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Chapter 3 3 Circular functions Objectives
To understand the reciprocal circular functions cosecant, secant and cotangent.
2
2
2
2
To understand and apply the identities sec
θ = 1 + tan
θ and cosec
θ = 1 + cot
θ.

To understand and apply the compound angle formulas.

To understand and apply the double angle formulas.

To understand the restricted circular functions and their inverses sin

To understand the graphs of the inverse functions sin

To solve equations involving circular functions.

1 , cos 1 and tan 1 .

1 , cos 1 and tan 1 .

There are many interesting and useful relationships between the trigonometric functions.

The most fundamental is the Pythagorean identity:

sin 2 A + cos 2 A = 1

Astronomy was the original motivation for these identities, many of which were discovered a

very long time ago.

For example, the following two results were discovered by the Indian mathematician

II in the twelfth century:

sin(A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B

cos(A + B) = cos A cos B sin A sin B

They are of great importance in many areas of mathematics, including calculus.

The sine, cosine and tangent functions are discussed in some detail in Section 1A. Several new circular functions are introduced in this chapter.

Final pages • Cambridge University Press © Evans et al., 2015 • ISBN 978-1-107-58743-4 • Ph 03 8671 1400

3A The reciprocal circular functions

119

3A The reciprocal circular functions

The cosecant function: y = cosec θ The cosecant function is deﬁned by
1
cosec θ =
sin θ

provided sin θ 0.

The graphs of y = cosec θ and

y = sin θ are shown here on the same

set of axes. y
y = cosec θ
1
y = sin θ
O
θ
−π
−π
π
π
2
2
2
−1

Domain As sin θ = 0 when θ = nπ, n Z, the domain of y = cosec θ is R \ { nπ : n Z }.

Range The range of y = sin θ is [1, 1], so the range of y = cosec θ is R \ (1, 1).

Turning points The graph of y = sin θ has turning points at θ =

as does the graph of y = cosec θ.

(2n + 1)π

2

, for n Z,

Asymptotes The graph of y = cosec θ has vertical asymptotes with equations θ = nπ,

for n Z.

The secant function: y = sec θ The secant function is deﬁned by
1
sec θ =
cos θ

provided cos θ 0.

The graphs of y = sec θ and y = cos θ

are shown here on the same set

of axes. y
y
= sec θ
1
y
= cos θ
O
θ
−π
−π
π
π
3π 2π
2
2
2
−1

Domain The domain of y = sec θ is R \

(2n + 1)π

2

: n Z .

Range The range of y = sec θ is R \ (1, 1).

Turning points The graph of y = sec θ has turning points at θ = nπ, for n Z.

Asymptotes The vertical asymptotes have equations θ = (2n + 1)π , for n Z.

2

Since the graph of y = cos θ is a translation of the graph of y = sin θ, the graph of y = sec θ is a translation of the graph of y = cosec θ, by π units in the negative direction of the θ-axis.

2

Final pages • Cambridge University Press © Evans et al., 2015 • ISBN 978-1-107-58743-4 • Ph 03 8671 1400

120 Chapter 3: Circular functions

The cotangent function: y = cot θ

The cotangent function is deﬁned by cot θ = cos sin θ θ
provided sin θ 0.

Using the complementary properties

of sine and cosine, we have

cot θ = tan π

π

2

π

2

2

θ

π

θ +

= θ

tan

= tan

y O
−π −π
π
π
3
π
2
π
2
2
2

Therefore the graph of y = cot θ, shown above, is obtained from the graph of y = tan θ

by a translation of π units in the negative direction of the θ-axis and then a reﬂection in

the θ-axis.

2

Domain

As sin θ = 0 when θ = nπ, n Z, the domain of y = cot θ is R \ { nπ : n Z }.

θ

Range The range of y = cot θ is R.

Asymptotes The vertical asymptotes have equations θ = nπ, for n Z.

Note: cot θ =

1

tan θ

provided cos θ 0 Example 1 a y  b y = sec π π x + 3 c y = cot x − 4

Sketch the graph of each of the following over the interval [0, 2π]:

= cosec(2x)

Solution

a

y

1

2

y 1  y = cosec 2x O  −1 π
π
2
2

x

y = sin 2x

The graph of y = cosec(2x)

is obtained from the graph of

= cosec x by a dilation of factor

from the y-axis.

The graph of y = sin(2x) is also shown.

Final pages • Cambridge University Press © Evans et al., 2015 • ISBN 978-1-107-58743-4 • Ph 03 8671 1400

3A The reciprocal circular functions

121 b The graph of y = sec x + π is obtained from
y
3
the graph of y = sec x by a translation of
π
units in the negative direction of the x-axis.
3
2
(2π, 2)
π
The y-axis intercept is sec
= 2.
3
1
π
The asymptotes are x =
O
π
π
6
6
−1
−2
π
c The graph of y = cot x −
is obtained from
y
4
the graph of y = cot x by a translation of
π
units in the positive direction of the x-axis.
4
π
The y-axis intercept is cot −
= −1.
1
4
O
x
π
π
π
The asymptotes are x =
and x =
.
−1
4
4
4
4
4
4
(2π, −1)
The x-axis intercepts are
and
.
4
4

6

and x =

6

.

x

For right-angled triangles, the reciprocal functions can be deﬁned through ratios:

cosec(x ) =

hyp

opp

cot(x ) = opp
hyp
x °
A

C

opp

B

 Example 2 C In triangle ABC, ∠ABC = 90 , ∠CAB = x , AB = 6 cm and ◦ ◦ x ° A 6 5 B BC = 5 cm. Find: a AC b the trigonometric ratios related to x ◦ Solution a By Pythagoras’ theorem, AC 2 = 5 2 + 6 2 = 61 ∴ AC = √ 61 cm b sin(x ◦ ) = 5 61 √ cosec(x ◦ ) = √ 61 5 cos(x ◦ ) = 6 61 √ sec(x ◦ ) = √ 61 6 tan(x ◦ ) = 5 6 cot(x ◦ ) = 6 5

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122 Chapter 3: Circular functions

Useful properties

The symmetry properties established for sine, cosine and tangent can be used to establish the following results:

sec(π x) = sec x

sec(π + x) = sec x

sec(2π x) = sec x

cosec(π x) = cosec x

cosec(π + x) = cosec x

cosec(2π x) = cosec x

cot(π x) = cot x

cot(π + x) = cot x

cot(2π x) = cot x sec(−x) = sec x
cosec(−x) = − cosec x
cot(−x) = − cot x
The complementary properties are also useful:
π
sec
2
π
− x
= cosec x
cosec
− x
= sec x
2
π
π
cot
− x
= tan x
tan
− x
= cot x
2
2
Example 3
Find the exact value of each of the following:
11π
23π
11π
a
sec
b
cosec −
c
cot
4
4
3
Solution
11π
23π
π
a
sec
=
sec
2π +
b
cosec −
=
cosec
−6π +
4
4
4
4
π
=
sec
=
cosec
4
4
1
1
=
=
π
cos
sin
4
4
1
1
=
=
1
1
2
2
=
2
=
2
11π
π
c
cot
=
cot
4π −
3
3
π
=
cot
3
π
=
− cot
3
1
=
tan π
3
=
− 1
3

Final pages • Cambridge University Press © Evans et al., 2015 • ISBN 978-1-107-58743-4 • Ph 03 8671 1400

Two new identities

3A The reciprocal circular functions

123

The Pythagorean identity sin 2 x + cos 2 x = 1 holds for all values of x.

From this identity, we can derive the following two additional identities: 2
2
1 + cot
x
= cosec
x
provided sin x 0
2
2
1 = sec
+ tan
x
x
provided cos x 0

Proof The ﬁrst identity is obtained by dividing each term in the Pythagorean identity

by sin 2 x:

sin 2 x + cos 2 x

sin 2 x

=

1

sin 2 x

The derivation of the second identity is left as an exercise.

sin 2 x

1 + cot

2

x = cosec

2

x Example 4
Simplify the expression
3
cos x − cos
x
cot x
Solution
3
2
cos x − cos
x
cos x · (1 − cos
x)
=
cot x
cot x
sin x
2
=
cos x · sin
x ·
cos x
3
=
sin
x Using the TI-Nspire
The expression is simpliﬁed directly after
entering and pressing enter .
It can be entered using fraction templates or as
cos(x) − (cos(x))
3 / cos(x)/ sin(x) .
Note: The warning icon indicates that the domain of the result may be larger than the
domain of the input.

Final pages • Cambridge University Press © Evans et al., 2015 • ISBN 978-1-107-58743-4 • Ph 03 8671 1400

124 Chapter 3: Circular functions

 Example 5 If tan x = 2 and x ∈ 0, π , ﬁnd: 2 a sec x b cos x c sin x d cosec x Solution a sec 2 x = 1 + tan 2 x b cos x = 1 sec x = √ 5 5 = 1 + 4 ∴ sec x = ± √ 5 π Since x ∈ 0, 2 , we have sec x = √ 5. 2 √ 5 1 √ 5 c sin x = tan x · cos x = 5 d cosec x = sin x = 2 Using the TI-Nspire
Choose solve from the Algebra menu and complete as shown.
Assign (
ctrl
t ) or store ( ctrl var ) the answer as the variable a to obtain the results. π
In
M,
enter and highlight: tan(x) = 2 0 ≤ x ≤
2
Go to Interactive > Equation/Inequality > solve.
Highlight the answer and drag it to the next entry line. Enter ⇒ a.
The results are obtained as shown.

Final pages • Cambridge University Press © Evans et al., 2015 • ISBN 978-1-107-58743-4 • Ph 03 8671 1400

3A

3A The reciprocal circular functions

125

Exercise

3A

1 Sketch the graph of each of the following over the interval [0, 2π]:

a

d

π

y = cosec

y = sec

x +

x +

4

2π

3

b

e

y = sec

x

π

6

y = cosec

x

π

2

c

f

y = cot x + π

3

y = cot x 3π

4

2 Sketch the graph of each of the following over the interval [0, π]:

b

a

y = sec(2x)

y = cosec(3x)

c

y = cot(4x)

d

y

= cosec 2x + π

2

e

y = sec(2x + π)

f

y = cot 2x π

3

3 Sketch the graph of each of the following over the interval [π, π]:

a

y = sec

2x

π

2

b

y = cosec

2x +

π

3

c

y = cot 2x 2π

3

4 Find the trigonometric ratios cot(x ), sec(x ) and cosec(x ) for each of the following triangles:
a

8

5 b
c
5
x °
7

5 Find the exact value of each of the following:

a

e

i

2π

3

π

4

sin

sec

sec

π

3

b

f

j

cos

3π

4

cot

cosec

π

6

3π

4

c

g

k

tan π

4

sin 5π

4

cot 9π

4

6 Simplify each of the following expressions:

a

d

sec

sin

2

2

x tan

x

2

x

+ cos x

cos x

b

e

cot

2

sin

4

x

x

cosec

2

cos

4

x

x

c

f 9
x °
7
π
d
cosec
6
h
tan
6
l
cos −
3
tan
2 x + 1
tan
2
x
tan
3 x + tan x

7 If tan x = 4 and x

a

sec x

π ,0 , ﬁnd:

2

b

cos x

c

cosec x

8 If cot x = 3 and x π, 3π , ﬁnd:

2

a

cosec x

b

sin x

c

sec x

Final pages • Cambridge University Press © Evans et al., 2015 • ISBN 978-1-107-58743-4 • Ph 03 8671 1400

126

Chapter 3: Circular functions

3A 9

If sec x = 10 and x π ,0 , ﬁnd:

2

a

tan x

b

sin x

10 If cosec x = 6 and x 3π ,2π , ﬁnd:

2

a

cot x

b

cos x

11

If sin x =

a

cos x

0.5 and 90 < x < 180, ﬁnd:

b

cot x

12 If cosec x

a

sin x

= 3 and 180 < x < 270, ﬁnd:

b

cos x

13 If cos x

a

= 0.7 and 0 < x < 180, ﬁnd:

b

sin x

tan x

14 If sec x

a

cos x

= 5 and 180 < x < 360, ﬁnd:

b

sin x

c

c

c

c

cosec x

sec x

cot x

cot x

15 Simplify each of the following expressions:

a

c

sec 2 θ + cosec 2 θ sec 2 θ cosec 2

1 cos 2 θ 1 + cot 2 θ

16 Let x = sec θ tan θ. Prove that x +

 for x − 1 in terms of θ. x

θ

1

x

b

d

sec θ cos θ cosec θ sin θ

sec 2 θ cosec 2 θ

tan 2 θ cot 2 θ

= 2 sec θ and also ﬁnd a simple expression

3B Compound and double angle formulas

The compound angle formulas  The following identities are known as the compound angle formulas.

Compound angle formulas

 cos(x + y) = cos x cos y − sin x sin y cos(x − y) = cos x cos y + sin x sin y sin(x + y) = sin x cos y + cos x sin y sin(x − y) = sin x cos y − cos x sin y tan(x + y) = tan x + tan y 1 − tan x tan y tan x − tan y tan(x − y) = 1 + tan x tan y

Final pages • Cambridge University Press © Evans et al., 2015 • ISBN 978-1-107-58743-4 • Ph 03 8671 1400

3B Compound and double angle formulas

Proof of the initial identity

We start by proving the identity

cos(x y) = cos x cos y + sin x sin y

The other identities will be derived from this result.

Consider angles x and y, measured anticlockwise,

y

127 and the corresponding points P(cos x, sin x) and
Q(cos y, sin y) on the unit circle.
1
Q
(cos y , sin y )
Let α be the angle measured anticlockwise
from OQ to OP. Then
O
x
−1
1
x − y
= α + 2πk
α
for some k ∈ Z.
P(cos x , sin x )
−1
Now consider the position vectors:
−−→
−−→
OP = cos x i + sin x j
and
| OP| = 1
−−→
−−→
OQ = cos y i + sin y j
and
| OQ| = 1
Using the deﬁnition of the scalar product gives
−−→
−−→
OP · OQ = cos x cos y + sin x sin y
To apply the geometric description of the scalar product
a · b = |a| |b| cos θ
we consider two cases.
Case 1: 0 ≤ α ≤ π
−−→
−−→
−−→
−−→
The angle between vectors OP and OQ is α, so OP · OQ = cos α.
Case 2: π < α < 2π
y

This case is illustrated in the diagram opposite.

−−→

−−→

The angle between OP and OQ is 2π α, so

−−→

OP · OQ = cos(2π α) = cos α.

−−→

Therefore, in both cases, we have

Hence

−−→

OP · OQ = cos α

−−→

cos(x y) = cos(α + 2πk)

= cos α

= OP −−→ · OQ −−→

= cos x cos y + sin x sin y 1
Q
O
1
1
α
P
1

x

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128 Chapter 3: Circular functions

Derivation of the other identities

cos(x + y) = cos x (y)

= cos x cos(y) + sin x sin(y)

= cos x cos y sin x sin y

sin(x y) = cos π x + y

2

=

cos π

2

x cos y sin π x sin y

2

= sin x cos y cos x sin y

tan(x y) =

=

sin(x y)

cos(x y)

sin x cos y cos x sin y

cos x cos y + sin x sin y

Dividing top and bottom by cos x cos y gives

 sin x cos y cos x sin y − tan(x − y) = cos x cos y cos x cos y 1 + sin x sin y cos x cos y tan x − tan y = 1 + tan x tan y

The derivation of the remaining two identities is left as an exercise. Example 6 5π π π 5π π π π π a Use = + to evaluate sin b Use = − to evaluate cos 12 6 4 12 . 12 3 4 12 . Solution a sin 5π 12 π 6 = 6 π = sin + π 4 cos sin π 4 + cos π 6 sin π 4 b cos π 12 = = π π cos cos 3 π 3 − 4 cos π 4 + sin π 3 sin π 4 1 1 √ 3 1 1 1 √ 3 1 = × + = × + 2 × √ 2 2 = √ 2 1 + √ 3 4 √ 2 2 × √ 2 2 = √ 2 1 + √ 3 4 √ 2

Final pages • Cambridge University Press © Evans et al., 2015 • ISBN 978-1-107-58743-4 • Ph 03 8671 1400

3B Compound and double angle formulas

129 Example 7
If sin x = 0.2 and cos y = −0.4, where x ∈ 0, π and y ∈ π, 3π , ﬁnd sin(x + y).
2
2
Solution
We ﬁrst ﬁnd cos x and sin y.
cos x = ±
1 − 0.2
2
as sin x = 0.2
sin y = ±
1 − (−0.4)
2
as cos y = −0.4
=
± √ 0.96
=
± √ 0.84
π
∴ cos x = √ 0.96
as x ∈
0,
∴ sin y = − √ 0.84
as y ∈
π,
2
2
2
6
21
=
=
5
5
Hence
sin(x + y) = sin x cos y + cos x sin y
2
6
21
= 0.2 × (−0.4) +
×
5
5
2
= −0.08 −
× 3
14
25
2
= −
1 + 3
14
25 Using the TI-Nspire
π
First solve sin(x) = 0.2 for 0 ≤ x ≤
.
2
Assign the result to a.
Then solve cos(y) = −0.4 for π ≤ y ≤
.
2
Assign the result to b.
Note: If a decimal is entered, then the answer
will be given in approximate form, even
in Auto mode. To obtain an exact answer,
use exact( at the start of the entry or write
the decimal as a fraction.
Use menu > Algebra > Trigonometry >
Expand to expand the expression sin(a + b).

Final pages • Cambridge University Press © Evans et al., 2015 • ISBN 978-1-107-58743-4 • Ph 03 8671 1400

130 Chapter 3: Circular functions Solve sin(x) = 0.2 0 ≤ x ≤ π for x.
2
Solve cos(y) = −0.4 π ≤ y ≤ 3π for y.
2
Paste the results to form the expression
1
2
−1
−1
sin sin
+ cos
+ π
5
5
Highlight and go to Interactive >
Transformation > tExpand.

The double angle formulas

Double angle formulas

cos(2x) = cos

2 x sin

2

x

sin(2x) = 2 sin x cos x

tan(2x) =

2 tan x

= 1 2 sin

2

x

2

= x 1

2 cos 1 tan

2

x

Proof These formulas can be derived from the compound angle formulas. For example:

cos(x + y) = cos x cos y sin x sin y

cos(x + x) = cos x cos x sin x sin x

The two other expressions for cos(2x) are obtained using the Pythagorean identity:

cos(2x) = cos

2 x sin 2 x

cos

2 x sin 2 x = (1 sin 2 x) sin 2

= 1 2 sin 2 x

x

and

cos

2

x sin

2

x = cos

2

x (1 cos

2

= 2 cos 2 x 1

x)

 Example 8 If sin α = 0.6 and α ∈ π , ﬁnd sin(2α). 2 , π Solution cos α = ± √ 1 − 0.6 2 since sin α = 0.6 = ±0.8 ∴ cos α = −0.8 since α ∈ π , π 2

Final pages • Cambridge University Press © Evans et al., 2015 • ISBN 978-1-107-58743-4 • Ph 03 8671 1400

3B

3B Compound and double angle formulas

131

Hence

sin(2α) = 2 sin α cos α

= 2 × 0.6 × (0.8)

= 0.96 Example 9
α
If cos α = 0.7 and α ∈
,2π , ﬁnd sin
.
2
2
Solution
We use a double angle formula:
2
cos(2x) = 1 − 2 sin
x
α
2
cos α = 1 − 2 sin
2
α
2
2 sin
2
= 1 − 0.7
= 0.3
α
sin
= ± √ 0.15
2
α
α
Since α ∈
,2π , we have
, π
, so sin
is positive.
2
2
4
2
Hence
α
15
sin
= √ 0.15 =
2
10
Exercise
3B Skillsheet 1 Use the compound angle formulas and appropriate angles to ﬁnd the exact value of each

of the following:

π

a

sin

12

b

tan

5π

12

c

cos

7π

12

d

tan

12

π

2 Use the compound angle formulas to expand each of the following:

a

sin(2x 5y)

b

cos(x

3 Simplify each of the following:

a

c

e

sin(x) cos(2y) cos(x) sin(2y)

tan A tan(A B)

1 + tan A tan(A B)

cos(y) cos(2y) sin(y) sin(2y)

2

+ y)

c

tan x + (y + z)

 b cos(3x) cos(2x) + sin(3x) sin(2x) d sin(A + B) cos(A − B) + cos(A + B) sin(A − B)

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132

Chapter 3: Circular functions

3B

 4 5 Example 7 6 7 8 Example 8 9 10 Example 9 11 12 13 14 a Expand sin(x + 2x).

b Hence express sin(3x) in terms of sin x.

a Expand cos(x + 2x).

b Hence express cos(3x) in terms of cos x.

If sin x = 0.6 and tan y = 2.4, where x π , π and y 0, π , ﬁnd the exact value of

2

each of the following:

2

 a cos x b sec y c cos y d sin y e tan x f cos(x − y) g sin(x − y) h tan(x + y) i tan(x + 2y)

π, 3π and y 0, π

2

If cos x = 0.7 and sin y = 0.4, where x

of the following, correct to two decimal places:

a

2

sin x

b

cos y

c tan(x y)

Simplify each of the following:

, ﬁnd the value of each

d cos(x + y) tan x
a
1 2 sin x cos x
b
sin
2 x − cos
2 x
c
1
− tan
2 x
4
4
sin
4 x − cos
x
4 sin
3 x − 2 sin x
4
sin
2 x − 4 sin
x
d
e
f
cos(2x)
cos x cos(2x)
sin(2x)
If sin x = −0.8 and x ∈
π,
, ﬁnd:
2
a sin(2x)
b cos(2x)
c tan(2x)
π
If tan x = 3 and x ∈
0,
, ﬁnd:
2
a tan(2x)
b tan(3x)
If sin x = −0.75 and x ∈
π,
, ﬁnd correct to two decimal places:
2
1
a cos x
b sin
x
2
π
Use the double angle formula for tan(2x) and the fact that tan
= 1 to ﬁnd the exact
π
4
value of tan
.
8
π
1
P
If cos x = 0.9 and x ∈
0,
, ﬁnd cos
x
correct to two decimal places.
2
2
In a right-angled triangle GAP, AP = 12 m and GA = 5 m.
c
The point T on AP is such that ∠AGT = ∠TGP = x . Without
using a calculator, ﬁnd the exact values of the following:
12 m
a tan(2x)
T
b tan x, by using the double angle formula
c AT
A
G
5 m

Final pages • Cambridge University Press © Evans et al., 2015 • ISBN 978-1-107-58743-4 • Ph 03 8671 1400

3C Inverses of circular functions

3C Inverses of circular functions

133

As the circular functions sine, cosine and tangent are periodic, they are not one-to-one and therefore they do not have inverse functions. However, by restricting their domains to form one-to-one functions, we can deﬁne the inverse circular functions. The inverse sine function: y = sin

1

x

Restricting the sine function

When the domain of the sine function is restricted to the

interval π , π

2

, the resulting function is one-to-one and

2

therefore has an inverse function.

Note: Other intervals (deﬁned through consecutive turning

points of the graph) could have been used for the

restricted domain, but this is the convention.

Deﬁning the inverse function

The inverse of the restricted sine function is usually denoted by sin

y y = sin x
1
O
x
−π
π
2
2
−1
−1
or arcsin.

Inverse sine function

sin

1

: [1, 1] R,

sin

1

x = y,

where sin y = x and y

π

2

,

π

2

The graph of y = sin

reﬂection in the line y = x.

1

x is obtained from the graph of y = sin x, x

π , π , through a

2

2

y y = sin x
1
O
x