswiththe
Wordmenubargivingyouaccesstoalloftheeditingfeaturesyouneed.
Workbookscanalsobeusedtostorealloutputfromaparticularanalysis.

Navigating the Workbook Tree


Theworkbooktreedisplaystheorganizationoffilesandfoldersintheworkbook,
displayedinanExplorerstyleformat.Itemswithplussignsnexttothemindicate
foldersorfilesthathavechildrenassociatedwiththem.Toexpandthetreefora
particularfolderorfile,clicktheplussignnexttoit.Theworkbookcansupportan
unlimitednumberoflevels,andindividualitemsfromthetreevieworentire
branchescanbeflexibly(interactively)managed(e.g.,draggingtocopyormove
betweenworkbooksorreports,etc.,orviatheshortcutmenu,asshownbelowin
thesecondimage).


Toselectaworkbookitemforrevieworediting,simplylocatethefileinthe
workbooktreeandclickonitsassociatedicon.Thedocumentwillbedisplayedin
theworkbookviewerpane.Notethatyoucanalsonavigatethroughthechildren
ofthecurrentlyselectednodeusingthenavigationtabsavailable(bydefault)at
thebottomoftheworkbookviewer.Youcaneasilymovethesenavigationtabsto
thetop,right,orleftoftheworkbookviewerbyrightclickingononeofthetabs
andselectingadifferentlocationfromtheshortcutmenuorselectingthe
appropriatecommandfromtheWorkbooktab,Toolsgroup,TabControlmenu.

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Notethattabsatthetopandbottomoftheviewerscrollsideways,whilemultiple
rowsoftabsareusedwhentabsareplacedtotheleftorrightoftheviewer.
Itemsinthetreeareidentifiedbytheiconnexttothem.The foldericon
representsafolderthatcancontainavarietyofdocumentsandsubfolders.The
foldericonwitharedarrowonitindicatesthatthescriptthatproducedthe
resultsinthatfolderhasbeenattachedtothefolder.ThisenablesSTATISTICAto
rerunorresumetheanalysis(formoredetails,seeChapter8STATISTICAVisual
Basic).The spreadsheet, report, macro,and graphiconsrepresent
STATISTICASpreadsheet,Report,Macro,andGraphdocuments,respectively.The
DataMinericonrepresentsaDataMinerworkspace.
AllnonSTATISTICAdocumentsarerepresentedbytheirrespectivedocument
icons.Forexample,Worddocumentsarerepresentedbythe Wordicon,and
Excelspreadsheetfilesarerepresentedbythe Excelspreadsheeticon.
Commandsforinserting,extracting,renaming,andremovingitemsfromthe
workbooktreeareavailablefromtheworkbooktreeshortcutmenu(accessedby
rightclickinganywhereinthe tree).


ThesecommandsarealsoaccessibleontheWorkbooktab.
Theworkbooktreecanbeorganizedandmodifiedusingdraganddropfeatures
(aswellasClipboardprocedures).Usekeysonyourkeyboardtospecifywhether
anitemistobemovedorcopied,andwhetheranitemistobeinsertedasachild
(i.e.,onelevelbelow)orasasibling(i.e.,onthesamelevel).

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Thefollowingtableillustratesfourdraganddropoptions:

Action Key Press Cursor Effect


Movethefirstselecteditemonelevelbelow
MoveChild (none) thesecondselecteditem.

Movethefirstselecteditemdirectlybelow
MoveSibling SHIFT andonthesamelevelasthesecond
selecteditem.

Copythefirstselecteditemonelevelbelow
CopyChild CTRL thesecondselecteditem.

Copythefirstselecteditemdirectlybelow
CopySibling SHIFT+CTRL andonthesamelevelasthesecond
selecteditem.

First,selecttheitem(s)thatyouwanttomoveorcopy.Dragtheselectiontoits
newlocationanddropit.Toselectasingleitem,clickontheitem(e.g.,
spreadsheet,graph,orreport).Toselectaparentnodeandallofitschildren,click
onthefolder.Notethathorizontaland/orverticalscrollingwithintheworkbook
treecanbeutilizedduringadraganddropoperation.

SPREADSHEETS
(MULTIMEDIA TABLES)
STATISTICASpreadsheetsarebasedonStatSoftsproprietarymultimediatable
technologyandareusedtomanagebothinputdataandthenumericortext(and,
optionally,anyothertypeof)output.Thebasicformofthespreadsheetisasimple
twodimensionaltablethatcanhandleapracticallyunlimitednumberofcases
(rows)andvariables(columns),andeachcellcancontainavirtuallyunlimited
numberofcharacters.Sound,video,graphs,animations,reportswithembedded
objects,oranyActiveXcompatibledocumentscanalsobeattached.

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BecauseSTATISTICASpreadsheetscanalsocontainmacrosandanyuserdefined
userinterface,thesemultimediatablescanbeusedasaframeworkforcustom
applications(e.g.,withalistboxofoptionsoraseriesofbuttonsplacedinthe
upperleftcorner),selfrunningpresentations,animations,simulations,etc.


Data file layout in spreadsheets.STATISTICAdataareorganizedintocasesand
variables.Ifyouareunfamiliarwiththisnotation,youcanthinkofcasesasthe
equivalentofrecordsinadatabasemanagementprogram(orrowsofa
spreadsheet),andvariablesastheequivalentoffields(orcolumnsofa

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spreadsheet).Eachcaseconsistsofasetofvaluesofvariables,andthefirst
columninthefilecan(optionally)containnamesofcases.
Thespreadsheetwindowcomprisesseveralbasiccomponents.


Title bar.Thetitlebardisplaysthenameofthespreadsheetfollowedbythe
spreadsheetextension(.sta).Ifthespreadsheetisaninputspreadsheet,thetitle
baralsodisplaysthenumberofvariablesbynumberofcases(e.g.,25vby50c).In
theimageshownabove,thetitlebarcontainsthetextData:Adstudy.sta(25vby
50c).
Info box.Youcanselecttheentirespreadsheetbyclickingonceinthelowerright
corner(themousepointerwillbethedefaultarrow)oftheinfobox,whichis
locatedintheupperleftcornerofthespreadsheetwindow.Toselecttheinfobox
only(forformatting),clickonceintheupperleftcorneroftheinfobox(themouse
pointerwillbeanoutlinedplussign ).Doubleclickintheinfoboxtoenteroredit
thetextintheinfobox(e.g.,additionaldetailsaboutthespreadsheet).Inthe
imageshownabove,theinfoboxcontainsthetextResponses(Peoria,IL).
Header.Theheaderislocatedimmediatelyabovethevariableheadersatthetop
ofthewindow.Doubleclicktheheadertoenteroredittextinformation.Toselect
theheaderonly(forformatting),clickonceintheupperleftcorner(themouse
pointerwillbeanoutlinedplussign ).PressCTRL+ENTERorALT+ENTERtoenteranew
line(notethatyouneedtoextendtheheightofthefieldtoseenewlinesthatyou
areadding).Intheimageshownabove,theheadercontainsthetextAdvertising
EffectivenessStudy.
Case headers.Thesecells,locatedatthefarleftofthewindow,containheader
informationforeachcase.Doubleclickonanycaseheadercelltoenteroredit
textinformation.Toselectthecaseheaderonly(forformatting),clickonceonthe
leftsideofthecaseheader(themousepointerwillbeanoutlinedplussign ).To

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selectthecaserow(forediting),clickonceonthemiddleorrightsideofthecase
header(themousepointerwillbeanoutlinedplussignwithanarrow ).To
selectablockofcaseheaders,(withoutselectingtheirrespectiverows),clickon
theleftsideofacaseheaderanddragthemousepointertoincludealldesired
caseheaders.Toautofitthecaseheaders,doubleclickonthefarrightsideofany
caseheader(themousepointerwillbeacrosswithadoubleheadedarrow ).In
thepreviousimage,thecaseheadercellscontainthefirstinitialsandlastnamesof
therespondentsinthestudy.Notethatcaseheadersareoptionalandyoucan
choosenottodisplaythem(selecttheViewtab,intheDisplaygroupclickDisplay
Options,andtoggleofftheCaseNamescommand);iftheyarenotdisplayed,the
casenumbersareshown.
Variable headers.Thesecells,locatedatthetopofeachcolumn,containheader
informationforeachvariable.Todisplaydetailsaboutanindividualvariable,
doubleclickonthevariableheadercell.Toselectthevariableheaderonly(for
formatting)clickonceintheupperportionofthevariableheader(themouse
pointerwillbeanoutlinedplussign ).Toselectthevariablecolumn(forediting)
clickonceinthelowerportionofthevariableheader(themousepointerwillbean
outlinedplussignwithanarrow ).Toautofitthevariablecolumn,doubleclick
ontherightsideofthevariableheader(themousepointerwillbeacrosswitha
doubleheadedarrow ).Inthepreviousimage,thefirsttwovariableheadercells
containthetextGENDERandADVERT.Youhavetheoptiontochangehowthe
variableheadercellsdisplayinformationsothattheyshowthecolumnnumber
associatedwiththevariable,thevariablelongname,and/oranabbreviationofthe
displaytypesforthevariablesinthespreadsheet.Eachoftheseoptionsis
availableontheViewtabintheDisplaygroup;clickVariableHeaders.
Data (and in-cell formatting options).Theremainderofthespreadsheet
containsdatathatpertaintothecasesandvariablesandanyoptionalattachedor
linkedobjects(multimediaobjects,macros,customuserinterface).Textincells
canbeofpracticallyunlimitedlength(inmostSTATISTICAconfigurationsitis
limitedto1,000characterstoprotectagainstinadvertentpastingofunwanted
largeamountsofdataintoonecell).Textincellscanbeextensivelyformatted
includingwrappingthetext,differentfonts,andfontattributes.

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Input vs. Output Spreadsheets


STATISTICAofferstheabilitytoopenandusemanyspreadsheetsatthesametime,
allowingyoutoworkwithseveraldifferentinputdatafilessimultaneously.In
additiontostoringdata,STATISTICAusesspreadsheetstodisplaythenumeric
outputfromitsanalyses.BecauseSTATISTICAmakesnodistinctioninthefeatures
supportedforaninputspreadsheet(fromwhichSTATISTICAretrievesitsdata)and
anoutputspreadsheet(wheretheresultsofananalysisaredisplayed),itiseasyto
usetheresultsofoneanalysisasinputdataforfurtheranalyses.
Anyspreadsheetopenedfromadiskfileisautomaticallytreatedasaninput
spreadsheet,andanynumberofinputspreadsheetscanbeopenatatime.To
avoidconfusion,however,anoutputspreadsheet(containingtheresultsofan
analysis)isnotautomaticallyavailableasinputdataforanalysis.Itmustfirstbe
designatedasaninputspreadsheetbeforebeingusedforfurtheranalyses.
Additionally,inputspreadsheetsreportthenumberofvariablesandcasesforthat
spreadsheetinthetitlebar.Forexample,ifExp.sta(88vby48c)isinthetitlebar,it
isaninputspreadsheet;ifExp.staisinthetitlebar,itisnotaninputspreadsheet.
Todesignateanoutputspreadsheetasaninputspreadsheet,selectthe
spreadsheet(i.e.,ensurethespreadsheethasthefocus).Then,ontheDatatabin
theModegroup,selecttheInputcheckbox.Nowyoucanbeginananalysis,and
STATISTICAwillusethedatafromthespecifiedinputspreadsheetfortheanalysis.
Notethatifyouswitchbacktoanotherspreadsheetthathaspreviouslybeen
designatedasaninputspreadsheet,itcanstillbeusedforanalysesaswell.
Inaworkbook,onlyonespreadsheetcanbeselectedforanalysesatatime,evenif
theworkbookcontainsseveralinputspreadsheets.Thisspreadsheetiscalledthe
ActiveInputspreadsheet,anditsicon(intheworkbooktree)isframedinred.
Bydefault,whenanoutputspreadsheetisdesignatedasaninputspreadsheet,
STATISTICAautomaticallyselectsitastheActiveInputspreadsheet.Toselect
anotherinputspreadsheetforactiveinput,selecttheActiveInputcheckboxon
theWorkbooktabintheItemsgroup,orselectUseasActiveInputfromthe
workbooktreeshortcutmenu.

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Itisalsopossibletoleaveastandalonespreadsheetopenbutdesignateitas
unavailableforanalysis.Todothis,selectthespreadsheet,andcleartheInput
checkboxontheDatatabintheModegroup.NowSTATISTICAautomatically
defaultstothemostrecentlyselectedinputspreadsheetforanalysis,ignoringall
spreadsheetsthatarenotdesignatedasinputspreadsheets.

STATISTICA Spreadsheet
OLE DB Provider
InadditiontousingspreadsheetsasdatasourcesforanalysesinSTATISTICA,
spreadsheetscanalsosupplydatatootherdatabaseawareapplicationsbyusing
theStatSoftOLEDBProviderforSTATISTICASpreadsheets.ThisOLEDBdriveris
installedwithSTATISTICA,andallowsreadonlyaccesstodatainSTATISTICA
SpreadsheetsusingtheindustrystandardStructuredQueryLanguage(SQL).You
canaccesstheOLEDBProvideratanypointthesystemallowsyoutochoosea
databaseconnection,usingthestandardMicrosoftDataLinkProperties.
Toaccessthisfunctionality,selecttheDatatab.IntheManagegroup,click
ExternalDataandfromthedropdownlist,selectCreateQuery.IntheDatabase
Connectiondialog,clicktheNewbuttontodisplaytheDataLinkPropertiesdialog,
whereyouselectStatSoftOLEDBProviderforSTATISTICASpreadsheets.

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ClicktheNextbuttontodisplaytheConnectiontab.


TheDataSourcefieldspecifiesthedirectorypathwherethespreadsheetis
located.Whencreatingthequery,youcanchooseindividualspreadsheetfiles
withinthatdirectory.ThefollowingexampleusesSTATISTICAQuery,andhas
definedaconnectiontotheSpreadsheetOLEDB,specifyingthepathofthe
STATISTICAExamplesfolder.Eachspreadsheetwithinthefoldershowsupasa
potentialtable.

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ThesespreadsheetscanbereferencedinFROMclauses,specificvariablenames
selectedasfieldsinSELECTclauses,andcasesdefinedwithWHEREclauses.Joins
betweenmultiplespreadsheetsaresupportedaswell,usingstandardJOINclauses.


UsingtheStatSoftOLEDBProviderforSTATISTICASpreadsheetsenablesyouto
provideSTATISTICASpreadsheetdatatoanyapplication(includingSTATISTICA
itself)thatcanusetheindustrystandardOLEDBinterfaceforqueryingdata.

REPORTS
Reports(brieflyintroducedonpage150)inSTATISTICAofferamoretraditional
wayofhandlingoutput(comparedtoworkbooks)aseachobject(e.g.,a
STATISTICASpreadsheetorGraph,oranExcelspreadsheet)isdisplayed
sequentiallyinawordprocessorstyledocument.

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However,thetechnologybehindthissimplereportoffersyourichfunctionality.
Forexample,liketheworkbook,eachSTATISTICAReportisalsoanActiveX(see
page238)containerwhereeachofitsobjects(notonlySTATISTICASpreadsheets
andGraphs,butalsoanyotherActiveXcompatibledocuments,e.g.,Word
documents)isactive,customizable,andinplaceeditable.Reportsarestoredinthe
STRfileformat,whichisaStatSoftextensionoftheMicrosoftRTF(RichText
Format,*.rtf)format.STRfilessharetheRTFformattinginformationand
additionallytheyincludethetreeviewinformation(whichcannotbestoredinthe
standardRTFfiles).Hence,reportfilesarebydefaultsavedwiththefilename
extension*.str,buttheycanalsobesavedasstandardRTFfiles(inwhichcasethe
treeinformationwillnotbepreserved).
Theobviousadvantagesofthiswayofhandlingoutput(moretraditionalthanthe
workbook)aretheabilitytoinsertnotesandcommentsinbetweentheobjects
aswellasitssupportforthemoretraditionalwayofquicklyscrollingthroughand
reviewingtheoutputtowhichsomeusersmaybeaccustomed.Also,onlythe
reportoutputincludesandpreservesarecordofthesupplementaryinformation,
whichcontainsadetailedlogoftheoptionsspecifiedfortheanalyses(e.g.,
selectedvariablesandtheirlabels,longnames,etc.,dependingonthelevelof
supplementaryinformationspecifiedintheOutputManager,seepage25).
Theobviousdrawback,however,ofthesetraditionalreportsistheinherentflat
structureimposedbytheirwordprocessorstyleformat,thoughthatiswhatsome
usersofcertainapplicationsmayfavor.

Navigating the Report Tree


Thereporttreedisplaystheorganizationoffilesinthereport.Thefilesare
displayedinanExplorerstyleformat;however,unlikeworkbooksthatcansupport
anynumberoflevels,thereportsupportsonlyoneleveloffiles.
YoucanembedanytypeofSTATISTICAdocumentinareport,including
spreadsheets,graphs,andanalyses.InadditiontoSTATISTICAdocumenttypes,
youcanembedothertypesofActiveX/OLEobjectsinareport,includingExcel
spreadsheets,Worddocuments,bitmapimages,andothers.Toeditoneofthese
typesofembeddeddocuments,doubleclickonthedocument.Thefileopensin

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theviewer,andthereporttoolbarmergeswiththetoolbarfromtheembedded
filesnativeapplication,givingyouaccesstoalloftheeditingfeaturesyou need.
Itemsinthetreeareidentifiedbytheiconnexttothem.The spreadsheet,
macro,and graphiconsrepresentSTATISTICASpreadsheet,Macro,andGraph
documents,respectively.The DataMinericonrepresentsaDataMiner
workspace.AllnonSTATISTICAdocumentsarerepresentedbytheirdocument
icons.Forexample,Worddocumentsarerepresentedbythe Wordicon,and
Excelspreadsheetfilesarerepresentedbythe Excelspreadsheeticon.
Thereporttreecanbeorganizedandmodifiedusingdraganddropfeaturesas
wellasClipboardprocedures.


Commandsforinserting,extracting,renaming,andremovingitemsfromthe
reporttreeareavailablefromthereporttreeshortcutmenu(accessedbyright
clickinganywhereinthetree,asshownabove).

GRAPHS
GraphsrepresentanotherdistinctivetypeofSTATISTICAdocuments,andthey
offerrichfunctionalitybothintermsofthevarietyofwaysinwhichgraphscanbe
createdinSTATISTICAandintheselectionofgraphcustomizationtools.
SimilartotheotherSTATISTICAdocuments,graphsareActiveXcontainers(see
page238),whichmeansthattheycancontainavarietyofcompatibledocuments
(e.g.,Visiodrawings,Adobeillustrations,Excelspreadsheets,etc.).STATISTICA
GraphsarealsoActiveXobjectsand,therefore,canbelinkedtoorembeddedinto

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othercompatibledocuments(e.g.,Worddocuments)wheretheycanbeinplace
editedbysimplydoubleclickingonthem.
GraphsarediscussedinmoredetailinChapter6Graphs.

MACROS (STATISTICA
VISUAL BASIC PROGRAMS)
TheindustrystandardSTATISTICAVisualBasic(SVB)language(integratedinto
STATISTICA)offersanother(alternative)userinterfacetothefunctionalityof
STATISTICA,anditoffersincomparablymorethanjustasupplementary
applicationprogramminglanguagethatcanbeusedtowritecustomextensions.
NotethatSTATISTICAVisualBasicisnotMicrosoftVisualBasic6.0.StatSoftowns
andmaintainsthecodeforSTATISTICAVisualBasic.SVBiscompatiblewith
MicrosoftsVB.NET,MicrosoftsVisualBasicforApplications(VBA),andalsowith
MicrosoftsVisualBasic6.0(VB6).SVBscriptinglanguageisuniqueintermsofits
flexibilityandcompatibility,anditisalsoverypowerful.ItprovidesaccesstoVisual
BasicforApplications(usedforscriptingMicrosoftOfficeproducts)andaccessto
the.NETFrameworkwithinthesamefile(seeChapter10Programming
STATISITCAfrom.NET,page247).OtherAPIscanalsobeaccessedandleverage
theflexibilityofSVBsuchas,forexample,YahoosStockQuoteAPIorGoogle
AnalyticsAPI.SVBoffersapowerful64bitsolutionforsystemintegration,
expansion,andcustomdevelopment.
STATISTICAVisualBasictakesfulladvantageoftheobjectmodelarchitectureof
STATISTICAandisusedtoaccessprogrammaticallyeveryaspectandvirtuallyevery
detailofthefunctionalityofSTATISTICA.Eventhemostcomplexanalysesand
graphscanberecordedintoVisualBasicmacrosandlaterberunrepeatedlyor
editedandusedasbuildingblocksofotherapplications.STATISTICAVisualBasic
addsanarsenalofmorethan14,000newfunctionstothestandard
comprehensivesyntaxofVisualBasic,thuscomprisingoneofthelargestand
richestdevelopmentenvironmentsavailable.

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STATISTICAMacroscanbesavedinseveralformats,dependingonhowyouintend
tousethem(seetheSTATISTICAVisualBasicPrimerandtheElectronicManualfor
moreinformation).YoucanalsocopythemtotheClipboardandpastetheminto
otherprogramsordocuments.
STATISTICAVisualBasicisdiscussedinmoredetailinChapter8(page219).

STATISTICA PROJECTS
WhenperformingstatisticalanalysesandworkingwithSTATISTICAdocuments,
youwilloftenhavemanydifferentwindowsopen,andevendifferentanalysesin
differentstagesofprogress.STATISTICAprovidesameansforsavingyour
workspace,includinganyanalysesinprogress.YoucancloseSTATISTICAatany
pointduringananalysis,andwhenyoulaterreopentheproject,thepreviously
openedfilesandinprocessanalyseswillberestored.
TosaveaSTATISTICAProject,selecttheHometab,clicktheSavearrowinthe
Projectgroup,andselectSaveProjectAstodisplaytheSaveSTATISTICAProject
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Inthisdialog,specifythepathandfilenameoftheSTATISTICAProjectfile(a
projectsextensionis.spf).Youcanalsospecifywhatitemstoincludeinthe
project.AllSTATISTICAdocumenttypescanbeselected(Spreadsheets,Graphs,
Workbooks,Macros,Reports,DataMinerprojects,InPlaceDatabaseprojects,
Analyses,andAnalysisresults).ForthoseSTATISTICAdocumentsthatarealready
storedondisk,youhavetheoptiontoeitherLinktotheexistingdocumentfile,or
tostoreacopyofthedocumentwithintheSTATISTICAProjectfile(Embedthe
documentintheproject).
InadditiontoSTATISTICAdocuments,projectfileswillalsosaveallinprogress
analyses.Theprojectfilewillstoretherecordedscriptsthatareautomatically
createdwheneveryanalysisisrun.Whentheprojectisreopened,thescriptsfor
theanalysesarererunagainsttheoriginaldataandtheanalysesdialogsaremade
visibleagaininexactlythestatetheywerewhentheprojectfilewassaved.
Projectfilesareaconvenientwaytosendinprogressanalysisstepsandresults
backandforthbetweenusersifyouelecttoembedthesaveddocumentsinthe
projectfile.Oneusercanrunanalysestoacertainpoint,andthensavetheproject
fileandpassittoanotheruser,whocanopentheprojectfileandcontinueexactly
wherethefirstuserstoppedtheanalyses.
Unlessyouconfigureitotherwise,STATISTICAwillautomaticallydisplayaprompt
askingifyouwanttosaveaprojectfilewhenquittingtheprogram,andwill

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automaticallyreopenthelastsavedprojectfilewhenstarting.Thus,STATISTICA
makesiteasytoquitforthedayandstartthenextsessionrightwhereyouleftoff.
NotethataprojectisastateofaninstanceofSTATISTICA.Thus,projectsarenot
likeotherdocumentsinthatyoucannotopenmorethanoneprojectinasingle
instanceofSTATISTICA.Adifferent(second)projectcanbeopenedinasecond
instanceofSTATISTICA.

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6

CHAPTER

GRAPHS
Overview ................................................................................................. 189
Customization of Graphs ...................................................................... 190
General Categories of Graphs .............................................................. 198
Graphs of Input Data ............................................................................. 199
Graphs of Block Data ............................................................................ 202
Graphs Menu Graphs ............................................................................. 204
Graph Brushing and Case States ......................................................... 205
Other Specialized Graphs ..................................................................... 208
Creating Graphs via STATISTICA Visual Basic .................................... 209

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CHAPTER

GRAPHS

OVERVIEW

Themostcommonapplicationofgraphsistoefficientlypresentandcommunicate
information(typically,numericaldata).However,graphicaltechniquesalsoprovide
powerfulanalyticaltoolsfortheexplorationofdataandverificationofhypotheses.
A broad selection of graphics options.STATISTICAincludesacomprehensive
selectionofgraphicalmethodsforbothdataanalysisandthepresentationof
results.AllgraphsinSTATISTICAincludeabroadselectionofbuiltin,interactive
analytictechniquesandextensivecustomizationtoolsthatenableyouto
interactivelycontrolvirtuallyallaspectsofthedisplay.Also,flexiblegraphics
managementfacilitiesareavailablethatareusedtointegratevariousgraphical
displaysandtobuilddynamiclinksbetweenapplications(e.g.,usingOLEObject
LinkingandEmbedding).
Comprehensive support for Visual Basic and other languages.STATISTICA
graphicaloptionscanalsobeaccessedprogrammatically(usingbuiltinSTATISTICA
VisualBasicorothercompatiblelanguages),whichcreatespracticallyunlimited
possibilitiesforproducinghighlycustomizedgraphicaldisplays.Thesecustom
graphscanlaterbepermanentlyaddedtoSTATISTICAsuserinterface(e.g.,
assignedtobuttonsontoolbarsoraddedtothemenus).
General categories of graphs.TheSTATISTICAsystemoffersavarietyofmethods
inwhichgraphscanberequestedordefined.Thesemethods(constitutingbroad
categoriesofgraphs,suchasinputdata,blockdata,andspecialized)arereviewed
inGeneralCategoriesofGraphsonpage198;theycomplementeachother,

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providingahighlevelofintegrationbetweennumbers(suchasrawdata,
intermediateresults,orfinalresults)andgraphicaldisplays.Forexample,
specializedgraphscanberequestedaspartoftheautomaticoutputfrom
statisticalprocedures,buttheycanalsoberequestedviaintegratedtoolsto
visualizevirtuallyanycombinationofnumbers(and/orlabels)thataredisplayedor
generatedbySTATISTICA.

CUSTOMIZATION
OF GRAPHS
Interactive graph customization.ThecustomizationoptionsinSTATISTICA
graphicsincludehundredsoffeaturesandtoolsthatcanbeusedtoadjustevery
detailofthedisplayandassociateddataprocessing.However,theseoptionsare
arrangedinahierarchicalmanner,sothoseusedmostoftenareaccessibledirectly
viashortcutsbydoubleclickingorrightclickingontherespectiveelementofthe
graph.
Permanent settings and automation options.Theinitial(default)settingsofall
ofthesefeaturescanbeeasilyadjustedsothateventhedefaultappearanceand
behaviorofSTATISTICAgraphswillmatchyourspecificneedsand/orwillrequire
verylittleinterventiononyourpart.Followingaresomeofthewaystomakethese
adjustments:
1. Options dialog.Perhapsthemoststraightforwardwaytoadjustthedefault
appearanceofgraphsisbymodifyingthegraphoptionsintheOptionsdialog
(selecttheToolstabandclickOptions).Mostcommonlyusedsettingscanbe
easilyadjustedthere(selectDisplayorSettings,locatedunderGraphs),and
theresultswillbereflectedinthedefaultstyles(seenumber2below)that
willbeusedbythesystemandassuch,theywillbeautomaticallysavedin
theSTATISTICAconfigurationfile(e.g.,differentsettingscanbeusedfor
differentprojects).Forfurtherdetails,seethedocumentationforthe
ConfigurationsoptionspaneoftheOptionsdialogintheElectronicManual.
2. Graph style system. Allofthenumerousfeaturesthataffectthe
appearanceofthegraph(fromaselementaryasthecolorofthefontinthe
footnotetoasgeneralastheglobalfeaturesofthegraphdocument)canbe

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savedasindividualstyles.Thesestylescanbegivencustomnamesand
laterbereappliedusingsimpleshortcuts(suchaspressingaspecifickey
combinationorclickingabuttononacustomtoolbar).Anintelligentsystem
internallymanagesthesethousandsofstylesandtheircombinationsin
STATISTICAandhelpsyouachieveyourcustomizationobjectiveswitha
minimumamountofeffort.Alluserdefinedormodifiedstyleswillbesaved
automaticallyintheSTATISTICAconfigurationfile(e.g.,differentsetsor
systemsofstylescanbeusedfordifferentprojects).Forfurtherdetails,see
thedocumentationfortheConfigurationsoptionspaneoftheOptions
dialogintheElectronicManual.
3. User-defined graphs. Newtypesofgraphscanbedefinedinavarietyof
waysandcanbeaddedtothemenus,dialogs,ortoolbars.Ifacustomgraph
thatyouintendtouserepeatedlyisnotbuiltfromscratchbutisbasedon
oneoftheGraphsmenugraphsandisproducedbysomecombinationofthe
existinggraphcustomizationoptions,thenaddingittotheGraphsmenuasa
newtypeofgraphisassimpleasclickingtheAddAsUserdefinedGraphto
MenubuttonontheOptions2tabofthegraphspecificationdialog.Alluser
definedgraphspecificationswillbesavedautomaticallyintheSTATISTICA
configurationfile(e.g.,differentsetsofcustomgraphscanbeusedfor
differentprojects).Forfurtherdetails,seethedocumentationforthe
ConfigurationsoptionspaneoftheOptionsdialogintheElectronicManual.
4. STATISTICA Visual Basic.Finally,notethattherearenolimitstohow
deeplycustomizedyourSTATISTICAcustomgraphscanbe,because
STATISTICAVisualBasic(withallitspowerfulcustomdrawingtoolsaswellas
theSTATISTICAbasedlibraryofgraphicsprocedures)canbeusedtoproduce
virtuallyanygraphicsormultimediaoutputsupportedbythecontemporary
computerhardware.Thosecustomdevelopeddisplaysormultimediaoutput
canbeassignedtoSTATISTICAtoolbars,menus,ordialogsandbecomea
permanentpartofyourSTATISTICAapplication.
SeetheElectronicManual(STATISTICAHelp)forfurtherdetailsonthesegraph
customizationmethods.TheElectronicManualalsocontainstopicsdevotedto
specificcategoriesofgraphs,includesconceptualoverviewsandexamplesof
typicalapplications,anddiscussesdistinctivefunctionalpropertiesofthe
respectivetypesofgraphs.

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ThedefaultsettingsofmostgraphsofferedinSTATISTICAfollowtheestablished
conventionsthatareeitherexplicitlydescribedintheliteratureonstatisticaland
technicalgraphing,ortheyrepresentstandardsthatarecommonlyacceptedby
majorscientificjournals(e.g.,SCIENCE).However,practicallyalldefaultsettingsof
STATISTICAcanbecustomizedtomeetspecificrequirementsofunusual
applications(seepage190).STATISTICAsgraphicsfacilitiesweredesignedtoplay
theroleofflexibletools,capableofproducingeffectsthatgofarbeyond
establishedpatternsandtemplates.
Inadditiontoacomprehensiveselectionofstandardstatisticalandtechnical
graphs,STATISTICAincludesnumerousuniquetypesofgraphsandgraph
customizationfacilities.TheGraphOptionsdialog,accessiblebydoubleclickingin
thebackgroundofagraph,orselectingtheToolstabandclickingGraphinthe
Optionsgroup,containsoptionsthataddressalloftherelevantcustomizable
featuresforaparticulargraph.Theoptionsaregroupedinclusterscontaining
logicallyrelateditems,andareanallinclusivesupersetofgraphshortcut
optionsaccessedbydoubleclickingspecificgraphfeatures.


Locatedatthebottomofgraphs,youllfindtheinteractivegraphicscontrols(see
thenextillustrations),whichenableyoutoadjustthetransparencyoftheplot
areasandmarkers,andtoscrollandpaninordertointeractivelyscalethegraph.
Morecontrolsarelocatedin3Dgraphstoenableinteractiverotation.Clickthe
wrenchiconadjacenttothesliderstodisplaytheGraphOptionsdialog.

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Left:2DGraph
Below:EnlargedimageofPanning(scaling),Scrolling,
andTransparencyControls

InteractiveScrolling
InteractivePanning

Left:Sectiontobe
scalediscircled
Right:Scaledviewof
leftgraphscircledarea

Left:Scatterplotwith
denseconcentrationof
datapoints
Right:Transparency
Controlrevealshidden
trends

Left:PlotAreaTransparencyControlcircled;making
plotareastransparentallowsportionsoftheplotto
overlapwhilestillbeingvisible

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Left:3DGraph;RotationControlscircled
Below:EnlargedimageofRotationandTransparency
Controls


WhileStatSoftstatisticiansdesignedmostofthegraphcustomizationoptions,itis
importanttosaythatSTATISTICAusershaveplayedasignificantroleintheir
creation.Infact,theselectionofgraphicsoptionsincludedinSTATISTICAisthe
resultofinputfromthousandsofuserswhoprovidedtheircommentsinresponse
toStatSoftsinquiries.ManyuniquefacilitiesofSTATISTICAGraphswere
introducedinresponsetousersideasandrequests.WeatStatSoftarevery
gratefulfortheinputfromourusers.
Asmentionedpreviously(anddiscussedindetailonpage198),therearevarious
methodstospecifySTATISTICAGraphs.Youcouldsaythatthesemethods
representdifferenttypesofinterfacesbetweennumbersandgraphs.
Forexample,thenumbersrepresentedinapiechartcansimplydepictvaluesofa
spreadsheetcolumn(e.g.,variableSales)intheconsecutivecasesofthe
spreadsheet(e.g.,caseslabeled:Year2008,Year2009,Year2010,...,etc.).


Thenumbersinasimilarpiechart,however,canrepresentresultsofcalculations.
Forexample,theslicesofthepiecanrepresentrelativefrequenciesof
observationsthatbelongtocertaincategoriescalculatedbyoneofthehistogram

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orfrequencycategorizationprocedures(e.g.,numbersofyearswhentheSales
werebelow$10million,between$10and$20million,andabove$20million).


Regardlessofthemethodthatwasusedtocreateagraph(i.e.,regardlessof
wherethenumbersrepresentedinthegraphwereobtainedorhowtheywere
calculated),allSTATISTICAGraphcustomizationandmultigraphicsmanagement
facilitiescanbeusedtochangetheappearanceofthegraphorintegrateitwith
othergraphsordocuments.

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Also,allintegratedanalyticfacilitiesthatareaccessiblefromwithingraphsin
STATISTICA(suchasfunctionfitting,smoothing,rotation,brushing,analytical
zooming,etc.)areavailableandcanbeappliedtothegraphregardlessofthe
sourceofthenumbersinthegraphorthemethodthatwasusedtocreateit.
ThegrapheditingfacilitiesofferedinSTATISTICAenableyoutocreatenotonly
highlycustomizedscientificandtechnicalpublicationreadydisplays:

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andprecisedrawings:


butalsopresentationqualitydiagrams,posters,businesscharts,andother
displays:

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thataredesignedtocommunicateinformationinaneffectiveandattractive
manner.
Graphsthataresavedintofilesorthatinanyotherwayhavebeentemporarily
detachedfromtheSTATISTICAapplication(e.g.,copiedtotheClipboardorlinked
toadocumentinanotherapplication)arecompleteobjects(technically
speaking,ActiveXobjects,seepage238)thatcontainnotonlyallcustomization
featuresandotherembeddedobjects,butalsoalldatathatarenecessaryto
continueeditingallaspectsofthedisplayortheanalysisofitscontents(fitting,
smoothing,etc.).
BecauseSTATISTICAGraphsareActiveXobjects,theycaneasilybelinkedtoor
embeddedinothercompatibledocuments(e.g.,ExcelorWorddocuments),where
theycanbeinplaceeditedbydoubleclickingonthem.STATISTICAGraphsarealso
ActiveXcontainersand,therefore,cancontainawidevarietyofembeddedor
linkeddocumentssuchasVisiodrawings,Adobeillustrations,Excelspreadsheets,
orWorddocuments.Moreover,STATISTICAsupportshierarchiesofembedded
objectsuptofourlevels,whichmeansthatitcanmanagedocumentscontaining
documents,containingdocuments,whichcontaindocuments.

GENERAL CATEGORIES
OF GRAPHS
Inadditiontothespecializedstatisticalgraphsthatareavailablefromtheoutput
dialogsinallstatisticalprocedures(seepage208),therearetwogeneral
categoriesorclassesofgraphsbothaccessiblefromtheGraphstab,shortcut
menus,andtheSTATISTICAStartbutton menu:
Inputdatagraphs(GraphsofInputData,seepage199)andGraphsmenu
graphs,(seepage204)and
GraphsofBlockData(seepage202).
Themostimportantdifferencebetweenthesetwogeneralcategoriesliesinthe
datathatthegraphtypesutilizeforgeneratingplots.
Input data graphs. GraphsofInputDataandtheirexpandedversiononthe
Graphstabproducestatisticalsummariesorotherrepresentationsoftherawdata

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inthecurrentinputdataspreadsheet(typicallyforallthevariables,orforsubsets
ifcaseselectionconditionsareused).Notethatifgraphsofthisgeneralcategory
areproducedusingashortcutmenufromwithinaspreadsheetofresultsthatdoes
notcontaintheactualdata(e.g.,acorrelationmatrix),STATISTICAwillstillreachto
therespectiveinput(raw)datatoproducethegraph(e.g.,ascatterplotofthe
variablesidentifiedbytheselectedcellinthecorrelationmatrixfromwhichthe
shortcutmenuwasopened).
Graphs of Block Data. GraphsofBlockData,however,areentirelyindependent
oftheconceptofinputdataordatafile.Theyprovideageneraltoolto
visualizenumericvaluesinthecurrentlyselectedblockofanyspreadsheet(which
cancontainvaluesfromcustomdefinedsubsetsofnumericaloutputorarbitrarily
selectedsubsetsofrawdata).
Common features of the two categories of graphs. Thesetwogeneral
categoriesofgraphsofferthesamecustomizationoptionsandthesameselection
oftypesofgraphs.Forexample,youcancreatethesamehighlyspecialized
categorizedternarygraphfromtheinput(raw)datasetandfromacustomdefined
blockofvaluesrepresentingresultsofaparticulartest.
Thesetwogeneralcategoriesofgraphswillbebrieflydiscussedinthenexttwo
sections,followedbyasectionontheGraphstab,whichcontainsanexhaustive
selectionofallgraphsfromthefirstcategory(inputdatagraphs,oftenreferredto
asGraphsmenugraphs),aswellasaccesstoGraphsofBlockDataandother
options.

GRAPHS OF INPUT DATA


TheGraphsofInputDatacommandisavailablefromtheshortcutmenuofall
spreadsheets,anditoffersquickandsimplifiedaccesstothemostcommonlyused
typesofgraphsbasedonthecurrentinputdataset.

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NotethatallthesegraphsarealsoavailableontheGraphstab,fromthe
STATISTICAStartmenu onthestatusbar,orbyclickingtheGraphsGallery
buttononanygraphspecificationdialog.GraphsofInputDatadonotofferas
manyoptionsasthecorrespondingGraphsmenugraphs;however,theyare
quickertoselectbecauseunlikeGraphsmenugraphs:
GraphsofInputDatacanbecalleddirectlyfromthespreadsheetshortcut
menus,
GraphsofInputDatadonotrequireyoutoselectvariables(thevariable
selectionisdeterminedbythecurrentcursorpositionwithina
spreadsheet),and
GraphsofInputDatadonotrequireyoutoselectoptionsfromany
intermediatedialogs(defaultformatsoftherespectivegraphsare
produced).
GraphsofInputDataprocessdatadirectlyfromthecurrentinputdatafile,and
theytaketheircuesastowhichvariablestousefromthecurrentcursorposition
(inanytypeofspreadsheet).
Forexample,ifyourightclickasinglecorrelationinaresultsspreadsheetand
createaScatterplotbygraph,STATISTICAgeneratesa2Dscatterplotusingthe
originalrawvaluesofthetwovariablesrepresentedbythatcorrelation(seethe
IntroductoryExampleonpage11foramoredetailedexample).
AlthoughthemostconvenientwaytoselectGraphsofInputDataisviathe
spreadsheetshortcutmenu,youcanalsoselectthemfromtheGraphstaborthe
STATISTICAStartmenu .Eithermethodwilldisplayasubmenufromwhichyou

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canchooseoneofthestatisticalgraphsapplicabletothecurrentvariable(i.e.,to
thevariableindicatedbythecurrentcursorpositioninthespreadsheet).
Ifthespreadsheethasamatrixformatoraformatwhereacursorposition
indicatesnotonebuttwovariables(asintheillustrationshowingacorrelation
matrix,below),thenpredefinedbivariategraphsforthespecifiedpairofvariables
willbedirectlyavailablefromtheGraphsofInputDatasubmenus.


Otherwise,i.e.,whenthecurrentcursorpositionindicatesonlyonevariableasina
tableofdescriptivestatistics(asshowninthenextillustration),andifyouselect
anyofthebivariategraphsinthemenu,STATISTICAwillpromptyoutoselectthe
secondvariable.Forexample,ifyouselectScatterplotby,theSelectsecond
variabledialogwillbedisplayed,whereyouspecifybywhichvariableMeasure05
isgoingtobeplotted.

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Ifmorethanonevariableisindicatedbyahighlightedsection(i.e.,whenablockis
selected),thentheGraphsofInputDatamenuwillapplytothefirstselected
variable.
WhengeneratingGraphsofInputData,STATISTICAtakesintoaccountthecurrent
caseselectionandweightingconditionsforthevariablesthatarebeingplotted.
Note,however,thatthecaseselectionorweightingconditionsneedtobe
specifiedforthecurrentspreadsheet(i.e.,viatheToolstabSelectionConditions
EditoptionsandtheToolstabWeightoptions)andnotjustlocallyforan
analysis(i.e.,selectedfromtherespectiveanalysis/graphspecificationdialogs
usingthe and buttons).ThelatterconditionswillbeignoredbytheGraphs
ofInputData.FormoreinformationonspecifictypesofGraphsofInputData,see
theElectronicManual.

GRAPHS OF BLOCK DATA


UnlikeGraphsofInputData,GraphsofBlockDatausethecurrentlyselected
(continuous)blockofdataintheactivespreadsheettospecifyinputdatafor
thegraph.


Notethatthesegraphsareentirelyindependentfromtheconceptofinputdata.
Theyprocessvalues(numbers)fromwhateveriscurrentlyselectedintheblock
andignorethemeaningofthosenumbers(e.g.,thenumberscanberawdataor
valuesofcorrelationcoefficients).Thesegraphsofferaneffectivemeansof

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visualizing,exploring,andefficientlysummarizingnumericoutputfromanalyses
displayedinresultsspreadsheets(e.g.,histogramsofMonteCarlooutputscoresin
theSEPATHmodule,oraboxplotofaggregatedmeansfromamultivariate
multipleclassificationtableintheANOVAmodule).
AlthoughthemostconvenientwaytoselectGraphsofBlockDataisviathe
shortcutmenuassociatedwiththeblockselectedinaspreadsheet,Graphsof
BlockDataarealsoavailablefromtheGraphstabortheSTATISTICAStartmenu
.WhencreatingGraphsofBlockData,youcanselectfromdefaultgraphs(e.g.,
Histogram:BlockColumnsorLinePlot:BlockRows),oryoucancreateyourown
customgraphsforeithertheselectedcellsintherowsorcolumns,orofallcellsin
theselectedrowsorcolumns(i.e.,goingbeyondthevaluesthatareselectedinthe
block).
Default graphs. Usingthedefaultgraphs(thefirstsixcommandsontheGraphsof
BlockDatasubmenu,shownintheillustrationabove),youcancreatespecified
graphswithasingleclick.Forspecificinformationoneachdefaultgraph,referto
theElectronicManual.
Custom graphs.SelectanyofthefourCustomGraphcommandstodisplaythe
SelectGraphdialog,whichprovidesavarietyofoptionsforcreatingcustomized
graph.


Forspecificinformationoncustomgraphs,refertotheElectronicManual.
Customizing graphs.AswithmostfeaturesofSTATISTICA,GraphsofBlockData
arefullycustomizable.SelectCustomizeListfromtheBlockDataGraphsmenuto
displaytheCustomizeGraphMenudialog,whichprovidesoptionstoremove,
rename,oreditthecurrentlylistedgraphsaswellastoaddnew(userdefined)
graphstotheGraphsofBlockDatamenu.

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Forexample,ifyouwanttoincludeanormalfitonthehistogramscreatedusing
Histogram:BlockColumns,selectHistogram:BlockColumnsintheCustomize
GraphMenudialog,clicktheEditbutton,andswitchtheGraphSubTypeto
NormalFit.AllsubsequentlycreatedHistogram:BlockColumnsplotswillincludea
normalfittothedata.

GRAPHS MENU GRAPHS


TheGraphstabprovidesacompleteselectionofallstatisticalgraphsavailablein
STATISTICA.TheseoptionsareavailablefromnotonlytheGraphstab,butalsothe
STATISTICAStartmenu ,andofferhundredsoftypesofgraphical
representationsandanalyticsummariesofdata.


Notethat,unlikeGraphsofBlockData(whicharealsoincludedonthistabin
ordertoofferafullcomplementofallgraphicaloptionsaccessiblefromasingle
control),allothergraphtypesfromtheGraphstabarenotlimitedtothevaluesin
thecurrentoutputspreadsheet.Instead,theyprocessdatadirectlyfromthe
currentinputspreadsheet,inthesamewaythe(previouslydiscussed)Graphsof
InputDatado.Theyrepresenteitherstandardmethodstographicallysummarize
rawdata(e.g.,variousscatterplots,histograms,orplotsofcentraltendenciessuch
asmedians)orstandardgraphicalanalytictechniques(e.g.,categorizednormal
probabilityplots,detrendedprobabilityplots,orplotsofconfidenceintervalsof
regressionlines).Whengeneratingthesegraphs,STATISTICAtakesintoaccount
thecurrentcaseselectionandweightingconditionsforthevariablesselectedtobe
plotted.
Graphsmenugraphsinclude2DGraphs,3DSequentialGraphs,3DXYZGraphs,
MatrixPlots,IconPlots,CategorizedGraphs,andUserDefinedGraphs.Notethat
theCommongroupontheGraphstabincludesthemostcommonlyusedtypesof
graphs(Histograms,Scatterplots,Mean/ErrorPlots,etc.),andtheMoregroup

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containsacomprehensivelistofallgraphtypes.Seealso,TypesofGraphsMenu
GraphsintheElectronicManual.

GRAPH BRUSHING AND


CASE STATES
GraphsthatarecreatedfromtheGraphstabarehighlyinteractivewiththe
spreadsheetfromwhichtheywerecreated.Youcanidentifyandselectpointsin
thegraphandspecifythattheyaretobehighlightedinthesourcespreadsheet,
andviceversa.
Inadditiontoselectingpointsingraphsandspreadsheets,youcanidentify
propertiesofacaseinaspreadsheetthatwillbeusedwhenthegraphiscreated
fromthatdata.Thesepropertiesincludethepointmarkerstyleandcolor,and
whetherthepointistobeexcludedfromthegraphand/orfitcalculations.
Tostartbrushingwithinagraph,clickthebrushing
buttonontheEdittabintheCustomizeGraphgroup,or
rightclickinthebackgroundofagraphandselectShow
BrushingfromtheshortcutmenutodisplaytheBrushing
dialog,whichisshownintheillustrationtotheright.
WiththedefaultSelectionBrush,whichisSimple,youcan
drawarectangleonthegraphtoselectthepointscontained
intherectangle.Thefollowingillustrationdemonstratesthis
fortheexampledatasetAdstudy.sta,witha2Dscatterplot
ofMEASURE01byMEASURE02.
Notethattheupperleftthreepointshavebeenselectedby
thebrushingtool,whichhighlightsthepointsinthegraphas
wellasthecorrespondingcasesinthespreadsheetfrom
whichthegraphwascreated.

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Alternatively,insteadofusingtheBrushingfacilities,youcanselectcasesinthe
spreadsheet(clickonthefarleftsideofthecasename)andthecorresponding
pointswillbemarkedinthegraph,asshowninthefollowingillustration,where
thefirstfivecasesintheAdstudy.staspreadsheethavebeenselected.

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Youcanspecifyspreadsheetcasestatesfromeitheraspreadsheetoragraph.Ina
STATISTICASpreadsheet,rightclickonacasenametodisplaytheshortcutmenu,
whichcontainscommandsincludingOff,Label,MarkedPoints,andCaseStates.
Similarcommandsareavailablefromtheshortcutmenudisplayedwhenyouright
clickonthepointsinagraph.Thegraphwillusetheseoptionswhendisplayingthe
pointsrepresentedbythiscase.Forexample,ifyouselectLabel,the
correspondingpointswillbelabeled,asshowninthenextillustration.Notethat
thespreadsheetcasesaremarkedwithacasestateicontoindicatethatthecase
pointsarelabeled.


Rightclickonacasename,andfromtheshortcutmenuselectCaseStatesEdit
CaseStatestochangethecasemarkerand/orcolor.
NotethattheselectionofpointsisavailableforgraphtypesotherthanScatterplots.
Forhistograms,brushing/selectingahistogrambarwillselectthecorresponding
pointstothatbarinthespreadsheet.Thesameistrueoftheboxesinboxplots.
Usingcasestatesandbrushingandselectingpointsisparticularlyusefulwiththe
HiddenandExcludedcasestatesoptions.First,tomaketheseoptionsavailable,
displaytheOptionsdialog(selecttheToolstabandclickOptions),andinthetree
viewselectNavigation/Defaults(locatedunderSpreadsheets).Clearthe

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CombineExcludedandHiddenCaseStatesintoOffstatecheckbox,andclickthe
OKbutton.
Then,selecttheDatatab,andintheCasesgroupclickCases.FromtheCaseStates
submenu,selectHiddentomarkacaseashidden,i.e.,thecasewillnotbevisible
ingraphs,butwillbeusedinanalyses.Youcanalsorightclickonacasename,and
fromtheshortcutmenuselectCaseStatesEditCaseStatestodisplaytheCase
Statedialog,whereyoucanselecttheHiddencheckbox.
SelectExcludedtomarkacaseasexcluded,i.e.,thecasewillnotbeusedinthe
computations;however,thecasewillbedisplayedinmostgraphtypes.Thecase
pointmarkerisdisplayed,butthecaseisremovedfromcomputations.The
Excludedcasestatealsoworksinconjunctionwithspreadsheetselection
conditions;anycasethathastheExcludedcasestatesetwillbetreatedasifthe
casewereexcludedbyselectionconditions.Therefore,usinggraphbrushingand
casestatesisaconvenienttooltointeractivelyremoveoutliersandthenrerun
analyseswiththepointsremoved.
WhentheCombineExcludedandHiddenCaseStatesintoOffstatecheckboxis
selectedintheOptionsdialogNavigation/Defaultsoptionspane,theHiddenand
ExcludedoptionsarereplacedwiththeOffoption.SelectOfftomarkacaseasHidden
andExcluded;thepointwillbeexcludedfromcomputationsandfromgraphs.

OTHER SPECIALIZED GRAPHS


InadditiontothestandardselectionofGraphsofInputData,GraphsofBlockData,
andGraphsmenugraphs,otherspecializedstatisticalgraphsthatarerelatedtoa
typeofanalysis(e.g.,clusteranalysisresults)areaccessibledirectlyfromresults
dialogs(i.e.,thedialogsthatcontainoutputoptionsfromthecurrentanalysis).

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Thespecializedgraphsaredescribedinthedocumentationfortheanalysesfrom
whichtheycanbeproduced;forinformation,refertotheElectronicManual.

CREATING GRAPHS VIA


STATISTICA VISUAL BASIC
STATISTICAgraphicaloptionscanalsobeaccessedprogrammaticallyusingthe
builtinSTATISTICAVisualBasic(SVB)orothercompatiblelanguages.Therefore,
therearenolimitstohowdeeplycustomizedyourSTATISTICAgraphscanbe,
becauseSVB(withallitspowerfulcustomdrawingtoolsaswellastheSTATISTICA
basedlibraryofgraphicsprocedures)canbeusedtoproducevirtuallyanygraphics
ormultimediaoutputsupportedbythecontemporarycomputerhardware.
AnapplicationwritteninSTATISTICAVisualBasiccanoperateongraphsinthreeways:
Createanewgraphandthenmodify,print,orsaveit;
Accessanexistinggraphandthenmodifyit;

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Openanexistinggraphfileandthenmodify,print,orsaveit.
EverygraphavailableinSTATISTICAcanbeproducedbySTATISTICAVisualBasic
andthencustomizedusingSTATISTICAproceduresorgeneraloptionsofferedin
thiscomprehensivelanguage.


AswithallotherfunctionsinSTATISTICAVisualBasic,functionstoaccessthe
graphicslibraryofSTATISTICAcanbeeasilyincorporatedintoSTATISTICAVisual
BasicprogramsviaahierarchicallyorganizedFunctionBrowser.Itcontainsshort
descriptionsofallfunctionsandoptionsthatcanbeinserteddirectlyintothesource
codeofyourprogram(i.e.,intotheSTATISTICAVisualBasicEditor,seepage225).


FormoreinformationonaccessingthegraphicslibrariesofSTATISTICAviathe
STATISTICAVisualBasicprogramminglanguage,refertotheElectronicManual.

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7

CHAPTER

CUSTOMIZING
STATISTICA
Customization of the Interactive User Interface ................................ 213
Customization of Documents ............................................................... 214
Local vs. Permanent Customizations .................................................. 215
General Defaults .................................................................................... 215
Graph Customization ............................................................................. 217
Maintaining Different Configurations of STATISTICA ........................ 218
Customized Configurations for Individual Users on a Network ........ 218

CHAPTER

CUSTOMIZING
STATISTICA

STATISTICAofferstheflexibilityoffullycustomizableuserinterfacesandsupports
thenecessaryadjustmentofthestandarduserinterfacetobettersuityourspecific
needs.Infact,STATISTICAanticipatesyourneedsinthatitremembersvarious
choicesasyoumakethem.Forexample,ifyoulaunchananalysisfromthe
Advancedtabonananalysisspecificationdialog,theAdvancedtabwillbe
selected(insteadoftheQuicktab)thenexttimeyoudisplaythatdialog.
Practicallyallaspectsoftheuserinterfacecanbecustomizedstartingwithsuch
elementarycontrolsastheclassicmenus,QuickAccesstoolbar,andthekeyboard.
Theprocessforcustomizingthesescreencomponentsisquickandstraightforward
(forexample,seetheillustrationofcustomizingthetoolbaronpage139).Youcan
setbothglobalandlocalcustomizationsforgraphs,spreadsheets,workbooks,
reports,etc.,andmaintaindifferentconfigurationsofSTATISTICA(forasingleuser
aswellasfornetworkusers).Youcanalsodefineentirelynewuserinterfaces(see
pages139and140).

CUSTOMIZATION OF THE
INTERACTIVE USER INTERFACE
Asmentionedbefore,STATISTICAcontainsfacilitiestodefineentirelynewuser
interfaces(seepage139),includingtheInternetbrowserbaseduserinterfaces
(seepage141).However,practicallyallaspectsofthedefault,interactiveuser
interfacecanalsobeadjustedeasilyinavarietyofways.Forexample,youcanadd

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tothedefaultoptions,simplifythem,orkeepchangingthemasyourneeds
change.Dependingontherequirementsofthetaskstobeperformed,aswellas
yourpersonalpreferencesforparticularmodesofwork(andaestheticchoices),
youcansuppressallicons,toolbars,statusbars,longmenus,workbookfacilities,
draganddropfacilities,dynamic(automatic)linksbetweengraphsanddata,3D
effectsintables,and3Deffectsindialogboxes;requestbarebonessequential
outputwithsimple,paperwhitespreadsheetsandmonochromegraphs;andset
thesystemtoautomaticallymaintainnomorethanonesimplereportatatime.
Oralternatively,youcandefineelaboratelocalandglobaltoolbars;takefull
advantageofallspecialtoolsandcontrols,icons,toolbars,macros(e.g.,assign
particulartaskstospecificnewclassicmenucommands,theQuickAccesstoolbar,
orkeys),elaboratemultimediatables,workbookfacilities,anddraganddrop
facilities;establishmultipledynamic(automatic)linksbetweengraphsanddata
andinternallinksbetweengraphicalobjects;customizetheoutputwindowswith
colors,specialfonts,andhighlights;adjustthedefaultgraphstylesandtheir
displaymodes;andsendtheresultstoseparatehierarchicallyorganized
workbookstocreateanelaborate,multilayereddataanalysisenvironmentthat
facilitatestheexplorationofcomplexdatafilesandallowsyoutocompare
differentaspectsoftheoutput.

CUSTOMIZATION
OF DOCUMENTS
Thereisavarietyofcomprehensive,specializedtoolstocustomizethelayoutand
operationofSTATISTICAdocuments(seeChapter5STATISTICADocuments,page
167).Forexample,STATISTICAhasacomprehensivesystemofmanagingdefaults
ofeveryaspectofgraphsandcombiningcustomizationsintohierarchically
organizedstyles.Similarly,youcancreatecustomlayoutsandformatsfor
spreadsheets(multimediatables)andevencustomizeevents(e.g.,whathappens
whenyoudoubleclickonatable).SeetheElectronicManualforfurtherdetails.

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LOCAL VS. PERMANENT


CUSTOMIZATIONS
ManyaspectsoftheappearanceofSTATISTICAcanbeadjustedfromboththe
ViewandToolstabs.Eachofthesetwomethods,however,hasadifferent
function.
View tab.ThechangesspecifiedontheViewtabaffectthecurrentappearanceof
STATISTICA(e.g.,hidestheStatusBar)orthecurrentdocumentwindow(e.g.,
spreadsheetgridlines).
Options dialog.TheoptionsavailableintheOptionsdialog(selecttheToolstab
andclickOptions)areusedtoadjustthepermanentprogramdefaults(discussed
inmoredetailinthenextsection).Note,however,thattheglobaloptionsthatare
applicabletodocumentsofaparticulartype(e.g.,agraphoraspreadsheet)will
notchangethecurrentdocument.Instead,theywillonlybestoredasprogram
defaultsthatwillaffectthecreationofthenext(i.e.,new)documentofthe
respectivetype.
Forexample,ifyouchangetheDefaultSpreadsheetLayoutintheNavigation/
DefaultsoptionspaneoftheOptionsdialog,youwillseethenewSpreadsheet
Layoutappliedonlywhenyoucreateanewspreadsheet.However,thesedefaults
willnotaffectanypreviouslysavedfilesbecausethosespreadsheetsaredisplayed
withthespecificappearancewithwhichtheyweresaved(usetheoptionsonthe
Viewtabtocustomizetheexistingobjects).

GENERAL DEFAULTS
Customization of the general system defaults.Thegeneraldefaultsettingsof
STATISTICAcanbeadjustedwiththeoptionsintheOptionsdialog(selecttheTools
tabandclickOptions).Theycontrol:
ThegeneralaspectsofthebehaviorofSTATISTICA(suchasmaximizing
STATISTICAonstartup,workbookandreportfacilities,filelocations,
customlists,etc.),

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Thewayinwhichtheoutputisproduced(e.g.,inworkbooks,reports,etc.),
Thegeneralappearanceoftheapplicationwindow(icons,toolbars,etc.),
and
Theappearanceofdocumentwindows.
TheGeneraloptionspaneoftheOptionsdialogisshowninthenextillustration.


Alltheseandothergeneralsettingsareaccessibleregardlessofthetypeof
documentthatiscurrentlyactive(e.g.,aspreadsheetoragraph).Formore
informationaboutaspecificoptionspane,seetheElectronicManual(i.e.,pressF1
toviewtheSTATISTICAHelptopicdescribingtheoptionscurrentlydisplayed).
Switching between alternative sets of defaults (configurations).Optionsare
providedintheConfigurationsoptionspaneoftheOptionsdialogthatenableyou
tomaintainlibrariesofsettingsandswitchbetweenthemfordifferentprojects
(orusers).Forfurtherdetails,seeMaintainingDifferentConfigurationsof
STATISTICAonpage218andintheElectronicManual.

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GRAPH CUSTOMIZATION
Interactive graph customization.ThecustomizationoptionsinSTATISTICA
graphicsincludehundredsoffeaturesandtoolsthatcanbeusedtoadjustevery
detailofthedisplayandassociateddataprocessing.Theseoptionsarearrangedin
ahierarchicalmanner,sothoseusedmostoftenareaccessibledirectlyvia
shortcutsbydoubleclickingorrightclickingonaspecificelementofthegraph.
Permanent settings and automation options.Theinitial(default)settingsofall
graphfeaturescanbeeasilyadjustedsothateventhedefaultappearanceand
behaviorofSTATISTICAGraphswillmatchyourspecificneedsand/orwillrequire
verylittleinterventiononyourpart.VariousaspectsofSTATISTICAGraphscanbe
permanentlyadjustedbyusing:
1.theOptionsdialog(selecttheToolstabandclickOptions),
2.thecomprehensivesystemofgraphstyles,
3.userdefinedgraphs,and
4.STATISTICAVisualBasic.
ThesefacilitiesarebrieflyreviewedinChapter6Graphs(page190).Formore
information,pleaserefertotheElectronicManual.
TherearenolimitstohowdeeplycustomizedyourSTATISTICAcustomgraphs
canbe,becauseSTATISTICAVisualBasic(withallitspowerfulcustomdrawingtools
aswellastheSTATISTICAbasedlibraryofgraphicsprocedures)canbeusedto
producevirtuallyanygraphicsormultimediaoutputsupportedbycontemporary
computerhardware.Thosecustomdevelopeddisplaysormultimediaoutputcan
beassignedtoSTATISTICAtoolbars,menus,ordialogsandbecomeapermanent
partofyourSTATISTICAapplication.

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MAINTAINING DIFFERENT
CONFIGURATIONS OF STATISTICA
STATISTICAstoresallprogramsettingswhenyouexittheprogram,andrestores
themthenexttimeyoustarttheapplication.Youcancreatedifferent
configurationsofthesesettingsbyusingtheoptionsintheConfigurationsoptions
paneoftheOptionsdialog(selecttheToolstabandclickOptions).Withthe
configurationmanager,youcansavethecurrentprogramstateintoanewor
existingconfiguration,oryoucanrestartSTATISTICAusingadifferent
configuration.Otheroptionsincludetheabilitytoimportorexportconfigurations
toaseparatefilesotheycanbesharedamongSTATISTICAinstallations.

CUSTOMIZED CONFIGURATIONS
FOR INDIVIDUAL USERS ON A
NETWORK
Thesameprincipledescribedinthepreviousparagraphappliestonetwork
installationsofSTATISTICA.Onanetwork,STATISTICAisinstalledinonlyone
location(onaserver),buteachusercanstillconfigureSTATISTICAdifferently
becausethesettingconfigurationinformationisstoredlocally.Notethatyouneed
tochooseNetworkInstallationintheSTATISTICASetupprograminordertoinstall
itproperlyonanonlocaldrive(networkserver).Notethatanetworkversionof
STATISTICAisnecessarytoensureitsreliableoperationwhenusedbymorethan
oneuseratatimeorevenoneuserifSTATISTICAisnotinstalledonthelocal
system.

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8

CHAPTER

STATISTICA
VISUAL BASIC
Recording STATISTICA Visual Basic (SVB) Macros (Programs) ........ 224
Example: Recording an Analysis .......................................................... 230
ActiveX Objects and Documents (A Technical Note) ......................... 238

CHAPTER

STATISTICA
VISUAL BASIC

TheSTATISTICAVisualBasic(SVB)language(integratedintoSTATISTICA)is
compatiblewiththeindustrystandardsandprovidesanotheruserinterfacetothe
functionalityofSTATISTICA,anditoffersincomparablymorethanjusta
supplementaryapplicationprogramminglanguagethatcanbeusedtowrite
customextensions.
NotethatSTATISTICAVisualBasicisnotMicrosoftVisualBasic6.0.StatSoftowns
andmaintainsthecodeforSTATISTICAVisualBasic.SVBiscompatiblewith
MicrosoftsVB.NET,MicrosoftsVisualBasicforApplications(VBA),andalsowith
MicrosoftsVisualBasic6.0(VB6).SVBscriptinglanguageisuniqueintermsofits
flexibilityandcompatibility,anditisalsoverypowerful.ItprovidesaccesstoVisual
BasicforApplications(usedforscriptingMicrosoftOfficeproducts)andaccessto
the.NETFrameworkwithinthesamefile(seeChapter10Programming
STATISITCAfrom.NET,page247).OtherAPIscanalsobeaccessedandleverage
theflexibilityofSVBsuchas,forexample,YahoosStockQuoteAPIorGoogle
AnalyticsAPI.SVBoffersapowerful64bitsolutionforsystemintegration,
expansion,andcustomdevelopment.
SVBtakesfulladvantageoftheobjectmodelarchitectureofSTATISTICAandis
usedtoaccessprogrammaticallyeveryaspectandvirtuallyeverydetailofthe
functionalityofSTATISTICA.Eventhemostcomplexanalysesandgraphscanbe
recordedintoVisualBasicmacrosandlaterberunrepeatedlyoreditedandused
asbuildingblocksofotherapplications.SVBaddsanarsenalofmorethan14,000
newfunctionstothestandardcomprehensivesyntaxofVisualBasic,thus
comprisingoneofthelargestandrichestdevelopmentenvironmentsavailable.

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Applications for STATISTICA Visual Basic programs.STATISTICAVisualBasic


programscanbeusedforawidevarietyofapplications,fromsimplemacros
recordedtoautomateaspecific(repeatedlyused)sequenceoftasks,toelaborate
customanalyticsystemscombiningthepowerofoptimizedproceduresof
STATISTICAwithcustomdevelopedextensionsfeaturingtheirownuserinterface.
Whenproperlylicensed,scriptsforanalysesdevelopedthiswaycanbeintegrated
intolargercomputingenvironmentsorexecutedfromwithinproprietary
corporatesoftwaresystemsorInternetorintranetportals.
SVBprogramscanalsobeattachedtovirtuallyallimportanteventsina
STATISTICAanalysissuchasopeningorclosingfiles,clickingoncellsin
spreadsheets,etc.;inthismanner,thebasicuserinterfaceofSTATISTICAcanbe
highlycustomizedforspecificapplications(e.g.,fordataentryoperations,etc.).
SeveralscriptinglanguagesareincludedinSTATISTICA.YoucanselectfromSVB,
EnhancedSVB,STATISTICAVisualBasic.NET,orR.
EnhancedSTATISTICAVisualBasicisasupersetofSTATISTICAVisualBasic,and
includesadditionalfeatures.STATISTICAVisualBasic.NETfeaturesdirect,native
accessto.NETAssemblies,i.e.,notthroughCOMInteropaswouldberequired
fromstandardSVB.
Risaprogramminglanguageandenvironmentforstatisticalcomputing.TheR
environmentanditssourcecodearefreelyavailableundertheGNUGPLlicense.
TheRcommunitymaintainsseveralcentralizedrepositoriesthatmakehundredsof
suchpackagesreadilyavailabletoallusersovertheInternet.NativeRscriptscan
berundirectlywithinSTATISTICA,STATISTICAEnterprise,andSTATISTICA
EnterpriseServer.


RoutputcanberetrievedasnativeSTATISTICASpreadsheetsandGraphs,and
managedviahighlyflexibleSTATISTICAWorkbookcontainers.

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UsingtheRlanguagerequiresthatyouhaveRinstalledoneitherthesame
computerrunningSTATISTICAoracomputeraccessiblefromtheSTATISTICA
EnterpriseServerinordertouseitsspecializedroutinesandcapabilitiesto:
AddnewRbasedmodules
LeverageSTATISTICAssuperiorgraphics,flexiblespreadsheets,and
convenientworkbookcontainersforvariousdocumenttypestohandle
outputfromR
IntegrateRintoSTATISTICAEnterprisetomakespecializedRfunctionality
availableasreusableanalysistemplatesforusersnotfamiliarwiththeR
language,inasecure,rolebasedenterpriseanalysissystem
AddRbasedanalyticnodestoSTATISTICADataMiner,thusleveragingallR
capabilitiesinsideSTATISTICAandDataMinerworkspaces
BuildscalableRserversusingSTATISTICAEnterpriseServertohandle
securityandloadbalancing,andtotakeadvantageofmultipleprocessor
serverstorunRfordemandingand/orvalidatedenterpriseapplications
SeetheElectronicManualformoreinformationonthesescriptinglanguages.

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RECORDING STATISTICA VISUAL


BASIC (SVB) MACROS (PROGRAMS)
Analysis Macros, Master (Log) Macros,
and Keyboard Macros
STATISTICAprovidesacomprehensiveselectionoffacilitiesforrecordingmacros,
i.e.,STATISTICAVisualBasic(SVB)programs,toautomaterepetitiveworkortobe
usedasameanstoautomaticallygenerateprogramsforfurthereditingand
modification.Themacroprogramsrecordedbythesefacilitiescanbesavedtobe
runasis,ortheycanbeusedasthebuildingblocksformorecomplexand
highlycustomizedVisualBasicapplicationprograms.AnalysisMacrosandMaster
Macrosfollowtheidenticalsyntaxandcanlaterbemodified,butbecauseofthe
differentwaysinwhicheachofthemiscreated,theyofferdistinctiveadvantages
anddisadvantagesforspecificapplications.
Analysis macros. SimpleAnalysisMacrosautomaticallyrecordthesettings,
selections,andchosenoptionsforaspecificanalysis.Notethatthetermanalysis
inSTATISTICAdenotesonetaskselectedeitherfromtheStatistics,DataMining,or
Graphstabsandcanbeverysmallandsimple(e.g.,onescatterplotrequested
fromtheGraphstab),orveryelaborate(e.g.,acomplexstructuralequation
modelinganalysisselectedbychoosingthatoptionfromtheStatisticstab,and
involvinghundredsofoutputdocuments).Afterselectinganyofthestatistical
optionsfromtheStatisticsorDataMiningtabsorgraphicsoptionsfromthe
Graphstab,allactionssuchasvariableselections,optionsettings,etc.,are
recordedbehindthescenes;atanytimeyoucantransferthisrecording(i.e.,the
VisualBasiccodeforthatmacro)totheVisualBasicEditorwindow.TheCreate
Macrocommandisavailablefromeveryanalysisdialogviathedropdownmenu
displayedbyclickingtheOptionsbuttonortheshortcutmenuaccessedbyright
clickingtheanalysisbuttonwhentheanalysisisminimized.
Master macros (logs).YoucanrecordaMasterMacroorMasterLogofanentire
session,whichcanconsistofoneormanyanalyses.Thisrecordingwillconnect
analysesperformedwithvariousanalysisoptionsfromtheStatistics,DataMining,

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and/orGraphstabs.However,unlikesimpleAnalysisMacros,youcanturnthe
recordingofMasterMacrosonandoff.TheMasterMacrorecordingwillbegin
whenyouturnontherecording[selecttheToolstab,clickMacro,andselectStart
RecordingLogofAnalyses(MasterMacro)],anditwillendwhenyoustopthe
recording(clickMacro,andselectStopRecording).Inbetweentheseactions,all
fileselectionsanddatamanagementoperationsarerecorded,asaretheanalyses
andselectionsfortheanalyses,inthesequenceinwhichtheywerechosen.
Keyboard macros. Thistypeofmacrorecordingstoresthesequencesofkeyboard
input.WhenyouselecttheToolstab,clickMacro,andselectStartRecording
KeyboardMacro,STATISTICAwillrecordtheactualkeystrokesenteredviathe
keyboard.WhenyouStopRecording,aSTATISTICAVisualBasiceditorwindow
openswithasimpleprogramcontainingasingleSendKeyscommandwithsymbols
thatrepresentallthedifferentkeystrokesperformedduringtherecordingsession.
Notethatthistypeofmacroisverysimpleinthesensethatitwillnotrecordany
contextinwhichtherecordedkeystrokesarepressedandwillnotrecordtheir
meaning(i.e.,commandsthesekeystrokestrigger),butthisfeaturemakesthem
usefulforspecificapplications,e.g.,toautomateenteringtext,suchastitles,
selectionconditions,etc.
STATISTICA Visual Basic editor and debugger.Programscanbewrittenfrom
scratchusingtheSTATISTICAVisualBasicprofessionaldevelopmentenvironment,
whichfeaturesaprogrameditorwithapowerfuldebugger(withbreakpoints,etc.)
andmanyfacilitiesthataidinefficientcodebuilding.Thesefacilitiesaredescribed
indetailintheSTATISTICAElectronicManual.
WheneditingmacroprogramsbytypinginVisualBasiccommandsorprogram
commandsspecifictoSVB,theeditordisplaystypeaheadhelptoillustratethe
appropriatesyntax.Helponthemembersandfunctionsforeachclass(object)is
alsoprovidedinline.

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Whenexecutingaprogram,youcansetbreakpointsintheprogram,stepthrough
itlinebyline,andobserveandchangethevaluesofvariablesinthemacro
programasitisrunning.


Alsoavailableisaninteractivedialogeditorthatenablesyoutobuilddialogboxes.


Tosummarize,STATISTICAVisualBasicisnotonlyapowerfulprogramming
language,butitrepresentsaverypowerful,professionalprogramming
environmentfordevelopingsimplemacrosaswellascomplexcustom
applications.
Visual Basic from other applications.SVBprogramscanalsobedevelopedby
enhancingVisualBasicprogramscreatedinotherapplications(e.g.,Excel)by
callingSTATISTICAfunctionsandprocedures.

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Executing STATISTICA Visual


Basic Programs
STATISTICAVisualBasicprogramscanbeexecutedfromwithinSTATISTICA,but
becauseoftheindustrystandardcompatibilityofSVB,youcanalsoexecuteits
programsfromanyothercompatibleenvironment(e.g.,Excel,Word,orastand
aloneVisualBasiclanguage).Inpractice,youwouldtypicallycallSTATISTICA
functionsfromVisualBasicinanotherapplication.Note,however,thatwhenyou
runanSVBprogramorattempttocallSTATISTICAfunctionsfromanyother
application,allcallstotheSTATISTICAspecificfunctions(asopposedtothegeneric
functionsofMSVisualBasic)willbeexecutedonlyiftherespectiveSTATISTICA
librariesarepresentonthecomputerwheretheexecutiontakesplace.Thatis,you
mustbealicenseduseroftherespectiveSTATISTICAlibrariesofprocedures.Note
thatthislargelibraryofSTATISTICAfunctions(morethan14,000procedures)is
transparentlyaccessiblenotonlytoVisualBasic,butalsotocallsfromanyother
compatibleprogramminglanguageorenvironment,suchasC/C++,C#,orDelphi.
Performance of STATISTICA Visual Basic programs. Whiletheobvious
advantagesofVisualBasic(comparedtootherlanguages)areitseaseofuseand
familiaritytoaverylargenumberofcomputerusers,thepossibledrawbackof
VisualBasicprogramsisthattheydonotperformasfastasapplicationsdeveloped
inlowerlevelprogramminglanguages(suchasC).However,thatpotential
problemdoesnotapplytoSVBapplications,especiallythosethatrelymostlyon
executingcallstoSTATISTICAsanalytic,graphics,anddatamanagement
procedures.TheseproceduresfullyemploySTATISTICAtechnologyandperformat
aspeedcomparabletorunningtherespectiveproceduresinSTATISTICAdirectly.

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Structure of STATISTICA Visual Basic.STATISTICAVisualBasicconsistsoftwo


majorcomponents:1)ThegeneralVisualBasicprogrammingenvironmentwith
facilitiesandextensionsfordesigninguserinterfaces(dialogs)andfilehandling,
and2)theSTATISTICAlibrarieswiththousandsoffunctionsthatprovideaccessto
practicallyallfunctionalityofSTATISTICA.
TheVisualBasicprogrammingenvironmentfollowstheindustrystandardsyntax
conventionsoftheMicrosoftVisualBasicLanguage;thefewdifferencespertain
mostlytothemannerinwhichdialogsarecreated(seeCustomDialogsand
CustomUserInterfacesintheSTATISTICAElectronicManual),andaredesignedto
offerprogrammers/developersmoreflexibilityinthewayuserinterfacesare
handledincomplexprograms.IntheSVBprogrammingenvironment,dialogscan
beentirelyhandledinsideseparatesubroutines,whichcanbeflexiblycombined
intolargermultipledialogprograms;MSVisualBasicisformbased,wherethe
formsordialogs,andalleventsthatoccurinthedialogs,arehandledinseparate
programunits.

Attaching Macros to Toolbars and Menus


ASTATISTICAVisualBasicprogramcanbesavedandthenattachedtoacustom
classicmenu/toolbarortotheQuickAccesstoolbarontheribbonbar.Thisenables
youtoeasilycustomizeandextendtheoperationandappearanceofSTATISTICA
withyourowncustommacros.Toutilizethesefacilities,savethemacroby
selectingSaveAsGlobalMacrofromtheFilemenu.Then,tocustomizethemenus
and/ortoolbars,selectCustomizefromtheToolsmenutodisplaytheCustomize
dialog.Toaddthemacrotoamenuortoolbar,choosetheCommand/Macrostab,
andselectMacrosfromtheCategorieslist.Allyourglobalmacroswillbelistedin
theCommandssectionofthetab.

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YoucanthenselectanddragthespecificitemfromtheCommandslistontoany
menuortoolbar.Notethatasyourmousepointerhoversoveramenu,themenu
willexpand,enablingyoutoinserttheiteminanysubmenuaswell.Oncethe
macroisplacedonthemenuortoolbarwhiletheCustomizedialogisdisplayed,
youcanrightclickthemacroandchangetheappearanceandtextoftheitem,as
wellasaddicons.
Running Macros from a command line. WithSTATISTICA,youcanexecuteSVB
programsfromthecommandlinebyusingthe/RunMacro=commandline
parameter.Thesyntaxis:
statist.exe /RunMacro=macroname

wheremacronameisthefilenameofthemacro.Ifafullpathisnotspecified,
STATISTICAwillattempttorunthemacrofromtheapplicationscurrentlyselected
directory(whichisWindowsdefaultbehavior).
Ifthemacrodoesnotmaketheapplicationoranydocumentvisible(throughthe
Application.Visible = True,orsimilardocumentproperties),theSTATISITCA
instancewillautomaticallyshutdownwhencomplete.Iftheapplicationismade
visible,theapplicationwillremainvisibleafterthemacrocompletes,andyouwill
needtoshutdowntheprogram.

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EXAMPLE: RECORDING
AN ANALYSIS
Thisexampleillustrateshowtorecordananalysisintoascriptthatcanbe
executedtoreruntheanalysis.Thenthescriptwillbeeditedandcombinedwith
anotherscripttocreateacustomizedscriptthatcanrunanalysesondemand.
Additionally,thisexampleshowshowyoucanuseattachedscriptstoautoupdate
andrerunanalysesfromresultsworkbooks.
StartbyopeningtheexampleAdstudydataset.SelecttheHometab,clickthe
Openarrow,andselectOpenExamplestodisplaytheOpenaSTATISTICAData
Filedialog.DoubleclickontheDatasetsfile,andthenopentheSTATISTICAdata
setAdstudy.sta.
Then,selecttheStatisticstab.IntheBasegroup,clickBasicStatisticstodisplay
theBasicStatisticsandTablesStartupPanel.SelectDescriptivestatistics.


ClicktheOKbuttontodisplaytheDescriptiveStatisticsdialog.

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ClicktheVariablesbuttontodisplaytheSelectthevariablesfortheanalysis
dialog.SelectvariablesMEASURE01throughMEASURE23byclickingMEASURE01
anddraggingtoMEASURE23,andthenclickOK.
IntheDescriptiveStatisticsdialog,selecttheAdvancedtab,andnotethe
numerousoptionsavailable.


Forthisexample,wewillleavealloptionsattheirdefault.ClicktheSummary
buttontodisplaythedescriptivestatisticsfortheselectedvariables.

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Whenyouproducetheresultsworkbook,theDescriptiveStatisticsdialogis
automaticallyminimizedsoyoucanseetheresults.Torestorethedialog,clickthe
DescriptiveStatisticsbuttonontheAnalysisBarinthelowerleftofthescreen.
Whileyouarerunningthisanalysis,STATISTICAautomaticallyrecordsallthe
analysisstepsbehindthescenes.YoucannowproduceaSTATISTICAVisualBasic
(SVB)macrotorecreatethisanalysis.IntheDescriptiveStatisticsdialog,clickthe
button,andselectCreateMacrofromthedropdownmenu.TheNew
Macrodialogwillbedisplayed,whereyoucannamethemacroandentera
description.Leavealltheentriesattheirdefaults,andclickOK.AnSVBmacro
windowwillbedisplayed,containingtherecordedDescriptiveStatisticssession.


Torunthismacro,selecttheDebugtab,andintheRungroup,clickRun(orpress
F5onyourkeyboard).TheexactDescriptiveStatisticsresultsthatweregenerated
intheinitialanalysiswillbereproduced.
LookattheSVBmacroforamoment.Towardthetop,oneofthelinesis:
Set newanalysis = Analysis (scBasicStatistics, ActiveInputDataSet)

ThisistellingthemacrothatitisgoingtoruntheBasicStatisticsanalysis,andthat
itwillbeusingtheactivedataset,thatis,thespreadsheetthatiscurrently
selectedwhenthemacroruns.
Afewlinesfurtherdownisasectionthatstartswith:
Dim oAD2 As STABasicStatistics.BasDescriptiveStatistics

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andunderthatarepropertiessuchas:
.PairwiseDeletionOfMD = True

Thesepropertiescorrespondtoalltheoptionsthatwereavailableonthedifferent
tabsoftheDescriptiveStatisticsdialog.Everyoptioninthedialogisrepresented
byaproperty,andallthecurrentsettingsarerecorded.Ifyoudecidetoincludea
MedianandtheSumofeachofthevariables,itiseasytoaddthistotheSVB
macro;justfindthelinesthatread:
.Median = False

and
.Sum = False

andchangetheseto:
.Median = True

and
.Sum = True

Now,runthemacroagainbypressingF5.Anewresultsspreadsheetwillbeadded
totheworkbook,thistimewithnewcolumnsofMedianandSum:


Letskeepthemacrowindowopenandstartanewanalysisonthesamesample
dataset.SelecttheAdstudyspreadsheettobringittothefront.SelecttheGraphs
tab,andintheMoregroup,click2D.SelectNormalProbabilityPlotstodisplaythe
NormalProbabilityPlotsdialog.

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ClicktheVariablesbutton,andintheSelectVariablesforProbabilityPlotdialog,
selectvariablesMEASURE01throughMEASURE03.ClickOKtoclosethisdialog,
andclickOKintheNormalProbabilityPlotsdialog.ThreeProbabilityPlotgraphs
willbeplacedintheresultsworkbook,oneforeachofthethreevariablesthat
wereselected.


ThestepsoftheProbabilityPlotanalysiswererecordedjustastheywereforthe
DescriptiveStatisticsanalysis.Tocreateanewmacrowiththesesteps,bringthe
NormalProbabilityPlotdialogtothefrontbyclickingthatbuttonontheAnalysis
Barinthelowerleftofthescreen,clickthe button,andselectCreate
Macrofromthedropdownmenu.IntheNewMacrodialog,clickOK,andanew
SVBMacrowindowisopenedwiththerecordedProbabilityPlotscript.

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AswiththeDescriptiveStatisticsanalysis,alltheoptionsselectedinthe
ProbabilityPlotdialogarespecifiedaspropertieswithinthemacro.Forinstance,
tochangethisfromaNormalProbabilityPlottoaHalfNormalProbabilityPlot,
locatethefollowingline:
.GraphType = scProbNormal

andchangeitto:
.GraphType = scProbHalfNormal

Also,letsexpandthevariablestoincludevariableMEASURE04.Todothis,findthe
followingline:
.Variables = "3-5"

Thislinecorrespondstothevariablesselectedfortheplots.Sinceweselected
MEASURE01throughMEASURE03,andthesearevariablenumbers3through5
fromthedataset,thisstringwasrecorded.ToaddMESURE04(variablenumber6),
changethislineto:
.Variables = 3-6

NowrunthemacrobypressingF5.FournewgraphsareproducedasHalfNormal
ProbabilityPlotsforvariablesMEASURE01throughMEASURE04.
Thisexamplehasdemonstratedhowyoucanrunanyanalysis,andthencreatea
macrooftheanalysisthatcanbeeditedandrerun.Additionally,thisexamplehas

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shownhowthesemacroscanbecombinedtodevelopmacrosthataremore
complex.Thisisthebuildingblockofcreatingyourownpowerfulcustomized
analysesusingtheSVBlanguage.

Rerunning Analyses from


Results Workbooks
Inthepreviousexample,youlearnedthatallanalysesinSTATISTICAwillrecordthe
stepsusedtoproducethem,andthesecanbeloadedintoamacrothatyoucan
editandrun.Whenananalysisproducesresultsthatareplacedinaworkbook,
STATISTICAautomaticallyassociatestherecordedscriptsstepstotheworkbook
folderthatcontainstheresults.Thisenablesyoutoeitherreruntheanalysisorto
resumeananalysis.
Thusfar,wehaveproducedseveralinstancesofrunningbothDescriptiveStatistics
andProbabilityPlots.Theresultsworkbooklookssimilartothefollowing
illustration.


Noticethatthereisaredarrowoneachworkbookfolder.Thisisanindicatorthat
thescriptthatproducedtheresultsinthatfolderhasbeenattachedtothefolder.
ThisenablesSTATISTICAtorerunorresumetheanalysis.
Torerunananalysis,rightclickononeofthefolderslabeledDescriptivestatistics
dialog,andfromtheshortcutmenu,selectRerunAnalysis.TheRerunAnalysis
dialogwillbedisplayed.

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HereyoucanchoosetoUseoriginaldatasourceorUsenewdatasource.The
latteroptiongivesyouthepowerfulabilitytocreatetemplatesthatcanthenbe
appliedtonewdatasources.Inadditiontospecifyingthedatasource,youcan
choosetoReplacecurrentfoldercontentsorOutputtonewfolder.Inthis
example,leavethedefaults,andclickOK.Youwillseethatthecontentsofthe
folderarebrieflydeletedandthenaddedagainastheanalysisisrerun.
Onepurposeforthisfeatureistheabilitytoupdate/rerunresultsfromcomplex
analysesifnewdataisenteredintothespreadsheet.Forinstance,ifthedatain
theopendatafileAdstudy.stahasbeenchangedandtheanalysisisrerun,thenew
resultswillbecalculatedwiththenewdata.
Theresumeanalysisfunctionalityenablesyoutobringananalysisbacktothe
pointbeforetheresultsweregenerated,allowingyoutoselectdifferentoptionsor
continueananalysisinprogress.RightclickthesameDescriptivestatisticsdialog
folder,andfromtheshortcutmenu,selectResumeAnalysis.TheResumeAnalysis
dialogwillbedisplayed.Thisdialogalsocontainsoptionstospecifytheinputdata
source(originalornew).TheOutputoptionsforthenewresultsaretoOutputto
currentfolder(asifthisisjustanextensionofthepreviousanalysis)orOutputto
newfolder(asifthisisabrandnewanalysis).


Leavethedefaultsastheyare,andclickOK.TheDescriptiveStatisticsdialogwill
bedisplayed,withalltheoptionssettowhatwasusedwhentheselectedoutput
wascreated.SincethedefaultwastoOutputtocurrentfolder,clickingthe
Summarybuttonwillgeneratenewoutputtothesamefolder.

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ActiveX OBJECTS AND


DOCUMENTS
(A TECHNICAL NOTE)

ThetermActiveXisusedindifferentcontexts,anditsdefinitionsstressdifferent
aspectsofthatconcept.ItsusewithinSTATISTICA,however,canbegroupedinto
twogeneralcategories:ActiveXobjectsandActiveXdocuments.
ActiveX objects.AnActiveXobjectiswhatwasoncereferredtoasanOLE(Object
LinkingandEmbedding)object.AtitsheartistheMicrosoftCOM(Component
ObjectModel)technologythatmakesitpossibleforobjectstobeaccessedina
uniformmanner.Throughtheuseofstandardprotocols,objectscreatedinone
applicationcanbestoredandeditedinadifferentapplication.Tosupportthis
functionality,thecontainingobjectneedstobeanActiveXobjectclient,andthe
applicationthatinitiallycreatedtheobjectneedstobeanActiveXobjectserver.
STATISTICAisboth.AsanActiveXobjectclient,STATISTICAallowsyoutoembed
andlinkobjectsfromotherapplicationsinspreadsheets,graphs,andreports.As
anActiveXobjectserver,itallowsyoutoembedandlinkspreadsheetsandgraphs
intootherapplications.
ActiveX documents.ActiveXdocumentstaketheActiveXcontrolsonestep
further,inthattheyallowentiredocumentstobeembeddedintoother
applications.AnActiveXdocumentcontainerallowsotherapplicationdocuments
tobeusedwithinit,andanActiveXdocumentserverallowsitsdocumentstobe
usedwithinanyActiveXdocumentcontainer.Again,STATISTICAdoesboth.
STATISTICAWorkbooksareActiveXdocumentcontainers,andallowdocuments
fromotherActiveXserverstobedisplayedwithintheworkbook.Examplesofthis
areWordandExcel;thesedocumentscanbeuseddirectlyfromwithina
STATISTICAWorkbook.Similarly,STATISTICASpreadsheets,Graphs,andReports
areActiveXdocumentservers,andtheyalsocanbeplacedwithinanyActiveX
documentcontainersuchasMicrosoftInternetExplorer.
Office integration and ActiveX documents.TheActiveXdocumenttechnology
hasspecialapplicationwithWordandExceldocuments.STATISTICAcanopen
theseparticulardocumentsnativelyintheirownwindowswithintheSTATISTICA

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workspace.ThisOfficeintegrationenablesyoutouseExceldocumentsasdata
sourcesandWorddocumentsasreportsforanalyses.Whenthedocumentsare
openintheSTATISTICAwindow,theappropriatemenusandtoolbarsfor
Excel/Wordareavailableforuse.

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9

CHAPTER

STATISTICA
QUERY
Overview ................................................................................................. 243
Quick, Step-by-Step Instructions.......................................................... 244
In-Place Processing of Data on Remote Servers
(The IDP Technology Option).......................................................... 245
OLAP Cubes ............................................................................................ 246
Large Database Files ............................................................................ 246

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CHAPTER

STATISTICA
QUERY
Note:Foranexplanationofalltechnicaltermsusedinthisoverview(e.g.,ODBC,
SQL,OLAP,etc.),pleaserefertotheglossaryintheSTATISTICAElectronicManual,
accessiblebyclickingHelpontheHelptabintheHelpgroup.
ThischapterincludesabriefoverviewofSTATISTICAQuery,aflexibletoolfor
accessingdatafromexternaldatabases.Italsoincludesinformationonretrieving
datafromOLAPCubeproviderssuchasMSOLEDBProviderforAnalysisServices
orSAPBusinessWarehouseMDX.

OVERVIEW
STATISTICAQueryisusedtoaccessdataeasilyfromawidevarietyofdatabases
(includingmanylargesystemdatabasessuchasOracle,MSSQLServer,Sybase,
etc.)usingMicrosoftsOLEDBconventions.OLEDBisapowerfuldatabase
technologythatprovidesuniversaldataintegrationoveranenterprisesnetwork,
frommainframetodesktop,regardlessofthedatatype.OLEDBoffersamore
generalizedandmoreefficientstrategyfordataaccessthantheolderODBC
conventionsbecauseitallowsaccesstomoretypesofdataandisbasedonthe
ComponentObjectModel(COM).
STATISTICAQuerysupportsmultipledatabasetables;specificrecords(rowsof
tables)canbeselectedbyenteringSQLstatements,whichSTATISTICAQuery
automaticallybuildsforyouasyouselectthecomponentsofthequeryviaa
simplegraphicalinterfaceand/orintuitivemenuoptionsanddialogs.Therefore,an

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extensiveknowledgeofSQLisnotnecessaryinorderforyoutocreateadvanced
andpowerfulqueriesofdatainaquickandstraightforwardmanner.Multiple
queriesbasedononeormanydifferentdatabasescanalsobecreatedtoreturn
datatoanindividualspreadsheet,andyoucanmaintainconnectionstomultiple
externaldatabasessimultaneously.

STATISTICA QUERY: QUICK STEP-


BY-STEP INSTRUCTIONS
ThestepsnecessarytoretrieveexternaldataviaSTATISTICAQueryareoutlined
below:
1.SelecttheHometab.IntheFilegroup,clicktheOpenarrow.SelectOpen
ExternalDataCreateQuerytodisplaytheDatabaseConnectiondialog.
(YoucanalsoselecttheDatatab.IntheManagegroup,clickExternalData
andselectCreateQuerytodisplaytheDatabaseConnectiondialog.)Inthis
dialog,selectapredefineddatabaseconnection(theprovider,datasource
location,andadvancedsettingsoftheserverordirectoryonwhichthedata
resides).
Notethatifyouhavenotalreadycreatedthedatabaseconnection,youcan
dosobyclickingtheNewbuttonintheDatabaseConnectiondialog.The
DataLinkPropertiesdialogwillbedisplayed,whichwillguideyouthrougha
stepbystepwizardtocreateadatabaseconnection.Forspecific
documentationwhenyouareusingtheDataLinkPropertiesdialog,press
theF1keyonyourkeyboardtodisplaytheMicrosoftDataLinkHelp.
2.AfteryouhaveselectedadatabaseconnectionandclickedtheOKbuttonin
theDataLinkPropertiesdialog,youwillhaveaccesstoSTATISTICAQueryin
whichyoucancreateaSQLstatementbyspecifyingthedesiredtables,
fields,joins,criteria,etc.(viatheTable,Join,andCriteriamenus)tobe
includedinyourquery.

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3.Onceyouhavespecifiedaquery,selectReturnDatatoSTATISTICAfromthe
Filemenu.TheReturningExternalDatatoSpreadsheetdialogwillbe
displayed,inwhichyoucanspecifythenameofthequery,whereyouwant
STATISTICAQuerytoputthedatathatthequeryreturns,andadditional
options.
SeetheElectronicManualforfurtherdetails.

IN-PLACE PROCESSING OF
DATA ON REMOTE SERVERS
(THE IDP TECHNOLOGY OPTION)

Thequeryfacilities(describedintheprevioussections),whenofferedaspartof
theenterpriseversionsofSTATISTICA(seeSTATISTICAEnterpriseSystems,page
278),areadditionallyenhancedbyoptionstoprocessdatafromremoteservers
inplace,thatis,withouthavingtoimportthemandcreatealocaldatafile.This
InPlaceDatabaseProcessing(IDP)technologyisparticularlyusefulforprocessing
extremelylargedatafileswhereitcanproducesignificantperformancegainsand
enableSTATISTICAuserstoprocessdatafilesthatexceedthestoragecapacityof
thelocaldeviceoreventheSTATISTICAEnterpriseServer.
Technical note.TheIDPtechnologyisbasedondistributedprocessing
architecture,wherethequeriesareperformedontheserverside(usingtheserver

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CPUresources)andtherespectiverecordssenttotheSTATISTICAcomputerwhere
theyaresimultaneously(asynchronously)processedastheybecomeavailable.

OLAP CUBES
OLAP(OnLineAnalyticProcessing)isagenerictermforasystemthatprovides
efficientaccesstosummarydataaboutverylargedatabases.Unlikeordinary
relationaldatabases,whichorganizedataasasetofwelldefined,two
dimensionaltables,anOLAPdatawarehouserepresentsdataatmanylevelsof
detailinmultidimensionaldatasetsknownascubes.WhenaSTATISTICAuser
wantstoperformananalysisagainstdatafromanOLAPCube,thedatamustbe
reducedtoatwodimensionalformcasesandvariablesthatcanbe
representedinaSTATISTICAspreadsheet.TheSTATISTICAQuerytoolprovidesa
graphical,draganddropinterfaceforspecifyingthedimensionsandlevelsof
detailthatwillbeextractedfromthecubetofeedintothequery.TheMDX
(MultiDimensionaleXpressions)modeistriggeredautomaticallywhenanOLAP
datasourceisselected.
CustomerswhorequireOLAPintegrationwillusuallyhavesophisticateddatabase
supporttechniciansthroughtheirinhouseinformationtechnologydepartment
whocanhelpdesignthesequeries.Becausetheconfigurationofthedimensionsin
anOLAPcubeisdeterminedbythecustomersdatabaseadministrators,StatSoft
canprovideonlylimitedassistanceinthisarea.

LARGE DATABASE FILES


STATISTICAproductsaredesignedforlargescaleanalytics;consequently,they
integratewellwithdatabasesystemsdesignedformanagingverylargeamountsof
data,suchasTeradataandothers.Forexample,STATISTICAcanbothextractdata
foranalysisfromTeradata,anditcanalsoscoreresultsdirectlyinsideTeradata
throughdeploymentcodecreatedbySTATISTICADataMinerandappliedtothe
Teradataasauserdefinedfunction,whichsignificantlyacceleratesprocessingof
largeamountsofdata.

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10

CHAPTER

PROGRAMMING
STATISTICA
FROM .NET
Adding the STATISTICA Object Library into Your .NET Project .......... 249
Manually Creating the COM Interop Library ....................................... 251
Supporting Multiple Versions of STATISTICA ...................................... 251
Instantiating STATISTICA ...................................................................... 252
The Library Version of STATISTICA ....................................................... 252


10

CHAPTER

PROGRAMMING STATISTICA
FROM .NET

VirtuallyeveryaspectofSTATISTICAisexposedasasetofCOMinterfacesthatare
registeredonamachinewhenSTATISTICAisinstalled.Since.NETbasedlanguages
cannotcommunicatewithCOMdirectly,awrapperclasscalledtheCOMInterop
canbeutilizedtointegratetheSTATISTICAlibrariesintoyour.NETproject.The
COMInteroplayeriscreatedautomaticallybytheVisualStudio.NETIDEwhenyou
importaCOMinterface.TheCOMInteroplayerhandlesallofthedetailsregarding
interactingwiththeCOMlibrariesin.NET.WiththeCOMInteroplayerinplace,
theSTATISTICACOMinterfacesbehavelikeanyother.NETobject.

Adding the STATISTICA Object Library


into Your .NET Project
The.NETInteroplayeriscreatedautomaticallybyaddingthedesiredSTATISTICA
COMinterfacesintoyour.NETproject.STATISTICAObjectLibraryisthebase
STATISTICACOMlibrary.ToaddtheSTATISTICAObjectLibrarytoa.NETproject,
firstselectthedesired.NETprojectinSolutionExplorer,andthenselectAdd
Referencefromtheshortcutmenu(accessedbyrightclickingonthe.NETproject).

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TheAddReferencedialogwillbedisplayed.SelecttheCOMtab.Fromthe
ComponentNamelist,selectSTATISTICAObjectLibrary,andclickOK.


Atthispoint,thenecessaryCOMInteroplibraryiscreatedautomatically.Under
theprojectReferencesnode,youwillnowseetheentrySTATISTICA.


ThefileInterop.STATISTICA.dllisalsoaddedtotheprojectoutputdirectory.The
STATISTICACOMInteroplibraryisstoredinthisfile.ToviewtheSTATISTICAobject
libraryfromyour.NETproject,rightclickontheSTATISTICAreference,andfrom
theshortcutmenu,selectViewinObjectBrowser.

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Manually Creating the


COM Interop Library
ItisalsopossibletocreatetheCOMInteroplibrarymanuallyandimportitinto
your.NETproject.Thisgivesyoutheabilitytospecifyadifferentnameforthe
InteropDLLaswellasdefineacustomnamespace.Theprogramthatenablesyou
tocreateanInteropisTLBIMP.EXE.FromaVisualStudiocommandprompt,
executeTLBIMPwithaninitialparameterofthetypelibrarysource.Intheexample
below,theoutputDLLnameandnamespacearealsospecified.


Inthisexample,wereferencethefileSTATIST.EXEsincethatexecutablecontains
theSTATISTICAObjectLibrarytypelibrary.OncetheInteropDLLisgenerated,you
canaddittoyour.NETprojectbyselectingAddReferencefromtheSolution
Explorerasbefore,butthistimeclicktheBrowsebuttontoselectthenewly
createdInteropDLL.

Supporting Multiple Versions


of STATISTICA
TosupportmultipleversionsofSTATISTICA,itisnecessarytomaintainseparate
STATISTICAObjectLibraryInteropDLLsforeachversionofSTATISTICAyouwantto
support.YoucanusetheTLBIMPcommandtogenerateInteropDLLsagainst
specificversionsofSTATIST.EXEandotherDLLs.Whendistributingtheapplication,
ensurethatthecorrectversionoftheSTATISTICAInteropDLLisdeployedwith
your.NETapplication.

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Instantiating STATISTICA
BecauseofitsCOMarchitecture,STATISTICAcanbeincorporatedintomany
differentdevelopmentenvironments.WhenusingSTATISTICAfromanexternal
developmentenvironment,itisnecessarytohaveatoplevelobjectcalledthe
applicationobject.Theapplicationobjectistheapplicationitselfandwillcontain
otherobjects(forexample,spreadsheetsandgraphs),butaccesstotheseother
objectsisrestrictedunlesstheapplicationobjectisrunning.
AssumingyouareusingthedefaultnamespaceSTATISTICA,theinterfaceyou
shoulddeclareyourvariableasisSTATISTICA.Application.Tocreateaninstanceof
STATISTICA,setyourvariableequaltonew STATISTICA.ApplicationClass().
STATISTICA.Application pApp = (STATISTICA.Application)
new STATISTICA.ApplicationClass();
pApp.Visible = true;

WhenaninstanceoftheSTATISTICA.ApplicationClassiscreated,aSTATIST.EXE
processwillbelaunched.ThisisequivalenttolaunchingSTATISTICAfromtheStart
menu.TheSTATISTICAinstanceisinitiallyhiddenbutcanbemadevisible.Sinceit
isaseparateprocess,allcallstothisinstancearemadeoutofprocess.

The Library Version of STATISTICA


InadditiontotheSTATISTICA.Applicationobject,thereisalsoalighterweight,
higherperformanceversionoftheobjectcalledSTATISTICA.Library.TheLibrary
versionislicensedseparatelyandthereforemaynotbeavailablewithyour
installation.ItcontainsidenticalinterfacesastheSTATISTICA.Applicationlibrary.
AnyexistingcodethatusestheApplicationobjectcanbereplacedwiththeLibrary
object.
ThemainrestrictionisthattheSTATISTICAuserinterfacefeaturesarenotavailable
fromtheLibraryversion.Therefore,intheexampleabove,iftheApplicationobject
wasinstantiatedasanewSTATISTICA.LibraryClass,itwouldnotbepossibleto
maketheobjectvisible(andshowtheSTATISTICAinterface).
TheLibraryversionofSTATISTICAisloadedinprocess,whichmeansaccessingits
COMinterfacesismoreefficientthanusingtheApplicationversionoftheobject

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(whichisloadedoutofprocess).Sinceitisloadedinprocess,multipleversionsof
thelibrarycannotbeinstantiated.Normally,youwouldonlyinstantiateone
LibraryobjectoroneApplicationobjectinyourprogram.

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A

APPENDIX

GETTING
MORE HELP
Electronic Manual More than 100 Megabytes of
References, Illustrations, and Examples ........................................ 257
Other Technical Support Resources
and Facilities ..................................................................................... 258

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A

APPENDIX

GETTING MORE HELP


Electronic Manual clicktheHelp buttonintheupperright
cornerofanydialogtoaccessHelptopics
Themostconvenientplacetogetassistance
describingalltheoptionsinthatdialog.
andaccessavastrepositoryofinformation
aboutSTATISTICAistheElectronicManual Thishypertextdocumentoffersmuchmore
(Help),whichcontainsmorethan100 thanjustanexplanationoftheoptionsin
Megabytesofreferences,illustrations,and STATISTICA.Itincludesnumerousexamples,
examples. overviews,andillustrations,aswellas
thousandsoftipsonhowtooptimizeyour
ToaccessHelpinSTATISTICA,selecttheHelp
work.
tab.IntheHelpgroup,clickHelp.Youcanalso

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AppendixA:GettingMoreHelp

Other Technical
Support
Resources and
Facilities
Web site resources.StatSofts
Website,oneofthemost
visitedInternetaddresses
relatedtodataanalysis,offers
notonlyaccesstomany
resourcesthatareusefulfor
dataanalysisprofessionalsin
general,butitalsoincludes:
Acontinuouslyupdated
FrequentlyAskedQuestions
section,and
Adownloadareawhereusers
ofthecurrentversionof
STATISTICAproductscan
TheSTATISTICAElectronicManualisextremely receivedownloadableupdatesoftheir
comprehensive.ItoffersabuiltinStatistical software.Weareconstantlyworkingon
Advisor(seepage33)supplementedwiththe increasingthecompatibilityofSTATISTICA
completecontentsofStatSoftsawardwinning softwareevenwiththoseapplicationsthat
ElectronicStatisticsTextbookandGlossary. violatestandardconventions.Therefore,in
manycircumstances,downloadinganupdate
StatSoftsElectronicStatisticsTextbook, canhelpwhentheproblemthatyouare
locatedonthecompanyWebsite experiencingiscausedbynonstandardsystem
(StatSoft.com),hasbeenrecommendedby configurationsorconflictswithother
EncyclopediaBritannicaforitsQuality, applications.
Accuracy,Presentation,andUsability.
E-mail technical support.Ifyourquestionis
notansweredinthelocationsmentioned,you
maysendemailtous.Pleaseincludeyour
serialnumber(inSTATISTICA,selecttheHelp
Thisuniquetextbookhasbeenusedformany tab,andintheAboutgroup,clickSTATISTICA
yearsineducationalandresearchactivitiesat toviewyourserialnumber)andinformation
universitiesandresearchorganizations aboutyourhardware[thetypeofprocessor
worldwide. (CPU)andtheamountofmemory(RAM)and
diskspace]andtheversionoftheoperating
systemthatyouareusing.

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IfyouliveinNorthAmerica,sendyouremail
toinfo@StatSoft.com;otherwise,emailyour
localStatSoftoffice(seebelow).
Phone technical support.Youcanalsocall
yourlocalStatSoftofficetotalktoa
technician.IfyouliveinNorthAmerica,call
(918)7491119(theNorthAmericantechnical
supportofficehoursare9:00AMto5:00PM
CentralTime,MondaythroughFriday).
Ifyouliveinanotherlocation,pleasecontact
theofficethatservesyourspecificarea.To
locatethatoffice,selecttheHelptab.Inthe
Aboutgroup,clickSTATISTICAtodisplaythe
AboutSTATISTICAdialog,andthenselectthe
InternationalOfficestab.


Pleaseknowyourserialnumber(in
STATISTICA,selecttheHelptab,andinthe
Aboutgroup,clickSTATISTICAtoaccessyour
serialnumber),informationaboutyour
hardware[thetypeofprocessor(CPU)andthe
amountofmemory(RAM)anddiskspace],and
theversionoftheoperatingsystemthatyou
areusingbeforeyoucontactStatSofttechnical
supportoffices.

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B

APPENDIX

STATISTICA ENTERPRISE
SERVER
General Overview ................................................................................... 263
A Broad Choice of Analytic Facilities and Configurations................. 264
Functionality and Applications: The Advantages of
STATISTICA Enterprise Server .......................................................... 264
Advantages of Multithreading Technology ......................................... 265
STATISTICA Enterprise Server User Interface ..................................... 266
Compatibility with Industry Standards ................................................ 269
Architecture of the System (A Technical Note) .................................. 270
Competitive Advantages ....................................................................... 271
Knowledge Portal .................................................................................. 271
STATISTICA Enterprise Server Demo Movie ........................................ 271

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B

APPENDIX

STATISTICA ENTERPRISE
SERVER
STATISTICAEnterpriseServerisahighlyscalable, Asmentioned,STATISTICAEnterpriseServeris
enterpriselevel,fullyWebenableddata providedwithanInternetbrowserbaseduser
analysisanddatabasegatewayapplication interface(intheformofsimpletonavigateand
systemthatisbuiltondistributedprocessing easytousedialogs)enablingyoutospecify
technologyandfullysupportsmultitierClient analysesandreviewresults.However,toolsare
Serverarchitectureconfigurations.STATISTICA providedtocustomizethesedialogsandeasily
EnterpriseServerexposestheanalytic,query, setupnewuserinterfacesortoaddnew
reporting,andgraphicsfunctionalityof functions.Forexample,asimpledialogwith
STATISTICAthrougheasytouse,interactive, onlythreebuttonscanbecreatedinthe
standardWebinterfaces.Alternatively,it browser,andclickingeachbuttonwillruna
enablesusersofthedesktopversion(thick seriesofanalysesandgenerateadetailed
client)tooffloadcomputationallyintensive report.STATISTICAEnterpriseServer
analyticsanddatabaseoperationstotheServer. applicationsaddanewdimensionandan
Itisofferedasacomplete,readytoinstall endlessarrayofpossibilitiestotheentirelineof
applicationwithaninteractive,Internet STATISTICADataAnalysis,DataMining,and
browserbased(pointandclick)userinterface QualityControl/SixSigmasoftware.
(thinclient)thatmakesitpossibleforusersto ThesystemiscompatiblewithallmajorWeb
interactivelycreatedatasets,runanalyses,and serversoftwareplatforms(e.g.,UNIXApache,
reviewoutput.However,STATISTICAEnterprise andMicrosoftIIS),worksinbothMicrosoft.NET
Serverisbuiltusingopenarchitectureand andSun/Javaenvironments,anddoesnot
includes.NETcompatibledevelopmentkittools requireanychangestotheexistingfirewalland
(basedentirelyonindustrystandardsyntax Internet/Intranetsecuritysystems.
conventionssuchasVBScript,C++/C#,HTML,
Java,andXML)thatenablesITdepartment
personneltocustomizeallmaincomponentsof
thesystemorexpanditbybuildingonits
foundations,forexample,byaddingnew
componentsand/orcompanyspecificanalytic
ordatabasefacilities.

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accessibilityofitstoolsmakesSTATISTICA
A Broad Choice of Analytic EnterpriseServeraperfectsystemtofacilitate
Facilities and Configurations collaborativeprojectsofemployeeswhoare
TheSTATISTICAEnterpriseServersystemis telecommutingortraveling.
offeredasacompletesolutionthatincludesthe Advantages of distributed processing, and
analyticfunctionalityofanySTATISTICAproduct multi-tier Client-Server architecture.Users
oranycombinationofproducts,from willbenefitnotonlyfromthecollaborativework
STATISTICABasetoDataMinerapplications. toolsbutalsotheoptionstooffloadthe
computationallyintensiveortimeconsuming
TheminimuminstallationofSTATISTICA
taskstotheservercomputers.Specifically,
EnterpriseServersoftwareincludestheanalytic
becausethemostpowerfulmultiprocessor
functionalityofSTATISTICABaseandalicense
CPUs(and/orclustersofcomputers)areusually
for5concurrentusers(minimum).
usedasservers,userscanoffload
Customerscaneitherorderaspecificversionof computationallyintensivetasks,and,for
STATISTICAEnterpriseServerincludingthe example,runinthebackgroundqueriesthat
analyticfunctionalitythattheyrequire(e.g., willscanterabytesofdataonremoteservers
STATISTICABasefor10users),ortheycanadd andperformtimeconsuming,longsequences
theEnterpriseServerfunctionality(asdescribed ofanalysesorreports,whilekeepingtheend
inthissection)tosomeoralloftheseatsofthe userscomputerscompletelyfreetodoother
currentlylicensedSTATISTICAproduct(e.g.,add tasks.Becauseofitsdistributedprocessing
theEnterpriseServerfunctionalityto20outof architecture,STATISTICAEnterpriseServer
50existinglicensesofSTATISTICAEnterprise). scalesinahighlyefficientmannertotake
advantageofmultiprocessorCPUsand/or
Functionality and Applications: multiplecomputersand,therefore,userscan
The Advantages of STATISTICA takefulladvantageofmultitierClientServer
Enterprise Server architecture,where:
A powerful, enterprise-wide collaborative- Tier1istheuserinterfaceontheclient
intelligence system.Anotherimportantwayto computer(aplainbrowserorSTATISTICA
takeadvantageoftheSTATISTICAEnterprise thickclient,seeSTATISTICAClient,page265),
Serverfunctionalityistouseitasthecoreand Tier2istheSTATISTICAEnterpriseServer
naturalextensionofanyoftheSTATISTICA softwareandtheimplementationofthe
enterprisesystems(e.g.,STATISTICADataMiner businessintelligencethatitmaycontain
applications). (specificqueries,scriptsof
Specifically,STATISTICAEnterpriseServercan custom/proprietaryanalyses,etc.),and
actasthecoreofanenterprisewidenetwork Tier3isSTATISTICAdatabases(e.g.,
systemthatenablestheparticipantstowork STATISTICADataWarehouse)orother
collaborativelyandquicklyshareresults corporaterepositoriesofdata.
(reports),aswellasscriptsofanalysesor InthedesktopversionofSTATISTICA,all
queries.Userorgrouppermissions(seethe computationsareperformedonthelocal
TechnicalNoteonpage270)canbeusedbythe computer,andresourcesofothercomputers
administratorstomanageaccessofspecific areusedonlyinthecasewhentheInPlace
groupsofuserstospecificdataorreports.The DatabaseProcessing(IDP),seepage245,

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interfacetoexternaldatabasesisestablished.
IDPisatechnologythatreadsdata
asynchronouslydirectlyfromremotedatabase
servers(usingdistributedprocessingif
supportedbytheserver),andbypassesthe
Also,whenyoureviewyourSTATISTICA
needtoimportdataandcreatealocalcopyof
EnterpriseServeroutputinthebrowser,you
thedataset.Recordsofdataareretrievedand
haveoptionstobringanyoralloutputobjects
senttotheSTATISTICAcomputer
toyourdesktopcomputerforfurther
asynchronouslybytheCPUofthedatabase
processing.Forexample,aclickonasmall
server,whileSTATISTICAsimultaneously
buttonplacedoptionally(dependingontheuser
processesthemusingtheCPUofthelocal
configuration)nexttoeveryoutputobject
computer.
(tableorgraph)senttoyourbrowserbythe
WhenaClientServerversionofSTATISTICAis STATISTICAEnterpriseServersystemwilloffer
used,thelocalcomputerdrivesonlytheuser youtheoptiontodownloadthatobject(a
interfaceofSTATISTICA,andallcalculationsare STATISTICAtableoragraph)totheclient
performedontheserver.TheClientServer computerinitsnativeSTATISTICAformat(in.sta
architectureoffersobviousadvantageswhen or.stgfileformat)soyoucanworkwithit
yourprojectsarelarge(e.g.,computationally offlineusingthelocallyinstalledSTATISTICA
intensiveorinvolvingprocessingofextremely tools.
largedatasets)and,thus,whentheycanbe
offloadedtotheservers,freeingyourlocal Advantages of Multithreading
computertoperformotherjobs. Technology
STATISTICA Client.Whilenocomponentsof TheSTATISTICAEnterpriseServerplatformis
theSTATISTICAsystemarenecessaryonthe builtonadvanceddistributedprocessingand
clientcomputer(onlyabrowser),havingacopy multithreadingtechnologytosupportoptimal
ofSTATISTICAinstalledontheclientsideadds managementoflargecomputationalloads.This
newpossibilities.Onecouldask,WhywouldI technologyenablesrapidprocessingofeven
wanttouseSTATISTICAEnterpriseServerifI verylargeandcomputationallyintensive
haveacopyofSTATISTICAinstalledonmy projects,takingfulladvantageofthemultiple
laptop?TheansweristhathavingSTATISTICA CPUsontheserver,orevenmultipleservers
installedontheclientcomputerenablesyouto workinginparallel.
takeadditionaladvantageofthemultitier
Theillustrationonthenextpageshowsa
ClientServerarchitecture(seepage264)and
projectrunningonaquadprocessorserver,
workinteractivelywithSTATISTICAinstalled
alongwiththeserverperformancemonitor
locallywhileoffloadingcertaintimeconsuming
demonstratingthefullutilizationofthe
taskstotheservermachine(s)and/orexchange
resourcesofallfourCPUsexecutinginthe
dataandoutputbetweenallthethreetiers.You
multithreadingmodeasingle,computationally
canrunSTATISTICAEnterpriseServerfrom
intensiveSTATISTICADataMinerproject.
withindesktopSTATISTICAandflexiblycontrol
theinteractionbetweenthetwo.Avarietyof Inaddition,theSTATISTICAEnterpriseServer
optionsareavailabletosharetasksbetweenthe architecturedeliversaplatformindependent,
desktopandservercomputer. Webbrowserbaseduserinterface,and

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providesanultimate,largeenterpriselevel STATISTICA Enterprise Server


abilitytomanageprojectsorgroupsofusers. User Interface
Ultimate scalability (parallel processing
WiththeSTATISTICAEnterpriseServer
technology).Oneoftheuniquefeaturesofthe implementationofSTATISTICA,userscan
STATISTICAdistributedprocessingtechnologyis interactivelyruntheprogramfromtheclient
machineina
Webbrowser
interfacethatis
similartothat
availableforthe
desktop
installation.
Therefore,the
clientsideofthe
application(the
frontend)can
berunonany
computerusing
onlyabrowser.
However,the
actual
computations
andother
operations
thatitflexiblyscalesnotonlytotakeadvantage
performedonthedatawillremainonthe
ofallCPUsonthecurrentservercomputer(to
(remote)serverwithitsusuallymorepowerful
supportbothmultiplejobs/usersandalso
processorsandstorageresources(andtheywill
individual,computationallyintensiveprojects),
bemanagedusingtheoptimized,
butitalsoscalestomultipleservercomputers
multithreadinganddistributedprocessing
(clusters).Thisuniquefeatureisimportant,
architectureofthesystemformaximum
sinceitdeliverssignificantperformancegains.
performance).
STATISTICAusestheparallelprocessing
technologyacrossseparatehardwareunits(as Inessence,theuserinterfaceaspectsof
somesupercomputersdo)and,therefore,if STATISTICAcanberunbyoneormultipleusers,
youhave,forexample,threeserverswithfour whiletheserverperformsallcomputationsand
processorseach,STATISTICAcanrunan dataoperations,enforcingthepropersecurity
individualprojectonall12processors(ifthe andaccessprivilegesapplicabletothe
scaleofthatprojectwarrantsthatmodeof respectiveprojectsandclassesofusers,as
processing). designedbythenetworkadministrator.
STATISTICAEnterpriseServeroffersa
straightforwarduserinterfacesupportinga
selectionofinteractivedataanalysis,data

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mining,qualitycontrol,databasemanagement,
databasequery,andgraphcustomization
operations.
AfterloggingontotheSTATISTICAEnterprise
Serversystem,


selecttheanalysistobeperformedusingthe
standardmenusystem(orashortcutinthe
userdefinedMyMenu),


youcanselectadatasource(adatasetoralive
databaseconnection),


selectvariablesandspecifyoptionalanalysis
parameters,


reviewandeditthedataintheinteractive
SpreadsheetEditor,

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Avarietyofinteractivefacilitiestoperform
specialdatabase,qualitycontrol,ordatamining
operations(includinginteractivelybuildingdata
miningmodelsbydraggingarrowsinthemodel
workspace;seebelow)areprovided,andare
accessiblefromthestandardbrowser.
andinteractivelyreviewtheoutput.

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Inadditiontothesebuiltin,straightforward (e.g.,aUNIXbasedApacheorIIS),and
userinterfacefacilities,STATISTICAEnterprise therefore,itwillconformtotheexistinglocal
Serveralsoincludesatoolkitthatenablesusers securityprotocols(firewalls)asrequiredbythe
tocustomizetheuserinterfaceanddevelop corporateclient.
customapplicationswithspecificallypredefined STATISTICAEnterpriseServerusesadvanced
functionality,packagedinawaythatmatches proprietarytechnologydevelopedatStatSoftto
therequirementsoftheirspecificapplications. ensureitshighperformanceandscalability(e.g.,

multiple,multiprocessorSTATISTICAEnterprise
Compatibility with Servercomputersworkinginadistributed
Industry Standards processingenvironment).Thistechnologyis
Theunsurpassedcompatibilitywithindustry builtonStatSoftsyearsofexperienceproviding
standardsisanotherinthelonglistofunique highperformance,scalableenterprisesystems
advantagesofSTATISTICAEnterpriseServer. tomajorcorporationsintheUnitedStatesand
aroundtheworld.However,STATISTICA
STATISTICAEnterpriseServercanbedeployed EnterpriseServerisstillbasedontheindustry
onanyofthepopularWebserverplatforms standardcommunicationprotocols(e.g.,XML)

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toensure1)itsplatformindependence,2) Thedesignallowsforaflexible,genericWeb
smoothtransitiontofuturetechnologies,and3) serverimplementationbyusingastandard
easeofcustomizationbytheclient.Notethat scriptinglanguageontheWebserver.The
theeaseofcustomizationisadditionally purposeoftheWebserveristopackage
boostedbythefactthatonlytheindustry requestsfromtheuser(receivedfroma
standardsyntaxconventions(suchasVBscript, browser),sendthesetotheSTATISTICA
C++,HTML,andXML)areusedtocustomize, EnterpriseServer,andthenprocessresponses
configure,anddefineallthespecificanalytic fromtheSTATISTICAEnterpriseServerfor
operationsandalloutputinSTATISTICA displaytotheusers(ontheirbrowsers).
EnterpriseServer. CommunicationbetweentheWebserverand
theSTATISTICAEnterpriseServeris
Architecture of the System
accomplishedthroughtechnologybasedonthe
(A Technical Note) industrystandardXMLconventions.Thesystem
Althoughthegeneraldesignusestwo isfullycustomizable,andforcustomerswho
computersinatypicalconfiguration,theWeb wanttodeveloptheirownmodificationsor
server(e.g.,aUNIXbasedApachesystem)and extensionsofthis(readytodeploy)system,it
atleastoneSTATISTICAEnterpriseServer providesdevelopmenttoolkitfacilitiesallowing
(optionallyscalabletomultipleSTATISTICA modificationofallaspectsofboththescripts
EnterpriseServers), thatarebeingexecutedbySTATISTICA(onthe
STATISTICA
Enterprise
Serverside)and
theappearance
oftheuser
interface
exposedtothe
enduserson
the(browser
based)thin
inmanycases,STATISTICAEnterpriseServer clientside.Onlythemoststandard,commonly
couldbeinstalledonthesamemachineif knowntools(suchasVBorXML/HTML)are
desired(whenIISisusedastheWebhost): usedtocustomizeorexpandthesystem.
TheactualWeb
pagedefinitions
andSTATISTICA
scriptstobe
executedare
storedina
designated
Repository
Facilityonthe
STATISTICA

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EnterpriseServer,andtheyaremanagedina completelistofuniquefeaturesofSTATISTICA
queuelikefashion.Thesystemalsoincludesa itself.Further,unlikethecompetingproducts,
highlyoptimizedDistributedProcessing weofferacompleteapplication(asolution)
Managerthathandlestheincomingprocessing withaWebbaseduserinterfaceandnotmerely
loadanddistributesitoptimallyovermultiple adevelopmentkit(althoughthedevelopment
threadsofSTATISTICAandmultipleSTATISTICA kitfacilitiesarealsoavailabletoextendor
EnterpriseServercomputers. customizethesystem).Also,wedonotrequire
TheSTATISTICAEnterpriseServersoftware thataspecificWebserversoftwarebeinstalled
systemalsoincludestheSTATISTICAVisualBasic first(whichmayormaynotcomplywiththe
WebExtensions.TheseextensionstotheSVB clientssecuritystandardsandotherpolicies).
languageenablethescriptwritertoeitherlet Finally,oursystemiscontrolledbyindustry
thesystemdisplaytheresultinggraphsand standardVBscripts,C++,HTML,andXMLthat
spreadsheetsontheautomaticallygenerated canbeeasilymodifiedbyusersorsystem
(output)Webpages,orcustomizethe administrators.Inaddition,ourdistributed
appearanceofthegeneratedoutputpagesby processingandmultithreadingtechnology
addingHTMLdirectivesasappropriate. deliversperformanceandsystem
responsivenessthatisnotmatchedbyany
Securityandauthenticationisakeydesign competingproducts.
featureintheSTATISTICAEnterpriseServer
applicationsystem.Atthebeginningofthe Knowledge Portal
session,userssignontothesystemwiththeir
usernameandpassword.System AdesignatedKnowledgePortalapplicationis
administratorsareabletocontrolaccesstodata optionallyavailablethatenablesusersto
sourcesandscriptsbasedeitheronuseror effectivelyandsecurelydistributeorganized
grouppermissions.Thehighestlevelofthe setsofoutputdocumentsovertheWeb.It
accessprivilegeallowsadvancedusers(or offerssupportforworkgroupsofusers(each
administrators)toexecutevirtuallyarbitrary withdifferentaccessprivileges,andthusaccess
scripts(e.g.,inordertoperformsystem todifferentpartsofthedatabaseofoutput
administrationormaintenanceoperations).This documents),intuitivetreevieworganizationof
levelrequiresadesignated(highest)access availablematerials,andoptionstobroadcast
privilegebecause,duetothegeneralnature documentsupdatedontheWebserverin
andpoweroftheSTATISTICAVisualBasic realtime.
language,itgivesaccess(totheauthorized STATISTICA Enterprise Server
users)toallresourcesonthenetwork.
Demo Movie
Notethatthissystemcanbeintegratedwith
thetraditional(i.e.,nonWebbased) HowdoesSTATISTICAEnterpriseServerwork?
STATISTICAconcurrentnetworkoraSTATISTICA VisitStatSoftsWebsite,www.StatSoft.com,to
enterprisesystemauthenticationscheme. viewaninformativepresentationoftheunique
featuresofSTATISTICAdescribedhere.The
Competitive Advantages moviealsoincludesastepbystepexample
application.
ThecompetitiveadvantagesofSTATISTICA
EnterpriseServerapplicationsstartwiththe

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C


APPENDIX

STATISTICA FAMILY
OF PRODUCTS
General Purpose/Desktop Products.................................................... 275
STATISTICA Base .............................................................................. 275
STATISTICA Advanced Linear/Nonlinear Models ........................... 275
STATISTICA Multivariate Exploratory Techniques ......................... 276
STATISTICA Variance Estimation and Precision ............................ 276
STATISTICA Automated Neural Networks (SANN) ......................... 276
STATISTICA Power Analysis ............................................................. 276
Industrial Solutions, Six Sigma Tools .................................................. 276
STATISTICA Quality Control Charts ................................................. 276
STATISTICA Process Analysis .......................................................... 277
STATISTICA Design of Experiments ................................................. 277
STATISTICA Multivariate Statistical Process Control (MSPC)...... 277
continued

STATISTICA Enterprise Systems........................................................... 278


STATISTICA Data Miner.................................................................... 278
STATISTICA Process Optimization .................................................. 278
STATISTICA Text Miner..................................................................... 278
STATISTICA Sequence, Association and Link Analysis (SAL) ....... 279
STATISTICA Enterprise ..................................................................... 279
STATISTICA Enterprise/QC .............................................................. 279
STATISTICA Monitoring and Alerting Server (MAS) ....................... 280
STATISTICA ETL (Extract, Transform, and Load) ............................ 280
STATISTICA MultiStream ................................................................. 280
STATISTICA Enterprise Server ......................................................... 281
Scoring Solutions .................................................................................. 281
STATISTICA Live Score ..................................................................... 281
STATISTICA Credit Scoring .............................................................. 281
STATISTICA Scorecard .................................................................... 282
Data and Document Management ...................................................... 282
STATISTICA Document Management System (SDMS) .................. 282
STATISTICA PI Connector................................................................. 283
STATISTICA Data Warehouse .......................................................... 283
Vertical Market Applications ............................................................... 286
PROCEED........................................................................................... 286
STATISTICA PowerSolutions ............................................................ 287

APPENDIX

STATISTICA FAMILY
OF PRODUCTS
Common system features.Inadditionto
GENERAL-PURPOSE
comprehensive,leadingedgeanalytics,
STATISTICAproductsofferaselectionoffully
DESKTOP PRODUCTS
customizableuserinterfaces(withsimplified STATISTICA Base.Offersa
shortcuttemplatesfornovices),flexible, comprehensivesetofessential
presentationqualityoutputmanagement statisticsinauserfriendlypackageandallthe
(includingavarietyofreportformats,suchas performance,power,andeaseofuseofthe
.pdf,Word,.rtf,.html,andoutputtoWeb STATISTICAtechnology.
portals),fullOLE/ActiveXsupport,andWeb AllSTATISTICAgraphicstools
enablement. BasicStatistics,Breakdowns,andTables
Also,allproductsincludedatamanagement DistributionFitting
optimizedtohandlelargedatasets,interactive MultipleLinearRegression
databasequerytools,andawideselectionof AnalysisofVariance
dataimport/exportfacilities.STATISTICA Nonparametrics,andmore
productscanmanagedatasetsofpractically
unlimitedsizeandofferquadrupleprecision STATISTICA Advanced
calculations;theysupportmultipleinputfiles, Linear/Nonlinear Models.Offers
multipleinstances,andmultitasking.Abroad awidearrayofthemostadvancedmodeling
selectionofinteractivevisualizationand andforecastingtoolsonthemarket,including
graphics/drawingtoolsofthehighestqualityis automaticmodelselectionfacilitiesand
fullyintegratedintoeachproduct,andeach extensiveinteractivevisualizationtools.
includesacompletesetofautomationoptions GeneralLinearModels
andaprofessionalVisualBasicand.NET GeneralizedLinear/NonlinearModels
compatibledevelopmentenvironmentwith GeneralRegressionModels
morethan14,000externallyaccessible GeneralPartialLeastSquaresModels
functions. NIPALSAlgorithm(PCA/PLS)
VarianceComponents
SurvivalAnalysis
CoxProportionalHazardsModels

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NonlinearEstimation STATISTICA Automated Neural


FixedNonlinearRegression Networks (SANN).Containsthemost
LogLinearAnalysisofFrequencyTables comprehensiveneuralnetworkalgorithmsand
TimeSeries/Forecasting trainingmethods.
StructuralEquationModeling,andmore Automaticsearchforbestarchitectureand
networksolutions
STATISTICA Multivariate Exploratory MultilayerPerceptrons
Techniques.Offersabroadselection RadialBasisFunctionNetworks
ofexploratorytechniquesforvarioustypesof
SelfOrganizingFeatureMaps
data,withextensive,interactivevisualization
TimeSeriesNeuralNetworksforboth
tools.
RegressionandClassificationproblems
ClusterAnalysis
Avarietyofalgorithmsforfastandefficient
FactorAnalysis
trainingofNeuralNetworkModelsincluding
PrincipalComponents/ClassificationAnalysis
GradientDescent,ConjugateGradient,and
CanonicalAnalysis
BFGS
DiscriminantAnalysis
Numerousanalyticalgraphstoaidin
GeneralDiscriminantAnalysisModels
generatingresultsanddrawingconclusions
Reliability/ItemAnalysis
Samplingofdataintosubsetsforoptimizing
ClassificationTrees
networkperformanceandenhancingthe
CorrespondenceAnalysis generalizationability
MultidimensionalScaling,andmore
SensitivityAnalysis,LiftCharts,andROC
STATISTICA Variance Estimation and Curves
Precision.Acomprehensivesetof CreationofEnsemblesoutofalreadyexisting
techniquesforanalyzingdatafromexperi standalonenetworks
mentsthatincludebothfixedandrandom C/C++/C#,PMML(PredictiveModelMarkup
effectsusingREML(RestrictedMaximum Language),Java,STATISTICAEnterprise,and
LikelihoodEstimation).WithSTATISTICA SASNeuralNetworkCodeGeneratorsthat
VarianceEstimationandPrecision,youcan areeasytodeploy
obtainestimatesofvariancecomponentsand
usethemtomakeprecisionstatementswhile STATISTICA Power Analysis.An
atthesametimecomparingfixedeffectsin extremelypreciseanduserfriendly
thepresenceofmultiplesourcesofvariation. specializedtoolforanalyzingallaspectsof
statisticalpowerandsamplesizecalculation.
Variabilityplots
SampleSizeCalculation
Multipleplotlayoutstoallowdirect
comparisonofmultipledependentvariables ConfidenceIntervalEstimation
Expectedmeansquaresandvariance StatisticalDistributionCalculators,andmore
componentswithconfidenceintervals
INDUSTRIAL SOLUTIONS,
Flexiblehandlingofmultipledependent
SIX SIGMA TOOLS
variables:analyzeseveralvariableswiththe
sameordifferentdesignsatonce STATISTICA Quality Control Charts.
Graphdisplaysofvariancecomponents Offersfullycustomizable(e.g.,callable

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fromotherenvironments),easyandquickto ResidualAnalysisandTransformations
use,versatilechartswithaselectionof Optimizationofsingle/multipleresponse
automationoptionsanduserinterface variables
shortcutstosimplifyroutinework(a CentralCompositeDesigns
comprehensivetoolforSixSigmamethods). TaguchiDesigns
MultipleChart(SixSigmaStyle)Reportsand MinimumAberration&Maximum
displays Unconfounding
XbarandRCharts;XbarandSCharts;Np, 2(kp)FractionalFactorialDesignswithBlocks
P,U,CCharts ConstrainedSurfaces
ParetoCharts DandAOptimalDesigns
ProcessCapabilityandPerformanceIndices Desirabilityprofilers,andmore
MovingAverage/RangeCharts,EWMA
Charts STATISTICA Multivariate Statistical
ShortRunCharts(includingNominaland Process Control (MSPC).Acomplete
Target) solutionformultivariatestatisticalprocess
CuSum(CumulativeSum)Charts control,deployedwithinascalable,secure
RunsTests analyticssoftwareplatform.
Interactive Univariateandmultivariatestatistical
methodsforqualitycontrol,predictive
Causesandactions,customizablealarms,
modeling,anddatareduction
analyticbrushing,andmore
Functionstodeterminethemostcritical
STATISTICA Process Analysis.A process,rawmaterials,andenvironment
comprehensivepackageforProcess factorsandtheiroptimalsettingsfor
Capability,GageR&R,andotherquality deliveringproductsofthehighestquality
control/improvementapplications(a Monitoringofprocesscharacteristics
comprehensivetoolforSixSigmamethods). interactivelyorautomaticallyduring
Process/CapabilityAnalysisCharts productionstages
Ishikawa(CauseandEffect)Diagrams Building,evaluating,anddeploying
GageRepeatability&Reproducibility predictivemodelsbasedontheknown
VarianceComponentsforRandomEffects outcomesfromhistoricaldata
WeibullAnalysis Historicalanalysis,dataexploration,data
Samplingplans,andmore visualization,predictivemodelbuildingand
evaluation,modeldeploymentto
STATISTICA Design of Experiments. monitoringserver
FeaturesthelargestselectionofDOE Interactivemonitoringwithdashboard
andrelatedvisualizationtechniquesincluding summarydisplaysandautomaticupdating
interactivedesirabilityprofilers(a results
comprehensivetoolforSixSigmamethods). Automatedmonitoringwithrules,alarm
FractionalFactorialDesigns events,andconfigurableactions
MixtureDesigns MultivariatetechniquesincludingPartial
LatinSquares LeastSquares,PrincipalComponents,Neural
SearchforOptimal2(kp)Designs Networks,RecursivePartitioning(Tree)

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Methods,SupportVectorMachines, solutiondesignedtomonitorprocessesand
IndependentComponentsAnalysis,Cluster identifyandanticipateproblemsrelatedto
Analysis,andmore qualitycontrolandimprovementwith
unmatchedsensitivityandeffectiveness.
STATISTICA ENTERPRISE SYSTEMS ProcessOptimizationintegratesallQuality
Inadditiontothecommonfeatures, ControlCharts,ProcessCapabilityanalyses,
STATISTICAEnterpriseSystemsoptionallyoffer ExperimentalDesignprocedures,andSixSigma
awideselectionoftoolsforcollaborative methodswithacomprehensivelibraryof
work,Webbrowserbaseduserinterfaces cuttingedgetechniquesforexploratoryand
(usingSTATISTICAEnterpriseServer), predictivedatamining.
specializeddatabases,andahighlyoptimized PredictQCproblemswithcuttingedgedata
interfacetoenterprisewidedatarepositories, miningmethods
includingoptionstorapidlyprocesslargedata Discoverrootcausesofproblemareas
setsfromremoteserversinplace,without MonitorandimproveROI(ReturnOn
creatinglocalcopies.Deploymentandonsite Investment)
trainingservicesareavailable. Generatesuggestionsforimprovement
Monitorprocessesinrealtimeoverthe
STATISTICA Data Miner.Themost
Web
comprehensiveselectionofdata
CreateanddeployQC/SPCsolutionsover
miningsolutionsonthemarket,withanicon
theWeb
based,extremelyeasytouseuserinterface
Usemultithreadinganddistributed
(optionallyWebbrowserbasedviaSTATISTICA
processingtorapidlyprocessextremely
EnterpriseServer,seepage281)anda
largestreamsofdata
deploymentengine.Itfeaturesaselectionof
completelyintegratedandautomated,ready STATISTICA Text Miner.Apowerful
todeployasis(butalsoeasilycustomizable) softwaresolutionfortextmining,
systemsofspecificdataminingsolutionsfora documentretrieval,andminingof
widevarietyofbusinessapplications.A unstructureddata.Anoptionaladdonproduct
designatedSPCversion(QCDataMiner)to forSTATISTICADataMiner,designedand
mine/analyzelargestreamsofQCdataisalso optimizedforaccessingandanalyzing
available.Thedataminingsolutionsaredriven documents(unstructuredinformation)ina
bypowerfulproceduresfromfivemodules: varietyofformats:.txt(text),.pdf(Adobe),.ps
GeneralSlicer/DicerExplorer(withoptional (PostScriptTM),.html,.xml(Webformats),and
OLAP) mostMicrosoftOfficeformats(e.g.,.doc,.rtf);
GeneralClassifier optimizedaccesstoWebpages(URL
GeneralModeler/MultivariateExplorer addresses)isalsoprovided.
GeneralForecaster Efficientlyindexverylargecollectionsoftext
documents;identifykeytermsand
GeneralNeuralNetworksExplorer,and
similaritiesbetweendocumentsandterms,
more
andextracttheinformationrelevanttoyour
STATISTICA Process Optimization. missionandgoals
AnaddontoDataMiner,STATISTICA
ProcessOptimizationisapowerfulsoftware

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Applystublists(wordstoignore)and effortlesslyleveragedtoanalyzeanddrill
languagespecificstemmingalgorithms intoresultsgeneratedviaSTATISTICASAL.
(variouslanguagesaresupported) Usesatreebuildingtechniquetoextract
Includesnumerousoptionsforconverting AssociationandSequencerulesfromdata
documentsintonumericinformationfor Usesefficientandthreadsafelocal
furtherprocessing(e.g.,mapping,clustering, relationaldatabasetechnologytostore
predictivedatamining,classificationof AssociationandSequencemodels
documents,etc.) Handlesmultipleresponse,multiple
Fullsupportformultithreadedoperationon dichotomy,andcontinuousvariablesinone
multiprocessorserverinstallationsfor analysis
extremelyfastindexingandsearchingof PerformsSequenceAnalysiswhilemining
hugedocumentrepositories forAssociationrulesinasingleanalysis
Canalsobeusedtoindex,analyze,andmine SimultaneouslyextractsAssociationand
otherunstructuredinput,suchassoundor Sequencerulesformorethanone
imagefiles(afterdomainspecificpre dimension
processingisapplied) Giventheabilitytoperform
FullyintegratedintotheSTATISTICAand multidimensionalAssociationandSequence
STATISTICAEnterpriseServersystems, miningandthecapacitytoextractonlyrules
hence,thelargenumberofavailable forspecificitems,theprogramcanbeused
methodsforsupervisedandunsupervised forPredictiveDataMining
learning(clustering),mapping,data PerformsHierarchicalSingleLinkageCluster
visualization,etc.,aredirectlyand Analysis,whichcandetectthemorelikely
immediatelyavailable;manyofthe clusterofitemsthatcanoccur.Thishas
algorithmsavailableinSTATISTICAData extremelyuseful,practicalrealworld
Miner,suchasthemachinelearning applications,e.g.,inretailing.
algorithms(kNearestNeighbor,Naive
Bayesclassifiers,advancedSupportVector STATISTICA Enterprise.Anintegrated
MachinesandKernelclassifiers),are multiusersystemdesignedforgeneral
particularlywellsuitedfortextminingorthe purposedataanalysisandbusinessintelligence
analysisofotherunstructuredinformation applicationsinresearch.STATISTICAEnterprise
canoptionallyofferthestatisticalfunctionality
STATISTICA Sequence, Association availableinanyorallSTATISTICAproducts.
and Link Analysis (SAL).Designedto
Integrationwithdatawarehouses
addresstheneedsofclientsinretailing,
Intuitivequeryandfilteringtools
banking,insurance,etc.,industriesby
Easytouseadministrationtools
implementingthefastestknownhighly
scalablealgorithmwiththeabilitytodrive Automaticreportdistribution
AssociationandSequencerulesinonesingle Alarmnotification,andmore
analysis.Theprogramrepresentsastand
STATISTICA Enterprise/QC.Designed
alonemodulethatcanbeusedforbothmodel
forlocalandglobalenterprisequality
buildinganddeployment.Alltoolsin
controlandimprovementapplications
STATISTICADataMinercanbequicklyand
includingSixSigma.STATISTICAEnterprise/QC

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offersahighperformancedatabase(oran TimeindexedSTATISTICAETLaggregates
optimizedinterfacetoexistingdatabases), datafrommultipledatasourcesbasedona
realtimemonitoringandalarmnotificationfor date/timestampvariable.Datamaybe
theproductionfloor,acomprehensivesetof alignedbyminute,hour,day,week,month,
analyticaltoolsforengineers,sophisticated quarter,oryear.
reportingfeaturesformanagement,SixSigma IDBasedSTATISTICAETLaggregatesdata
reportingoptions,andmuchmore. frommultipledatasourcesbasedonan
Webenableduserinterfaceandreporting identifiervariable(eithernumberortext)
tools;interactivequeryingtools andanoptionaltimevariable.Ifatime
Userspecificinterfacesforoperators, variableisdefined,datamaybeoptionally
engineers,etc. alignedbyNequalintervalsorNuser
Groupwarefunctionalityforsharingqueries, specifiedintervals.
specialapplications,etc.
STATISTICA MultiStream.Asolution
Openendedalarmnotificationincluding
packageforidentifyingand
cause/actionprompts
implementingeffectivestrategiesforadvanced
Scalable,customizable,andcanbe multivariateprocessmonitoringandcontrol.
integratedintoexistingdatabase/ERP STATISTICAMultiStreamwasdesignedfor
systems,andmore processindustriesingeneral,butisparticularly
STATISTICA Monitoring and Alerting wellsuitedtohelppowergenerationfacilities
Server (MAS). Asystemthatenables leveragetheirdata(collectedintoexisting
userstoautomatethecontinualmonitoringof specializedprocessdatabasesformultivariate
hundredsorthousandsofcriticalprocessand andpredictiveprocesscontrol)foractionable
productparameters.Theongoingmonitoring advisorysystems.
isanautomatedandefficientmethodfor: STATISTICAMultiStreamisacomplete
Monitoringmanycriticalparameters enterprisesystembuiltonarobust,advanced
simultaneously clientserver(andfullyWebenabled)
Providingstatussnapshotsfromthe architecture,offerscentraladministrationand
resultsofthesemonitoringactivitiesto managementofdeploymentofmodels,aswell
personnelbasedontheirresponsibilities ascuttingedgerootcauseanalysisand
DashboardsassociatedwithUsers/Groups predictivedataminingtechnology,andits
analyticsareseamlesslyintegratedwitha
STATISTICA ETL (Extract, Transform, builtindocumentmanagementsystem.
and Load).Providesoptionsto Automated(nonlinear)rootcauseanalysis
simplifyandfacilitateaccessto,aggregation, andfeatureselectionforthousandsof
andalignmentofdatafrommultipledatabases parameterstoclearlyidentifywhichones
whensomeofthedatabasescontainprocess arethemostlikelyresponsibleforprocess
data(usingtheoptionalPIConnector)while problems
otherscontainstaticdata(e.g.,fromOracle Automatedandinteractivecommonality
orMSSQLServer).Providesforadhoc analysistoidentifyparametersand
queryingandaligningofdataforsubsequent processesthatshiftedormovedfrom
analysessuchasadhoccharting,etc.,ofdata
describingaspecifictimeinterval.

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normaloperationsduringparticulartime SCORING SOLUTIONS


intervals
STATISTICA Live Score.STATISTICA
Advancedlinearandnonlinear(e.g.,SVM, EnterpriseServersoftwarewithinthe
RecursivePartitioning,NeuralNets)models STATISTICADataAnalysisandDataMining
forcreatingsensitivemultivariatecontrol Platform.Dataareaggregatedandcleaned
schemesandworkflowstoidentify andmodelsaretrainedandvalidatedusingthe
multivariateshiftsanddriftsearly,before STATISTICADataMinersoftware.Oncethe
theycauseproblems modelsarevalidated,theyaredeployedtothe
Advanceddataminingalgorithmsfor STATISTICALiveScoreserver.STATISTICALive
predictingandoptimizingkeyperformance Scoreprovidesmultithreaded,efficient,and
andqualityindicators platformindependentscoringofdatafrom
Trackshundredsofdatastreams lineofbusinessapplications.Someexamples
simultaneously oftheuseofSTATISTICALiveScore:
Deliverssimplesummariesrelevantto Providescreditscorecardstocustomer
criticalprocessparametersandoutcomes serviceapplications(e.g.,callcentersystems
viaefficientandsimpledashboardsand andWebbasedapplications)
drilldownworkflows Enablescustomersegmentation,up
Deliversstandardandcustomizedanalytic sell/crosssell,andcustomerchurn
workflowsforrootcauseanalysis, identificationtocustomerserviceand
leveragingcuttingedgedataanalysisand marketingrepresentatives
dataminingtechnologies Providesproactivefrauddetectionalertsto
Warnsof(predicted)problemsand analysts
equipmentfailuresbeforetheyoccur
(predictivealarming),thusavoidingcostly STATISTICA Credit Scoring.The
shutdownsandunscheduledmaintenance solutionforanycompanytobuildin
Watcheseverythingthatimpactsyour housemodelsforitsvariouscreditproducts
processperformanceinrealtime anddecisionmaking.STATISTICACreditScoring
coversallaspectsofthecreditscoringneeds
STATISTICA Enterprise Server.The foryourcompany.
ultimateenterprisesystemthatoffers In-house model building.TheSTATISTICA
fullWebenablement,includingtheabilityto CreditScoringsoftwaresolutionenablesthe
runSTATISTICAinteractivelyorinbatchfroma developmentandevaluationofpredictive
Webbrowseronanycomputer(including modelstoevaluateandassignariskto
Linux,UNIX)andoffloadtimeconsumingtasks applicationsforcredit,eitherforarequest
totheservers(usingdistributedprocessing). foranewaccountorforrequestedchanges
UsesmultitierClientServerarchitecture, (e.g.,balanceincrease)tothetermsofan
supportingmultithreadinganddistributed/ existingcreditaccount.
parallelprocessingthatscalestomultiple Scoring applications.STATISTICALive
servercomputers. Scoreenablescompaniestoscorecredit
applications;itcanbeeasilyintegratedwith
yourexistingcustomerservicesystems,self
serviceWebsitesforcustomers,etc.

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Evaluate performance.STATISTICACredit scoringmodels,butthesameapproaches


Scoringprovidesbuiltinmonitoringand andtechniquescanalsobeappliedto
evaluationoftheongoingperformanceof modelingcustomerchurn,increasingthe
themodelstoenabletheevaluationof abilitytodetectfraud,responsemodeling
outcomesandkeymetricsandtomake formarketingcampaigns,andother
decisionsaboutwhenmodelsmayneedto applicationswithinyourcompany.
beupdated.
STATISTICA Scorecard.STATISTICA
WhatmakestheSTATISTICACreditScoring Scorecardisadedicatedsolutionfor
solutionunique?
developing,evaluating,andmonitoring
The Approach.STATISTICACreditScoring scorecards,includingstepsforFeature
includesbothtraditionalmethodsfor Selection,AttributeBuilding,Scorecard
developingcreditscoringmodels(suchas Building,CutoffPointSelection,Reject
scorecardsbasedonlogisticregression)as Inference,andPopulationStability.
wellasmoreadvancedmethodsfor
predictivemodelingthatoftenprovide DATA AND DOCUMENT
betteraccuracy,whichtranslatesinto MANAGEMENT
decreasedrisk,increasedapprovalrates,
andincreasedprofits.STATISTICACredit STATISTICA Document Management
ScoringincludesSTATISTICAScorecard,a System (SDMS).Acomplete,highly
dedicatedsolutionfordevelopment, scalable,databasesolutionpackagefor
evaluating,andmonitoringscorecards managingelectronicdocuments.Withthe
includingstepsforFeatureSelection, STATISTICADocumentManagementSystem,
AttributeBuilding,ScorecardBuilding, youcanquickly,efficiently,andsecurely
CutoffPointSelection,RejectInference,and managedocumentsofanytype[e.g.,find
PopulationStability. them,accessthem,searchforcontent,review,
Real-time Scoring.STATISTICACredit organize,edit(withtrailloggingand
ScoringincludesSTATISTICALiveScore,the versioning),approve,etc.].
solutionforenablingscoringdecisions Extremelytransparentandeasytouse
directlyfromcustomerapplicationsvia Flexible,customizable(optionally
CustomerServiceAgents,Websites,and browser/Webenabled)userinterface
otherlineofbusinesssystems. Electronicsignatures
Sources of Data.Unlikegenericscorecards, Comprehensiveauditingtrails,approvals
STATISTICACreditScoringcanbetailoredto Optimizedsearches
meetyourspecificneeds.Forexample,it Documentcomparisontools
providestheflexibilitytoincludevarious
Security
datasourcessuchasbehaviorscoring,
SatisfiestheFDA21CFRPart11
utilizingthetransactionalrecordofthe
requirements
accounttoinformrecommendationsfor
creditlineincreases,incentives,crosssellor SatisfiesISO9000(9001,14001)
upsell,orotherchangesinterms. documentationrequirements
Flexibility and Capabilities.STATISTICA Unlimitedscalability(fromdesktopor
CreditScoringisspecifictobuildingcredit networkClientServerversions,tothe

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ultimatesize,Webbasedworldwide STATISTICADataWarehouseReporter
systems) (featuringSTATISTICAKnowledgePortal
Openarchitectureandcompatibilitywith and/orSTATISTICAEnterpriseServer
industrystandards InteractiveKnowledgePortal)
STATISTICADataWarehouseDocument
STATISTICA PI Connector. Allowsfor Repository(featuringSTATISTICAEnterprise
directintegrationtodatastoredinthe ServerDocumentManagementSystem)
PIdatahistorian.TheSTATISTICAPIConnector STATISTICADataWarehouseScheduler
utilizesthePIuseraccesscontrolandsecurity
STATISTICADataWarehouseRealTime
model,allowsforinteractivebrowsingoftags,
MonitorandReporter(featuringSTATISTICA
andtakesadvantagesofdedicatedPI
EnterpriseServerorSTATISTICA
functionalityforinterpolationandsnapshot
Enterprise/QCServer)
data.STATISTICAintegratedwiththePIsystem
isbeingusedforstreamlinedandautomated Ifyouarenewtodatawarehousing,StatSoft
analysesforapplicationssuchasProcess consultantswillguideyoustepbystepthrough
AnalyticalTechnology(PAT)inFDAregulated theentireprocessofdesigningtheoptimal
industries,AdvancedProcessControl(APC) datawarehousearchitecturefroma
systemsinChemicalandPetrochemical comprehensivereviewofyourinformation
industries,andadvisorysystemsforprocess storageandextraction/analysisneeds,tothe
optimizationandcomplianceintheEnergy finaltrainingofyouremployeesandsupportof
Utilityindustry. yourdailyoperations.
Crucial features and benefits.Thecrucial
STATISTICA Data Warehouse.A featuresandbenefitsofSTATISTICAData
complete,powerful,scalable,and Warehousesolutionsinclude,amongmany
customizableintelligentdatawarehouse others:
solution,whichalsooptionallyoffersthemost
Completedatawarehousingapplication
completeanalyticfunctionalityavailableon
tailoredtoyourbusiness
themarket,fullyintegratedintothesystem.
Platformindependentarchitecturefor
STATISTICADataWarehouseconsistsofasuite
seamlessintegrationwithyourexisting
ofpowerful,flexiblecomponentapplications,
infrastructure
including:
Facilitiestointegratedatafromawide
STATISTICADataWarehouseServer
varietyofsources
Database
Virtuallyunlimitedscalability
STATISTICADataWarehouseQuery
(featuringSTATISTICAEnterpriseServer Optionstoupdate/synchronizedatafrom
Query) multiplesourcesviaautomaticschedulersor
ondemand
STATISTICADataWarehouseAnalyzer
(featuringSTATISTICAEnterpriseServerData CompletelyWebenabledsystem
Miner,STATISTICAEnterpriseServerText architecturetoprovideultimateenterprise
Miner,STATISTICAEnterpriseServerProcess functionalityforallcompanylocations
aroundtheworld(e.g.,accessviaWeb
Optimization,orthecompletesetof
STATISTICAEnterpriseServeranalytics) browsersfromanylocation)

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Advancedsecuritymodelandauthentication Thesystemisvirtuallyplatformindependent
ofusers andwillfitintoanyexistingdatabase
Completedocumentmanagementoptions architectureandhardwareenvironment.Itwill
tooptimizemanagementofdocumentsof efficientlycombineinformationfrommultiple
anytypesandsatisfyregulatory databaseformatsandsources(frommanual
requirements(e.g.,FDA21CFRPart11,ISO dataentryformstolargebatteriesof
9000) automaticdatacollectiondevices).Thesystem
Advancedanalyticcomponentsto canbefurtherenhancedthroughintegration
clean/verifydataandtointegrate withotherfullycompatiblecomponentsofthe
automateddatamining,artificial STATISTICAlineofapplicationsandsolutions;
intelligence,andrealtimeprocess tonamejustafew:
monitoring STATISTICADataMinerforadvanceddata
Optionstoautomaticallyrunandposton miningandartificialintelligence(e.g.,neural
KnowledgePortals(orbroadcast)highly networks)basedsolutionstoprovide
customizedreports,includinginteractive decisionsupportthroughcuttingedge
(i.e.,drillable,sliceable,anduser methodsforknowledgeextractionand
customizable)reportsandresultsof prediction
advancedanalytics QualityControlMinerandEnterprise/QCfor
Backupandarchivingoptions tightintegrationwithqualitycontrol,
Programmable,customizable,and processcontrol,andyieldmanagement
expandabletoadapttospecificmission activities
profiles(openarchitecture,exposedto STATISTICATextMinerforautomatic
extensionsusingthemostindustrystandard processingofunstructuredinformationin
languages,suchasVB,C++,Java,HTML) documents,databases,orWebdirectories
Builtonrobust,welltested,highlyscalable, (WebcrawlingofURLs)
cuttingedgetechnologytoleverageyour STATISTICAKnowledgePortalforpresenting
investment[includinghighlyoptimizedin summaryreports,charts,andactionitems
placedatabaseprocessing(IDP)technology, toendusers(management,salesforce,
truemultithreading,distributed/parallel engineers,etc.)throughsecureaccess
processing,andsupportforpoolingCPU portalsviatheWeb;todeliverkey
resourcesofmultipleserverstodeliver intelligenceanddecisionsupportto
supercomputerlikeperformance] stakeholdersworldwide
STATISTICADataWarehouseisacomplete Architecture and connectivity.STATISTICA
intelligentdatastorageandinformation DataWarehouseconnectstoanyplatform,
delivery/distributionsolutionthatenablesyou database,ordatasource,andwillscaleto
tocustomizetheflowofinformationthrough businessesandapplicationsofanysize.The
yourorganizationandprovideallauthorized programisbuiltonadatabaseanddatabase
membersofyourorganizationwithflexible, schemacustomizedforyourparticular
secure,andrapidaccesstocriticalinformation business.Thesolutioncanbeinstalledeither
andintelligentreporting. inclusiveofahighperformancedatabase
engine(SQLServer)orasa(virtual)database
schemacompatiblewithmostindustry

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standarddatabases;therefore,itwill valuableresourcesareshieldedfrom
seamlesslyintegrateintoexistingdatabase unauthorizedaccess.
systems. STATISTICADataWarehouseimplementsthe
BecauseSTATISTICADataWarehousedoesnot highestlevelofsecuritybyestablishinggroups
dependononeparticulardatabasevendoror ofuserswithdifferentlevelsofauthority
hardwareplatform,itisitselfentirely (regardingtheinformationthatisaccessible
platformindependent.ThemainData andtheoperationsthatcanbeperformed),
Warehousesoftwarewillconnecttoany requiringregularlyupdatedpasswords,etc.
databaseformatand,hence,canefficiently Specialmethodsarealsoinplacetodetectand
combineandpoolinformationfrommultiple guardagainstsystematicelectronicintrusions
sources. (hacking).
STATISTICADataWarehouseapplication Document control.STATISTICAData
softwarewillrunonserverswithmultiple Warehouseenablesfulldocumentmanage
processorsorbanksofmultipleprocessor ment,compliantwithgovernmentand
serversforsupercomputerlikeperformance. industrystandards.
Thesystemwillscaleeffortlesslyand STATISTICADocumentManagementSystem
economicallytoevenhugedatasizesand canbeseamlesslyintegratedintoyour
analysis(intelligence)problems. STATISTICADataWarehouseapplicationto
Web enablement.STATISTICAData optimizetheflowofinformationwithinyour
Warehouseextractsinformationfromsources organizationandthusincreaseyour
anywhereintheworldanddelivers productivity.Thissystemcanalsobe
intelligenceanywhereintheworld. configuredtocomplywithall(corporate)
TheWebcomponentofthesystemisbuilton documentationmanagementpoliciesor
theprovenSTATISTICAEnterpriseServer regulatoryrequirementsfordocument
technologythatisusedbyorganizations security,audittrails,andelectronic
worldwidetoprovidesecureaccessvia signatures/authentication(as,forexample,
standardWebbrowsers.UnlikeotherWeb stipulatedbyFDA21CFRPart11:Electronic
basedsolutions,STATISTICADataWarehouse Records;ElectronicSignatures;orISO90014.5:
doesnotrequireanyadditionalcomponentsto Documentanddatacontrol).
beinstalledonthe(thin)clientmachines. Advanced analytics.STATISTICAData
Advanced security and authentication.The Warehousecanincorporatethemost
STATISTICADataWarehouseimplementsa advanceddataanalysisandknowledge
detailedandsophisticatedsecuritysystemto extractionmethodsavailable;youcangofar
ensurethatyourproprietaryknowledgeand beyondOLAPtosimplifyandextract
intelligenceissafefromunauthorizedaccess. knowledgeabouteventhemostcomplex
Thesystemwilllikelybecomethemost andinaccessibletootherapplications
importantrepositoryofbusinessintelligence patternsinthedata.
anddecisionsupportresourcesinyour BecauseSTATISTICADataWarehouseisbuilt
organization.Therefore,thesecurityofthe fromthesamehighperformancecomponents
systemisacrucialprioritysothatthose astheentireSTATISTICAlineofanalytic
solutionssoftware,thoseanalyticsolutions

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caneasilyandseamlesslybeintegratedinto freedomtodevelopyourproprietary
yourDataWarehouse.STATISTICAoffersthe extensionstotheDataWarehouseandtoadd
mostcomprehensivesetoftoolsfordata notonlyyourownreportsbutalsocustom
mining,textmining,dataanalysis,graphicsand analyticanddatatransformation/cleaning
visualization,qualityandprocesscontrol procedures,usingwidelyavailableresources
(includingSixSigma),etc.onthemarket.These andindustrystandardtools(e.g.,VB,C++,
resourcesandtechnologiescanbeconnected Java,orHTMLtoolsandprogrammers).Of
tothedatasourcesintheSTATISTICAData course,StatSoftcanalwaysofferyouafull
Warehousetoleveragethemostadvanced complementofconsulting,systemintegration,
technologiesandalgorithmsavailablefor andprogrammingservicesdeliveredbyan
analyzingandextractingkeyintelligencefrom experiencedstaff.
allsources.Forexample,youcanapply
hundredsofneuralnetworksarchitectures, VERTICAL MARKET APPLICATIONS
highestperformancetreeclassifiers(e.g.,
stochasticgradientboostingtrees),flexible PROCEED. Aturnkeymanufacturing
rootcauseanalyses,controlchartingmethods, softwaresolutionthatdistills
powerfulbusinessforecastingmethods,or fundamentalcausalrelationshipsbetween
sophisticatedanalyticgraphicsmethodsto productsandtheprocessesthatproduce
convertrawdataintheDataWarehouseinto them,usingdatathatisalreadycollectedand
usefulandactionableintelligencewithclear managed.PROCEEDimplementsthepatent
implicationsfordecisionsaffectingyour pendingapproachdevelopedandprovenat
business. CaterpillarInc.andpoweredbytheSTATISTICA
EnterpriseAnalyticsSoftwarePlatform.
Programmability and customizability.
STATISTICADataWarehouseisanopen Hightechmanufacturingenterprisestoday
architecturesystemthatwillnotlockyouinto collectvastamountsofdata.
arelationwithasinglevendororsolution;you Dataabouttheproductionprocesses.
canrespondquicklytonewbusinessdemands Dataabouttestsofrawmaterials,
andrequirementsthatneedtobe subassemblies,andmaterialsinprocess.
incorporatedintotheDataWarehouse. Dataaboutthecriticaltoqualityattributes
Aswithallapplicationsandsolutionsinthe offinishedproducts.
STATISTICAfamilyofproducts,STATISTICA Allofthesedatacollectionandstorageefforts
DataWarehouseisfullyprogrammableand continuetobefueledbyincreasesin
customizable,usingindustrystandardpro automation,technologyadvancesinthe
grammingtoolssuchasVisualBasic,C++,Java, storagecapabilitiesofdatarepositories,and
orHTML.Thisfeatureisofkeyimportance theadvancesinsensorsandothertechniques
whenyourbusinessdependsonyourabilityto formeasurement.Todaysmanufacturersare
quicklyadapttonewinformationandbusiness sittingonagoldmineofinformation...onlyif
realities.Becauseyoucancustomizethe theyareabletotranslateitintoactionable
systemwithoutbeingforcedtorelyonthe information.
programmersofasinglevendororknowledge Collectingdataisnotsufficienttodrive
ofidiosyncraticscriptingconventions(required enterprisechange.Tocreatechange,weneed
bymanycompetingsolutions),youhavethe totranslatethesedataintoknowledgeand

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thencommunicatethatknowledgeinaformat
thatenablesthepeoplewhoareempowered
toactonit.NowisthetimeforthisReturnon
InvestmentfromdatausingPROCEED.
PROCEEDcombinesnovelandtraditional
knowledgeextractionmethodsto:
Deriveandvalidatesimpletocomplex
causalrelationshipsbetweenmanufacturing
processesandproductqualityoutcomes
Deployactionableinformationtoenable
processownersandknowledgeworkersto
comparewhatifscenariosandsimultane
ouslyoptimizemultiplecompeting
outcomes

STATISTICA PowerSolutions.A
solutionpackageaimedforuseat
powergenerationcompaniestooptimize
powerplantperformance,increaseefficiency,
andreduceemissions.Thisproductoffersa
highlyeconomicalalternativetomultimillion
dollarinvestmentsinneworupgraded
equipment(hardware).Basedonmorethan20
yearsofexperienceinapplyingadvanceddata
driven,predictivedatamining/optimization
technologiesforprocessoptimizationin
variousindustries,STATISTICAPowerSolutions
enablespowerplantstogetthemostoutof
theirexistingequipmentandcontrolsystems
byleveragingalldatacollectedattheirsitesto
identifyopportunitiesforimprovement,even
forolderdesignssuchascoalfiredCyclone
furnaces(aswellaswallfiredorTfired
designs).

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QuickReference:Index

INDEX
analyzinglargedata C
problems,50
annotations,149 C/C++,6
A canonicalanalysis,276
ANOVA
example,34 capabilityanalysis.See
accept/rejectattribute,55
onewaydesigns,34 processcapabilityanalysis
Acrobatreports,153
repeatedmeasuresdesigns, caseheaders,175
ActiveX,169,181,198,238
34 caselabels,207
documents,238
appendsupplementary casestates,132,205
objects,238
information,132 excluded,207
adhocbygroupanalyses,50
applicationobject,252 hidden,207
advancedlinear/nonlinear
arrangementoffactors,39 cases
models,275
attributegageanalysis,55 filterduplicates,85
Advancedtab,18
audittraillogging,103 causeandeffectdiagrams,
advice,statistical,33
audittrail,spreadsheets,106 277
aggregation,93
autofiltering,133 cellformatting,spreadsheets,
AIAGMSAmanual,55
autosave,148 176
AllSpecsbutton,14
automatedneuralnetworks, centralcompositedesigns,
analyses
276 277
attributegage,55
classicmenus,12,13
automating,40
classificationtrees,276
autominimize,129 B
cleaningdata,84
buttons,analysisbar,129,
batchformulas,72,75 closeallanalyses,130
135
BFGSalgorithm,276 closeallwindows,137
closeall,130
blockdatagraphs,199,202 clusteranalysis,276
manufacturing,55
block,deselect,17 codes,36,109
quickvs.advanced,18
brushing,132,205 missingdata,90
recording,230
Brushingdialog,205 COMInteroplibrary,251
rerun,236
bundles,variable,40 compliancerequirements,
resume,38,237
buttons meeting,105
selection,17
AllSpecs,14 configurations,different,218
analysisbar,129,130,135
ByGroup,44 configurations,network,218
analysisconfiguration,
Functions,74 conjugategradientalgorithm,
STATISTICAEnterprise,120
OK,19 276
analysismacros,224
OpenData,13 copy,23
analysisspecificationdialogs,
Options,23,25,134 copywithheaders,23
131
Spread,20 correlationmatrix,16
analysissummary,54
Summary,19 correlationsexample,11
analysisworkbooks,22
Variable,19 correlations,significant,21
Analysis/GraphOutput
Zoom,20 correspondenceanalysis,276
Managerdialog,23,25
ByGroupbutton,44 Coxproportionalhazards
analyticfacilities,3
bygroupanalyses,47 models,275
analyticsexamples,11
example,43 creationstamp,109

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creditscorecards,281 data(cont.) Analysi/GraphOutput


creditscoring,63 timeindexed,93,280 Manager,23
CreditScoring,281 transformation,286 analysisspecification,131
cumulativesumchart,277 transformationformulas, Analysis/GraphOutput
customgraphs,203 72,75,76 Manager,25
customuserinterface, dataanalysis,interactive,39 autominimize,136
STATISTICAEnterprise,122 dataconfiguration, Brushing,205
customization,12,228 STATISTICAEnterprise,115 Customize,139
alternativeaccessto datafiles DatabaseConnection,80
facilities,128 merge,91 FunctionBrowser,74
appearanceofSTATISTICA, opening,13 OpenaSTATISTICAData
213 subsets,92 File,13
differentconfigurationsof datamanagement Options,15,25,134,215
STATISTICA,218 operations,14 outputselection(results),
documents,214 DataMiner,278 132
generaldefaults,215 DataMinerRecipes,59,63 PrintSpreadsheet,24
graphs,29,190,217 datapreparation,65 results,132
localvs.permanent,215 dataredundancy,67 selfprompting,19
network,218 deployment,70 StartupPanel,13
operationofSTATISTICA, nodes(steps),64 UserInterface,11
213 projectfiles,61 VariableBundleManager,
otherapplications,140 summary,71 40
STATISTICAVisualBasic, workbookfile,62 variableselection,19,133
140,221 datamining,59 variablespecifications,13
toolbars,139 DataMiningtab,134 VariableSpecifications
userinterface,127,213 dataspreadsheets,13 Editor,14
Customizedialog,139 Datatab,13,22 WelcometoSTATISTICA,12
datawarehouse,283 DIN55319,52
D DatabaseConnectiondialog, discriminantanalysis,276
80 distributionmodel,time
data
databases,accessingdata dependent,54
accessingdirectlyfrom
directlyfrom,79 documentcustomization,214
databases,79 debugger,STATISTICAVisual documentmanagement
cleaningandfiltering,84
Basic,225 system,163,282
filterduplicatecases,85 defaultgraphs,203 documenttypes,137
filtersparse,87
defaults,215 documents,recentlyused,
IDbased,93,280 alternativesets,216 138
management,72
deployment,62,70 draganddrop,182
manufacturing,46 descriptivestatisticsoptions,
missing,89
48
onremoteservers,245
designofexperiments,277
recoding,84,86,90 dialogs
retrieveexternal,244

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E usingSTATISTICAin Functionsbutton,74
regulatedenvironments,
Edittab,29 102 G
ElectronicManual,26,33,36, variablebundles,40
257 gagerepeatability/
Excel,77,140,142,148,151,
ElectronicStatisticsTextbook, 169,180,182,198,238 reproducibility,277
27,258 generaldiscriminantanalysis
inputdatadirectlyfrom,77
EnhancedSVB,222 openinSTATISTICA,142 models,276
Enterpriseinstallations,98 generallinearmodels,36,275
exploratorydataanalysis,44,
enterprisenetwork,279 generaloverview
50
enterprisesystems,278 analyticfacilities,3
exportoutput,7
enterprise/QCnetworks,279 softwaretechnology,6
extract,transform,andload,
EWMAchart,277 280 uniquefeatures,4
exampledatasets,45 Webenablement,7
examples generalpartialleastsquares
F
accessingdatadirectlyfrom models,275
databases,79 F1key,13 generalregressionmodels,275
analytics,11 factoranalysis,276 generalizedlinear/nonlinear
ANOVA,34 factors,arrangement,39 models,275
bygroupanalyses,43 filterdata.Seedatacleaning globalmacros,228
correlations,11 andfiltering gradientdescentalgorithm,
datapreparationcleaning filterduplicatecases,85 276
andfiltering,84 filtersparsedata,87 graphs,182,189
getexternaldatavia filteringvariables,133 autoupdating,143
STATISTICAQuery,244 fixednonlinearregression, blockdata,199,202
inputdatadirectlyfrom 276 brushing,205
Excel,77 formulaeditor,72 casestates,205
macrorecording,230 formulas,14,72 categories,198
recordingananalysis,230 multiple,75 creatingviaSTATISTICA
spreadsheetformulas, results,73 VisualBasic,209
batchformulas,72 spreadsheet,14 custom,203
STATISTICADataMiner fractionalfactorialdesigns, customization,29,190,217
Recipes,59 277 customizing,203
STATISTICAEnterprise,109 frauddetection,281 default,203
STATISTICAEnterprise frequencytables,51 defaults,217
Server,98 fromclauses,STATISTICA drawingtools,29
STATISTICAVisualBasic, Query,180 inputdata,198,199
230 function piecharts,194
summaryresultspanels,51 externallycallable,4,227, producedfrom
usingSTATISTICAExtract, 228,275 spreadsheets,28
TransformandLoad,93 internallyused,12,73,74, shortcutmenus,29
104,196,226 specialized,208
FunctionBrowserdialog,74

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graphs(cont.) J mastermacros,224
STATISTICAVisualBasic, menus
191 Java,6 spreadsheetshortcut,14
styles,190 joinclauses,STATISTICA userdefined,140
summary,21,51 Query,180 mergedatafiles,91
userdefined,191 MicrosoftOfficeintegration,
graphsmenugraphs,204 K 142,238
Graphstab,134 keyboardmacros,225 MicrosoftWordintegration,
grouppermissions, knearestneighbor,90 143
STATISTICAEnterprise,111 knowledgeportal,155,160 MicrosoftWordreport,154
GxP missingdata,59,62,79,87,
applications,102 L 89,90,91
report,108 replacementof,90
labels,cases,207 setvalueof,89,90
H lagfunction,73 mixturedesigns,277
Latinsquares,277 modeldeployment,277
Help,26,33,36,257 Libraryobject,252 modules,131
Helptopics,19 limits,specifying monitoringandalerting
hidesummarybox,137 upper/lower,54 server,280
hidewindows,136 LiveScore,281 movingaverage/rangecharts,
HTML,278,286 lockspreadsheets,105 277
HTMLoutput,154 loglinearanalysisof multidimensionalscaling,276
frequencytables,276 multilayerperceptrons,276
I multimediatables,13,173
IDbaseddata,93,280 M multipleanalysissupport,128
IDP(inplacedatabase macros,40,183 multitaskingfunctionality,
technology),245 analysis,224 129
importdata,6,142,245,265 attachtotoolbars/menus, multithreading,265
industrystandards, 228 multivariateexploratory
compatibility,269 edit,235 techniques,276
infobox,spreadsheets,175 global,228 multivariatestatistical
inplacedatabasetechnology keyboard,225 processcontrol,277
(IDP),245 master,224
inputdatagraphs,198,199 record,4,40,50,140,183, N
inputspreadsheets,177 221,224,225 .NET,249
inputvs.output runfromcommandline, neuralnetworks,276,277
spreadsheets,177 229 NIPALSalgorithm,275
integratedlogin,98 managingoutput,147 nonlinearestimation,276
interactivedataanalysis,39, manufacturing notes,inworkbooks,149
44 analyses,55
Ishikawadiagrams,277 data,46
ISO21747,52 process,53

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O output(cont.) programmingSTATISTICAfrom
workbooks,148,169 .NET,249
objectlibrary,249 outputmanagement,134 projects.SeeSTATISTICA
objects OutputManager,23,25,134, Projects
embedded,16 147
linked,16 global,23 Q
Officeintegration,142,238 options,15
offloadtasks,98 outputspreadsheets,177 qualitycontrolcharts,276
OKbutton,19 qualitysixpacks,51
output,managing,147
OLAP,243,246 query,243
OLEDB,80,178,243 queryexample,244
P
OLEobjects,181 QuickAccesstoolbar,12,24,
onewayANOVAdesigns,34 parallelprocessing,266 140
onlinestatisticstextbook,258 Paretochart,277 Quicktab,5,18,19,213
openadatafile,13 partialleastsquares,277
OpenaSTATISTICADataFile passwordencrypt R
dialog,13 spreadsheets,105
Rlanguage,4,223
OpenDatabutton,13 PDFfiles,savingto,153
radialbasisfunctionnetworks,
options PDFreports,153
276
autominimize,136 PIconnector,283
piecharts,194 readonlyspreadsheets,105
autosave,148
recipe.SeeDataMiner
bringtotoponselect,137 poweranalysis,276
powergenerationfacilities,280 Recipes
hideonselect,136
recode
hidesummarybox,137 powergeneration,optimize
performance,287 outliers,88
resumeanalysis,136
recodedata,72
Optionsbutton,23,25,134 principalcomponents,277
principalcomponents/ recordinganalyses,230
CreateMacro,232
recoveryfeatures,148
Optionsdialog,15,25,134, classificationanalysis,276
regulatedenvironments,102
215 PrintSpreadsheetdialog,24
PROCEED,286 reliability/itemanalysis,276
Graphs,190
remotedatabases,245
optionspane,15 processanalysis,277
processcapabilityanalysis,52 remoteservers,245
Oracle,243
remoteservers,inplace
outliers,28,59,208 processcapabilityindices
standards,52 processing,245
recode,88
repeatedmeasuresANOVA
output,15,21 processcapabilityresults,55
processindustries,280 designs,34
graphs,182
reports,24,151,180
HTML,154 processinvariantvariables,88
fromworkbooks,152
MicrosoftWord,154 processmissingdata,89
GxP,108
PDF,153 processoptimization,278
HTML,154
reports,151,180 processspecificationlimits,
54 MicrosoftWord,154
spreadsheets,173
multiple,25
standalonewindows,150 process/capabilityanalysis
charts,277 openasaved,25
web,155

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reports(cont.) splitscrollinginspreadsheets, standalonewindows,150


PDF,153 30 queuelength,150
richtextformat,152 Spreadbutton,20 Startmenu,17
single,25 spreadsheetauditlogviewer, StartupPanel,13,131
tree,181 104 statist.exe,251
requireuserstoenter spreadsheets,13,173 STATISTICA
comments,104 appendcases,22 controlfromother
resultsspreadsheet,21 appendvariables,22 applications,140
resumeanalysis,38,136,237 audittrail,106 customizeappearance,213
ribbonbar,12,13 autofillblock,32 generaloverview,3
RTF batchformulas,75 Help,13,26
format,181 block Libraryversion,252
reports,152 autofill,32 multipleversionsupport,
runstest,277 copy,23,31 251
deselect,17 objectlibrary,249
S insert,32 programmingfrom.NET,249
move,31 serialnumber,258,259
samplingplans,277
caseheaders,175 softwaretechnology,6
SAP,243 cellformatting,176 Startmenu,17
Scorecard,282
copyablock,31 systemfeatures,275
selectclauses,STATISTICA
defaultlayout,215 technicalsupport,258
Query,180 draganddrop,31 uniquefeatures,4
selforganizingfeaturemaps,
formulas,14,72,74 STATISTICAAdvanced
276 header,175 Linear/NonlinearModels,
sequenceassociationandlink
infobox,175 275
analysis,279 input,177 STATISTICAAutomated
serverintegration,98
inputvs.output,177 NeuralNetworks,276
serversremote,inplacedata insertablock,32 STATISTICABase,275
processing,245
lock,105 STATISTICACreditScoring,281
SharePoint,163
moveablock,31 STATISTICADataMiner,278
shortcutmenus,14
output,177 STATISTICADataMiner
graphs,29
passwordencrypt,105 Recipes,59,63
significantcorrelations,21 passwordencryptionvs. datapreparation,65
simpledescriptivestatistics,
locking,104 dataredundancy,67
51 printing,24 deployment,70
singledocumentsummary
readonly,105 nodes(steps),64
report,53 results,21 projectfiles,61
sixsigma,51
shortcutmenus,22 summary,71
tools,276 specifyasinput,22 workbookfile,62
specializedgraphs,208
splitscrolling,30 STATISTICADataWarehouse,
specifyingupper/lowerlimits,
titlebar,175 283
54 variableheaders,176 STATISTICADesignof
SQL,80,83,243,284 Experiments,277

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STATISTICADocument STATISTICAMonitoringand creatinggraphs,209


ManagementSystem,163, AlertingServer,280 editoranddebugger,225
282 STATISTICAMultiStream,280 example,230
STATISTICAEnterprise,109, STATISTICAMultivariate executingprograms,227
279 ExploratoryTechniques, keyboardmacros,225
createanalysis 276 mastermacros,224
configuration,120 STATISTICAMultivariate methods,141
createdataconfiguration, StatisticalProcessControl, properties,141
115 277 structure,228
createdatabase STATISTICAPIConnector,283 STATISTICAVisualBasic.NET,
connection,113 STATISTICAPowerAnalysis, 222
createnewgroup,111 276 STATISTICAworkbooks,148
createnewuser,110 STATISTICAPowerSolutions, StatisticalAdvisor,33,258
createsystemviewnode, 287 statisticsbygroups,49
112 STATISTICAProcessAnalysis, Statisticstab,134
customuserinterface,122 277 statisticstextbook,online,258
example,109 STATISTICAProcess StatSoftwebsite,258
ObjectView,110 Optimization,278 statusbar,130
runanalysisconfiguration, STATISTICAprojects,184 STRformat,181
121 saving,184 structuralequationmodeling,
systemview,110 STATISTICAQualityControl 276
STATISTICAEnterprise Charts,276 subsets,creating,92
Manager,109 STATISTICAQuery,79,179, summarybox,137
STATISTICAEnterpriseServer, 243 Summarybutton,19
98,155,160,281 fromclauses,180 summarygraphs,21,51
demo,271 joinclauses,180 summaryreport,53
knowledgeportal,155 previewdata,83 summaryresultspanels,51
publishingcontent,157 retrieveexternaldata,244 supplementaryinformation,
saveserverspace,102 selectclauses,180 append,132
schedulingfacilities,99 whereclauses,180 support,258
serverrepository,101 STATISTICAScorecard,282 supportvectormachines,278
STATISTICAEnterprise STATISTICASequence survivalanalysis,275
Systems,278 AssociationandLink SVB,183,221
STATISTICAEnterprise/QC, Analysis,279
279 STATISTICAstartbutton,138 T
STATISTICAEnterpriseWide STATISTICAstartmenu,200
DataMiningSystem,278 STATISTICATextMiner,278 tableofalleffects,38
tabs
STATISTICAExtract, STATISTICAVariance
Transform,andLoad,93, EstimationandPrecision, Advanced,18
Data,13,22
280 276
DataMining,134
STATISTICALiveScore,281 STATISTICAVisualBasic,40,
STATISTICAmodules,131 140,183,191,221 Edit,29
Graphs,134
analysismacros,224

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tabs(cont.) changename,14 Weibullanalysis,277


Quick,18 formula,14 WelcometoSTATISTICA
Statistics,134 processinvariant,88 dialog,12
View,215 selection,19 whereclauses,STATISTICA
tabs,workbooks,139 selectionconventions,19 Query,180
Taguchidesigns,277 specifications,13 Word,140,142,143,148,
technicalsupport,258 VariableBundleManager 154,169,182,198,238
Teradata,246 dialog,40 workbooks,22,148,169
textminer,278 variablebundlesexample,40 draganddrop,172
timeseriesneuralnetworks, Variablebutton,19 icons,172
276 variableheaders,176 notesandcomments,149
timeseries/forecasting,276 variableselectiondialog,133 overview,169
timestamp,109 variablespecificationsdialog, printdocumentfrom
timedependentdistribution 13 within,24
model,54 VariableSpecificationsEditor, redarrow,236
timeindexeddata,93,280 14 rerunninganalyses,236
toolbars variables saveaswebpages,150
customize,139 automaticprescreening, tabs,138,170
userdefined,139 133 tree,171
traceability,108 bundles,40
traceabilityrequirements,103 ToolTips,43 X
treeview,15 filtering,133
XbarandRcharts,277
tree,reports,181 measurementtypes,133
organizelargesets,40 XML,278
U reorder,47
repeatedselection,40 Z
userinterface
variancecomponents,275 Zoombutton,20
customization,127,213 variancecomponentsfor
generalfeatures,127
randomeffects,277
interactive,130
varianceestimationand
interactiveanalyses,131
precision,276
STATISTICAEnterprise
Viewtab,215
Server,266 VisualBasic,221
UserInterfacedialog,11
methods,141
userdefinedmenus,140 properties,141
userdefinedtoolbars,139
W
V
webbrowser,usingwith
variabilityplots,46
STATISTICA,98
variable webenablement,7
block,17,19
weboutput,16,155
changeformat,14 website,StatSoft,258

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