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by Daniel P. Cole

Fixture Units
for High-Efficiency
Plumbing Fixtures
The fi xture unit is one of the most misun- ity for dealing with the impact of the 1992 LEARNING HOW TO DERIVE
derstood terms in the plumbing industry, Energy Policy Act on low-consumption FIXTURE UNITS
owing mostly to the fact that we are now plumbing fixtures. Knowing the effect of Two documents published by the NBS
several generations removed from its reduced flows on estimating demand, they detail the method for deriving fi xture units.
origin at the National Bureau of Standards have variously modified fixture unit values Recommended Minimum Requirements for
in the 1920s, along with the reality that based on some method of rational reduc- Plumbing (BH 13) includes the methodol-
it has never been a course of study in an tion or assumptions. However, the disparity ogy for drainage fi xture units, and Methods
engineering degree or plumbing program. among the model codes in their modifica- of Estimating Loads in Plumbing Systems
Plumbers and engineers who routinely tion efforts is evident, as seen in Table 1. (BMS 65) includes the process for deriving
consult fi xture units for estimating demand How these modifications were determined fi xture units for the water supply demand.
may not realize that they are actually using is largely unknown, and obtaining historical (Note: Th is article only retraces the steps to
a complex system in probability theory documentation or witness has been unsuc- determine water supply fi xture unit values
rather than fluid mechanics. Th is article cessful. According to Dick Wagner (chair for HE fi xtures with low water consump-
delves into this probability theory and pro- of the National Standard Plumbing Code, tion.)
poses a resolve to the problem design engi- or NSPC), the late Thomas Konen from All sizing methodologies begin by estimat-
neers are currently facing regarding how to Stevens Institute of Technology accom- ing the water demand load for a particular
determine fi xture units for high-efficiency plished the modification of fixture units for type of building. Once the demand load
(HE) plumbing fi xtures that have water use the NSPC, but his premature death left us is determined, then the rest of the design
reductions of at least 20 percent from cur- without enough documentation to retrace methodology is calculating friction losses,
rent federal standards (see Appendix A in his steps. Therefore, the codes are not much pressures drops, and pipe sizes to maintain
the DOE Supplemental Guidance to Execu- help in determining fixture unit values for the minimum required residual pressure
tive Order 13423 at www1.eere.energy.gov/ HE fixtures. for the proper working of each fixture. The
femp/pdfs/water_guidance.pdf ). A viable recourse is to retrace the steps by fixture unit value is used to estimate the
The National Bureau of Standards (now which the fixture units were originally deter- probable demand load prior to any hydraulic
the National Institute of Standards and mined. This leads us back to the National calculations and therefore only has an indi-
Technology) has long since closed the door Bureau of Standards (NBS), where plumbing rect relation to pipe sizing. This distinction is
on its plumbing program and turned atten- fixtures were first weighted, measured, and often confused and misunderstood. Pipe size
tion away from the plumbing industrys standardized. If our retracing proves correct, determined initially by the probable demand
water conservation efforts, so the plumbing then we have the possibility to standardize load may need to be modified to compen-
code committees have taken responsibil- fixture units once again for all codes. sate for pressure and friction losses.

Table 1 model Code fixTure uniT values

Fixture NBS Hunter IPC UPC NSPC1
Private Public Private Public Private Public Assembly Single Family Multifamily Other Assembly
One bathroom 6 8 3.6 8 5 3.5
Bathtub 2 4 1.4 4 4 4 4 3.5
Combination xture 3 3
Kitchen sink 2 4 1.4 4 1.5 1.5 1.5 1 1.5
Laundry tray 3 1.4 1.5 1.5 2 1 2
Lavatory 1 2 0.7 2 1 1 1 1 0.5 1 1
Service sink 3 3 1.5 3 3
Shower 2 4 1.4 4 2 2 2 2 2
Urinal, flush valve 5 5 * * * 5 6
Urinal, flush tank 3 3 2 2 3
Water closet, flush 6 10 6 10 * * * 5 5 5 8
Water closet, flush 3 5 2.2 5 2.5 2.5 3.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 4
NSPC includes additional groupings. The FU selected are those for comparison purposes with the other codes.
*The UPC assigns accumulative xture unit values beginning at 40 FU for WC flushometers and 20 FU for urinal flushometers.

JULY/AUGUST 2011 Plumbing Systems & Design 13

order of any two fixtures. For example, if
Table 2 Apartment fixtures there is a battery of six toilets and you want
Water-conserving Fixture t seconds T seconds q gpm, average to find the probability of two flushing simul-
(Average duration (Time between (Flow rate) taneously, then there are 15 random combi-
of flow) successive uses) nations of any two toilets out of the six that
Flush tank toilet, 1.28 gpf 21 210/50% 3.7 can operate simultaneously. This is the result
Shower, 2 gpm 510 1,800/50% 2.0
Lavatory faucet, 1.5 gpm 20 210/50% 1.5
of the factorial rule .
Allowing for randomness, the equation
further denotes the binomial expansion of
Table 3 Transit/transportation fixtures two probability terms, namely t/T and 1
Water-conserving Fixture t seconds T seconds q gpm, average t/T. The first term, t/T, is the probability that
(Average duration (Time between (Flow rate) r out of n fixtures are found operating at an
of flow) successive uses) instant of observation. The second term, 1
Flush valve toilet, 1.28 gpf 4 139 24 t/T, is the probability that r out of n fixtures
Urinal, 0.5 gpf 4 45 10 are not found in operation at an instant of
Lavatory faucet, 0.5 gpm 20 60 0.5

The notation indicates that

the probability of two or more independent
events (fixtures operating and those not
operating) occurring together at the same
As we begin to discuss how to find fixture instant is the product of the probabilities of
unit values for HE fixtures, we first need to their separate occurrence. This is the funda-
know what a fixture unit means. A fixture mental binomial probability theorem.
unit is a weighted unit of measure on some The result of the equation will indicate
selected scale relative to the water closet as where: the percentage of time r flows will occur
the base fixture and represents the probable n = an exponential positive integer out of a random combination of r out of n
load-producing effect of a single plumbing fixtures. The percentage expressed as a frac-
= the binomial coefficient , or
fixture of a given kind by considering the tion of time is 1/. If is taken as 100 sec-
duration of flow and the intervals of time onds (Dr. Roy B. Hunters choice of the time
between operations of various types of interval ), then this signifies that r fixtures
plumbing fixtures. x and a = real numbers will be in simultaneous operation for an
This is a mouthful, and it would be best Applying the terms of distribution to fix- aggregate of one second out of every 100
to consider it in two parts. First, we will look ture analysis: seconds. Based on this choice, the design
at the latter part of the definition where load should not be exceeded more than 1
the fixture unit represents the probable percent of the time. This time interval can
load-producing effect, and then we will look where: be chosen to determine satisfactory ser-
at the first part where the fixture unit is a n = Total number of fixtures or supply vice, or what is commonly called the safety
weighted unit of measure. As we do so, we openings of a given kind in the system failure factor. Therefore, the probability
will be developing the process of determin- r = Number of fixtures out of a total of n function for each fixture will indicate that r
ing new and revised fixture unit values for that at any given instant of observation are fixtures will be in simultaneous operation 1
plumbing fixtures. found operating to impose a demand load percent of the time.
on the supply system This probability function is used to
Part 1: Fixture Unit Represents the t = Average duration of flow in seconds for generate probable flow curves for each
Probable Load-producing Effect a given kind of fixture for one use plumbing fixture from which fixture units
The fixture unit represents the probable T = Average time in seconds between suc- are determined. To illustrate this, lets use
load-producing effect of individual fixtures. cessive operations of any given fixture of a three bathroom fixtures for both a residential
The probable load is determined by the particular kind apartment group and a commercial transit/
following binomial equation as expressed This equation reduces to (as notated in transportation group. For the apartment
by the standard formula. As Robert Wistort BMS 65): group, the high-efficiency fixtures will be a
pointed out, The binomial theorem is the 1.28-gpf (gallons per flush) tank-type toilet
theoretically correct method to use where p (FT), a 2-gpm (gallons per minute) shower-
a fixture is considered to have two states head, and a 1.5-gpm lavatory faucet. For the
of condition, on and off.1 A theoretical Theoretically, the binomial coefficient transit/transportation group, the high-effi-
binomial is: allows for randomness by mixing up the ciency fixtures will be a 1.28-gpf flush-valve

14 Plumbing Systems & Design JULY/AUGUST 2011 WWW.PSDMAGAZINE.ORG

toilet (FV), a 0.5-gpf urinal, and a 0.5-gpm The T term, which represents the time had suggested general categories such as
lavatory faucet. between successive operations, is based on residential, commercial, public access-need
Before generating the probable flow the rush-hour concept when the fixtures driven, and public access-event driven.2
curves, the terms of the probability function will have repeated successive uses. This is However we wish to categorize flow curves,
need to be determined. The information in the hardest term to evaluate since it is based the growing consensus is that a one-size-
Table 2 and Table 3 provides the values for primarily on human function, behavior, and fits-all curve is no longer desirable. Thus,
the two probability terms, t/T and 1 t/T, the particular environment. Statistical data the following exercise generates a family of
for each fixture. Also included is the supply that evaluates the average times needed two curves: one for a residential apartment
flow rate for each fixture (q, in gallons per for urination and defecation, including the group and the other for a commercial tran-
minute) since the demand load will be differences between men and women, is sit/transportation group.
expressed in gpm flow units. available. However, evaluating the frequency With respect to the T seconds for an apart-
The t value (average duration of flow) for of use of the toilet room seems challenging ment group application, a rush hour occurs
the FT toilet is based on an average fill rate when behavior depends on the environment. two times a day on averagea morning
of 3.7 gpm for a tank capacity of 1.28 gallons Where the work clock controls the environ- peak time and an evening peak timeas
of water. The t value for the FV toilet and the ment, for example, the rush hour will occur evidenced in a statistical residential end
urinal is an average of 4 seconds based on at pre-determined breaks, as distinguished use of water survey by the AWWA Research
test data supplied by a manufacturer. The t from an office building that allows for indi- Foundation. Assume that the bathroom
and q (supply flow rate) for the shower are vidual-need toilet breaks and the rush hour is for single use. Based on the analysis of
based on statistical averages provided by is negligible. fixtures used during the peak time, you can
a residential end use of water survey and Hence, there is a growing recognition of derive the assumption that the toilet is used
a showerhead that restricts the flow rate. the need to generate a family of demand primarily for urination during the rush hour
The lavatory faucets were assigned a t value curves based on some average estimates of and has a T value of 210 seconds. This is the
of 20 seconds for handwashing as recom- frequency of use of toilet rooms (as well as average urination time between men and
mended by the Centers for Disease Control other plumbing fixtures) for different build- women (70 seconds) and includes toiletry
and Prevention, and the q was determined ing types. Manual M22 published by the events such as brushing teeth (120 seconds
by the manufacturers flow restriction at 60 American Water Works Association (AWWA) recommended) and handwashing (20 sec-
psi (pounds per square inch), according to depicts low-range and high-range curves onds). Therefore, the T value for the lavatory
ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1. for differing building types, and Wistort is also 210 seconds. The showering activ-



400 Flush Valve - 1.28gpf

Urinal .5gpf

350 Lavatory .5gpm

Flush Tank - 1.28gpf
300 Shower 2.0gpm
Lavatory 1.5gpm





0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050
Figure 1 Probable flow in relation to n

JULY/AUGUST 2011 Plumbing Systems & Design 15

Table 4 Transit/transportation group weighted relative to the February 2003 issue of PS&D. The assessed
1.28-gpf flush valve toilet percentages of toilets used as urinals are 47
Flush Valve, 1.28 gpf Urinal, 0.5 gpf Lavatory, 0.5 gpm percent (NSPC), 58 percent (UPC), and 50
percent (IPC). In this exercise, the average is
gpm No. Wt. No. Wt. No. Wt.
rounded to 50 percent.)
80 35 10 42 8.33 413 0.85
When the toilet is used primarily for
140 81 10 88 9.2 750 1.08 defecation, 300 seconds (five minutes) is an
200 133 10 138 9.64 1091 1.22 average time, including entering and exiting
260 189 10 190 9.95 1435 1.32 the stall. This means that while the person is
sitting on the toilet for the duration, the toilet
Averages 10 9.3 1.1
is not flushing. At the end of the duration,
Fixture Units 10 9 1 the toilet is flushed, the person exits the stall,
and another enters, resuming the duration
and repeating the flushing. With respect
Table 5 Apartment group weighted relative to the 1.28-gpf tank-
type toilet to the urinal, an average of 45 seconds was
determined as a result of actual observation
Flush Tank, 1.28 gpf Shower, 2 gpm Lavatory, 1.5 gpm
in a study conducted in a Mass Rapid Transit
gpm No. Wt. No. Wt. No. Wt. system.3 Urination times for men were tabu-
10 15 10 13 11.54 60 2.5 lated between 30 and 35 seconds and were
40 110 10 90 12.22 355 3.1 rounded to 45 seconds to include exiting
70 225 10 173 13.01 710 3.17
time and for another to enter the urinal stall.
Urination times in the stall for women aver-
100 350 10 262 13.36 1060 3.3
aged between 71 and 90 seconds, a 2:1 ratio
Averages 10 12.5 3.02 between men and women.
Fixture Units 10 13 3 Because of these differences between
mens and womens usage of the toilet fix-
ture, the variables can be combined in terms
ity is a separate event from the toilet and the probability depending on the frequency of the probability function. For toilets used
lavatory use. A T value of 30 minutes (1,800 of use required by the building type. as urinals, take 50 percent of the probability
seconds) is considered an average time after With respect to the T values for a transit/ term t/T, which is assigned 4/90 (to reflect
shower use before another user enters. Such transportation application, there are two the average time for women). For toilets
successive use of a bathroom is typical of a considerations. One is potty parity, and the used for defecation, take 50 percent of the
one-bath apartment dwelling with multiple other is the percentage of toilets used as uri- probability term t/T, which is assigned 4/300
occupants per apartment. nals in the womens toilet room. To resolve (the average time for both men and women).
A brief explanation is needed to clarify potty parity, the model codes typically Combining these two terms derives 4/139,
the reason for reducing the probability in require a greater number of toilet fixtures in which is the value in Table 3.
Table 2 by 50 percent. This is basically the the womens restroom. The obvious reason Lastly, the lavatory T value assumes
bathroom group concept introduced by is to accommodate the needs of women multiple lavatories in a public restroom,
Dr. Hunter in Methods of Estimating Loads who require prolonged times of fixture each used alternately on the average with a
in Plumbing Systems and is still retained in usage. Also, there is the consideration that a lapsed time of one minute between uses. (I
plumbing codes. It was derived from the percentage of toilets will be used by women do not wish to belabor the justification for
fact that no more than 75 percent of bath- for only urination and not defecation. Thus, the values assigned to the terms of prob-
rooms in apartment houses will be occu- based on the ratios in the model codes, out ability. Obviously the T value will depend
pied at any one time and that out of those of the combined total of mens and womens largely on statistical assessment, while not
bathrooms, no more than two out of the toilets, approximately 50 percent will be ruling out valid assumptions of the fre-
three bathroom fixtures will be in use at the used as urinals and 50 percent will be used quency of use the fixtures will have in any
same time. Therefore, no more than two- for defecation. particular type of building.)
thirds of 75 percent, or 50 percent, of the (Note: For transit assembly classification, Accepting the above assigned values as
total number of fixtures in bathrooms will the Uniform Plumbing Code [UPC] has givens, we may now proceed to generate
be in use at one time. Whereas Dr. Hunter a 2:1 ratio between womens fixtures and probable flow curves for each HE fixture.
reduced the fixture units for a bathroom mens. The NSPC has a 2:1 ratio above 200 Again, the probability terms must be deter-
group by 50 percent, this exercise reduces occupants of each sex; for lesser occupants mined by fixture performance standards,
the probability by 50 percent to generate a the ratio is 1:1. The International Plumbing statistical data, and valid assumptions before
separate curve for an apartment building Code [IPC] has a 1:1 ratio. For a discussion you can evaluate fixture unit values.
group. Other curves may be generated in of the development of the ratios, see the Figure 1 demonstrates the probable flow
similar fashion by increasing or decreasing Code Update column in the January/ rate for any given number of the same kind

16 Plumbing Systems & Design JULY/AUGUST 2011 WWW.PSDMAGAZINE.ORG


Flush Valve - 1.28gpf
Urinal .5gpf
Lavatory .5gpm




0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
Fixture Units

Figure 2 Relation of demand to fixture units relative to 1.28-gpf flush valve toilet (transit application)

of fixture. For example, for a total of 50

urinals, the probable flow rate is 91 gpm.
The probability function determines that
approximately nine out of the 50 urinals
will operate simultaneously during peak
demand; therefore, the flow rate is based on
nine urinals rather than 50. With 100 show-
ers, the probable flow rate is 45 gpm based
on the probability of 22 out of the 100 show-
ers operating simultaneously.
It may seem that this is as far as we need to
go. All that is needed is the sum of the prob-
able flows of each individual fixture, and that
will render the demand estimate. However,
summing the probable flows without consid-
ering the chance occurrence of simultane-
ous operations of different kinds of fixtures
installed in one system will yield higher
estimates (see Dr. Hunters discussion on
this matter in Methods of Estimating Loads
in Plumbing Systems, pp. 1213, 1920). For
example, the probable flow rate sum of 20
urinals, 40 FV toilets, and 16 lavatories is 139
gpm. Based on fixture units, as shown next,
the estimation is 113 gpm.

JULY/AUGUST 2011 Plumbing Systems & Design 17


Flush Tank - 1.28gpf

Shower 2.0gpm
Lavatory 1.5gpm

50 Figure 3 Relation of
demand to fixture units
relative to 1.28-gpf flush
tank toilet (apartment

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
Fixture Units

Part 2: Fixture Unit as a the influence of the prevailing International sit/transportation application, and a range
Weighted Unit of Measure System of Units, Dr. Hunter chose the metric between 10 and 100 gpm for the apartment
Lets go back to the first part of the fixture scale of 10, which was adopted for the water house application. The majority of each
unit definition where it is a weighted unit of supply fixture unit (hence the scaling dis- curve lies within these respective ranges and
measure. This was Dr. Hunters ingenious crepancy between the drainage fixture unit will yield the best averages, as will be shown.
simplified solution to resolve the chance and the water supply fixture unit). Tables 4 and 5 reflect the relative weights
occurrences of simultaneous operations of If you choose 10 as the scale for the load of fixtures within the ranges specified at
different kinds of fixtures on one system. value of each FV toilet, then how do you increments of 60 gpm for transit/transpor-
Instead of summing the individual prob- determine the load value for the urinal and tation and 30 gpm for apartment house
able flow rates of each fixture, the weighted lavatory? At the probable flow rate of 80 gpm, applications. The fixture units are the aver-
sum of the total numbers of fixtures of all 35 FV toilets are equivalent to 42 urinals. If ages of the incremental values within the
kinds is to be applied to a single load curve each FV toilet has a load value of 10, then the range. These are the new fixture units for
to obtain the estimated demand load. equivalent load value for the urinals is 8.33 the selected HE fixtures in our example. The
How is a fixture weighted? Looking at as determined by 35/42 = 8.33/10, and 35 x unit values are higher than what is currently
Figure 1 displaying the probable flow, notice 10 = 42 x 8.33 proves the equivalency. seen in the plumbing codes. This is because
a black line running horizontally where the This is called weighting, which is a propor- we have chosen to weight the fixtures on the
flow rate is a constant 80 gpm. The number tional equivalent. Each plumbing fixture is scale of 10.
of fixtures should be where the horizontal thus weighted relative to the toilet as the base However, as you shall see, coincidental
line intersects the curves. This tells us that fixture to determine the fixture unit value of to these higher weighted units will be a
the probable flow rate at 80 gpm for 35 FV all other fixtures. The effect of weighting each new load curve reflecting a true relation of
toilets is the same probable flow rate for 42 fixture relative to the toilet results in applying demand to fixture units. The base fixture will
urinals and, in turn, for 413 lavatories (at 0.5 the weights of different kinds of fixtures to a always have the constant value of 10. Notice
gpm), 267 FT toilets, 201 showers, and 822 single basic probability curve. that the fixture unit value for the shower is
lavatories (at 1.5 gpm). Lets weight the HE fixtures in our 13, which exceeds the base fixture, but you
Taking the first three fixtures as most example. It is useful to determine the would expect this by what the probable flow
common among transit/transportation range between which the fixtures are to be curves in Figure 1 indicate. This is based on
applications, you can use the toilet as the weighted to determine an average weight. the terms of the probability function and
base fixture by which the other two fixtures Dr. Hunter chose the range of 150 to 300 because the probable flow of the shower
are weighted. What value shall you give the gpm to weight the fixtures, a range in which exceeds the toilet even though the flow rate
toilet? You may choose any scale, but you he considered the estimates would have of the toilet is greater than that of the shower.
must remain consistent. Dr. Hunter first their greatest application and usefulness. Remember, the fixture unit represents the
chose a scale of six when weighting fixtures However, with reduced flow rates this range probable load by considering the duration
based on the 6:1 ratio of drainage flow rates must be reconsidered. This exercise uses a of flow and the intervals of time between
between the toilet and lavatory. Later, under range between 80 and 260 gpm for the tran- operations. Because of the greater duration,

18 Plumbing Systems & Design JULY/AUGUST 2011 WWW.PSDMAGAZINE.ORG



Hunters Curve
Transit Group
300 Apartment Group


Figure 4 Estimate curve
for high-efficiency fixtures

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
Fixture Units

the shower has a greater load-producing toilets, and 16 lavatories, you have 596 fixture fixtures (Figure 4). Hunters Curve is super-
effect than the toilet. units according to Table 4. According to imposed to display how the revision of the
Since the shower has the greater load- Figure 2, the estimated demand is 113 gpm, probability terms has altered the demand
producing effect, then why isnt the shower which is lower than summing the probable curves. You could continue generating addi-
the base fixture rather than the toilet? It flow rates (139 gpm). tional curves once you assess the terms of
could be. You could change the order, and What happens when the fixture units do probability for other building classifications.
the estimate values wouldnt alter because not correspond correctly to the load curve? Admittedly, the curves generated in this
the fixture units represent proportional What happens if you take the new fixture article are mainly for illustrative purposes
equivalency. If the order of the weighting units from Table 4 and apply them to the and not purported as recommendations for
is rearranged, then the load curve changes existing Hunters Curve? Hunters Curve esti- code proposals, even though IAPMOs Pipe
correspondingly. The two fit together. The mates 596 fixture units at 153 gpm, which is a Sizing Task Group for the Green Plumbing
load curve should always correspond to the significant overestimate. The load curve does and Mechanical Code Supplement is looking
fixture units, and the fixture units should not correspond to the new fixture units. seriously into these revisions. That said, I
always be relative to the load curve. In summary, you can see that fixture units welcome readership response to this ongo-
Lets continue to produce the load curve are really derived from a complex system ing revision effort toward a new fixture unit
for Tables 4 and 5. Once you weight the of probability and weighting. Their values standardization that has been demonstrated
fixtures, you can apply this unit value to the are not independent; they depend on the in this article.
number of fixtures and scale the x axis by a probability function having time variables of
multiple of 10 (our chosen scale). As you do fixture flow duration and successive usage. REFERENCES
so, the probable flow curves collapse around To determine new fixture unit values, the 1. Wistort, Robert A., A New Look at Deter-
the base fixture as seen in Figures 2 and 3. probability function first must be revised mining Water Demand in Buildings:
ASPE Direct Analytic Method, ASPE 1994
Again, the fixtures used with the flush valve to generate new probable flow curves from Convention.
toilet in transit applications and those used individual fixtures. From these curves, the
with the flush tank toilet in apartment house fixture demand loads are weighted relative to 2. Ibid.
applications are separated. the toilet on a given scale (the metric scale of 3. Liao, Cheng, He, and Wu, Investigation of
Figures 2 and 3 illustrate that the relative 10 being the preferred scale). As a result, the Public Toilet Facility in MRT Station, CIB
weights are approximately correct within individual probable fixture curves collapse W062, 2010.
the range selected. In both applications, the into a new single design curve. Hence, the Daniel P. Cole is the Technical Services
toilet curve will serve as the load estimate new fixture unit values for HE fixtures reflect Supervisor for IAPMO. He is a licensed
Journeyman Plumber in the state
curve for design purposes. the weighted values along the new estimat- of Illinois and is a member of ASPE,
the Illinois Plumbing Inspectors
Previously it was stated that the fixture ing curve and cannot be used with the older Association, and the International
unit method yields a lower estimate than the (Hunters) curve. Code Council. He is currently the
Chair of the Pipe Sizing Task Group for
sum of the probable flows of each fixture. This exercise has generated a family of IAPMOs Green Plumbing and Mechanical Code Supplement.
He can be reached at dan.cole@iapmo.org. To comment on
Using the same example of 20 urinals, 40 FV two curves for estimating demand with HE this article, e-mail articles@psdmagazine.org.

JULY/AUGUST 2011 Plumbing Systems & Design 19