Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 41

See

discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/288175446

Overview Li-Fi Technology

Technical Report April 2015


DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.1440.0080

CITATIONS READS

0 10,970

4 authors, including:

Abdulhafid Egjam Nizar Zarka


University of South Wales Higher Institute for Applied Science and Techn
3 PUBLICATIONS 0 CITATIONS 73 PUBLICATIONS 67 CITATIONS

SEE PROFILE SEE PROFILE

Some of the authors of this publication are also working on these related projects:

Fast Rule-line Removal using Integral Images and Support Vector Machines View project

Car Pool App View project

All content following this page was uploaded by Nizar Zarka on 26 December 2015.

The user has requested enhancement of the downloaded file.


Syrian Arab Republic
Higher Institute for Applied Sciences and Technology

Communications Department

4th year, SEMINAR

Light Fidelity (Li-Fi) Technology


Forget Wi-Fi. Its Li-Fi: internet through Ligthbulbs!

Submitted by: Raafat Ali Ali


Scientific Supervisor: Dr. Nizar Zarka
Eng. Simon Tarbouche
Linguistic Supervisor: Mr. Sameeh Dlaikan
Seminar Supervisor: Dr. Nizar Zarka

April 2nd, 2015


Seminar Li-Fi Technology

Contents
List of Figures ................................................................................................................................ iii
List of Tables .................................................................................................................................. v
List of Abbreviations .................................................................................................................... vii
Key Words .................................................................................................................................... vii
Abstract .......................................................................................................................................... ix
Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 1
Chapter One: Problems of Wireless Communication Systems...................................................... 3
1-1 What is the Problem? .......................................................................................................... 5
1-2 Visible Light Communication ............................................................................................. 5
Chapter Two: Li-Fi Definition, Working Principle and Advantages ........................................... 7
2-1 What is Li-Fi? ..................................................................................................................... 9
2-2 History ................................................................................................................................. 9
2-3 D-Light Project.................................................................................................................. 10
2-4 Working Principle ............................................................................................................. 10
2-5 Advantages ........................................................................................................................ 11
Chapter Three: Applications of Li-Fi .......................................................................................... 13
3-1 Life with Li-Fi ................................................................................................................... 15
3-2 Applications of Li-Fi ......................................................................................................... 15
Chapter Four: Systems of Li-Fi and Challenges .......................................................................... 19
4-1 Implemented Systems ....................................................................................................... 21
4-2 Li-Fi versus Wi-Fi ............................................................................................................. 24
4-3 Challenges for Li-Fi .......................................................................................................... 24
Conclusion .................................................................................................................................... 26
Acknowledgement ........................................................................................................................ 26

i
Seminar Li-Fi Technology

ii
Seminar Li-Fi Technology

List of Figures
Figure 1: Multiple communication systems cause Spectrum Crunch. ............................................ 5
Figure 2: Location of visible light and RF frequencies at electromagnetic spectrum. ................... 6
Figure 3: Block diagram of the VLC system. ................................................................................. 6
Figure 4: Data transmission via LEDs ............................................................................................ 9
Figure 5: The main component of Li-Fi system: LEDs, Photodiode and Image sensor. .............. 10
Figure 6: The working principle of the Li-Fi. ............................................................................... 11
Figure 7: Environment with Li-Fi. ................................................................................................ 15
Figure 8: Optical Underwater Communications system. .............................................................. 16
Figure 9: Vehicle Visible Light Communications. ....................................................................... 16
Figure 10: Indoor Navigation system for Blind people. ............................................................... 17
Figure 11: Li-1st working diagram. ............................................................................................... 21
Figure 12: Some of the relevant technical expertise and background accomplishments. ............ 22
Figure 13: Colour modulation is used to express and receive data............................................... 23
Figure 14: Reflectance compensation improves accuracy. ........................................................... 24

iii
Seminar Li-Fi Technology

iv
Seminar Li-Fi Technology

List of Tables
Table 1: comparison between Li-Fi and Wi-Fi ............................................................................. 24

v
Seminar Li-Fi Technology

vi
Seminar Li-Fi Technology

List of Abbreviations
AP Access points.
LED Light emitting diode.
Li-Fi Light Fidelity.
MRI Magnetic resonance imaging.
RF Radio frequency.
TED Technology Entertainment Design.
VLC Visible light communication.

Key Words
D-Light, Li-Fi, LED, VLC, Wireless communication, Wi-Fi,.

vii
Seminar Li-Fi Technology

viii
Seminar Li-Fi Technology

Abstract
We know that spectrum is the rare coin for communication engineers. Nowadays, with the rapid
growth of wireless communications the problem of using spectrum efficiently has become more
important. Many solutions have been proposed to solve this issue; one of these solutions is the
usage of visible light frequencies to send data. These frequencies are already free and unused.
Light fidelity (Li-Fi) is a new short range optical wireless communication technology which
provides the connectivity within a local network, by using Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) to
transmit data depending on light illumination properties.

We shall explain in this report the basic foundation of this new technology and its important
applications. Then we discuss its challenges and implemented projects all over the world.

ix
Seminar Li-Fi Technology

x
Seminar Li-Fi Technology

Introduction
Transfer data from one place to another is one of the most important day-to-day activities. The current wireless
networks that connect us to the internet are very slow when multiple devices are connected. As the number of
devices that access the internet increases, the fixed bandwidth available makes it more and more difficult to
enjoy high data rates and connect to a secure network. Nowadays, Everyone is interested in using his mobile
phone, laptop to communicate with other people through Wireless-Fidelity (Wi-Fi) systems, and this
technology, Wi-Fi, is widely used in all public areas like home, cafes, hotels and airports by people, also the
time usage of wireless systems is increasing exponentially every year; but the capacity is going down, due to the
limitation of Radio Frequency (RF) resources, so we are going to suffer from severe problem.

In order to overcome this problem in the future, Professor Harald Haas, an expert in optical wireless
communications, proposes in 2011 a brilliant and applicable solution by using light to transmit data, he
demonstrated how an Light-Emitting Diodes (LED) bulb equipped with signal processing technology could
stream a high-definition video to a computer and he showed that one watt LED light bulb would be enough to
provide net connectivity to four computers.

This new technology is known as LightFidelity (Li-Fi). It is a short range wireless communication system
based on light illumination from LED, and use the visible light as a signal carrier instead of traditional RF
carrier as in Wi-Fi. Professor Harald Haas coined the term "Light-Fidelity" and set up a private company, called
Pure Visible Light Communication, to exploit that technology. He envisions a future where data for laptops
and smart phones are transmitted through the light in a room in a secure way.

In this seminar, we will talk about its features, applications and advantages, some practical projects that have
been implemented; and we will show that it can be seriously the future of communication technology.

1
Seminar Li-Fi Technology

2
Seminar Li-Fi Technology

Chapter One:
Problems of Wireless Communication
Systems

In this Chapter, we will talk about severe problem in communication


system which called Spectrum Crunch, and the suggested solutions
to solve it. One of the solutions is the use of visible light; we will
describe it briefly and talk about Visible Light Communication (VLC)
systems and their components.

3
Seminar Li-Fi Technology

4
Seminar Li-Fi Technology

1-1 What is the Problem?


Despite continuous improvements in wireless communication systems, e.g. 3G, 4G, etc.., a coming crisis is
expected due to the lack of sufficient Radio Frequency (RF) resources, this limitation in bandwidth cant
support the growth in demand for high data rates and the large numbers of communication systems, as shown in
Figure 1, within the bandwidths between 300 kHz and 4 GHz. Thats known as Spectrum Crunch. [1]

Although, spectrum congestion decreases when we use high frequencies to transfer data, but this not a practice
solution, because this part of spectrum requires complex equipment and causes high cost systems. [2]

Figure 1: Multiple communication systems cause Spectrum Crunch.

So how can we solve this problem?

Actually, there are numbers of technologies that provide realistic and applicable solutions to this issue. One of
them is the Cognitive Radio. [3] It is a new sort of wireless communication with a transceiver architecture
that can intelligently detect which communication channels are in use and which are not, and instantly move
into empty channels to use them to transmit data. Another solution is the transmission of data using visible light
illumination which use very high frequency. In general, this technology known as Visible Light Communication
(VLC). [2]

There are also many brilliant and efficient solutions, in this seminar we will focus on Light Fidelity (Li-Fi)
technology, which is based on VLC.

1-2 Visible Light Communication

Definition
VLC is an optical communication technology that use visible light rays, these rays locate between [400-800]
THz, as optical carrier for data transmission by illumination. It uses fast pulses of light, which cannot be
detected by the human eye, to transmit data. [4] [5] It includes any use of the visible light portion of the
electromagnetic spectrum to transmit information. The VLC standardization process is conducted within IEEE
wireless personal area networks working group (802.15). [6]

5
Seminar Li-Fi Technology

One of VLCs features is providing wide bandwidth as illustrated in Figure 2. We can obviously see that usage
the optical portion of spectrum guarantees about 10,000 times greater bandwidth compares to the usage of the
RF frequencies. [7]

Figure 2: Location of visible light and RF frequencies at electromagnetic spectrum.

Components
As we see in the previous paragraph, VLC is a communication system which consists of a transmitter, a receiver
and a communication channel. The main components of VLC systems are:

High brightness Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) or any light sources, which acts as transmitter.
A silicon photodiode has the roll of a detector and it shows a good response to visible wavelength.
Communication channel is air or fibre optics.

Usually, we add to these components some necessary circuits like a driving circuit and a receiving circuit. The
driving circuit consists of a control circuit and output stage to modify the data and make it ready to be sent and
the receiving circuit consists of a filter to select the required band, amplification stage to provide the required
Signal to Noise ratio in order to demodulate the signal. We show a block diagram of VLC system in Figure 3.
[8]

Figure 3: Block diagram of the VLC system.

6
Seminar Li-Fi Technology

Chapter Two:
Li-Fi Definition, Working Principle
and Advantages

In this chapter, we will talk about Li-Fi technology in detail and show its
history, describe the first project; which called D-Light. In this field, we
explain the working principle for this technology and its advantages.

7
Seminar Li-Fi Technology

8
Seminar Li-Fi Technology

2-1 What is Li-Fi?


Li-Fi is a new technology for short range wireless communication system; which is suitable for data
transmission via LEDs by illumination. It uses the visible light, a part of the electromagnetic spectrum that is
still not greatly utilized, instead of RF part. [9]

Professor Harald Haas, the original founder of Li-Fi technology, in his Technology Entertainment Design
(TED) global talk on Li-Fi says: At the heart of this technology is a new generation of high brightness LEDs,
he also explains Very simply, if the LED is on, you transmit a digital 1, if its off you transmit a 0, they can be
switched on and off very quickly, which gives nice opportunities for transmitted data. It is possible to encode
data in the light by varying the rate at which the LEDs flicker on and off to give different strings of 1s and 0s.
Figure 4 illustrates the idea of data transmission using light. The LED intensity is modulated so rapidly that the
human eye cannot notice, so the output appears constant; also more sophisticated techniques could dramatically
increase Li-Fi data rates such as using array of LEDs, where each LED transmits a different data stream, to
provide parallel data transmission. Other ideas are using mixtures of red, green and blue LEDs to alter the light
frequency encoding a different data channel. In the next paragraphs, we will talk about the history of the
technology, its working principle and its various advantages. [4]

Figure 4: Data transmission via LEDs

2-2 History
The term was first used by Professor Harald Haas from University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom, in his TED
global talk in 2011. Li-Fi idea rates as one of 50 best inventions of 2011 on TED world site on the internet.
[2] [10]

The first project which explains the idea of Li-Fi was The D-Light project. It was funded from January 2010 to
January 2012 at Edinburgh's Institute for Digital Communications by Professor Haas; we will explain this
project in the next paragraph. [11]

Here we show the history of Li-Fi:

2011, Haas promoted this technology in TED global talk and helped start a company to market it. [2]
October 2011, companies and industry groups formed the Li-Fi consortium, to promote high-speed optical
wireless systems and to overcome the limited amount of radio-based wireless spectrum available by
exploiting a completely different part of the electromagnetic spectrum. [11]

9
Seminar Li-Fi Technology

2012, VLC technology exhibited by using Li-Fi Consortium. [12]


October 2013, Chinese manufacturers work on Li-Fi development kits. [11]
April 2014, the Russian company Stins Coman announced the development of a Li-Fi wireless local
network called BeamCaster. Their current module transfers data at 1.25 Gbps. [11]

2-3 D-Light Project


D-Light, which means data through illumination, is the invention of Professor Harald Hass. He says that his
invention can produce data rates faster than 10 Mbps, which is speedier than average broadband connection. He
visualizes a future where data for laptops, smartphones, and tablets is transmitted through the light in a room,
but Haas says that this version is limited by existing LEDs and by the usage of LEDs as transmitters and
detectors at the same time. However, he has created a better LED, which provides a data rate close to 4 Gbps
operating on just 5 milliwatt of optical output power and using high bandwidth photodiodes at the receiver.
Haas says that we can send data with a distance of 10 meters at up to 1.1 Gbps with a simple lens, and soon they
will increase that up to 15 Gbps. The 802.11ad Wi-Fi standard for the 60 GHz radio band reaches just under 7
Gbps, so Li-Fi would more than double of that rate. [13] [14]

D-Light system uses Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) techniques, which allows us to vary
the intensity of the LEDs output at a very fast rate, invisible to the human eye; for the eye, the bulb would
simply be on and providing light. The signal can be picked up by simple receivers. He says: It should be so
cheap that its everywhere. Using the visible light spectrum, which comes for free. [14]

2-4 Working Principle


Li-Fi technology is implemented using white LED light bulbs used for illumination by applying a constant
current. However, by fast variations of the current, the light output can be made to vary at extremely high
speeds. If the LED is on, it transmits a digital 1otherwise it transmits a digital 0. The LEDs can be switched on
and off quickly to transmit data that cant be detected by a human eye. [2]

So what we need at all for sending data are some LEDs and a controller that cods data into those LEDs and for
receiving data, we need an Image Sensor, Photodiode which is used as a detector, these components are shown
in Figure 5.

Figure 5: The main component of Li-Fi system: LEDs, Photodiode and Image sensor.

10
Seminar Li-Fi Technology

The LED bulb will hold a micro-chip that will do the job of processing the data. The light intensity can be
manipulated to send data by tiny changes in amplitude.

Figure 6 shows the working principle of Li-Fi system, for data transmission; it can be done by single LED or
multi LED. On the receiver side there is a photo detector, which convert this light into electric signals and it will
give the electric signals to the device connected to it. Voltage regulator and level shifter circuits are used on
both sides to convert or maintain a voltage level between transmitter and receiver. [12]

Figure 6: The working principle of the Li-Fi.

2-5 Advantages
Li-Fi is ideal for high density wireless data coverage in confined area and for reducing radio interference issues.
Its features include benefits to the capacity, energy efficiency, safety and security of a wireless system; now, we
will talk briefly about each one of these advantages. [4] [12]

I. Efficiency
The efficiency of each radio station is just 5%due to the fact that most of the energy is used for the cooling
system in base of the radio station. Li-Fi is highly efficient because LED consumes less energy. [16] It is
effective in terms of low cost, low required energy and for various Environments. In this topic there are some
main and important points:

Low cost: Requires fewer components than radio technology, due to the cheap price of the LEDs and
Digital components compared with the microwave equipment.
Energy: LED illumination is already efficient and the data transmission does not requires, additional
power because most energy dissipation in LEDs requires little amount of energy.
Environment: RF transmission and propagation in water is extremely difficult but Li-Fi works well in
this environment. [15]
II. Capacity
Any lighting devices like car lights, ceiling lights, street lamps, etc. are used as a hotspot. It means that any light
spread internet using VLC which helps us to lower cost architecture for a hotspot. [12] The most important
issues here are Bandwidth, Data density and speed.

11
Seminar Li-Fi Technology

Bandwidth: The visible light spectrum more abundant 10,000 times compared with the RF spectrum..
Data density: Li-Fi can achieve about 1000 times the data density of Wi-Fi because visible light can be
well contained in a tight illumination area, whereas RF tends to spread out and cause interference.
High speed, Very high data rates can be achieved as high as 500mbps or 30GB per minute due to the
low interference, high device bandwidths and high intensity optical output. [4]
III. Safety
Light is all around us it is a natural part of life and as such there are no health concerns associated with its
use as a communications medium. It never gives any side effects on any living thing like radio waves and other
communication waves which can dangerously interfere with electronic circuits and have effects on birds and
humans. [10]

IV. Security
If you cant see the light, you cant access the data!

Because of the signal will not travel through walls, it is difficult to eavesdrop on Li-Fi signals. You can also see
where the data is going, so there is no need for additional security such as pairing for RF interconnections like
Bluetooth. [15]

12
Seminar Li-Fi Technology

Chapter Three:
Applications of Li-Fi

The applications of Li-Fi are unlimited and promising for the future of
communications on the planet. In this Chapter we will talk about some of
its applications.

13
Seminar Li-Fi Technology

14
Seminar Li-Fi Technology

3-1 Life with Li-Fi


The dramatic growth in the usage of LEDs for lighting provides the opportunity to incorporate Li-Fi technology
into a plethora of LED environments, for instance any lighting devices like car lights, ceiling lights and street
lamps are used as a hotspot which helps us to lower cost architecture for a hotspot.

This technology is particularly suitable for many popular internet applications; you can download movies,
games and music in just a few minutes with the help of Li-Fi. [15] [12]

Figure 7 shows the environment with the Li-Fi technology where light bulbs are used as a data communication
medium to PC, Laptop and Tablet as it all have photo detector connected to it as receiver.

Figure 7: Environment with Li-Fi.

3-2 Applications of Li-Fi


Due to its advantages, Li-Fi has a lot of Life applications. Here we will talk about some important applications
of it.

a. Underwater Communications
Using RF signals is impractical due to strong signal absorption in water. Li-Fi provides a solution for short-
range communications. Submarines could use their headlamps to communicate with each other, process data
autonomously and send their findings periodically back to the surface in Underwater Remotely Operated
Vehicles (ROV). Another important issue is that Li-Fi can even work underwater where Wi-Fi fails completely,
thereby its open for military operations. [16]

15
Seminar Li-Fi Technology

Figure 8 shows water vehicles which use light to communicate with each other and transfer data between them.

Figure 8: Optical Underwater Communications system.

b. Traffic Management
Li-Fi can help in managing the traffic in a better manner and the accident numbers can be decreased. Traffic
lights can communicate to the car and with each other to manage the traffic in the street.

Traffic light can play the role of the sender of the data to provide information to the car on the status of the road
or about the situation of other cars as shown in Figure 9. [15] [16] Also cars can communicate with each other
and prevent accidents by exchanging information. For example, LED car lights can alert drivers when other
vehicles are too close. [12]

Figure 9: Vehicle Visible Light Communications.

c. Airways
We have to switch off mobiles in aircrafts to prevent overlapping of mobile phone signals with navigation and
control signals used by aircraft. Li-Fi can be safely used on planes because it doesn't interfere with RF. [15]
Since it Data is present where light is present, we can use the lights above the seats in the plane as hotspot. [12]

d. Medical Applications
One of the most important features of Li-Fi is that it could be used in hospitals and medical settings that require
the lack of RF signals which affect the medical equipment. For example, OTs (Operation theatres) do not allow

16
Seminar Li-Fi Technology

using Wi-Fi due to radiation concerns because usage of Wi-Fi blocks the signals for monitoring equipments.
So, it may be dangerous to the patient's health. [16]

e. Blind Indoor Navigation System


Indoor navigation is convenient for everyone, and it is especially indispensable for the visually impaired. We
proposed such a navigation system for the visually impaired as shown in Figure 10. LED lights emit visible
light with location data and an embedded system or smartphone with a visible light receiver which receives the
data. The embedded system or smartphone calculates the optimal path to a designation and speaks to the
visually impaired through a headphone. [17]

Figure 10: Indoor Navigation system for Blind people.

f. In Sensitive Areas or in Hazardous Environments


Li-Fi provides a safe communication in environments such as mines and petrochemical plants, because it
doesnt cause electromagnetic interference which appears in RF communications. Li-Fi can also be used in
petroleum or chemical plants where other frequencies could be hazardous. [15]

For example, power plants like nuclear power plants require grid integrity and monitoring of the station
temperature that need fast, inter-connected data systems. Wi-Fi and many other radiation types are bad for
sensitive areas surrounding the power plants. Li-Fi could offer safe, abundant connectivity for all areas of these
sensitive locations. [16]

Moreover this technology also enables us to control plants and their growth without direct presence.

g. Disaster Management
Li-Fi can be used as a powerful means of communication at times of disaster such as earthquake or hurricanes,
for example places like subway stations and tunnels which are common dead zones for most emergency
communications, dont pose obstruction for Li-Fi, so it can be used there, as emergency communication. [16]

17
Seminar Li-Fi Technology

18
Seminar Li-Fi Technology

Chapter Four:
Systems of Li-Fi and Challenges

In this chapter we will talk about some projects that depend on Li-Fi
technology, Comparison between Li-Fi and other wireless technology and
Challenges of Li-fi technology.

19
Seminar Li-Fi Technology

20
Seminar Li-Fi Technology

4-1 Implemented Systems


There is a number of implemented systems and projects which uses Li-Fi technology and provides reliable and
new applications and uses for this technology. Some of these are:

I. pureLiFi Company
PureLiFi, the home of Li-Fi, is recognised as the leader in the field the usage of the visible light spectrum
instead of radio frequencies to enable wireless data communication. PureLiFi provides high-speed wireless
access that offers substantially greater security, safety and data densities than Wi-Fi along with inherent
properties that eliminate unwanted external network intrusion. In addition, the integration of illumination and
data services generates a measurable reduction in both infrastructure complexity and energy consumption. [15]
The management Team of this company say: At pureLiFi, we aim to address and optimally exploit the
opportunities presented by this disruptive technology in conjunction with our Li-Fi ecosystem partners.
Some Products of this company:

a. Li-1st
The Li-1st provides the first major opportunity for customers to rapidly develop and test VLC applications
for cost-effective, high-speed data communication solutions that utilize commercial LED infrastructures. In
Figure 11 we show the working principle diagram of this project. [15]

Figure 11: Li-1st working diagram.


The product offers full duplex communication with a capacity of 5Mbps in both the downlink and uplink
over a range of up to three metres, while simultaneously providing ample desk space illumination. The
distance achieved by the system depends only on the strength of the light source, i.e., the LED light. Li-1st
offers a simple plug-and-play solution for secure wireless point-to-point Internet access with a wide range of
LED luminaires working seamlessly with large 600600 panels, as well as T5 replacement LED tubes or
downlighters. Actually, the Li-1st is a largely LED luminaire agnostic, providing a diverse tool for
deploying and exploiting the shifting, services based, business model of the lighting industry. The system
has been available on limited release since January 2014. [15]

21
Seminar Li-Fi Technology

b. Li-Flame
The Li-Flame is the next generation of the worlds first high-speed wireless network solution using VLC.
Li-Flame delivers:

An extensive range of wireless communication applications including and beyond existing Wi-Fi.
A cost-effective delivery of light and data via a single infrastructure.
More flexible construction environments with the elimination of communication cabling.

The Li-Flame was publicly demonstrated at Mobile World Congress in Barcelona on 2 5 March at the
Scottish Development International stand. [15]

The main products for this project are:

Li-Flame Ceiling Unit (CU)

It has some main advantages which is Data and power via standard Ethernet port, Simple
installation, Multiple access; and Handover control enables seamless switching between Access
points (APs). [15]

Li-Flame Desktop Unit (DU):

This device also has some excellent advantages, Connects to client device via USB, 10Mbps infrared
uplink to ceiling unit, Handover allowing user to move from one AP to the next without losing the
high-speed data connection, Transceiver swivel head can be adjusted by user to optimise the
connection; and Battery-powered and portable. [15]

II. UP-VLC Project


Ultra-parallel visible light communications or (UP-VLC) project is a partnership between 6 research groups at 5
institutions. It is led by Professor M.D. Dawson of the University of Strathclyde and mentored by Professor P.
Blood of Cardiff University. Some of the relevant technical expertise and background accomplishments
brought by the partners of this project are illustrated in Figure 12.

Figure 12: Some of the relevant technical expertise and background accomplishments.
In Figure 13: (a) high-fill-factor chequerboard (square grid) GaN LED/CMOS clusters (Strathclyde/Edinburgh),
(b) 1Gb/s eye diagram from 84m-diameter GaN micro-pixel LED (Strathclyde), (c) flexible organic
semiconductor grating arrays for hybrid LEDs (Strathclyde/St. Andrews), (d) multiple channel VLC link
(Oxford), (e) 124Mb/s real time video VLC transmission demonstration (Edinburgh).

22
Seminar Li-Fi Technology

The project Running from October 2012 to September 2016, UP-VLC is an ambitious EPSRC-funded 4.6
million Programme Grant which will explore the transformative technology of communications in an
imaginative and foresighted way. The vision is built on the unique capabilities of gallium nitride (GaN)
optoelectronics to combine optical communications with lighting functions and especially on the capability to
implement new forms of spatial multiplexing, where individual elements in high-density arrays of GaN based
LEDs provide independent communications channels, but can combine as displays. The engineers who work on
this project say: We envisage ultra-high data density - potentially Tb/s/mm2 - arrays of LEDs driven via
CMOS control electronics in novel addressing and encoding schemes and in compact and versatile forms".

Recently, by integrating CMOS electronics with GaN based micro-LEDs, they have developed CMOS-
controlled color-tunable smart displays. The color-tunable LED pixels in these displays have a modulation
bandwidth of 100 MHz, thus providing simultaneously a wavelength-agile source for high-speed visible light
communications. The programmable dynamic images generated from such a micro-display system are shown
below (red Tetris and green Firework). [18]

Fujitsu Laboratories Working


Fujitsu Laboratories has developed a technology that modulates the colour of light emitted by LED lights in
such a way as to be undetectable to the human eye, but that can still embed ID data in the light that is cast on an
object.

We will talk about two basic concepts: the first one is Key features of this technology and the second is
Reflectance compensation.

The key feature of this technology is that information could be embedded using colour modulations. For more
clarification, we know that colour LEDs combine the three lights of red, green, and blue (RGB) to produce a
range of colours. By modulating the intensity of the light emitted by each of the three component colours along
the time axis, ID data can be embedded in the light cast onto an object, even with very small variations. Data for
one ID is attached to each individual LED light. Figure 13 shows transmit and receive data with colour
modulation.

Figure 13: Colour modulation is used to express and receive data.


When light is cast onto a surface, some of it will be absorbed and some reflected, depending on the reflectivity
of that surface. The signal encoded in the respective RGB wavelengths will wind up being weakened by that
partial absorption, and since this technology uses an image captured by a camera to measure the reflectivity and

23
Seminar Li-Fi Technology

compensate accordingly, information-capturing accuracy has been improved, this issue is called reflectance
compensation. Figure 14 show that reflectance compensation improves accuracy in demodulation process. [19]

Figure 14: Reflectance compensation improves accuracy.

4-2 Li-Fi versus Wi-Fi


Wi-Fi is the popular name for the wireless Ethernet 802.11b standard for Wire line local area networks
(WLANs). It is the name of a popular wireless networking technology that uses radio waves to provide wireless
high-speed Internet and network connections. This technology works with no physical wired connection
between sender and receiver by using RF, a frequency within the electromagnetic spectrum associated with
radio wave propagation. When an RF current is supplied to an antenna, an electromagnetic field is created that
then is able to propagate through space. [20]

Li-Fi is a term of one used to describe visible light communication technology applied to high speed wireless
communication. It acquired this name due to the similarity to Wi-Fi, only using light instead of radio. Wi-Fi is
great for general wireless coverage within buildings, and li-fi is ideal for high density wireless data coverage in
confined area and for relieving radio interference issues, so the two technologies can be considered
complimentary. Li-Fi provides better bandwidth, efficiency, availability and security than Wi-Fi and has already
achieved blisteringly high speed compare with Wi-Fi. It is low-cost technology because of nature of LEDs and
lighting units and there are many opportunities to exploit this medium. Table 1 shows a comparison between Li-
Fi and Wi-Fi. [4] [12]

Table 1: comparison between Li-Fi and Wi-Fi

technology Bandwidth Speed Data Rang Security Power ecological Cost


Expansion Density available impact

Wi-Fi Limited 150 Low medium Good Low medium medium


Mbps (medium)
Li-Fi Exceptional >10 High Low Excellent High Low Low
Gbps (High)

4-3 Challenges for Li-Fi


Apart from many advantages over Li-Fi, this technology is facing some problems such as Li-Fi requires line of
sight (LOS) and receiving device would not be shift in indoors. A major challenge is how the receiving device

24
Seminar Li-Fi Technology

will transmit data back to transmitter. Another important issue is interference from external light sources like
sun light, normal bulbs; opaque materials in the path of transmission will cause interruption in the
communication. Another disadvantage is that Li-Fi doesnt work in the dark or light cant pass through objects,
so if the receiver is inadvertently blocked in any way, then the signal will immediately cut out. And the signal is
easily blocked by somebody simply walking in front of the LED source. [16] [21]

25
Seminar Li-Fi Technology

Conclusion
The possibilities are numerous and can be explored further because the concept of Li-Fi is currently attracting a
lot of eye-balls because it offers a genuine and very efficient alternative to radio based wireless. It has a good
chance to replace the traditional Wi-Fi because as an ever increasing population is using wireless internet, the
airwaves are becoming increasingly clogged, making it more and more difficult to get a reliable, high-speed
signal. In the future, data for laptops, smart phones and tablets can be transmitted through light in the room by
using Li- Fi. Researchers are developing micron sized LED which are able to flicker on and off around 1000
times quicker than larger LED. If this technology can be put into practical use, every bulb can be used as a Wi-
Fi hotspot to transmit wireless data and we will proceed toward the cleaner, greener, safer and brighter future.
This concept promises to solve issues such as the shortage of radio-frequency bandwidth and boot out the
disadvantages of Wi-Fi. Li-Fi is the upcoming and on growing technology acting as competent for various other
developing and already invented technologies. Hence the future applications of the Li-Fi can be predicted and
extended to different platforms and various walks of human life.

Acknowledgement
I would like to express my deep gratitude to Eng. Simon Tarbouche, my scientific supervisor, for patient
guidance, enthusiastic encouragement and useful critiques of this research work. I would also like to thank Dr.
Nizar Zarka, for his advice and assistance in keeping my progress on schedule. My grateful thanks are also
extended to Mr. Sameeh Dlaikan who has grammatically checked my Seminar.

Finally, I wish to thank my parents for their support and encouragement throughout my study.

26
Seminar Li-Fi Technology

References
[1] (2015, jan) Enhanced data transmission protocol for visible light communications. [Online].
http://www.research-innovation.ed.ac.uk/Opportunities/enhanced-data-transmission-for-Li-Fi-
communications.aspx

[2] (2011, Jul) TED. [Online]. http://www.ted.com/talks/harald_haas_wireless_data_from_every_light_bulb

[3] (2010) Techtarget search networking. [Online].


http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/definition/cognitive-radio

[4] Prerna Chauhan, Ritika Tripathi Jyoti Rani, "Li-Fi (Light Fidelity)-The future technology In Wireless
communication," International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, Nov 2012.

[5] M. Mutthamma, "A survey on Transmission of data through illumination - Li-Fi," International Journal of
Research in Computer and, Dec 2013.

[6] (2015) wikipedia. [Online]. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visible_light_communication

[7] Kajal, Ashish Saini Kanchan Gupta, "Lifi- Light Fidelity Technology- A Review," International Journal of
Emerging Research in Management &Technology, vol. 3, no. 10, Oct 2014.

[8] Sylvester C.S. Lo, "Visible Light Communications," The Hong King University of Science and
Technology, 2014.

[9] Teleinfo. (2012, Jan) [Online]. http://teleinfobd.blogspot.in/2012/01/what-is-lifi

[10] (2013, Feb) Seminar projects. [Online]. http://seminarprojects.com/Thread-li-fi-light-fidelity-the-future-


technology-in-wireless-communication

[11] (2011) digplanet. [Online]. http://www.digplanet.com/wiki/Li-Fi

[12] Dharmrajsinh N. Parmar, Khushbu V. Mehta Jay H. Bhut, "LI-FI Technology A Visible Light
Communication," INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT AND RESEARCH,
Jan 2014.

[13] Richard Gilliard, "THE LiFi LAMP HIGH EFFICIENCY HIGH BRIGHTNESS LIGHT EMITTING
PLASMA WITH LONG LIFE AND EXCELLENT COLOR QUALITY," IEEE, Sunnyvale, USA, 2010.

[14] (2011) Good. [Online]. http://magazine.good.is/articles/forget-wifi-it-s-lifi-internet-through-lightbulbs

[15] (2014) pureLiFi. [Online]. http://purelifi.com/

27
Seminar Li-Fi Technology

[16] Raunak, Akshay Sanganal Rahul R. Sharma, "Li-Fi Technology Transmission of data through light," al ,
Int.J.Computer Technology & Applications, Navi Mumbai, India, 2014.

[17] (2014) TOP IEEE Visible Light communication (LiFi) Projects. [Online]. goaltechnologies.in/new/wp-
content/uploads/2012/01/top-embedded-projects-2014-15.docx

[18] (2012) (UP-VLC) project. [Online]. http://up-vlc.photonics.ac.uk

[19] (2014, Nov) Fujitsu. [Online]. http://www.fujitsu.com/global/about/resources/news/press-


releases/2014/1117-01.html

[20] (2011) webopedia. [Online]. http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/W/Wi_Fi.html

[21] Prof. (Dr.) Y.P.Singh, "A Comparative and Critical technical Study of the Li-Fi (A Future
Communication) V/S Wi-Fi," International Journal of IT, Engineering and Applied Sciences Research
(IJIEASR), vol. 2, April 2013.

28
View publication stats