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# Surfaces of Revolution

A surface of revolution is generated by rotation of a plane surface of revolution, which is created by the revolution of
curve z = f(x) about an axis Oz called the axis of the surface the tangent about the axis of the rotation. A vertex of the
of revolution. The resulting surface therefore always has tangent conical surface is located on the axis of revolution.
azimuthal symmetry. Hence, an explicit equation of a surface A parallel is called the neck circle, if tangent planes to the
of revolution can be presented in the following form: surface of revolution in the points on this circle are parallel to
p the axis of revolution and the tangent cylindrical surface is
z f r f x2 y2 ;
located inside the surface of revolution. A parallel is called the
p equator circle, if tangent planes to the surface of revolution in
where r x2 y2 is the distance a point of the surface from the points on this circle are parallel to the axis of revolution
the axis of rotation. Right cylindrical and conical surfaces are and the tangent cylindrical surface is located outside the
examples of surfaces generated by a straight line when the line surface of revolution. A parallel is called the crater circle,
is coplanar with the axis, as well as hyperboloids of one sheet if tangent plane to the surface of revolution in the points on
when the line is skew to the axis. A sphere is a surface of this circle is perpendicular to the axis of revolution and normal
revolution of a circle around an axis which runs through the to the surface of revolution in the points of this parallel are
center of the circle. If the circle is rotated about a coplanar parallel to the axis of revolution and form the normal cylin-
axis, not crossing the circle, then it generates a torus. drical surface.
Meridians are the lines of intersections of a surface of rev- Umbilical points of a surface of revolution are placed on
olution with planes passing through an axis of rotation. All those latitudes on which a center of curvature of a meridian is
meridians of one surface of revolution are congruent to the located on the axis of rotation. Sphere is umbilical surface.
rotated curve. A plane passing through the axis of the surface of Under Alexis-Claude Clairaut theorem, the product of a
revolution is called the meridian plane. It is the plane of sym- radius of a parallel into cosines of an angle of intersection of
metry of the surface. Any surface of revolution has the innite the geodesic line with the parallel is constant along the geo-
number of planes of symmetry. Parallels are the lines of desic line.
intersection of the surface with planes orthogonal to an axis of A surface of revolution admits bending into another
rotation. Meridians and parallels of a surface of revolution are surface of revolution and a net of lines of principal curva-
the lines of principal curvatures. Any normal of surfaces of tures is remained.
revolution intersects its axis of rotation. A surface of revolution Parametrical equations of arbitrary surface of revolution
having more than one axis of rotation is a sphere or a plane. are
Tangents to all meridians in the points located on one
r rr; b r cos bi r sin bj f rk:
parallel circle are lines on the tangent conical (or cylindrical)

## S.N. Krivoshapko and V.N. Ivanov, Encyclopedia of Analytical Surfaces, 99

DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-11773-7_2, Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015
100 2 Surfaces of Revolution

r O x r sin b; y r cos b; zz

z
r where r = r(z) is a function that determines the shape of the
meridian (a prole curve); is the angle of rotation of the
dz
R2
plane of the meridian and then
p
A 1 r 0 2 ; F 0; B rz;
R1 d
1 r 00 1 1
k1  3=2
; k2 p ;
z R1 1 r0 2 R2 r 1 r 0 2

## Fig. 1 where the derivatives with respect to z are denoted by

primes; k1, k2 are principal curvatures of the surface. A
normal curvature of a surface in the direction of the meridian
Assume an equation of a meridian in the form r = r() where is equal to a curvature of the meridian, i.e., k1. Meridians of
is the angle of the normal to the surface passing through a surface of revolution are geodesic lines.
given point with the axis of rotation (Fig. 1) then r R2 sin a. Catenoid is the only one minimal surface of revolution.
Coefcients of the fundamental forms of the surface of revo- One-sheet hyperboloid of revolution, right circular cylinder
lution can be obtained with the help of formulas: and right circular cone are the only ruled surfaces. The last
A Aa R1 a; B Ba r R2 sin a; F 0; two surfaces are the only developable surface of revolution.
If a beginning and an end of unclosed rotated line are placed
L R1 a; M 0; N R2 sin a;
on an axis of rotation then the surface of revolution will be
the closed one.
where R1 is the principal radius of curvature of the meridian
A great deal of surfaces of revolution exists and is studied in
that is the coordinate line of , R2 is the principal radius of
different scientic publications. Tens of surfaces of revolution
curvature of the parallel. The lines = const are parallels and
are presented in this encyclopedia and shown on pages 101104.
the lines = const are meridians.
Such surfaces of revolution as Lochdiskus, Jet Sur-
If an equation of a meridian is given in the form r = r
face, Apple Surface, Kidney Surface, Fish Sur-
(z) (Fig. 1) then an equation of a surface of revolution can be
face, Limpet Torus, Darwin-de Sitter spheroid, and others are
written with the help of three scalar equations:
known but used less and may be found in other original sources.
2 Surfaces of Revolution 101

## The ellipsoid of revolution

The pseudo-sphere The circular torus

The spherical
The catenoid The surface of
surface (sphere)
Paraboloid of revolution rotation of a Neils
parabola

## Conical surface Globoid (toroid)

Surface of revolution of a parabola
of revolution
The Kappa surface

## The one-sheet The bullet nose

hyperboloid of The cylindrical Corrugated surface
revolution surface of revolution of revolution The surface of revolution
of a common sinusoid of a Agnesi curl
102 2 Surfaces of Revolution

Surface of revolution of
The surface of revolution The surface of revolution
of a astroid of the Agnesi curl

## Surface of revolution of the

parabola of arbitrary position The surface of Two-sheeted hyperboloid of
revolution of a cycloid revolution

The surface of
revolution of a sinusoid
The surface of revolution of a hyper- The fourth order
bola z = b/x around the Oz axis paraboloid of revolution

## The pseudo-catenoid Penka The elliptic torus

2 Surfaces of Revolution 103

## Surface of revolution given

by a harmonic function
The parabolic-and-logarithmic
The hyperbolic-and-logarithmic surface of revolution z = ln[x2 + y2]1/2
surface of revolution

## Surface of revolution Pear

Eight surface

Kiss surface
The surface of revolution
with damping circle waves

## The cyclic surface of

revolution
Wedding-ring The parabolic humming-top Drop
104 2 Surfaces of Revolution

## The surface of conjugation of

Fairing of cycloidal type The deformed sphere
two coaxial cylinders of
different diameters

## Surface of revolution Surface of revolution of Surface of revolution of

of the inclined sinusoid the evolvent of the circle the hyperbola of arbitrary
position

## Surface of revolution Surface of revolution Egg The Piriform Surface

Egg of the third order of the fourth order

Soucoupoid
The surface of conjugation of the coaxial
cylinder and the cone

Parametrische Flchen und Krper. http://www.3d-meier.de/ +revolution (2014).
tut3/
2 Surfaces of Revolution 105

## One-sheet hyperboloid of revolution is generated by the

rotation of a hyperbola

x2 =a2  z2 =c2 1

about the Oz axis (Fig. 1). These are twice ruled surfaces.
Through every point of the surface, two straight lines, lying on
the hyperboloid, pass (Fig. 2). A hyperboloid can be con-
structed by rotation of a generatrix straight line about the Oz
axis but the straight generatrix and the axis are skew lines
(Figs. 3 and 4). The surface is the only one ruled surface of
revolution of negative Gaussian curvature. The parallel lying
in a plane z = 0 has a radius r = a and is called a waist
circumference that represents a geodesic line. All of the rest of
Fig. 3
the geodesic lines besides the equator go from innity coming

Fig. 4

## nearer to the equator. One of them intersects the equator and

goes to other half of the surface but others do not reach the
Fig. 1 equator and touching the some parallel, turn back; the third
geodesic lines come nearer asymptotically to the equator.
Forms of denition of one-sheet hyperboloid of
revolution

x2 y2 z 2
 2 1:
a2 c

## x xu; v a sin u  av cos u;

y yu; v a cos u  av sin u;
z zv  cv:

Fig. 2
106 2 Surfaces of Revolution

## Coefcients of the fundamental forms of the surface:

 
A2 a2 1 v2 ; B2 a2 c2 ; F  a2 ;
   1=2
L  ca2 1 v2 = A2 B2  F 2 ;
  1=2
M a2 c= A2 B2  F 2 ; N 0:

## Coordinate lines v (u = const) coincide with one system

of straight lines but the lines u are the parallels of the
hyperboloid of one sheet. In Fig. 3, the hyperboloid is shown
with taking into consideration the upper signs in the para-
metrical equations of the surface. The lower signs are taken
into account in Fig. 4.

## (3) Parametrical equations (Fig. 1):

Fig. 5 The planetarium in Saint Louis, USA
x xr; b r cos b; y yr; b r sin b;
p
z zr c r 2  a2 =a:

## Coordinate lines r and (parallels and meridians) are the

lines of principal curvatures.
(4) Parametrical equations (Fig. 1):
a p
x xz; b c2 z2 sin b;
c
a
p
y yz; b c2 z2 cos b;
c
z z:

## Coordinate lines z and (meridians and parallels) are the

lines of principal curvatures.

## x xb; a acha cos b; y yb; a acha sin b;

Fig. 6 The Cooling Towers, Uzbekistan
z zv csha:
The surface is widely used in civil (Fig. 5) and industrial
Coefcients of the fundamental forms of the surface and (Fig. 6) engineering.
its principal curvatures:

## A acha; F 0; B2 a2 sh2 a c2 ch2 a; Additional Literature

Krivoshapko SN. Static, vibration, and buckling analyses
L acch2 a=B; M 0; N ac=B; and applications to one-sheet hyperboloidal shells of revo-
k1 c=aB; k2 ac=B3 : lution. Applied Mechanics Reviews. 2002; Vol. 55, No. 3,
p. 241-270 (261ref.).
2 Surfaces of Revolution 107

## A surface of a fairing of cycloidal type is formed by the

rotation of a cycloidal curve

x xt at sin t; z zt c1 cos t

## about an axis Oz (Fig. 1). If a = c, then a generatrix curve

becomes a typical cycloid. The form of fairing is dened by a
form of meridian that is given with the help of splines. Assume
a curve generated by the trajectories of the points of an axis of
symmetry of a limaon of Pascal in the process of its rolling
along a cycloid as a generatrix curve of a surface of revolution.
Forms of denition of the surface Fig. 2 c = 4a

(1) Parametrical equations (Figs. 1, 2 and 3): parameters a c, it is possible to seek necessary character-
istics for a fairing. The ratio of maximum height H of the
x xz; b rz sin b; surface to the diameter (2rmax = 2a) of the geodesic parallel
y yz; b rz cos b; and a radius of curvature of the meridian in the frontal point
z z; (z = 2c) are the main characteristics of the fairing.
A radius of curvature R of the meridians in the frontal
where point of the surface is dened by a formula:
"p # 4a2
z2c  z z R :
r rz a arccos  1 ; c
c c
(2) Parametrical equations (Figs. 1, 2 and 3):
is the angle counted off from the coordinate axis Oy in the
direction of the axis Ox; 0  b  2p; 0  z  2c: In Fig. 1, it x xt; c at sin t cos c;
is assumed that c = 2a. y yt; c at sin t sin c;
Coefcients of the fundamental forms of the surface and z zt c1 cos t;
its principal curvatures:
where is the angle counted off from the coordinate axis Ox
a2 z in the direction of the axis Oy; 0  c  2p; 0  t  p.
A 1 2
2
; F 0; B rz;
c 2c  z Coefcients of the fundamental forms of the surface and
r 00 z az its principal curvatures:
k1 k z  3 ;
A A 2cz  z2 3=2
3
A2 a2 1 cos t2 c2 sin2 t; F 0; B at sin t;
1
M 0; k2 kb : ac1 cos t cB
AB L ; M 0; N  sin t;
A A
ac1 cos t c sin t
The contour parallel z = 0 is the only geodesic parallel on k1 kt  ; k2 kc  :
the surface because the tangent lines to the meridians in its A3 AB
points are parallel to the axis of rotation. Choosing the
(3) A particular case of parametrical equations (Fig. 3).

Fig. 1 Fig. 3 c = a
108 2 Surfaces of Revolution

## If one takes c = a, then a surface of rotation of a typical A aB

cycloid about an axis of Oz will be: L ; M 0; N  sin t;
2 A
1 a sin t a sin t
x xt; c at sin t cos c; k1 kt  ; k2 kc  ; K 2 [ 0:
2A AB 2A B
y yt; c at sin t sin c;
z zt a1 cos t:
References
Coefcients of the fundamental forms of the surface and Krutov AV. On movement dened by centroid-and- trajec-
its principal curvatures: tory pairs. Izv. vuzov. Mashinostroenie. 2001; No. 2-3,
p. 3-6 (11 ref.).
A2 2a2 1 cos t; F 0; B at sin t; Krutov AV. Forming curves of fairing. Izv. vuzov. Mashi-
nostroenie. 2002; No. 5, p. 78-80 (3 ref.).

Pseudo-Sphere

number, i.e.

K 1=a2 ;

## in all points of a pseudo-spherical surface (Figs. 1 and 2). A

pseudo-sphere or Beltrami surface is formed by rotation of a
tractrix that is trahere in Latin, about an axis Oz. A tractrix
is an evolvent of the catenary:
z
r ach :
a

## Parametrical equations of a tractrix are written as

x a sin u; Fig. 2
h ui
z a cos u ln tan ; A tractrix can be dened by an explicit equation:
2
p
where 0\u\p; is the angle of the axis Oz with the a  a2  r 2 p
z a ln  a2  r 2 ;
tangent to the tractrix. r

## where the upper signs concern the positive branch z > 0,

lower signs concern the negative branch z < 0 (Fig. 2). A
length of fragment of the tangent line to the tractrix from the
point of tangency till the point of intersection with the Oz
axis is constant and equal to a > 0. The line of the cross
section of a pseudo-sphere by a plane xOy (an edge of a
pseudo-sphere) is the circle with a radius a, all of the rest of
parallels have a less radius r, that is r < a.
A volume of one part of a pseudo-sphere is
pa3
V :
3

## The inner geometry of pseudo-sphere coincides locally

Fig. 1 with the Lobachevski geometry.
2 Surfaces of Revolution 109

Forms of denition of the surface Coefcients of the fundamental forms of the surface and
its principal curvatures:
(1) Parametrical form of denition:
a
A ; F 0; B r;
x xu; v a sin u cos v; r p
y yu; v a sin u sin v; a r a2  r 2
L p ; M 0; N  ;
h ui r a2  r 2 a
z zu a cos u ln tan ; p
2 r a2  r 2
k1 p ; k2  :
a a r
2 2 ar
where is the angle of the axis Oz with the tangent to the
meridian. An edge of a pseudo-sphere has = /2. (3) Parametrical equations:
Coefcients of the fundamental forms of the surface and
its principal curvatures: 1 1
x xc; t cos at; y yc; t sin at;
c c
A aco tan u; F 0; B a sin u;  p p
z zc a ln ac a2 c2  1  a2  1=c2 :
L ac tan u; M 0; N a sin u cos u;
k1  tan u=a; k2 co tan u=a: Coefcients of the fundamental forms of the surface:
Meridians u and parallels v except the edge of the pseudo- a
A B ; F 0;
sphere ( = /2) are the lines of principal curvatures. c
a
(2) Parametrical equations: L  p ; M 0;
c 2 a2 c 2  1
p
x xr; b r cos b; y yr; b r sin b; a a2 c 2  1
h p i p N ;
c2
z zr a ln a a2  r 2 =r  a2  r 2 ;
K 1=a2 const:
where r is the distance an axis of rotation from a corre- Here, using the substitution = 1/r and t = /a, we
sponding point of the pseudo-sphere (r < a), the circum- reduced a linear element of the surface to isothermal form
ference r = a is the edge of the pseudo-sphere. that is when A = B.
An area of the fragment of a pseudo-sphere between the
parallels r = a and r = ro is Additional Literature
Popov AG. Pseudo-spherical surfaces and some problems of
S 2paa  ro :
mathematical physics. Fundamental and Applied Mathe-
matics. 2005; Vol. 11, No. 1, p. 227-239.

Paraboloid of Revolution

parabola
x2 2pz

## about an axis z (Fig. 1). The parabolic surface can be gen-

erated also by translation of a movable parabola y2 = 2pz
along the xed parabola x2 = 2pz (Fig. 2).
The peak of the movable parabola must slide along the z
xed parabola but the plane and the axis of the moving
parabola must remain parallel. The concavities of the both Fig. 1
parabolas must be directed in one side.
110 2 Surfaces of Revolution

## comparison with 1. So, the formulas obtained will take the

simplied form for shallow middle surfaces of shells:

A B 1; F 0; L 1=p N; M 0;
kx ky 1=p:

## Fig. 2 (2) Parametrical equations (Fig. 1):

Paraboloid of revolution possesses the interesting optical x xr; b r cos b; y yr; b r sin b;
property. The light rays coming from the focus after the z zr r =2p:
2

## reflection of them from the surface of the paraboloid will go

parallel to the axis of paraboloid of revolution. Coefcients of the fundamental forms of the surface and
its principal curvatures:
Forms of denition of the surface
A2 1 r 2 =p2 ; F 0; B r;
(1) Explicit form of denition (Fig. 2):
L 1=pA; M 0; N r 2 =pA;
2z x2 y2 =p: k1 1=pA3 ; k2 L:

Coefcients of the fundamental forms of the surface and (3) Parametrical equations (Fig. 1):
its curvatures: p
x xu; v a u=h cos v;
x2 xy y2 p
A2 1 2
; F 2 ; B2 1 2 ; y yu; v a u=h sin v;
p p p
z zu u where u  0; 0  v  2p:
1 L
L p N; M 0; k [ 2 ;
p x y
2 2 2 A
The paraboloid has a radius r = a at the height of z = h.
L An area of the lateral surface of a paraboloid of revolution is
k 2 ; k1 L; k2 p2 L3 :
B h 3=2 3 i  2 
On the surface of a paraboloid of revolution, coordinate S pa a2 4h2  a = 6h :
lines x, y generate Tchebychefs net, i.e., every quadrangle
formed by the lines of curvilinear coordinate net has equal A volume of a paraboloid of revolution is V = a2h/2 if
opposite sides. The coordinate net is non-orthogonal (F 0) 0  v  2p; 0  u  h:
but conjugate (M = 0).
The partial derivatives z/x and z/y are much less than
one in strength analyses of real shallow shell objects and that
is why it is possible to neglect squares of the derivatives in

Fig. 3 The glass dome of museum, Kiev, Ukraine Fig. 4 A planetarium in Bochum, Germany
2 Surfaces of Revolution 111

Coefcients of the fundamental forms of the surface and The surface is widely used in civil (Fig. 3) and industrial
its principal curvatures: (Fig. 4) engineering.
a2 a2 u
A2 1 ; F 0; B2 ; Additional Literature
4uh h Krivoshapko SN. Parabolic shells of revolution. Montazhn. i
a 2au
L p ; M 0; N p ; spetz. raboty v stroitelstve. 1999; No. 12, p. 5-12 (63 ref.).
2u a 4uh
2 a 4uh
2

L N
k1 2 ; k2 2 :
A B

Circular Torus

circumference
x  a 2 z 2 b2

## about an axis Oz. An open torus is a torus (Fig. 1) generated

by rotation of a circumference about an axis lying outside
limit of this circle (a > b). A closed torus (Horn Torus) is a
torus generated by rotation of a circumference about an axis
Fig. 3 The torus with a = 0 (a sphere)
touching (a = b, Fig. 2) or intersecting (a < b, Figs. 3 and 4)
the circle. The inner part of surface of an open torus is a
surface of negative Gaussian curvature but the outer surface
is a surface of positive Gaussian curvature (Figs. 1, 2 and 3).

## (1) Implicit equations:

 2 2  
x y2 z2 a2  b2 4a2 x2 y2 :
Fig. 2 The torus with a = b (the closed torus)
112 2 Surfaces of Revolution

## (2) Parametrical equations: p 

a a 2 b2  b
y yu; b p sin u;
a 2 b2
x xu; v a b cos v cos u; bb
y yu; v a b cos v sin u; z p2 ; b a tan a;
a b
2
z zv b sin v;
where is the angle of the straight line, connecting the
where a is a radius of the centers of generatrix circles, b is a center of the generatrix circle of the radius b with arbitrary
radius of a generatrix circle, an angle u is called an inner point of the torus, with a plane z = 0.
latitude of a point of the torus; 0  u  2p; 0  v  2p; a Coefcients of the fundamental forms of the surface and
ratio b/a is an eccentricity of torus. On a circular torus its principal curvatures:
besides parallels and meridians, two families of plane circles, p
called Villarceau circles, exist. They can be seen in the cross aa2 b2  b ab
sections of a torus by a plane touching the torus at two A p ; F 0; B ;
2 b2
a b
2 2 a
points. A radius of Villarceau circles is equal to a. p
An area of the whole surface of a torus is 42ab, its a2 a2 b2  b a2 b
volume is 22ab2. L ; M 0; N ;
a2 b 2
a2 b2 2
Coefcients of the fundamental forms of the surface: q
k1 ku 1= a2 b2  b; k2 kv 1=b:
A a b cos v; F 0; B b;
L a b cos v cos v; M 0; N b;
(4) Parametrical equations of a circular torus if
K cos v=bA: a = b (Fig. 2):
Assume a < b (Fig. 4), then the angle v changes in the achc  1
limit of x xc; u cos u;
chc
achc  1
 arccosa=b  v  arccosa=b; y yc; u sin u;
chc
but if we want to have the torus (the lemon) shown in Fig. 4b z athc:
then we must take

## arccosa=b  v  2p arccosa=b: Additional Literature

Gulyaev VI, Bazhenov VA, Gotzulyak EA, Gaydaychuk VV.
An Analysis of Shells of Complex Form. 1990; Kiev:
(3) Parametrical equations: Budivelnik, 192 p.
p  Kutzenko GV. Axis-symmetrical deformation of a circular
a 2 b2  b
a torus. PM. 1979; Vol. 15, No. 11, p. 46-51.
x xu; b p cos u;
a 2 b2

Elliptic Torus z
b
An elliptic torus is generated by the rotation of an ellipse of Mo
arbitrary position (Fig. 1): c r
O v

x xv a r cos v; z zv r sin v; -c
-b
where r rv p
cb
; b m  h, about an a
2 b sin bc cos b
2 2 2

## axis Oz; = const is the slope angle of the semi-axis of the

ellipse with the plane xOy. Fig. 1
2 Surfaces of Revolution 113

form:

## x xu; v a r cos v cos u;

y yu; v a r cos v sin u;
z zv r sin v;

## Fig. 2 where a is the radius of the circle generated by the point

of the intersection of the axes and of the generatrix
ellipse (Fig. 1); r is the distance the point of the inter-
section of the ellipses axes from an arbitrary point M o
belonging to the ellipse; b, c are the semi-axes of the
ellipse; 0  u  2p; 0  v  2p; u is the angle of the axis
Ox with the axis Oy.
If one of the axes of the generatrix ellipse, for example,
Fig. 3
the axis, is parallel to the axis of rotation Oz, then it is
necessary to assume = /2. If we take b = c, then we shall
have r = b, v = , but an elliptical torus will degenerate into
a circular torus where a will be a radius of the centers of
generatrix circles with the radius of b.
Coefcients of the fundamental forms of the surface:

A a r cos v; F 0;
b4 sin2 b c4 cos2 br 6
B2 ;
c 4 b4
 2 
A c  b2 2
Fig. 4 L r r sin 2b sin v cos v ;
B 2c2 b2

## An open elliptic torus is a torus formed by the rotation of r6

M 0; N  :
an ellipse about an axis Oz lying outside of the limit of this c 2 b2 B
ellipse (Figs. 1 and 2).
Having assumed a = 0, we can design an oblique ellip-
A closed torus is a torus generated by rotation of an
soid of revolution (Fig. 5a, b and c).
ellipse about an axis Oz touching (Fig. 3) or intersecting
(Fig. 4) the ellipse.
An ellipse touches an axis of rotation if the condition
Clark RA, Girloy TI. and Reissner E. Stresses and defor-
x/v = 0 carries out or
mation of toroidal shells of elliptical cross section. J. Appl.
  Mech. 1953; Vol. 20, No. 4.
r 2 c2  b2 sin2v  h 2c2 b2 tan v:

Fig. 5
114 2 Surfaces of Revolution

## Surface of Revolution of a Curve z = b exp(a2x2)

Around the Z Axis

2 2

## about a coordinate axis z.

Forms of denition of the surface
a = b = 1;
(1) Parametrical equations (Fig. 1): 2 u, v 2m

x xu u; y yv v; z b expa2 u2 v2 : Fig. 1

## The surface is called Die Glocke in German.

(2) Parametrical equations (Fig. 2):

a2 r 2
z zr be ;

## where 0  r\1; 0  b  2p; z  b.

a = b = 1;
(3) An explicit equation (Fig. 1): z bea x y2
2 2
0 r 2m

Fig. 2

## Two-sheeted hyperboloid of revolution is formed by rotation

of a hyperbola

x2 z 2
 1; Fig. 2
a2 c 2

about its focal axis (an axis Oz). The surface has two separate cut a hyperboloid by a plane y = t = const, then hyperbolas
sheets when the axis of revolution is the transverse axis. p
z  c a2 t2 x2 =a will be in the cross section (Fig. 2),
A section of a hyperboloid by a plane z = h > c = const
p but having intersected a hyperboloid by a plane x = p =
gives a circle with a radius r a h2  c2 =c (Fig. 1). If we p
const, we can have hyperbolas z  c a2 p2 y2 =a
(Fig. 2).
The peaks of two sheets of hyperboloid are placed at the
z points with coordinates (0, 0, c). The signs correspond two
sheets of hyperboloid. Two-sheeted hyperboloid of revolu-
tion belongs to a class of not closed central surfaces of the
second order. It is a particular case of hyperboloid of two
sheets which is presented in Chap. 35. Surfaces of the
second order.
O
y
Forms of denition of the surface
x

## (1) Implicit equation:

x2  y2 z2
2 1;
a2 c

Fig. 1
2 Surfaces of Revolution 115

## where a and c are the semi-axes of a hyperboloid of revo- y yz; b r cos b;

lution, jzj  c; a2/c = p is a focal parameter of meridian. A a p
z z; where r z 2  c2 :
hyperboloid is called a right hyperboloid of revolution if c
a = c. It is formed by rotation of an equilateral hyperbola.
An asymptotical cone of two-sheeted hyperboloid of revo- Coefcients of the fundamental forms of the surface and
lution is dened by an implicit equation: its principal curvatures:
p
x2 y2 z2 A 1 r0 2 ; F 0; B rz;
 2 0:
a2 c 1 r 00
1 1
k1  3=2 ; k2 p ;
A hyperboloid of revolution is a quadric surface. R1 1 r0 2 R2 r 1 r 0 2

(2) Explicit equation (Fig. 2): where the rst and second derivatives of r with respect to
parameter z are denoted by primes.
c p

z a2 x 2 y 2 (5) A parametrical form of denition with the help of polar
a
coordinates of the meridians (Fig. 1):
(3) Parametrical equations (Fig. 1):
x xu; b q sin u sin b;
x xu; v ashu cos v; y yu; v ashu sin v; y yu; b q sin u cos b;
z cchu:
z zu q cos u;
Coefcients of the fundamental forms of the surface and
where
its principal curvatures: r
p a2 a2
A2 a2 ch2 u c2 sh2 u; q ; p ; e 1 2;
1  e cos u c c
F 0; B ashu; 1
ac h  u  p h; cos h :
L  ; M 0; e
A
ac
N  sh2 u; Additional Literature
A
ac c Vasilev AN. Stability of anisotropic two-sheeted hyperbo-
k1  3 ; k2  : loid of revolution with lling material. Kazan: KFEI, 1991;
A aA
14 p., 6 ref., Dep. v VINITI 08.07.91, No. 2887-91.
Coordinate lines u, v are the lines of principal curvatures. Gritskevich OV, Meshcheryakov NA, Podyapolskii YuV,
Precision laser processing of curved surfaces of revolution,
(4) Parametrical equations (Fig. 1):
QUANTUM ELECTRON. 1996; 26 (7), p. 644-646.
x xz; b r sin b;

y
Surface of Conjugation of Two Coaxial Cylinders of r ()

Different Diameters 0  2b
R2

R1

R1

R2

## The surface is formed by rotation of the sinusoid about a

common axis of two conjugated cylinders (Fig. 1).
2b
Parametrical equations of the surface of conjugation are
(Figs. 1 and 2).
Fig. 1
116 2 Surfaces of Revolution

## Coefcients of the fundamental forms of the surface and

its principal curvatures:
p2 pa
A2 1 R2  R1 2 sin2 ; F 0; B ra;
16b2 2b
p2 R2  R1 pa B
L cos ; M 0; N ;
8b2 A 2b A
p2 R2  R1 pa 1
ka k 1  cos ; kb k2 ;
8b2 A3 2b AB
p2 R2  R1 pa
Fig. 2 K  cos ;
8b2 A4 B 2b
p2 R2  R1 fR2  R1  R2 R1 cospa=2bg 16b2
x xa; b ra cos b; y ya; b ra sin b; H :
32b2 A3 B
z a;
A curvilinear coordinate net is given in lines of principal
where curvatures , . If R2 [ R1 , then the surface has a segment of
R2  R1  pa negative Gaussian curvature if 0  a  b and of positive
r ra 1  cos R1
2 2b Gaussian curvature if b  a  2b. In Fig. 2, the surface of
pa
R2  R1 sin2 R1 conjugation is shown with
4b
R2 3R1 ; b 3R1 ; 0  a  2b; 0  b  2p:
is a law of change of a radius of the studied surface of
conjugation along an axis Oz (an axis of rotation); R2  R1 ; The surface in issue is a component of subclass Cor-
0  a  2b; 2b is a length of a segment between two cylin- rugated surface of revolution of a common sinusoid con-
ders of different diameters; is the angle in the planes of tained also in a class Surface of revolution. A surface of
parallels taken from the axis Ox in the direction of the axis conjugation degenerates into a cylindrical surface of revo-
Oy; 0  b  2p: lution if R1 = R2.
Two parallels placed in the cross sections z = 0 and
z = 2b are geodesic lines, because the tangent to the meridians Additional Literature
at the points of these parallels are parallel to the axis of rotation. Gulyaev VI, Bazhenov VA, Gotzulyak EA, Gaydaychuk VV.
All meridians of the surface of revolution are geodesic An Analysis of Shells of Complex Form. 1990; Kiev:
lines too. Budivelnik, 192 p.

## Surface of Revolution Wellenkugel

x u coscos u cos v;
Information about a surface of revolution Wellenkugel is y u coscos u sin v;
presented in sites given in References. This surface has z u sincos u:
parametrical equations:
In Fig. 1, the surface with 0  u  14; 5 m; 0  v  1; 5p
is shown.

References
1. Mathematics Museum (Japan). Introduction to Geometry,
Ibaraki University, 2002, http://mathmuse.sci.ibaraki.ac.jp/
MuseumE.html
2. Parametrische Flchen und Krper.http://www.3d-mei
er.de/tut3/Seite63.html

Fig. 1
2 Surfaces of Revolution 117

## A surface of conjugation of coaxial cylinder and cone is a

fragment of a corrugated surface of revolution of a common
sinusoid. It is formed by rotation of a curve
y a1  cos2pz=c R1

## about an axis Oz. Having assumed two necessary conditions

2pa 2pb
sin tan u and Fig. 2
 c c 
2pb
a 1  cos R1 R2 ;
c
Forms of denition of the surface
we may design a surface of conjugation of coaxial cylinder
with a radius R1 and circular cone with the angle at the (1) Parametrical equations:
vertex and with a base having a radius R2 (Fig. 1). So,
having six constants R1, R2, a, b, c, and , one may take four x xz; b r cos b;
constants as desired but two remaining geometrical constants y yz; b r sin b;
are derived from the system of two presented equations. zz
Moreover, it is necessary to take a < 0 when R1 > R2.
For example, let us consider that R1, R2, c, and are where
given, then the rest two parameters a and b can be obtained
with the help of formulas: r rz a1  cos2pz=c R1 ;
" #
1 R1  R2 2 c2 tan2 u 0  z  b; b\c; 0  b  2p (Figs. 1 and 2).
a ;
R1  R2 2 8p2 Coefcients of the fundamental forms of the surface:
c c tanu
b arcsin if u [ 0; 4p2 a2 2 2pz
2p 2pa A2 1 sin ; F 0; B rz;
c2 c
R2 > R1 (Fig. 1) or < 0, R2 < R1 and 4ap2 2pz r
L  2 cos ; M 0; N :
c A c A
c c c tan u
b  arcsin if u\0; R2 [ R1 or 4ap2 2pz 1
2 2p 2pa k1 kz  2 3 cos ; k2 kb ;
u [ 0; R2 \R1 : cA c rA
4ap2 2pz
K  2 4 cos :
c rA c

## All meridians and also the parallels z = 0, z = c/2, and

y
z = c on surface of a coaxial cylinder and a cone are geodesic
2R2

2R1

## positive Gaussian curvature in the limits of c/4 < z < 3c/4 if

 a > 0 and fragments of negative Gaussian curvature in the
O z;
limits of 0 < z < c/4 and 3c/4 < z < c if a > 0.
The surface of conjugation shown in Fig. 1 has the fol-
lowing geometrical parameters: R2 = 1.5R1, c = 4R2, and
= /6.
b
c The surface of conjugation with R1 = 1.5R2, c = 4R2, and
= /6 is presented in Fig. 2.
Fig. 1
118 2 Surfaces of Revolution

Fig. 5

Fig. 3

Fig. 6

## (2) Parametrical equations:

x xz; b r cos b;
y yz; b r sin b;
z z;
r r z a1  cos2pz=c R1 ;
a R2  R1 ;

## where b = c/4; c = 2a/ tan if > 0, a > 0 (Fig. 3) or < 0,

a < 0 (Fig. 4) and b = 3c/4; c = 2a/tan if < 0, a > 0
(Fig. 5) or > 0, a < 0 (Fig. 6).
Coefcients of the fundamental forms of the surface are
dened by the formulas given for the rst variant.
The surfaces shown in Figs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 are con-
structed when || = /6.

Reference
Fig. 4
Krivoshapko SN. Model surfaces of connecting fragments of
two pipe lines. Montazhn. i spetz. raboty v stroitelstve. 2005;
No.10, p. 25-29.

## Surface Formed by Rotation of a Meridian in the Forms of denition of the surface

Form of Semicubical Parabola
(1) Explicit equation:
A surface is generated by rotation of a semicubical parabola p
z = bx2/3 (Neils parabola) about an axis Oz. This surface of z b 3 x2 y2 :
revolution has a singular point with coordinates (0, 0, 0).
2 Surfaces of Revolution 119

## (2) Parametrical equations: z

 1=3
x u3 ; y v3 ; z b u6 v 6 :

x xr; b r cos b;
y yr; b r sin b;
2
z zr br 3 :

## Coefcients of the fundamental forms of the surface and

its principal curvatures: O
x y

4b2 2
A2 1 r 3 ; F 0; B r; Fig. 1
9
2b 4 2b 2
L  r 3 ; M 0; N r3 ;
9A 3A 2b 4 2b 4
k1  r 3 ; k2 r 3:
9A3 3A

the Oz Axis

b
z p :
x y2
2

## A surface of rotation of a hyperbola z = b/x about the axis

Oz can be reckoned also in Tzitzicas surface with central Fig. 1
afne invariant equal to I = 4/(27b2).
(2) Parametrical equations (Fig. 1):
The surface of rotation of a hyperbola is a surface of
x xr; b r cos b; y yr; b r sin b; strictly negative Gaussian curvature. Not a single parallel
will be a geodesic line.
z zr b=r;
If we assume b = 1, i.e., z = 1/x on [1, ], then we have
Gabriels Horn, or Gabriels Trumpet, due to a highly
where x > 0, y > 0, r b=r:
unusual and paradoxical trait. The volume of Gabriels Horn
Coefcients of the fundamental forms of the surface and
is equal to on [1, ] and the area of lateral surface is equal
its principal curvatures:
to innity, i.e., A = , on [1, ]. So, we have a surface
b2 with innitive surface area enclosing a nite volume.
A2 1 ; F 0; B r;
r4
L ; M 0; N  ; Tzitzica G. Sur une nouvelle classe de surface. Comptes
Ar 3 Ar
2b b Rendus, Acad. Sci. Paris. 1907; 144, p. 1257-1259.
k1 3 3 ; k2  3 :
r A r A
120 2 Surfaces of Revolution

Parabolic Humming-Top z

## A surface Parabolic humming-top has a parabola, as a

h
meridian, the axis of which is perpendicular to the axis of
rotation but a peak of the parabola is lying at the axis of x
rotation, i.e., on an axis z (Fig. 1).
This surface called also Der Kreisel can be given by
h2
parametrical equations (Fig. 2):
2p

jzj  h2
x cos b;
2p Fig. 1
2
jzj  h
y sin b; z z;
2p

## where h is a height of one sheet of the surface; h2/(2p) is a

radius of the equator of the surface of revolution (Fig. 1);
h  z  h; 0  b  2p: The peaks of two generatrix
parabolas are placed in the points with coordinates (0;
0; h). This surface contains two segments of a surface of
rotation of a parabola (Page 123).

Fig. 2

Surface of Revolution of an Astroid The surface has two singular points in the poles of the
surface with the coordinates x = y = 0, z = a and an edge
A surface of revolution of an astroid can be generated by the of regression that is the parallel r = a when z = 0.
rotation of a astroid x2/3 + z2/3 = a2/3 about its axis Ox or Oz
(Fig. 1). (2) Parametrical equations:

## Forms of denition of the surface x xr; b r cos b;

y yr; b r sin b;
(1) Explicit equation:
z  a2=3  r 2=3 3=2 ;
h  1=3 i32
z  a2=3  x2 y2 : where 0  r  a:
Coefcients of the fundamental forms of the surface and
its principal curvatures:
a1=3
A ; F 0; B r;
r p
a1=3 r a2=3  r 2=3
L p ; M 0; N  ;
3r a2=3  r 2=3 a1=3
p
1 a2=3  r 2=3
k1 1=3
p ; k2  ;
3ar a2=3  r 2=3 ra1=3
1
K  4=3 2=3 \0:
3r a

Fig. 1
2 Surfaces of Revolution 121

## Coefcients of the fundamental forms of the surface and

(3) Parametrical equations: its principal curvatures:
x xt; b a sin3 t cos b; y yt; b a sin3 sin b; A 3a sin t cos t; F 0; B a sin3 t;
z zt a cos3 t: L 3a sin t cos t; M 0; N a sin3 t cos t;
2 cos t
k1 ; k2  ; K\0:
3a sin 2t a sin3 t

Astroidal Torus

## A surface of the rotation of an astroid is formed by an

astroid
x2=3 z2=3 a2=3 Fig. 1

## rotating about any of two its axes Ox or Oz. If an astroid

x xu a cos3 u; z zu a sin3 u

## is placed at the r distant from the axis of rotation, then we

will have an astroidal torus. An inner area bounded by an
astroid is
3 Fig. 2
A pa2 :
8

## A length of full astroid is 6a. It can be noted that an

astroid is an evolute of the ellipse. The evolute of an astroid
is another astroid.
An astroidal torus can be dened by parametrical
equations:

## X Xu; v r xu cos h  zu sin h cos v;

Y Yu; v r xu cos h  zu sin h sin v;
Z Zu xu sin h zu cos h; Fig. 3

where is the angle of rotation of local axes x, z of the The astroidal torus with = 0, 0  v  2p, p  u  p,
generatrix astroid in the vertical plane containing the axis a = r = 1 m is given in Fig. 2.
The local coordinate system is rotated counter-clockwise if The right astroidal torus is represented in Fig. 3 when
the angle has positive value. a = 1 m, r = 2 m, = 0.25; 0  v  2p; p  u  p:
An astroidal torus degenerates into an astroidal surface
of revolution when r = 0, = 0 (Fig. 1). Additional Literature
In Fig. 1, the astroidal torus is given when a = 1 m, Weisstein EW. Astroid from MathWorld.
r = 2 m, = 0, 0  v  2p; p  u  p:
122 2 Surfaces of Revolution

## The meridians of a surface of revolution of the Agnesi curl

about its asymptote intersect the plane z = 0, perpendicular to
the rotation axis, at angle of 90 (Fig. 1). An implicit
equation of an Agnesi curl is
z2 y 4a2 2a  y:

## The circle with a radius 2a lies in the cross section of this

surface of revolution by the plane z = 0. This parallel is a
geodesic line.
Forms of denition of the surface

## (1) Implicit equation:

! Fig. 1
2a
z 4a
2 2
p  1 :
x2 y2
4a4
A2 1 ; F 0; B r;
r 4 2a=r  1
(2) Parametrical equations (Fig. 1): 2a2 3a  2r 2a2
L ; M 0; N  p ;
Ar 4 2a=r  13=2 Ar 2a  1
x xr; b r cos b; y yr; b r sin b;
L N
z zr 2a2a=r11=2 : k1 kr 2 ; k2 kb 2 \0:
A B
Coefcients of the fundamental forms of the surface and
So, > 0 if r > 1.5a; < 0 if r < 1.5a and = 0 on the
its principal curvatures:
parallel r = 1.5a.

## Deformed Sphere where a is a constant parameter, p=2  u  p=2;

0  v  2p.
Surface of revolution Deformed Sphere is a closed surface A Deformed Sphere is degenerated into a sphere when
consisting of two parts one of which is a surface of positive a = 0 and a = .
Gaussian curvature but another one is of negative Gaussian Coefcients of the fundamental forms of the surface and
curvature. These parts of the surface are jointed along the its principal curvatures:
plane circle with parabolic points.
Deformed Sphere has the following parametrical A2 sin2 u cos2 u  a; F 0; B cos u;
equations (Fig. 1): cos a cos u cosu  a
L ; M 0; N ;
x xu; v cos u cos v; A A
cos a cosu  a
y yu; v cos u sin v; k1 3 ; k2 :
A A cos u
z zu sinu  a
2 Surfaces of Revolution 123

## a=0 a = 0,5 a=1

a =1,25 a = /2 a = 1,7

a=2 a=
Fig. 1

## A paraboloid of revolution is formed by rotation of a

the parabola. A surface of revolution of a parabola is gen-
erated by rotation of a parabola about a straight line that is
perpendicular to the axis of the parabola, i.e., is parallel to
the directrix of the parabola. A parabola has the only one
directrix which is p away from its focus.
The general surface of revolution of a parabola is
obtained when a parabolic arc is rotated about an arbitrary (a>0)
axis. In the encyclopedia, this surface is called a surface of
revolution of a parabola of arbitrary position. Fig. 1
124 2 Surfaces of Revolution

(a = b = 0)

Fig. 2

## (1) Parametrical equations (Fig. 1):

x xr; b r cos b;
(b > 0)
y yr; b r sin b;
p Fig. 3
z zr 2pr  a;
(2) Parametrical equations (Figs. 1 and 2):
where r = a is the radius of the waist circle, p is a distance

the focus from the directrix of the parabolic meridian, x xz; b a z2 =2p cos b;
j xj  a, j yj  a, 0  b  2p. The surface of revolution is

## y yz; b a z2 =2p sin b;

formed by the rotation of a parabola z2 = 2p(x a) about the
z z:
z axis. The surface of revolution with a > 0 is shown in
Fig. 1. If one takes a = 0, then he will design the surface
Coefcients of the fundamental forms of the surface and
represented in Fig. 2.
its principal curvatures:
Coefcients of the fundamental forms of the surface and
its principal curvatures: z2 z2
A2 1 ; F 0; Br a ;
p2 2p
p
A2 1 ; F 0; B r; 1 B
2r  a L ; M0 N ;
pA A
p2 1 1
L ; k1 kz ; k 2 kb  ;
A2pr  a3=2 pA3 AB
pr 1
M 0; N p ; K  4 \0:
A 2pr  a pA B
p2
k1 kr  ;
A3 2pr  a3=2
p (3) Parametrical equations (Figs. 3 and 4):
k2 kb p ; K\0:
Ar 2pr  a  
z2
x xz; b  b cos b;
2p
A surface of revolution of a parabola belongs to surfaces  2 
of negative Gaussian curvature if a 0. A directrix of the z
y yz; b  b sin b;
family of meridians becomes the axis of rotation when a = p. 2p
z z;
2 Surfaces of Revolution 125

## formed when b = 0. In Fig. 3, the surface with b > 0 is

presented.
p p
Having assumed b > 0 and  2pb\z\ 2pb, we can
design a barrel-shaped surface of revolution (Fig. 4).
In several works, the surfaces shown in Figs 1, 2, 3 and 4
were called a parabolic torus.

Darevskiy VM. A method of stability analysis of shells of
revolution subjected to torsion. Izv. AN SSSR, MTT. 1989;
No. 6, p. 169-176.
Fig. 4 Nedeshev YuB, Popov AYu. A method of determination of
particular dimensions of shells of revolution. Izv. AN SSSR,
where b 0 is the distance the peak of the parabola MTT. 1991; No. 3, p. 118-126.
from the axis of rotation. The surface shown in Fig. 2 is

## A parabolic-and-logarithmic surface of revolution of posi-

tive Gaussian curvature is formed by rotation of a plane
curve
p
r rz a cz b lncz b

Forms of denition of the surface

## (1) Parametrical equations (Fig. 1):

x xz; b rz sin b;
Fig. 1
y yz; b rz cos b;
z z:
ac2 lncz b rz
L ; M 0; N ;
The indeterminacy in the form of 0  1 existing at the 4Acz b 3=2 a
point zo (czo + b = 0) is disclosed and leads to an equality r
ac2 lncz b
(zo) = 0. The parallel, lying in the plane z = 0, has a radius k1 ;
ro = ab1/2 lnb. 4A3 cz b3=2
Coefcients of the fundamental forms of the surface and 1 c2
k2 ; K [ 0:
its principal curvatures: rzA 4A4 cz b2
 2
a2 c2 lncz b
A 1
2
1 ; F 0;
p Nazarov GI, Puchkov AA. An equilibrium of a parabolic-
B rz a cz b lncz b;
and-logarithmic surface of revolution. Prikl. Mat. i Mehan-
ika (Moscow). 1991; 55, No. 5, p. 867-869.
126 2 Surfaces of Revolution

Hyperbolic-and- Logarithmic Surface of Revolution Parametrical equations of the studied surface of revolu-
tion can be written as (Fig. 1):
A hyperbolic-and-logarithmic surface of revolution of neg-
ative Gaussian curvature has meridians: x xz; b rz sin b;
r rz az b2 lnz b; y yz; b rz cos b;
z z:
where a > 0 is a constant characterizing the form of the
surface (Fig. 1). A constant b does not influence on the form Coefcients of the fundamental forms of the surface and
of the surface but the position of the beginning of coordi- its principal curvatures:
nates depends on the parameter b. The beginning of a system A2 1 a2 z b2 1 2 lnz b2 ;
of Cartesian coordinates is placed at the peak of the surface
of revolution when b = 0. The axis Oz is an axis of rotation. F 0; B rz az b2 lnz b;
The indeterminacy in the form of 0  1 existing at the peak a2 lnz b 3 rz
L ; M 0; N ;
when z = b is disclosed due to de lHopitale rule. So, one A A
will obtain: a2 lnz b 3 1
k1  ; k2 ;
r r z b 0: A3 rzA
3 2 lnz b
K \0:
z b2 lnz bA4

## In Fig. 1, the hyperbolic-and-logarithmic surface of rev-

olution is shown when a = 0.5; b = 0; 0:1  z  4 m;
rmax = 11.09 m if z = 4 m.

Nazarov GI, Puchkov AA. An inverse problem for a shell of
revolution of negative Gaussian curvature. Izv. Vuzov:
Fig. 1 Stroit. i Arhitectura. 1990; No. 12, p. 22-24.

Bullet Nose
z zv b= tan v;
Bullet Nose is formed by rotation of a curve: x\a; y\a; 0  u  2p; 0\v  p=2:
p
x az b2 z2 (Figs. 1 and 2) about a coordinate axis z.
(2) Implicit equation
Forms of denition of the surface
b2 z2 x2 y2 a2 z2
(1) Parametrical equations (pc. 3):
x xu; v a cos v cos u;
y yu; v a cos v sin u;
2 Surfaces of Revolution 127

Fig. 1

Fig. 2

## The fourth-order paraboloid of revolution is formed by

z (Fig. 1). This surface is also called a quartoid.
Forms of denition of the surface

## (1) Explicit equation:

 2
cz x2 y2 : Fig. 1

## Having assumed c = a3, we can get a poweroid (Jackway

and Deriche).
In the cross section of the surface of revolution by the
planes z = h = const, circles with radii
p
r hc
4

## (2) Parametrical equations (Figs. 1 and 2):

x xr; b r cos b;
y yr; b r sin b;
Fig. 2
z zr r 4 =c:
128 2 Surfaces of Revolution

## Coefcients of the fundamental forms of the surface and 3c2 B

L 7
; M 0; N ;
its principal curvatures: 16AB A
r6 3c2 1
A2 1 16 ; F 0; B r; kz k1 ; kb k2 ;
c2 16A3 B7 AB
12r 2 4r 4 3c2 48z
L ; M 0; N ; K 4 8
p 2
[ 0:
cA cA 16A B c 16z3=2
12r 2 4r 2
kr k1 ; k b k 2 ; The obtained values of the coefcients of the fundamental
cA3 cA
forms of surface show that the surface of rotation of a
48r 4 2r 2 3
K 2 4 [ 0; H 1 2 : biquadratic parabola is given in lines of principal curvatures
cA cA A
z and but the fourth-order paraboloid of revolution is a
The studied surface of revolution is given in the lines of surface of positive total curvature and only in one point
principal curvatures r and . A paraboloid of revolution of z = 0, the surface has zero Gaussian and mean curvatures.
the fourth order is a surface of positive total curvature. The
surface has zero Gaussian and mean curvatures (K = H = 0)
Sun Bo-Hua, Zhang Wei, Yeh Kai-Yuan, Rimrott FPJ.
only at one point r = 0. So, the peak of a paraboloid of
Exact displacement solution of arbitrary degree paraboloi-
revolution of the fourth order is a plane point.
dal shallow shell of revolution made of linear elastic
(3) Parametrical equations (Figs. 1 and 2): materials. Int. J. Solids and Struct. 1996; 33, No. 16,
p. 2299-2308 (14 ref.).
p
x xz; b 4
cz cos b; Fan S.C., Luah MH. New spline element for analysis of
p shell of revolution. J. Eng. Mech. 1990; 116, No. 3, p. 709-
y yz; b cz sin b;
4

726.
z z:
Jackway PT. and Deriche M. Scale-space properties of the
Coefcients of the fundamental forms of the surface and multiscale morphological dilation-erosion. Trans. on Pattern
its principal curvatures: Analysis and Machine Intelligence. 1996; 18(1), p. 38-51.
Palm G. Robust segmentation of human cardiac contours
c2 p from spatial magnetic resonance images. Diss. zur Erlan-
A2 1 3=2
; F 0; B 4
cz;
16cz gung des Doct. (Dr. rer.nat.), der Fakultt fr Informatik der
Universitt Ulm.; 2004; 130 p.

## Having researched damped natural vibrations, one seeks the

amplitude-time dependence in the form of a function

z z x aenx sinxx u:

## A surface of revolution with damping circular waves is

traced by a curve z = z(x) in the process of its rotation about
an axis Oz. Fig. 1

Forms of denition of the surface Coefcients of the fundamental forms of the surface:

## (1) Parametrical equations (Fig. 1): A2 1 a2 e2nr n sinxr u x cosxr u2 ;

x xr; u r cos u; F 0; B r;

## y yr; u r sin u; L aenr n2  x2 sinxr u  2nx cosxr u =A;

z zr aenr sinxr u; M 0; N raenr n sinxr u x cosxr u=A:

where = m/b, m is a number of integral half-waves, placed In Fig. 1, the surface of revolution with m = 6, b = 6 m;
at the straight line segment with the b length; = const. a = 4 m; n = 0.5; 0  r  b; = 0 is shown.
2 Surfaces of Revolution 129

Kiss Surface

## A Kiss Surface is an algebraic surface of the fth order

(Fig. 1). Sometimes this surface is called a Falling Drop.
It is traced by a curve x = x(z) = z2(1 z)1/2 in the process of y
x

## its rotation about an axis Oz.

Forms of denition of the surface
z

## (1) Implicit form of the denition:

x2 y2 1  zz4 ; where  1  z  1:

## (2) Explicit form of the denition:

p
x 1  zz4  y2 :
Fig. 1

## (3) Parametrical equations (Fig. 1):

21  zz2
p p L q ;
x xu; z z2 1  z cos u; y yu; z z2 1  z sin u; 41  z z2 4  5z2
z z: 15z2  24z 8
N q ;
21  z 41  z z2 4  5z2
Coefcients of the fundamental forms of the surface:
415z2  24z 8
K h i2 :
A2 z4 1  z; F 0; z2 41  z z2 4  5z 2

2
41  z z 4  5z
2
B2 ; M 0; The surface contains the parts of positive and negative
41  z
Gaussian curvatures. Parabolic points with = 0 are placed at
the cross section of the surface by a plane z = 0.8 0.4(2/3)1/2
= 0.473. In Fig. 2, the surface is shown when 1  z  1;
0  u  2p:

Soucoupoid

## (1) Parametrical equations (Fig. 1):

x xu; v a cos u cos v; y yu; v a cos u sin v;
z zu b sin u;
3 a = b = 1m

Fig. 1
where coordinate lines u, v (meridians and parallels) are the
lines of principal curvatures; a, b are constants; Reference
p=2  u  p=2; 0  v  2p: Encyclopdie Des Formes Mathematiques Remarquables
 
2 3
(2) Implicit equation: z2 b2 1  x ay
2
2 : Surfaces.http://mathcurve.com/surfaces/surfaces.shtml
130 2 Surfaces of Revolution

Globoid (Toroid)
z
A globoid is a surface formed by rotation of an arc of the
circle m about an axis z lying at the plane of this arc. A
method of generation of a surface of a globoid shows that we
have a segment of the circular torus which has a negative r
Gaussian curvature (Fig. 1). A line on the globoid generated
by uniform motion of a point along the axis of the globoid
axis is called a globoidal helical line.
A globoidal worm gearing is an example of application of
globoid in the technique.
Forms of denition of the surface b m

## x xu; v a b cos v cos u;

y yu; v a b cos v sin u;
z zv b sin v; Fig. 1

## where a is a radius of centers of generatrix circles; b is a

radius of the generatrix circle, 0  u  2p; p=2  v  3=2p:
In Fig. 3, a fragment of the surface bounded by the lines of
principal curvatures is shown; 0  u  p and p  v  3=2p:
Coefcients of the fundamental forms of the surface:

A a b cos v; F 0; B b;
L a b cos v cos v; M 0; N b;
cos v 1
ku k 1  ; kv k2  ; Fig. 2
A b
cos v
K :
bA

## (2) Parametrical equations:

p 
a a 2 b2  b
x xu; b p cos u;
a 2 b2
p 
a a 2 b2  b
y yu; b p sin u;
a 2 b2
bb
z p2 ;
a b
2
Fig. 3
where = a tan ; is the angle of a straight, connecting the p
center of generatrix circle with a radius b with an arbitrary a a2 b2  b ab
A p ; F 0; B ;
point of the torus, with a plane z = 0. Positive direction is a2 b 2 a b2
2
counted off anticlockwise; /2 < < /2. p
a2 a2 b2  b a2 b
Coefcients of the fundamental forms of the surface and L ; M 0; N ;
its principal curvatures: a2 b2 a2 b2 2
1 1
k1 ku  p2 ; k2 kv :
a b b
2 b
2 Surfaces of Revolution 131

## Coordinate lines u, v and u, are the lines of principal z athc; 1\c\ 1;

curvatures. They coincide with the meridians and the par-
allels of surface of revolution. The globoid has a degenerated point with coordinates (0,
0, 0) or when = 0; a = b.
(3) Parametrical equations:
x xc; v cos v; Blachut J and Jaiswal OR. Instabilities in torispheres and
chc
achc  1 toroids under suddenly applied external pressure. Int.
y yc; v sin v; J. Impact. Eng. 1999; 22 (5), p. 511-530 (16 ref.).
chc

Surface of Revolution of a Usual Cycloid Coefcients of the fundamental forms of the surface and
its principal curvatures:
A surface of revolution of a usual cycloid is formed by the
rotation of an usual cycloid t t
A 2a sin ; F 0; B c 2a sin2 ;
2 2
zc at  a sin t; xc a  a cos t A AB
L ; M 0; N ;
2 2a
about the axis zc, where t is a real parameter, corresponding 1 1
to the angle through which the rolling circle has rotated, k1 kt ;
2A 4a sin 2t
measured in radians. For given t, the circles center lies at
A sin 2t
zc = at, xc = a. k2 kb  ;
A usual cycloid is generated by a point that is apart from 2aB c 2a sin2 2t
a center of the circle with a radius a, rolling without sliding 1 1
K   [ 0:
on the axis zc, at the distance of a. 4aB 4a c 2a sin2 2t
Let us study a general case when a cycloid is rotated
about the axis z which is parallel to the axis zc and is apart Coordinate lines and t (parallels and meridians) are the
from it at the distance of c. lines of principal curvatures.
A length of a meridian from a parallel t = 0 till a parallel
Forms of denition of the surface
t = const is calculated by a formula:
(1) Parametrical equations (Fig. 1):  t
s 4a 1  cos :
2
x xt; b a c  a cos t cos b;
y yt; b a c  a cos t sin b; In Fig. 2, the fragment of the surface bounded by the
z zt at  a sin t: parallels t = 0, t = 2 and by the meridians = 0, = is
presented.
In Fig. 3, three sections of the surface of the rotation of a
usual cycloid with c = 0 are given; but in Fig. 4, the surface
z with c > 0 is shown, 0  t  5p.

Fig. 1 Fig. 2
132 2 Surfaces of Revolution

## Two sections of the surface presented in Fig. 3 belong to

a category of closed surfaces of revolution because the
beginning and the end of a not closed rotated usual cycloid is
placed at the rotation axis.
An area of a surface of rotation of a segment of the
meridian (t0  t  t1 ) in the form of a usual cycloid can be
dened by a formula:
 
2a 3 t t1 t t1
A 8ap cos  c 2a cos  ; 0  b  2p:
3 2 t0 2 t0

## For example, an area of one closed section of the surface

Fig. 3 shown in Fig. 3 is

64a2 p
A1 ; 0  t  2p; 0  b  2p:
3

Barra Mario. The cycloid. Educ. Stud. Math. 1975; 6, No. 1,
p. 93-98.
Churkin GM. The property of points of a cycloid. In-t him.
Kinet. I goreniya SO AN SSSR, Novosibirsk, 1989; 10 p., 3
ref., Dep v VINITI 06.01.89, No. 156-89.
Wells D. (1991). The Penguin Dictionary of Curious and
Interesting Geometry. New York: Penguin Books. 1991;
Fig. 4
p. 445-47.

## x a cos hz=a about an Oz axis. A pseudo-catenoid is a surface of rigorously

negative Gaussian curvature but it is not a minimal surface.
about an Oz axis (Fig. 1). A catenoid is the only minimal
Forms of denition of the surface
surface of revolution, i.e., mean curvature of its surface is
equal to zero at all points of the surface. It is the rst
(1) Explicit equation:
minimal surface to be discovered.
p
z aAr cos h x2 y2 =b2 :

## (2) Parametrical equations (Figs. 2 and 3):

a=b
x xr; b r cos b;
y yr; b r sin b;
z zr  aAr cos hr=b;
Fig. 1
2 Surfaces of Revolution 133

r 2  b2 a 2
A2 ; F 0; B r;
r 2  b2
ar
L p ;
r 2  b2 r 2  b2 a2
ra
M 0; N p ;
r  b2 a2
2
ar a
k1 ; k2 p ;
r  b a
2 2 2 3=2
r r  b2 a2
2

a2
K \0;
r 2  b2 a2 2
aa2  b2
H 6 0:
2r r 2  b2 a2 3=2
(a > b)
Coordinate lines r and (parallels and meridians) are the
Fig. 2 lines of principal curvatures (Figs. 1, 2 and 3). In Fig. 2, the
pseudo-catenoid has a > b. The surface of revolution shown
in Fig. 3 was created when a < b. And a pseudo-catenoid
becomes a minimal surface if a = b (Fig. 1) and this surface
can be called a catenoid.
Substituting a = b in the formulae for the determination
of coefcients of the fundamental forms of surface, it is
possible to obtain corresponding values of these coefcients
for catenoid.
(a < b)
Fig. 3 Krivoshapko SN. On mistakes in the terminology on theory
of surfaces and geometric modelling. Present Problems of
where is the angle taken from the axis Ox in the directions Geometric Modelling: Proc. of Ukraine-Russian Scientic-
of the Oy axis. and-Practical Conf. April 19-22, 2005. Kharkov, 2005;
Coefcients of the fundamental forms of the surface and p. 82-87.
its principal curvatures:

## Surface of Revolution Pear O

x y
A surface of revolution called Pear is generated by
rotating curve
b2 y 2 z 3 a  z

## about its coordinate axis Oz.

Forms of denition of the surface

## (1) Parametrical form of the denition (Fig. 1):

x xz; b r z sin b;
y yz; b r z cos b; z z; z
p
where r rz z za  z b; a and b are arbitrary Fig. 1
constants; 0  z  a;
134 2 Surfaces of Revolution

## p It means that the studied surface Pear is an algebraic

0  r  3 3a2 =16b:
surface of the fourth order.
A parallel z = 3a/4 with
r rmax 3 3a2 =16b
Gustavo Gordillo. A collection of famous plane curves.
http://curvebank.calstatela.edu/famouscurves/famous.htm.
is a geodesic line.
August 14, 2001.
(2) Implicit equation:
 
z3 a  z  b2 x2 y2 0:

## Surface of Revolution of a General Sinusoid

an2 p2 npr
L cos ;
AR2 R
A surface of revolution of a general sinusoid anp npr
M 0; N  r sin ;
z a sinnpx=R p=2 a cos npx=R AR R
an p
2 2
npr
k1 kr  3 2 cos ;
about an axis Oz is used in technics. General sinusoid in A R R
anp npr
contrast to usual sinusoid (z = sin x) is elongated jaj times k2 kb  sin ;
along the axis Oz and contracted R/(n) times along the axis rAR R
a2 n3 p3 2npr
Ox, where n is an integer, R is a dimension of an integer n of K sin :
half-waves of the sinusoid, and is shifted to the left by a 2rA4 R3 R
straight-line segment R/(2n). A period of the function is The curvilinear coordinate net is put down to lines of
T = 2R/n. The points of intersection of the sine function with principal curvatures.
the Ox axis have the coordinates [(k + )R/n, 0]. A surface
of revolution of a general sinusoid has the parts of positive (2) Parametrical equations (Fig. 2):
and negative Gaussian curvatures. This surface can be x xr; b r cos b; y yr; b r sin b;
reckoned in a subclass of waving or corrugated surfaces. npr
z zr a sin :
Forms of denition of the surface R

## The general generating sinusoid in contrast to usual

(1) Parametrical equations (Fig. 1):
sinusoid (z = sinx) is elongated jaj times along the axis Oz
x xr; b r cos b; y yr; b r sin b; and contracted R/(n) times along the axis Ox, where n is an
npr
z zr a cos : integer, R is a dimension of an integer n of half-waves of the
R
sinusoid. A period of the function is T = 2R/n. The points of
Coefcients of the fundamental forms of the surface and intersection of the sine function with the Ox axis have the
its principal curvatures: coordinates [kR/n, 0].
The presented surface of revolution can be given in an
a2 n2 p2 2 npr
A2 1 sin ; explicit form (Fig. 3):
R2 R np p
F 0; B r; z a sin x2 y2 :
R

Fig. 1 Fig. 2
2 Surfaces of Revolution 135

anp npr
M 0; N r cos ;
AR R
an2 p2 npr
k1 kr  3 2 sin ;
A R R
anp npr
k2 kb cos ;
rAR R
a2 n3 p 3 2npr
K sin :
2rA4 R3 R
Fig. 3
The parallels and meridians r of the surface of revo-
lution of a general sinusoid coincide with lines of principal
The surface shown in Fig. 3 is called Die Sinuswelle in curvatures.
the German language scientic literature.
Coefcients of the fundamental forms of the surface and (3) Explicit equation:
its principal curvatures:
np p
a2 n2 p2 npr z a cos x2 y2 :
A 1
2
cos2 ; R
R2 R
F 0; B r;
L sin ; http://samoucka.ru/document22180.html
AR2 R

## Corrugated Surface of Revolution of a General Sinusoid (2) Implicit equation:

 npz 2
A corrugated surface of revolution of a general sinusoid x2 y2  a sin c 0:
b
npz
x a sin c (3) Parametrical equations (Fig. 1):
b

about the axis Oz contains circular parts of both positive x xz; b rz cos b;
and negative curvatures. y yz; b rz sin b;
General sinusoid in contrast to usual sinusoid (x = sin z) is zz z;
elongated jaj times along the axis Ox and contracted b/(n)
times along the axis Oz, where n is an integer, b is a where r rz a sin npzb c:
dimension of an integer n of half-waves of the sinusoid. Coefcients of the fundamental forms of the surface and
A period of the function is T = 2b/n. its principal curvatures:
A volume of a body bounded by a surface of revolution
of the half-wave of a usual sinusoid x = sin z is equal to 2/2. a2 n2 p2 npz
A2 1 2
cos2 ; F 0; B rz;
Forms of denition of the surface b b
an2 p2 npz rz
L sin ; M 0; N ;
(1) Explicit equation: Ab2 b A
an2 p2 npz 1
p k1 kz 3 2 sin ; k2 kb ;
b x2 y2  c A b b rzA
z arcsin :
np a an2 p2 npz
K 4 2 sin :
rA b b
136 2 Surfaces of Revolution

Fig. 1 Fig. 3

Fig. 2 Fig. 4

The curvilinear coordinate net is put down to lines of In Fig. 2, the surface of revolution has a > c; in Fig. 3, it
principal curvatures and z. is c = 0, and in Fig. 4, the surface of revolution has a = c.
In Fig. 1, the corrugated surface of revolution of a general The surface of revolution represented in Fig. 1 is called
sinusoid is shown when a < c. Having assumed c a, we Isolator.
can obtain a corrugated cylinder (Wolfram Demonstrations The surfaces of revolution shown in Figs. 1, 2, and 4 have
Project) or a sinusoidal cylinder (SpringerImages). the parts of both positive and negative Gaussian curvatures.
2 Surfaces of Revolution 137

The surface of revolution represented in Fig. 3 is a sur- Zhulaev VP, Sultanov BZ. Screw pumping stations for
face of positive Gaussian curvature. recover of oil: Manual. Ufa: Izd-vo UShU, 1997; 43 p.
2014 Wolfram Demonstrations Project: http://demonstrati
Krivoshapko AN, Halabi SM, Se Tsyan. Analytical surfaces SpringerImages: http://www.springerimages.com/Images/
with a sine generatrix. Vestnik RUDN. Engineering RSS/1-10.1007_s00348-005-0981-9-0
Researches. 2005; No. 1 (11), p. 115-120.

Position

## A surface of revolution of a parabola of an arbitrary

position is formed by rotation of a parabola Y(t) = ct2 with
the axis Y, turned relatively to an axis of rotation Oz at the
angle, about the axis Oz. A peak of the parabola lies at the
distance a from the axis of rotation (Fig. 1).
Forms of denition of the studied surface z

## (1) Parametrical equations (Fig. 1): Y

 
xu; t a t cos h ct2 sin h cos u;
 
yu; t a t cos h ct2 sin h sin u; 2
Y = ct
zu; t t sin h ct cos h:
2
O
x
a
Coefcients of the fundamental forms of the surface and t
its principal curvatures:
  Fig. 1
A a t cos h ct2 sin h ;
F 0; B2 1 4c2 t2 ;
  2ct cos h  sin h
L a t cos h ct2 sin h ;
B
  2c
M 0; N a t cos h ct2 sin h ;
B
2ct cos h  sin h
ku k1 ;
AB
2c
kt k2 3 :
B

## In Fig. 2, the surface of revolution of positive Gaussian

curvature is shown when a = 0.8 m; c = 2 m1; = 0.2.
In Fig. 3, the studied surfaces of revolution of negative
Gaussian curvature are presented. Here, the surface given in
Fig. 3a has = /2, a = 0, c = 1 m1, but the surface in
Fig. 3b has = /2, a = 0.8 m; c = 1 m1. These surfaces
are studied in the section Surface of revolution of a a = 0.8 m; c = 2 m-1; = 0.2
parabola of the Chap. 2. Surfaces of revolution.
In Fig. 4, two types of the studied surfaces of revolution
Fig. 2
are presented some more.
138 2 Surfaces of Revolution

(a) (b)

Fig. 4

## a = 0; c = 1 m-1; = /2 a = 0.8 m; c = 1 m-1; = /2

Ivanov VN. Geometry and design of shells on the base of
surfaces with a system of curvilinear coordinate lines in the
Assume a slope angle of the axis of a parabola to an axis pencil of planes. Spatial Structures of Buildings and Erec-
of rotation equal to zero ( = 0) and the distance a peak of tions: Collected articles. Moscow: Devyatka Print.
the parabola from the rotation axis equal to zero (a = 0) too, 2004; vol. 9, p. 26-35 (13 ref.).
then the studied surface of revolution will degenerate into a Weisstein Eric W. Parabola. From MathWorld A Wol-
paraboloid of revolution that is considered in section fram Web Resource. http://mathworld.wolfram.com/
Paraboloid of revolution. Parabola.html

## Surface of Revolution of a Biquadrate Parabola where r = a is a radius of the waist circle, j xj  a, j yj  a,

0  b  2p. The surface is formed by rotation of a parabola
A paraboloid of revolution of the fourth order is generated of the fourth order
i.e., about the axis of the parabola. z4 cxa
A surface of revolution of a biquadrate parabola is
formed in the process of rotation of a biquadrate parabola about the axis z. In Fig. 1, the surface of rotation of the
about a straight that is perpendicular to the parabola axis. biquadrate parabola is shown when a > 0.
Having assumed a = 0, we can design the surface of
Forms of denition of the surface of revolution revolution presented in Fig. 2. If a  0, then the surface of
revolution of the biquadrate parabola belongs to a class of
(1) Parametrical equations (Fig. 1): surfaces of negative Gaussian curvature.
x xr; b r cos b; y yr; b r sin b;
p
z zr 4 cr  a;

(a > 0) (a = b = 0)

Fig. 1 Fig. 2
2 Surfaces of Revolution 139

(b > 0) (b > 0)

Fig. 3 Fig. 4

Coefcients of the fundamental forms of the surface and where b 0 is a distance between a peak of the parabola and
its principal curvatures: the axis of rotation.
If b = 0, then we can produce the surface shown in Fig. 2.
p
 In Fig. 3, the surface is shown when b > 0. Having assumed
A 1
2
; F 0; B r;
16r  a3=2 b > 0 andbc\z4 \bc, we can have a barrel-shaped
31=4 c1=4 r surface of revolution of positive Gaussian curvature (Fig. 4).
L 7=4
; M 0; N ; A surface of revolution of a biquadrate parabola has two
16Ar  a 4Ar  a3=4
conical points:
3c1=4 c1=4
k 1 kr  ; k2 kb ;
16A3 r  a7=4 4Arr  a3=4 x y 0; z cb1=4 :
p
3 c
K \0: If z4 > |bc|, then a surface of revolution of a biquadrate
64rA r  a5=2
4
parabola becomes a surface of negative Gaussian curvature.
Coefcients of the fundamental forms of the surface and
(2) Parametrical equations (Figs. 3 and 4): its principal curvatures:

z4 z6 z4
x xz; b  b cos b; A2 1 16 ; F 0; B2  b2 ;
c c2 c
4 
z 12z2 B
y yz; b  b sin b; L ; M 0; N ;
c cA A
z z; z2 1 12z2
k1 kz 12 ; k2 kb ; K 4 :
cA3 AB cA B

Ellipsoid of Revolution formed by rotation of the ellipse about its major axis
(Fig. 1c).
An ellipsoid of revolution is a surface formed by rotating of An ellipsoid of revolution lies inside the rectangular
an ellipse parallelepiped bounded by the sides a  x  a;
x2 z 2 a    a; b  z  b: The geodesic line coincides with
1 the equator parallel of an ellipsoid of revolution. The geo-
a2 b2
desic line passing through a pole point of an ellipsoid passes
about its axis of symmetry Oz. An ellipsoid of revolution is through an opposite pole point too. A volume contained
a closed quadric surface. Older literature uses spheroid in inside the surface of ellipsoid of revolution is
place of ellipsoid of revolution. An oblate spheroid
(oblate ellipsoid of revolution) is formed by rotation of the 4
V pa2 b:
ellipse about its minor axis (Fig. 1a). A special case arises 3
when a = b, then the surface is a sphere and the intersection
In cartography, the Earth is often approximated by an
with any plane passing through it is a circle (Fig. 1b).
oblate spheroid instead of a sphere. The current World
A prolate spheroid (prolate ellipsoid of revolution) is
140 2 Surfaces of Revolution

## (a) (b) (c)

Fig. 1 a The oblate ellipsoid of revolution (a > b). b The sphere (a = b). c The prolate ellipsoid of revolution (a < b)

## Geodetic System model uses a spheroid whose radius is

6,378.137 km at the equator and 6,356.752 km at the poles.
Forms of denition of the surface

## (1) The standard equation of an ellipsoid of revolution

centered at the origin of a Cartesian coordinate system
and aligned with the axes is:
Fig. 2 The ellipsoid of revolution with the elliptical opening,
uo  u  p
x y
2
z 2 2
2 1:
a2 b

## Coefcients of the fundamental forms of the surface and

(2) Parametrical equations (Fig. 1):
its principal curvatures:
x xa; b a cos a cos b; r
x 2
y ya; b a sin a cos b; Aq 1 2
q2 sin 2u cos2 v ; F 0;
2a
z zb b sin b; r
x 2
0  a  2p; p=2  b  p=2: B q sin u 1 q sin 2v sin u ;
2 2
2a2
Coefcients of the fundamental forms of the surface: ab
k1 h i3=2 ;
A a cos b; F 0; B2 a2 sin2 b b2 cos2 b; b2 xq sin u cos v2

## L ab cos2 b=B; M 0; N ab=B: 1

k2 q :
Coordinate lines and (parallels and meridians) are q 1  1  a4 =b4 sin2 u cos2 v
lines of principal curvatures.
Coordinate lines u, v form the geographic system of
(3) Parametrical equations (Fig. 2): coordinates but they are not lines of principal curvatures.

## x xu; v q sin u cos v; Additional Literature

y yu; v q sin u sin v; Krivoshapko SN. Research on general and axisymmetric
z zu q cos u; ellipsoidal shells used as domes, pressure vessels, and tanks.
Applied Mechanics Reviews (ASME). 2007; vol. 60, No. 6,
b b2 p. 336-355.
where q p ; x 2  1: Ellipsoid by Jeff Bryant, Wolfram Demonstrations Project,
1 x sin2 u cos2 v a
2007.
2 Surfaces of Revolution 141

DingDong Surface

## A surface of revolution DingDong Surface is like a

surface of revolution Kiss surface.
Forms of denition of the surface

## (1) Implicit equation: x2 + y2 = (1 z)z2

So, the studied surface of revolution is an algebraic sur- (1 v 1)
face of the third order. It is obtained by rotating curve
Fig. 1
x xz z1z1=2

## (2) Parametrical equation (Fig. 1): Additional Literature

Hauser H. The Hironaka theorem on resolution of singu-
x xu; v rv cos u; y yu; v rv sin u;
larities. Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. 2003; vol. 40, No. 3, p. 323-
z zv v; 403.
p
where rv v 1  v; 1  v  1; 0  u  2p:

Eight Surface

## A surface of revolution Eight Surface is generated by

rotation of a curve
 1=2
x xz 2z 1  z2

## about the axis Oz. The surface pictured in Fig. 1 is called an

eight surface because it is a surface of revolution of a gure
eight.
Forms of denition of the surface
Fig. 1
(1) Implicit equation:
 
x2 y2 4 1  z2 z2 :
where p=2  v  p=2; 0  u  2p: The surface comes to a
Hence, the studied surface is an algebraic surface of the point at its very center.
fourth order.
(2) Parametrical equations (Fig. 1): Reference
The Eight Surface: http://www.math.hmc.edu/*gu/math
x xu; v cos u sin 2v; y yu; v sin u sin 2v;
142/mellon/curves_and_surfaces/surfaces/eightsurf.html
z zv sin v;
142 2 Surfaces of Revolution

## Eggshell is one of the perfect natural forms. Having

researched closed two-focus curves of the fourth order, one
can obtain an equation of mathematical model of the
meridian cross section of an eggshell. G.V. Brandt consid-
ered that an egg form can be described by an implicit
equation of the fourth order:
h i Fig. 1
z2 y2 3x2a  x 1  c2 =x a2 =4;
r
h i
where 2a is a length of major axis (an axis of rotation); c is the a 2 b2
where rx 3
4 x2a  x 1  xa2
; = c/a is a coef-
interfocus distance; (a c)/2 is the distance the origin of a
Cartesian coordinates from the rst focus of meridional curve. cient characterized a form of the meridian. A surface Quail
Parametrical equations of a surface of revolution Egg Egg with = 0.75 is presented in Fig. 1.
can be written in the form:
Reference
x x; y yx; u rx cos u; Brandt GV. The research of an equation of a shell formed by
z zx; u rx sin u; the two-focus curve. Sb. tr. VZPI: Stroitelstvo i Arhitek-
tura. Moscow: VZPI. 1973; p. 76-86.

## It is known also a surface of revolution Egg which is

given by an implicit equation of the third order:
x2 y2 c2 zz  az  b;

## where a, b, c are constant parameters determining the form

of a surface. Parametrical equations of the third-order sur-
face of revolution Egg (Fig. 1) can be given as
p
x xu; v c uu  au  b sin v;
p
y yu; v c uu  au  b cos v; a = 1 cm; b = 1.5 cm;
z zu u; c2 = 0.852 cm1

Fig. 1
where a < = b, then 0  v  2p; 0  u  a:

Piriform Surface

## This surface of revolution resembles a coming to the surface

soft capacity with load. In English language literature, this y yv ar sin v;
surface is called Piriform Surface. z zu; v bcos vr sin v sin u;
Parametrical equations are
where 0  u  2p, p=2  v  p=2; a, b, and r are constant
x xu; v bcos vr sin v cos u; coefcients dening the form of the surface (Fig. 1).
2 Surfaces of Revolution 143

## a = 0.8; b = 0.8; r = 0.25 a = 0.8; b = 0.8; r = 0

Fig. 1

Drop
y yu; v ab  cos u sin u sin v;
Assuming certain values of constant parameters entering into z zu cos u;
parametrical equations of a surface of revolution Drop,
one can obtain the form of a drop in the process of falling. where 0  u  p; 0  v  2p; a and b are constant coef-
Parametrical equations of the surface can be given as cients dening the form of the surface.
(Figs. 1 and 2):
References
x xu; v ab  cos u sin u cos v; Parametrische Flchen und Krper. - http://www.3d-meir.de/
tut3/Seite44.html
144 2 Surfaces of Revolution

a = 0.5; b = 1 a = 0.5; b = 2 a = 1; b = 1

Fig. 1

## a = 0.5; b = 0.5 a = 0.5; b = 0.5

Fig. 2

Krivoshapko SN. Mamieva IA. Drop-shaped surfaces in Buildings and Creations. Moscow: OOO Devyatka Print,
architecture of buildings, reservoirs and products. Vestnik 2004; vol. 9, p. 177-183.
RUDN: Eng. Researches. 2011; No. 3, p. 24-31. Bandurin NG, Nikolaev AP. On FEM analysis of axially
symmetrically loaded shells of revolution with taking into
The Literature on Analysis of Shells in the Form of Sur- account physical and geometrical nonlinearity. Moscow:
faces of Revolution Raschyoty na Prochnost. 1990; iss. 31, p. 135-144.
Mamay VI. Nonlinear deforming of ellipsoidal shells under
Ganeeva MS, Kosolapova LA, Moiseeva VE. Numerical the local loading. Proc. of Intern. Conf. on Shipbuilding.
research of deforming of elastic-and-plastic shells of revo- October 8-12, 1994. SPb.: Sudostroenie, 1994; vol. C,
lution with the pole under not axisymmetric thermo-force p. 242-249.
loading. Proc. of Intern. Conf.: Actual Problem of Krikanov AA. Equilibrium form of a meridian of shell formed
Mechanics of Shells. June 26-30, 2000. Kazan: Novoe by winding of several families of strips. Mech. Kompoz.
Znanie, 2000; p. 151-157 (10 ref.). Mater. i Konstruktziy. 2001; 7, No. 4, p. 423-426 (6 ref.).
Mityukov MM. Design and building of the reinforced con- Prohorenko FF. The determination of natural frequencies of
crete covering in Yasenevo (Moscow). Spatial Structures of a spherical shell with the help of blended variation principle.
2 Surfaces of Revolution 145

Issled. i Raschet Stroit. Konstruk. Energet. Soor. L., 1987; Reissner E.. On nite axi-symmetrical deformations on thin
p. 132-142 (7 ref.). elastic shells of revolution. Comput. Mech. 1989; 4, No. 5,
Zarutskiy VA, Sivak VF. Experimental researches of p. 387-400 (16 ref.).
dynamics of shells of revolution. Prikl. Mech. (Kiev). 1999; Behr Richard A, Mehta Kishor C, Kiesling Ernst W.
35, No. 3, p. 3-11(47 ref.). Strength and stability of earth covered dome shells. J. Struct.
Kostyrenko VV, Nikitin AP. The method of determination of Eng. 1984; 110, No. 1, p. 19-30 (8 ref.).
critical forces of statically loaded shells of revolution. Patent Ramaswamy GS., Suresh GR. A new shell for foundation
1821670 RF, MKI G01N3//00, Dnepropetrov. un-t. and transitions and footings. Int. Symp. Innov. Appl. Shells
26.12.89, Published 15.6.93, Bull. No.22. and Spat. Forms, Bangalore, Nov. 21-25, 1988: Proc., vol.
Horoshun LP, Kozlov SV, Patlashenko IYu. Stress-strain 1, Rotterdam, 1989; p. 137-150 (17 ref.).
state of thermo- sensitive shells of variable thickness. Prikl. Maan H. Jawad. Design of Plate and Shell Structures. NY:
Mech. (Kiev). 1988; 24, No. 9, p. 38-44. ASME, 2004; 476 p.
Kairov AS. The influence of the form of meridian and Teng JG. Buckling of thin shells: Recent advances and
attached bodies on vibrations of shells of revolution. Teor. i trends. AMR. 1996; 49(4), p. 263-274.
Prikl. Mehanika (Kiev). 1999; No. 29, p. 117-122. Guggenberger W. Heat conduction in ring-stiffened shells of
Kubenko VD, Kovalchuk PS. Nonlinear problems of revolution: A structural mechanics analogy. Adv. in Struct.
vibrations of thin shells (Review). Prikl. Mech. (Kiev). Eng. 1999; 2 (2), p. 87-102.
1998; 34, No. 8, p. 3-31 (223 ref.). Korjakin A, Rikards R, Altenbach H. and Chate A. Free
Polyakova EV, Tovstik OE, Chaykin VA. Axisymmetric damped vibrations of sandwich shells of revolution. Journal
deformation of shells of revolution made of bers. Vestnik of Sandwich Structures and Materials. 2001; vol. 3, p. 171-
Sankt-Peterburg. Un-ta. Matematika-Mehanika. 2007; iss. 1, 196 (51 ref.)
p. 128-138. Mason DR, Blotter PT. Finite-element application to rocket
Hen Kye J, Gould PhL. Quadrilateral shell element for nozzle aeroelasticity. J. Propulsion and Power. 1986; 2,
rotational shells. Eng. Struct. 1982; 4, No. 2, p. 129-131. p. 499-507.
Cook WA. A nite element model for nonlinear shell of Karpov VV, Semenov AA. Mathematical model of defor-
revolution. Intern. J. Num. Math. in Eng. 1982; vol. 18, No. mation of orthotropic reinforced shells of revolution. Mag-
1, p. 135-149 (19 ref.). azine of Civil Engineering. 2013; No. 5(40), p. 100-106.
Jin Gon Kim, Yoon Young Kim. Higher-order hybrid har- Firsanov VV, Tishkov VV. Elastoplastic stresses of a shell of
monic shell-of- revolution elements. Comput. Methods revolution made from the material with linear hardening
Appl. Mech. Eng. 2000; 182 (1-2), p. 1-16. loaded by a force at the pole. Russian Aeronautics (Izv.
Farshad M. On the shape of momentless tensionless masonry VUZ). 2012; vol. 55, No. 4, p. 366-372.
domes. Build. and Environ. 1977; 12, No. 2, p. 81-85. Makowski J, Stumpf H. Finite axisymmetric deformation of
Yeom DJ, Robinson M. Numerical analysis of elastic-plastic shells of revolution with application to flexural buckling of
behaviour of pressure vessels with ellipsoidal and tori- circular plates. Ingenieur-Archiv. 1989; 59, p. 456-472.
spherical heads. Int. J. Pressure Vessels Piping. 1996; vol. Jae-Hoon Kanga, Arthur W. Leissa. Free vibration analysis
65, No. 2, p. 147-156 (12 ref.). of complete paraboloidal shells of revolution with variable
Yasuzawa V. Structural response of underwater half drop thickness and solid paraboloids from a three-dimensional
shaped shell. Proc. 3rd Int. Offshore and Polar Eng. Cong., theory. Computers & Structures. 2005; Vol. 83, Issues
Singapore, June 6-11, 1993, Vol. 4. Colden (Colo), 1993; 31-32, p. 2594-2608.
p. 475-481 (6 ref.).
Qatu MS. Theory and vibration analysis of laminated barrel Additional Literature
thin shells. J. Vib. and Control. 199; 5(6), p. 851-889. P.S.: Additional literature is given at the corresponding
pages of the Chap. 2. Surfaces of Revolution.

2.1 Middle Surfaces of Bottoms of Shells smoothly just between themselves along the edges. The
of Revolution Made by Winding of One bottoms end by the pole openings with metal flange for the
Family of Threads Along the Lines xing of the cover. A pressure vessel from composed
of Limit Deviation materials made by a method of winding of high-strength
Shells of revolution made by winding of one family of gives a reduction of 3050 % in weight in comparison
threads along the lines of limit deviation are used in with metal analogies.
pressure vessels from composite materials. They consist of Inner forces appearing in the bottom under inner pressure
a cylindrical fragment and two bottoms that are jointed must be oriented along the threads in its every point.
146 2 Surfaces of Revolution

An equation of a middle surface of bottoms of shells of 2.2 Middle Surfaces of Bottoms of Shells
the lines of limit deviation is derived from the decision of a of Threads
nonlinear ordinary differential equation:
Shells of revolution made by plane winding are used in
y00 2r tg2 u pressure vessels from composite materials. They consist of a

y0 1 y02 r 2  t2 r cylindrical fragment and two bottoms that are jointed
smoothly just between themselves along the edges. The
obtained on the base of a momentless theory of analysis of bottoms end by the pole openings with metal flange for the
shells made of threads. The following conventions are used xing of the cover. A pressure vessel from composed
in the formula: y = f1(r) is an equation of a meridian of the materials made by a method of winding of high-strength
middle surface of the bottom of revolution; r is a radial threads is more adaptable to streamlined production and
coordinate of a generatrix line of the bottom (meridian); the gives a reduction of 3050 % in weight in comparison with
primes mean the differentiation with respect to a coordinate metal analogies.
r; is an angle of the thread with a meridian of the surface of Inner forces appearing in the bottom of the shell under
the bottom. In every point of the shell surface, a tread with action of inner pressure must be oriented along the threads in
an angle + corresponds the thread with the angle ; a its every point. An equation of the generatrix of the middle
parameter t is equal to zero for the pole opening closed by surface of bottoms of shells of revolution made by plane
the cover or to the radius rp of the opening in the cover. winding of threads is derived from the decision of a non-
Trajectories of the threads of the shell must satisfy a linear ordinary differential equation:
condition of technological realizably, i.e., absolute value of
tangent of the angle between the normal to the trajectory of a y00 2r tg2 u

thread and the normal to the surface must not go over the y0 1 y02 r 2  t2 r
coefcient of friction k of the thread on the surface in the
process of winding. It can be written as obtained on the base of a momentless theory of analysis of
 ru0 cos u sin u 
  in the formula: y = y(r) is an equation of a meridian of the
ry00 cos2 u   k:
 02
0 2 
y sin u middle surface of the bottom of revolution; r is a radial
1y
coordinate of a generatrix curve of the surface of revolution
For shell of revolution made by winding of one family of of bottom. The primes mean the differentiation with respect
threads along the lines of limit deviation, an equation of to a coordinate r; is an angle of the thread with a meridian
generatrix surface y = f1(r) and an equation of the trajecto- of the surface of revolution of the bottom. In every point of
ries of the threads = f2(r) are calculated numerically from the shell surface, a tread with an angle + corresponds the
the solution of Augustin Louis Cauchy problem for a system thread with the angle ; a parameter t is equal to zero for
of two differential equations that are the equation of gener- the pole opening closed by the cover or to the radius rp of the
atrix curve of the surface of revolution and the equation of opening in the cover.
technological realizably with a sign of an equality in the The threads of plane winding are placed on the surface of
right part and with a meaning k0  k. An angle of a thread revolution in the planes tangent to the pole openings of the
at the pole must be equal to 90 due to a condition of con- both bottoms in conformity with an equation
tinuity of automatized winding.
ry0  y
The given differential equations give an opportunity to tgu pp ;
nd a form of generatrixes of a surface of bottoms and the 1 y02 r 2 ctg2 c  y2
trajectory of threads of pressure vessels with maximally
where is the angle of the plane with a thread with the axis
of rotation of a surface of the bottom. An angle of a thread
References at the pole must be equal to 90 due to a condition of con-
Vasilev VV, Protasov VD, Bolotin VV et al. Composite tinuity of winding.
Materials. Reference book. Moscow: Mashinostroenie, An equation of a meridian of the middle surface y = y(r) for
1990; 512 p. a shell of revolution made by plane winding is turn up from the
Obraztzov IF, Vasilev VV, Bunakov VA. Optimal Design of solution of A.L. Cauchy problem for a nonlinear ordinary
Shells of Revolution from Composite Materials. Moscow: differential equation
Mashinostroenie, 1977; 144 p.
2 Surfaces of Revolution 147

## The calculated trajectory of laying of the thread in the

y00 2r ry0  y2 process of winding must satisfy a condition of technological
 ;
y0 1 y02 r 2  t2 r1 y02 r 2 ctg2 c  y2 realizably, i.e., absolute value of tangent of the angle
between the normal to the trajectory of a thread and the
which is obtained by equating corresponding parts of two normal to the surface must not go over the coefcient of
given above differential equations. The given differential friction k of the thread on the surface in the process of
equations give an opportunity to nd a form of generatrix winding. This condition is presented in the previous section.
curves of middle surfaces of bottoms and the trajectory of
threads of pressure vessel both with equal and different Reference
radiuses of pole openings of two bottoms. Vasilev VV, Protasov VD, Bolotin VV et al. Composite
Materials. Reference book. Moscow: Mashinostroenie,
1990; 512 p.

2.3 Middle Surface of Bottoms of Shell a parameter t is equal to zero for the pole opening closed by
of Revolution Made by Winding the cover or to the radius rp of the opening in the cover.
of Threads Along Geodesic Lines A.L. Cauchy problem for the rst differential equation is
solved with a initial condition that is y1 = 0 if r = a. For the
Pressure vessels from composed materials made by a method second differential equation, an initial condition is y2 = y1 if
of winding of high-strength threads along geodesic lines are r = b. The rst and the second equation can be solved in
more adaptable to streamlined production and give a reduction elliptical integrals. Maximal radius of the flange for the
of 3050 % in weight in comparison with metal analogies. convex surface of the bottom must satisfy a condition:
The laying of threads on a surface along geodesic lines v
s
p u
maintains a stable position of threads in the process of 3 u t 8t2
their winding in conformity with A. Clairaut equation: b r0 1 1  2 :
2 9r0
r sin = r0, where is the angle of the thread with the
generatrix curve of a surface of revolution. In every point
of the middle surface of a shell of revolution, a tread with The form of the studied middle surface is shown in
an angle + corresponds the thread with the angle ; r0 is Fig. 1. An equation of the meridian y = y(r) was derived
the radius of the pole opening. The form of a generatrix numerically with the help of presented differential equations.
curve y = y(r) of the middle surface of revolution of the A problem was solved for a surface of revolution with the
bottom ensures the direction of inner forces, appearing in following parameters: a = 3 m; b = 1.3 m; r0 = 1 m, t = 0.
the shell of the bottom under action of inner pressure, The surface of revolution runs smoothly into the cylindrical
along the threads. A generatrix of the surface of bottom segment of the pressure vessel.
with a flange is computed as a result of consistent solution
of two differential equations:
p
dy1 rr 2  t2 a2  r 2
 q
dr
a2 r 2  r02 a2  t2 2  r 2 a2  r02 r 2  t2 2

where b  r\a;
p
dy2 rb2  r02 a2  r02 r  r02
 q

dr
a2 b2  r02 2 a2  r02 2  r 2 r 2  r02 b2  r02 2 a  r02

## r0  r  b; y = y(r) is a axial coordinate of a generatrix curve

of the bottom; a is the radius of the cylindrical segment of
the shell of revolution; b is the maximal radius of the flange; Fig. 1
148 2 Surfaces of Revolution

## References Obraztzov IF, Vasilev VV, Bunakov VA. Optimal Design of

Vasilev VV, Protasov VD, Bolotin VV et al. Composite Shells of Revolution from Composite Materials. Moscow:
Materials. Reference book. Moscow: Mashinostroenie, Mashinostroenie, 1977; 144 p.
1990; 512 p.

2.4 Middle Surfaces of Shells of Revolution to restrictions on acceptable number of cycles of external
with Given Properties cyclical load were studied. In this paper, an equilibrium
stress state of a membrane shell of revolution loaded by
Many scientic works devote to discovering form of a axisymmetric loads qn, q was described by the following
meridian of the middle surface of thin-walled shell of equations:
revolution with given properties in advance. It is known dr0 Na =da  Nh R1 cos a r0 R1 qa 0;
the following criterions of selection of optimal form of
Na =R1 Nh =R2 qn ;
shell of revolution: a cost of a shell, minimal weight ,
the absence of bending moments and tensile normal for-
r0 = R2 sin . The symbolism is shown in Fig. 1 at Page 100.
ces , the given stress state for acting external load ,
E. Annaberdyev  offers a method of selection of the
the given bearing capacity for optimal slope , maximal
single surface of revolution passing through given parallels
external load; minimal weight under limitation for value
and having the given magnitudes of coefcients of the rst
of the natural frequency and maximal displacements ;
fundamental form in the theory of surfaces
the absence of bending moments with taking into account
inner pressure, dead weight and centrifugal forces ; ds2 Edu2 Gdv2 :
maximal critical load [7, 8] or the selection of a form
with taking into consideration another set of presented We cannot design a surface of revolution when a nite
demands. number of its parallels is taken. A meridian of surface of
A condition of equi-strength of thin-walled shell of res- revolution can be formed if we shall give the common
ervoir is assumed as a basis of analysis of drop-shaped tangents at the joints of the parallels for maintaining
reservoir for the liquid products . Geometry of the middle smoothness of the meridian.
surface of a shell is chosen on condition that tensile
meridional and circular forces will be equal to each other Additional Literature
and constant (N1 = N2 = N = const) under an action of . Stolyarchul VA. The determination of form of certain
designed load. It means that a condition class of shells of revolution of minimal weight loaded by
inner uniform pressure. Prikl. Problemy Prochnosti i Plas-
1=R1 1=R2 ch y=N pN; tichnosti. 1977; No. 7, p. 104-108.
. Farshad M. On the shape of momentless tensionless
must be satised. This equation follows from the condition masonry domes. Build. and Environ. 1977; 12, No. 2,
of equilibrium of a shell element (Laplace formula). Here R1 p. 81-85.
and R2 are radiuses of principle curvatures correspondingly . Bodunov AK, Bodunov NA. Some cases of integration of
in meridional and circular directions. The key designed load the differential equation dening a form of the meridian of
(inner pressure) axi-symmetrical momentless shell. Raschet Prostran. Stroi-
p c h y teln. Konstruktziy. Kuybyshev: KGU, 1977; 7, p. 47-52.
. Dehtyar AS. The optimal shell of revolution. Stroit.
is a sum of hydrostatical pressure of liquid and uniform Meh. i Raschet Soor. 1975; No. 2, p. 11-15 (10 ref.).
redundant pressure; y is the distance the peak from a con- . Mota Soares CM, Mota Soares CA, Barbosa J Infante.
sidered point of the shell in the vertical direction; is a density Sensitivity analysis and optimal design of thin shells of
of the product; h is a height of designed column of liquid. revolution. 4th AIAA/ USAF/ NASA/ OAI Symp. Multi-
In a paper , problems of existence of optimal forms discip. Anal. and Optimiz., Cleveland, Ohio, Sept. 21-23,
of thin-walled shells possessing minimal mass and satisfy- 1992: Collect. Techn. Pap. Pt 2. Washington (D.P.). 1992;
ing to corresponding geometrical limitations and satisfying p. 701-709.
2 Surfaces of Revolution 149

. Kruzelecki J. Pewne problemy ksztaltowania powlok . Annaberdyev E. On one method of determination of the
osiowo-symetrycznych w stanie blonowym. Mechanica teor. single surface of revolution passing through two given cir-
i stosowana. 1979; 17(1), p. 75-92 (27 ref.). cles. Kibernetika Graki i Prikl. Geom. Poverhnostey.
. Blachut J. Optimal barrel-shaped shells under buckling Moscow: MAI, 1971; Vol. VIII, Iss. 231, p. 47-48 (2 ref.).
constraints. AIAA Journal. 1987; 25, No. 1, p. 186-188. . Krivoshapko SN., Mamieva IA. Drop-shaped surfaces
. Stupishin LYu. Research of optimal forms of shallow in architecture of buildings, reservoirs and products. Vestnik
shells of revolution with the help of principle of maximum RUDN: Eng. Researches. 2011; No. 3, p. 24-31.
of LS Pontryagin. Kursk: KPI, 1993. 14 p. 16 refs. Dep. v . Tzvetkova EG. Construction of optimal spatial gures
VINITI 21.01.94, No. 172-94. by methods of nonlinear programming. PhD Thesis. Tver.
. Krivoshapko SN.. Drop-shaped, catenoidal and pseudo- 2009; 16 p.
spherical shells. Mont. i Spetz. Raboty v Stroitelstve. 1998; . Zhang H, Wong KKY, Mendonca PRS. Reconstruction
No. 11-12, p. 28-32 (33 ref.). of surface of revolution from multiple. The 6th Asian Conf.
. Banichuk NV, Ivanova SYu, Makeev EB, Sinitzin AV. on Computer Vision (ACCV2004), Jeju, Korea, 27-30 Jan-
Some problems of optimal design of shells with paying uary 2004. In Proc. of the 6th Asian Conference on Com-
attention to accumulation of damages. Problemy Prochnosti i puter Vision, 2004; vol. 1, p. 378-383.
Plastichnosti. 2005; Vol. 67, p. 46-58.

## Surfaces of Revolution with Geometrically Optimal z

Rise r

h
l
In applied geometry of surfaces, interest to methods of opti-
O R x
mization of geometrical form of surfaces of revolution with
given properties in advance arose time and again. It was
Fig. 1
considered that the most actual problem is the following: it is
necessary to obtain a form of the surface with minimal area
S covering the maximal volume V. It gives the lesser
expenditure of materials and the lesser weight of the shell. hR2 h2 =3 r 2
nsph:segm: q ;
The special criterion 2 R2  h2  r 2 2 4h2 R2
n V=S R
nsphere ;
3
was introduced into practice (Fig. 1).
An area S of the second-order surface and a volume
covered by this surface can be dened with the help of the (2) a truncated cone:
general formulas:
x xz R  R  r z=h;
Zh q Zh q
02
S 2p xz 1 xz dz; V p xz2 dz; S pR r R  r2 h2 ;
0 0 ph  2 
V R r 2 rR ;
3
where x = x(z) is an equation of a meridian; h is the rise of a hR2 r 2 rR
surface, i.e., maximal rise of a surface over the plane xOy. ntr:c q ;
A meridian is rotated about the axis Oz. 3R r R  r2 h2
For concrete surfaces of revolution, these formulas give: hR
nc p ;
(1) a truncated sphere: 3 R2 h2

q
p 2 (3) a circular cylinder:
x xz a  z a2  R2 ;
2
q
S 2pRh; V pR2 h; ncyl : R=2:
a R2  h2  r 2 2 =4h2 R2 ;

ph h2
S 2pah; V R r ;
2 2
2 3
150 2 Surfaces of Revolution

0.6
(4) a truncated paraboloid of revolution: n (3)

p
x xz R2  zR2  r 2 =h; 0.4
8" #3=2
< (1)
4ph R2  r 2 2
S R 2
(5)
3R2  r 2 : 4h2
0.2
" #3=2 9 (4)
R 2
 r 2 2
= (2)
 r2 ;
4h 2 ;
0.019 0
ph 3Rh3 0 0.5 1
V R2 r 2 ; npar: h i; 0.05 0.995
2 4h R2 3=2  R3
2 h
3R4  r 4 Fig. 2
ntr:par: h i3=2 h i3=2 ;
8 R2 R2  r 2 2 =4h2 8 r 2 R2  r 2 2 =4h2

(5) a truncated ellipsoid of revolution: for a prolate ellipsoid with semi-axes a < c (k > 1); t2 = k2
1 > 0, one has
r

p2 " r r
x xz a  z=k a  R ;
2 2 2
h km a2 k 4 2 a2 k 2
S pt 2 2
 h km  m  m2
a  R; m2 a2  R2 ; k t t2
c h 
k p p ; a2 k 2 h km mt
2 arcsin t  arcsin :
" a r  a R#
a 2 2 2 2
t ak 2 ak
3
h km km3
V p a2 h  ;
3k 2 3 Curves showing a change of the ratio n = V/S with a
V change of a rise h give an opportunity to choose optimal
ntr:el: ; parameters of the meridian for the given shell form
S
(Fig. 2).
where for an oblate ellipsoid with semi-axes a > c (k < 1);
b2 = 1 k2, one has Reference
Krivoshapko SN. Emelyanova YuV. On a problem of surface
" r r
h km k 4 a2 a2 of revolution with geometrically optimal rise. Montazh. i
2
S pb h km  m  R2 Spetz. Raboty v Stroit. 2006; 2, p. 11-14.
k2 b2 b2
q3
2
k2 a2 h km k a =b h km 5
4 2 2
ln p ;
b2 km a2 =b2  R2

Middle Surface of Non-Bending Shell of Revolution meridians and parallels are equal to zero too and the angles
Under Uniform Pressure between them remain equal to /2.
Having assumed these propositions and using the rst
Under action of uniform pressure with corresponding condition of Peterson-Codazzi
boundary conditions, not only spherical and circular cylin-
drical shells deform without bending but also endless two- dR2 cos h
R1  R2 ;
parametrical family of shells of revolution which includes a dh sin h
sphere and a cylinder as a particular case. In the process of
axisymmetrical deformation, all normals to a middle surface V.I. Gurevich and V.S. Kalinin derived a condition of
do not turn, i.e., their angle of turn in the meridional plane is absence of bending in shells of revolution in forces in the
equal to zero. Besides, the angles of shearing between the form:
2 Surfaces of Revolution 151

## R2 dN2  mN1 cos h f/r1

1 mN2  N1 0
R1 dh sin h

where R1 and R2 are the principal radiuses of curvatures of
the meridian and the parallels accordingly; is the angle of a 2,0
3,0 1,6
normal to the meridian with an axis of rotation; is Pois- 1,5
sons ratio in theory of elasticity; N1 and N2 are the normal
tensile or compressive forces reckoned per unit of curvilin- 2,0
ear coordinates length acting in the tangent plane of middle
surface of the shell of revolution, 1,2
1,0 R1/R2 = 1
pR2 R2
N1 ; N2 0:5pR2 2  :
2 R1
0,75
A condition of absence of bending is correctly for shells 0,8
Substituting the values of normal forces in this condition, we
can obtain its new interpretation:

R2 dR2 d R2 0,4
3  R2 0
R1 dh dh R1 0,5

## dening radiuses of principal curvatures of shell of revolu- R1/R2 = 1/3

tion deforming without bending under action of uniform
pressure.
It is obviously that not only radiuses of principal curvatures x/r1 1,0 0,8 0,4 0,0
of sphere and cylinder satisfy this condition but shells with
Fig. 1
constant ratio R2/R1 = 3 too. In this case, N1 = N2. Assume that
z = f(x) is an equation of unknown meridian, then
Meridians were constructed under the condition that
p
02 3=2
1 f x x 1 f 02 C1
R1
; C2 3
R1
:
R1  ; R2 : r1 r1  3R1 r1 r1  R1
f 00 sin h f0

After substituting of values R1 = R1( f ) and R2 = R2( f ) into Dissertation of N.V. Cherdyntzev is devoted to seeking of
the differential equation of absence of bending, we can derive forms of shells of revolution and differential equations of
an equation of left branch of the meridian in the form of an stress-strain state of non-bending shell of revolution under
integral: uniform external pressure are presented. An integral dening
a form of the shell was reduced to a sum of two elliptical
Zx integrals and was presented also in the form of power series.
2C1 C2 x3 dx
z f x  q;
g C1  C2 x2 2  4C12 C22 x6 Additional Literature
Gurevich VI, Kalinin VS. Forms of shells of revolution
which does not express itself in terms of elementary func- deforming without bending under uniform pressure. DAN
tions. Here, C1 is constant. AN SSSR. 1981; Vol. 256, No. 5, p. 1085-1088.
In Fig. 1, taken from a paper of V.I. Gurevich and V.S. Cherdyntzev N.V. Stability of non-bending ship shells of
Kalinin, the meridians of non-bending shells of revolution revolution loaded by uniform pressure. PhD Dissertation.
having an angle = /2 when x = r1, i.e., R2 = r1, where r1 Leningrad. 1983; 153 p. (58 ref.).
is the radius of the support circle, are presented. Kreychman MM, Cherevatzkiy VB. On research of new
The surfaces represented in Fig. 1 divide by a sphere into forms of shells of revolution. Issled. po Teor. Plastin i
closed and unclosed at the peak. Unclosed surfaces divide by Obolochel. 1978; Iss. 4, p. 125-129.
a circular cylinder into the surfaces of negative and positive Kolesnikov A.M. Large Deformation of High-Elastic Shells.
Gaussian curvatures near the support part. PhD Thesis. Rostov-na-Donu. 2006; 16 p.
152 2 Surfaces of Revolution

2.5 Surfaces of Revolution with Extreme Taking into consideration that this problem due to a
Properties reciprocity principle is equivalent to other two problems
Let a plane curve r = r(z) (Fig. 1) passing through the given
(1) Obtain a plane curve r = r(z) of a given length L which
points has the given length L and revolving about an axis Oz,
rotating about an axis Oz forms a surface of the mini-
forms a surface of revolution of the given area S. Besides this,
mal area bounding the given volume V.
the volume V bounded by this surface and by two planes that
(2) Obtain a plane curve r = r(z) of the minimal length
are perpendicular to the axis of revolution must have the
L which rotating about an axis Oz forms a surface of the
greatest value. This is a classical variational problem about
given area S bounding the given volume V.
conditional extremum: if a curve r = r(z) gives an extremum to
An Euler equation for the functional H is
an integral
Z
@H
V p  r 2 dr H C;
@r 0
D
because the function H does not depend explicitly on z, i.e.,
under conditions H = H(r,r).
Z p Z p After transformation, we can derive an equation z zr
L 1 r 02 dz and S 2pr 1 r 02 dz in the integral form:
D D Z
C  k0 r 2 dr
z q c:
then the constants 0, 1, and 2 (Lagrange multipliers) exist
4k1 k2 r2  C  k0 r 2 2
and the curve r = r(z) gives the extremum to an integral
Z
In general case, this integral can be expressed with the
Q Hdz help of elliptical integrals. But having specic values of 0,
D 1, 2, and C, it is possible to integrate in the elementary
functions. In this case, we shall obtain a sphere and a torus
where
p p when k21  Ck22 0.
H k0 pr 2 k1 1 r 02 2k2 pr 1 r 02 : So, a sphere and a torus satisfy to all extremal conditions.
The expressions for Gaussian and mean curvatures of
extreme surfaces have the following form:
z
2 C  k0 r 2 k2 C k0 k2 r 2 2k0 k1 r
K ;
4rk1 k2 r3
k1 C  3k0 r 2  2k0 k2 r 3
2H
2rk1 k2 r2
r =r(z) r2
Giving different values to Lagrange constants, we can
obtain different forms of surfaces possessing by extreme
properties. There are well-known surfaces such as cylindri-
r1 cal surface, sphere, torus, catenoid, little known and
insufciently studied surfaces such as nodoid and unduloid,
O
and recently presented surfaces such as Penka and a
surface of catenoidal type, among them.
One paper is devoted to investigation of extremal surfaces
1 of rotation for area-type functional. The solutions of differ-
ential EulerLagrange equation are obtained. Also, the sym-
metry property of this surface is proved; the examples of
functionals are demonstrated and their corresponding solu-
Fig. 1 tions are given.
2 Surfaces of Revolution 153

A theorem of existence for nonholonomic rotation sur- Pulpinskiy YaS. Classication of surfaces possessing by
faces of zero total curvature of the second kind was proved extreme properties. Problimy Optim. Proektir. Soor.: Sb.
in a paper of O.V. Vasileva . An example of a nonholo- dokl. IV All-Russian Semenar. Novosibirsk: NGASU, 2002;
nomic surface of this class was constructed. p. 302-312 (3 ref.).
Zalgaller VA. One family of extremal spindle-shaped bodies.
Additional Literature Algebra i Analiz. 1993; 5, No. 1, p. 200-214.
Pulpinskiy YaS. Equations of generate shells or revolu- Klyachin VA, Tkacheva VA. Extremality condition of a
tion of optimal forms. Architecture of Shells and Strength surface of revolution for area-type functional. Vestnil Vol-
Analysis of Thin-Walled Building and Machine-Building GU. Ser. 1. Vol. 11. 2007; p. 39-44.
Structures of Complex Form. Proc. Intern. Scient. Conf., Vasileva OV. Nonholonomic surfaces of revolution of zero
Moscow, Jine 4-8, 2001. Moscow: Izd-vo Peoples total curvature of the second kind. Vestnik Tomskogo gosud.
Friendship University of Russia, 2001; p. 342-347 un-ta. 2003; 280, p. 12-16.
(3 ref.).

## Surface of Catenoidal Type

Substitute k
0 0; k
1 6 0; k
2 6 0 into general equation for
generatrix curves
Z
C
 k
0 r 2 dr
z q
c
4k
1 k
2 r2  C
 k
0 r 2 2

## of surfaces of revolution possessing by extremal properties

then we can formulate a problem in the following form:
determine a surface formed by rotation of a curve r = r Fig. 1
(z) about an axis Oz limited by two planes, that are perpen-
dicular to the axis of rotation, and having the least area of the
surface with given length of a generatrix meridian r = r(z). zc
Due to reciprocity theorem, such surface is equivalent to a r C  cosh  k1 :
C
surface of given area formed by rotation of a line z = z(r) with
the least length about an axis Oz. Then an expression for The equation obtained is an equation of a catenary that is
generatrix curves, represented before, will have the following parallel transferred along an axis Oz at a distance of 1.
form: It should be noted that catenary is formed by a focus of a
Z parabola in the process of rolling of this parabola along an
Cdr
z q; axis Ox. The magnitude C is a parameter of the parabola. A
D 4k1 r2  C2 value is dened by the initial position of the focus of the
parabola.
where we introduced the following symbolisms: A classical catenoid is formed by rotation of a catenary
k
1 C
when this line is placed at the certain distance from the axis
k1
; C : of rotation. A surface of revolution formed by rotation of a
k2 2k
2
catenary displaced from this position will not be a minimal
Having fullled the specic manipulations, one can surface because the sum of principal curvatures of this
obtain an equation of the meridian r = r(z) expressed in surface is not equal to zero (Fig. 1).
elementary functions: Parametrical equations of a surface of catenoidal type
can be written in the following form:

x xz; b r zcos b;
y yz; b r z sin b;
z z:
154 2 Surfaces of Revolution

## Coefcients of the fundamental forms of the surface and Additional Literature

its principal curvatures: Dao Chong Thi, Fomenko AT. Minimal surfaces and a
problem of Plato. Moscow: Nauka, 1987; 312 p
zc
A ch ; F 0; B r; Pulpinskiy YaS., Cherevatskiy VB. Modelling of extremum
C surfaces by soap lms. Materialy Mezhdunarodnoy Nauchn.
1 B
L  ; M 0; N ; Konf. Modelling as instrument of solving of technical and
C A pertaining to the humanities problem. Part 1. Taganrog:
1 1
kz k1 2
; kb k2 ; TRTU, 2002; p. 62-65 (4 ref.).
CA AB
1 C 2
K \0;
CBA3 rr k1 3
C
2H 6 0:
rr k1 2

## Penka An equation of the generatrix meridian can be expressed

with the help of elliptical integrals with taking into account
Assuming k0 6 0; k1 6 0; k2 0 in the equation for gen- the parameters , C and the conditions at the edges:
eratrix curves of surfaces of revolution possessing extreme p p )
properties z 2 kEk; u  Ek; u0  kFk; u  Fk; u0 ;
Z p
C
 k0 r 2 dr r j2k  C j cos u;
z q c;
4k1 k2 r 2 C
 k0 r 2 2
or
we can raise a problem in the following form: determine a 9
z  p Fk; u  Fk; u0  >
C
curve >
>
j2k  C j >
>
=
r r z p
j2k  C jEk; u  Ek; u0 ; >
>
pq >
>
>
of the given length in the process of rotation of which about
r j2k  C j 1  k sin u; 2 2 ;
an axis Oz, a surface of revolution is formed and together
with two planes, that are perpendicular to the axis Oz, it
envelops a maximal volume.
Assume = 1/0, C = C*/0, then an integral expression
for the generatrix meridian of a surface of revolution has the
form:

Z
C  r 2 dr
z q c:
4k2  C  r 2 2

## In this case, Gaussian and mean curvatures, radiuses of

principal curvatures are
C  r 2 C  3r 2
K ; 2H ;
2k2 2kr
k 2kr
R1 ; R2 :
r C  r 2

## Constants and C are determined due to the boundary

conditions.

Fig. 1
2 Surfaces of Revolution 155

where F k; u and E k; u are the elliptical integrals of the Having known the equation of a generatrix curve, it is
rst and second orders, k is a module but is an amplitude easy to construct the surface of revolution with extremum
of the elliptical integrals, 0 is an initial amplitude corre- properties with the help of parametrical equations:
sponding to r a.
If k C=2 and C = 0 then the integral expression for x xr; b r cos b;
the generatrix curve is solved in quadrature: if k C=2, y yr; b r sin b;
then (Fig. 1). z zr :
r p p 
C  2C 2C  r12 r  p2 A surface with k C=2 is called PenKa (Fig. 1).
z ln p p   2C  r
2  2C 2C  r 2 r12 
q
Reference
 2C  r12 ;
Pulpinskiy YaS. Equations of generate shells or revolution
of optimal forms. Architecture of Shells and Strength
if C = 0, then Analysis of Thin-Walled Building and Machine-Building
 q q
1 Structures of Complex Form. Proc. Intern. Scient. Conf.,
z r 2k2 r 2  a 2k2 a2
2 h Moscow, Jine 4-8, 2001. Moscow: Izd-vo Peoples Friend-
r ai ship University of Russia, 2001; p. 342-347.
 2k2 arcsin  arcsin :
2k 2k

## 2.6 The Surfaces of Delaunay Zx1 Zx1 p

Fy p y2 dx 2ayds p y2 2ay 1 y02 dx:
In 1841, astronomer and mathematician C. Delaunay has
x0 x0
picked out some surfaces of revolution described by him in
his paper into an independent group. Here, a is a corresponding real parameter; b is the second
In appendix of this paper, M. Sturm noted that the parameter.
determination of equations of Delaunay surfaces is a vari- It is recognized that the Delaunay surfaces are surfaces of
ational problem on a conditional extremum. revolution with constant mean curvature. With the excep-
For example, for unduloid and nodoid, the crux of the tion of spheres, they are generated by roulettes in the pro-
problem consists in the following: determine the functions y cess of their rotation about a curve along which the
(x), that are identied with meridians of surfaces of revo- corresponding conics roll.
lution, the volume of which can be calculated by a formula Roulettes are formed by focuses of parabola, ellipse, and
Zx1 hyperbola rolling without sliding along a straight line that is
an axis of rotation.
Vy p y2 dx;
Delaunay surfaces incorporate ve surfaces of revolution
x0
that are catenoids, unduloids, nodoids, spheres, and circular
cylindrical surfaces.
under condition of extremum of areas of their lateral
Let us present EulerLagrange equations for every type
surfaces
of surfaces of revolution:
Zx1 y
Sy 2p yds 2p: p  c 0; c [ 0 catenoid;
1 y02
x0 1 y 1
y2  p b2 0; [ b [ 0 unduloid;
H 1 y02 2H
It is supposed that the edges of a surface of revolution are
1 y
xed. y2  p  b2 0; b [ 0 nodoid;
H 1 y02
This problem results in an equation of EulerLagrange:
1 y
2ay y2  p 0; H [ 0 sphere;
y2 p  b2 0; H 1 y02
1 y02
1 y 1
y2  p b2 0; H [ 0; b [
H 1y 02 2H
that is connected with an integral
circular cylindrical surface:
156 2 Surfaces of Revolution

## some unexpected relationships among Jacobian elliptic

functions and their integrals (Fig. 1).
Delaunay surfaces are used for description of processes in gas
dynamics, for research of surfaces of soap lms and bubbles.

Delaunay C. Sur la surface de rvolution dont la courbure
moyenne est constante. J. Math. Pures et Appl. 1841; Ser. 1,
6, p. 309-320.
Eells James. The surfaces of Delaunay. Math. Intell. 1987; 9,
No. 1, p. 53-57.
Fig. 1 Open parts of the bulb (left) and the neck (right) segments
of the axially symmetric unduloid-like periodic surfaces of revo- Hano Jun-ich, Nomizu Katsumi. Surfaces of revolution with
lution obtained with the help of parametric equations by Djondjo- constant mean curvatures in Lorentz Minkowski space.
rov PA, et al Tohoku Math. J. 1984; 36, No. 3, p. 427-437.
Koiso Miyuki. On the surfaces of Delaunay. Kyoto kyoiku
daigaku kiyo = Bull. Kyoto Univ. Educ. 2000; Ser. B,
So, the Delaunay surfaces are included in a group of No 97, p. 13-33 (in Japan) (4 ref.).
Surfaces of Revolution with Extreme Properties (p. 72). Djondjorov PA, Hadzhilazova MTs, Mladenov IM, Vassilev
Axisymmetric surfaces of Delaunays unduloids provide VM. Beyond Delaunay surfaces. J. of Geom. and Symmetry
solutions of the shape equation in explicit parametric form. in Physics. 2010; 18, p. 1-12 (33 ref).
This class provides the analytical examples of surfaces with Kenmotsu K. Surfaces of revolution with periodic mean
periodic curvatures studied by K. Kenmotsu and leads to curvature. J. Math. Osaka. 2003; 40, p. 687-696.

## 2.6.1 Nodoid and Unduloid Surfaces r a cylindrical surface

of Revolution 1
a nodoid

Substituting k0 6 0; k1 0; k2
6 0 into a general shape a sphere
an unduloid z
equation for generatrix curves of surfaces of revolution
possessing extreme properties 1 2

Z
C  k0 r 2 dr Fig. 1
z q c
4k1 k2 r2  C  k0 r 2 2
Constant mean curvature is a remarkable property of
we can obtain an integral equation of the generatrix: nodoids and unduloids:
Z
C  k0 r 2 1
z q dr c: 2H  const;
4k2 r2  C  k0 r 2 2 k2

but
This integral equation describes a family of curves of
Shturm. that are lines generated by a focus of a parabola or C 2  r 4
K :
hyperbola in the process of rolling of corresponding curves 4k22 r 4
along a straight.
In that case, we can state a problem in the following form: So, an unduloid, or onduloid, is a surface with constant
nd a plane curve r = r(z) that forms a body of rotation of nonzero mean curvature obtained as a surface of revolution
the given volume V. This curve rotates about an axis Oz but of an elliptic catenary: that is, by rolling an ellipse along a
the body must cover a minimal area S. xed line, tracing the focus, and revolving the resulting
Due to the principle of mutuality, this problem is equiv- curve around the line. A nodoid is a surface of revolution
alent to the following problem: determine a plane curve r = r with constant nonzero mean curvature obtained by rolling a
(z) rotating about an axis Oz that forms a body of minimal hyperbola along a xed line, tracing the focus, and revolving
volume V limited by the surface of the given area S (Fig. 1). the resulting nodary curve about the line.
2 Surfaces of Revolution 157

In 1828, Poisson has shown that a surface of separation of of revolution will be in equal strength state under action of
two mediums that are at balance is a surface of a constant inner pressure P and axial force Pz0 per unit length of the
mean curvature. But in this case, one neglects the dead weight. circular edge if
These surfaces can be modeled by soap lms. A physical
principle forming soap lms, regulating their behavior, local Pz0
k2 P sin h0 :
and global properties is rather simple. A physical system 2pr1
keeps corresponding conguration only if the system cannot
change easily the conguration having captured a position
with less level of energy. An integral of general type is Additional Literature
reduced into elliptical integrals of the rst and second types: Cherevatzkiy VB, Grigirev AM. On research of nodoid and
unduloid shells. Issled. po Teorii Plastin i Obolochek.
CFk0 ; u p Kazan: KGU, 1970; No. 6, p .251-274 (8 ref.).
x rEk 0 ; u; yr 1  k02 sin u; Kreychman MM, Cherevatzkiy VB. On optimal forms of
r
shells of revolution. Kazan: Kazan. un-t, 1977. Ruk. dep. v
where VINITI 28.03.1977; No. 1197-77Dep., 5 ref.
m p Kreychman MM. Research of stress-strain state of shells of
k ; k0 1  k2 nodoid type loaded by non-axisymmetrical load quickly
r
changing. Kazan: Kazan. un-t, 15 p. Ruk. dep v VINITI
is an additional module of the integral. In ultimate cases, the 2.04.1982; No. 1539-82Dep (6 ref.).
integral for the studied surfaces can be reduced to an Gorodov GF, Gagarin YuA, Mitenkov FM, Pichkov SN. The
equation of sphere and circular cylindrical surface. application of nodoid and unduloid shells for the design of
An analog of geometrical properties of shells of revolu- atomic installations. Prikl. Probl. Prochnosti i Plastichnosti.
tion under corresponding conditions is a condition of 2000; No. 61, p. 61-63.
matching in strength (the same strength), i.e., an equality of Mladenov IM. Delaunay surfaces revisited. Dokl. Bylgar.
circular and meridional forces in every cross section. A shell AN. 2002; 55, No. 5, p. 19-24 (12 ref.) (in Bulgarian).

## Nodoid Surface Connecting Two Circular Cones z

2 2
It is necessary to know Lagrange multipliers 0, 2; Euler
F2
constant C and a constant of integration for the unambig- b
uous determination of a curve dened by an equation:
r2
Z r =r(z)
C  k0 r 2 dr
z q c;
4k2 r2  C  k0 r 2 2 q
r1

These values can be obtained without using of integral 1
conditions for areas and volumes of the surface.
F1
Let us construct a conjugation of two circular cones with 1
known radiuses r1 and r2 and with slopes 1, 2 of rectilinear
generatrixes of the cones (Fig. 1). For this case, we shall use
a nodoidal surface. The length of the surface along an axis Fig. 1
Oz turns automatically.
The integral equation becomes The values r1 and r2, 1 and 2 must be connected
Z between themselves.
C
 r 2 Let us study a soap bubble subjected to inner pressure
z q  dr c;
4  kr 2 C
 r 2 2 q. A contact of a soap lm with the bases of the circular
cones takes place in the sections a and b. In these sections,
surface tension forces are directed along rectilinear
where C
kC0 ; k kk20 .
generatrixes
158 2 Surfaces of Revolution

## where is a coefcient of surface tension, li are the lengths

of the contours of contact.
The conditions of equilibrium give
r1 sin a1 r2 sin a2 :

Dp 2Hl:

## So, we can design the surfaces both of positive and

negative mean curvatures.
For the determination of coefcients and C, it is nec-
essary to use an expression for derivative:
q
4k2 r 2  C
 r 2 2
r 0 z
C
 r 2
Fig. 2
and boundary conditions: if z = 0 then r = r1 and r 0 tan a1 ;
but if r = r2 then r 0 tan a2 .