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V irg in ia E vans - J e n n y D o o le y

K s e n ia B a ra n o v a - V ic to ria K o p y lo v a
R a d is la v M illro o d


Express Publishing

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: . . , . , . . , . . , .
Authors: Virginia Evans, Jenny Dooley, Ksenia Baranova, Victoria Kopylova, Radislav M illrood

A c k n o w le d g e m e n t s
A u th o rs ' A c k n o w le d g e m e n ts
We would like to thank all the staff at Express Publishing who have contributed their skills to producing this book. Thanks for their support and
patience are due in particular to: Megan Lawton (Editor in Chief); Mary Swan and Sean Todd (senior editors); Michael Sadler and Steve Miller
(editorial assistants); Richard White (senior production controller); the Express design team; Sweetspot (recording producers); and Kevin Harris,
Kimberly Baker, Steven Gibbs and Christine Little. We would also like to thank those institutions and teachers who piloted the manuscript, and
whose comments and feedback were invaluable in the production of the book.

E very e ffo r t has b e e n m a d e to tra c e all t h e c o p y rig h t h o ld ers. If a n y h a v e b e e n in a d v e r te n tly o v e rlo o k e d , th e p u b lish e rs w ill be
p le as ed to m a k e th e n e ces sa ry a rra n g e m e n ts a t th e firs t o p p o rtu n ity .

. 8 : . . . .
64 . . / [. . , . , . . .]. - . : Express Publishing :
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Express Publishing, 2014
ISBN 9 7 8 - 5 - 0 9 - 0 2 7 6 5 7 - 3 , 2014

Contents
M o d u le s G ra m m a r V o c a b u la ry

Starter Jobs H ealth Issues


Extrem e Sports A ppearance &
pp. 5-6 E nte rtain m e nt Character
The Inte rn e t The E nvironm ent
The W eather

Present/Past tenses W orld Events


Breaking news (revision) V olcanic e ru p tio n s
Past p erfe ct/P a st perfect A ccidents and injuries
c on tinu ou s Types o f TV program m es
pp. 7-21 Q uantifiers W eather phenom ena
Skills 1 pp. 22-24 Disasters
Language in Use 1 p. 25 Phrasal verbs: back, call, carry
Russia 1 p. 26 W ord fo rm a tio n : co m p o u n d adjectives

Future tenses (revision ); Shops & services


J . Consumer fu tu re con tinu ou s M ate ria ls & substances
society -/n g /fto j- in fin itiv e fo rm S uperm arket sho pp ing
(revision) Furniture & appliances
pp. 27-41 C om parisons (revision) Faulty products
Future perfect s im p le / Phrasal verbs: do, drop, get
Future perfect c on tinu ou s W ord fo rm a tio n : verbs fro m n o u n s /
Skills 2 pp. 4 2-44
Language in Use 2 p. 45 Clauses o f concession adjectives
Russia 2 p. 46

M odals (revision) C om m u nity a ction


Doing the right C onditionals 0, 1, 2, M em bers o f society
thing W ishes W orld problem s
Relative clauses Raising awareness

3
pp. 47-61 M ixed c on ditio na ls Space
E nvironm ental problem s
Skills 3 pp. 6 2-64 Phrasal verbs: hand, hang, join
Language in Use 3 p. 65 W ord fo rm a tio n : prefixes used w ith nouns
Russia 3 p. 66

M ysterious e ve nts/pla ce s
Still a mystery The passive p e rs o n a l/
im personal con struction s UFOs
R eflexive/e m ph atic C haracteristics o f strange creatures

4 pp. 67-81
Skills 4 pp. 82-84
Language in Use 4 p. 85
Russia 4 p. 86
pronouns
Q uestion tags
A rticles (a, an, the, - )
Ways o f loo king
U nexplained phenom ena
Types o f books
Sound verbs
Phrasal verbs: keep, let, pick
W ord fo rm a tio n : fo rm in g nouns fro m
adjectives

Reported speech Learning experiences


Lifelong Reported q u e s tio n s / M a rtia l a rt skills
learning com m ands School subjects & Technology in education
Special in tro d u c to ry verbs A chievem ents
pp. 87-101
Time clauses Gap year experiences
Skills 5 pp. 102-104 H igher education
Language in Use 5 p. 105 Phrasal verbs: pass, stick, think
Russia 5 p. 106 W ord fo rm a tio n : abstract nouns

The causative A ppearance & Character


Getting to know Speculations C hanging one's appearance
you Clauses (p urpo se, result, Types o f people
reason & m a nn er) Body language
pp. 107-121 Speculations Body idiom s
Skills 6 pp. 122-124 Inversion Phrasal verbs: fill, hold, try
Language in Use 6 p. 125 W ord fo rm a tio n : nouns fro m verbs
Russia 6 p. 126

3

Contents
R eading & Listening Speaking & Functions W ritin g C ulture C o rn e r/
Curricular
Revision

D
In the Heat of the Moment A n in te rvie w W h a t it's like to be Hurricane Katrina:
(m u ltip le choice) Decide w h a t to w atch near a volcano The tragedy of
Trapped! (m issing sentences) on TV An in te rv ie w New Orleans
Strange weather we're having! Give bad new s & react A n experience (headings)
(T /F /N S ) In to n a tio n : echo som eone had How Tsunamis
The Day the Earth Moved questions A story Work (G eography)
(g ap p ed te x t) Yuri Gagarin (T /F /
a new s re p o rt (T /F ) NS)
0
Tomorrow's World (T /F /N S ) Buy clothes H ow inventions w ill Made in the USA
Exposed! The Tricks of the Trade Describe sb's life im prove o ur lives (multiple
(h ea d in g s) C om pare lifestyles An em ail o f c o m p la in t matching)
Living in a time warp (m u ltip le M ake com p lain ts & A com p arison o f tw o How to be a
choice) request action lifestyles responsible
Growing up (m u ltip le choice cloze In to n a tio n : H ow vertical farm s can shopper
Faulty products (m a tc h in g ) e xclam ations b e n e fit society (C itize nsh ip)
Moscow's Flea
Market (T /F /N S )

A day in the shoes o f ... (sentence M ake a d o n a tio n to A sho rt a cco un t o f a Glastonbury
co m p le tio n ) charity day Festival (h ea d in g s)
A Street Education (m ultiple choice Express o pin ion in th e life o f an What is
The Worst Place to Take a Walk! In to n a tio n : p olite u nem ployed person Deforestation?
(m issing sentences) requests A letter a b o u t an (G eo grap hy)
Space Colonisation Future or A radio in te rvie w experience VITA is Life
Fantasy? (g ap p ed te x t) A lecture
Swimming with Sharks (T /F /N S ) An o p in io n essay
m o no log ue s (m a tc h in g )
a d ia lo g u e (m u ltip le choice)
r
The Truth isn't out there ...o r is it? Book tickets fo r a A b oo k review Haunted London
(g ap p ed te x t) guided to u r A paragraph a b o u t a (m u ltip le choice
In Search of Monsters (m u ltip le Express Preferences to u r cloze)



choice)
Mysterious Places (m u ltip le
m a tc h in g )
Back to Life! (g a p p e d te x t)
Books (T /F )
In to n a tio n : question
tags


A sum m ary
A d escriptio n o f an
experience
A p resentation on
dinosaurs


The Day of the
Triffids
(L iterature)
The Tunguska
Event (T /F /N S )

Training with the Shaolin Monks a radio in te rv ie w A fo r-a n d -a g a in s t The Duke of


(g ap p ed te x t) b o rro w library books essay Edinburgh's Award
Khan Academy (m u ltip le choice) P ronunciation: A n in te rv ie w (m u ltip le choice
The Boy who Harnessed the e m p h a tic stress H ow an in v e n to r feels cloze)
Wind (m u ltip le choice) C om pare photos W h a t som eone learnt Train your brain
Take a break (m u ltip le m a tch in g ) fro m an experience (PSHE)
H igher education experiences Yuri Rozum
(m a tc h in g ) Foundation^/F /N S )
r
You are what you think you are! Speculate & m ake A descriptive article Haka! (open

6
(m u ltip le choice) assum ptions a b o u t a person cloze)
Dealing with Difficult people Rearrange an A sum m ary Nature speaks
(m u ltip le m a tc h in g ) a p p o in tm e n t A paragraph a b o u t a (Science)
Liar, liar! (T /F /N S ) P ronunciation: express p ersonality typ e The captain's
Do you speak dolphinese? sym pathy A ta lk daughter, Pushkin
(m issing sentences) C riticise & respond (T /F /N S )
An in te rv ie w (m u ltip le choice)

Revision pp. 127-132; Vocabulary Bank pp. VB1-VB23; W riting Bank pp. WB1-W B6; Grammar Reference pp. GR1-GR21; Rules for
Punctuation p. GR22; American English - British English Guide p. GR23; Pronunciation p. GR24; Word Formation pp. WF1-WF3; Key
Word Transformations pp. KWT1-KWT3; Word List pp. W L1-W L17; Irregular Verbs
1
module
Jobs Entertainment
M a tc h th e w o rd s to fo rm jo b s . Fill in: audience, scene, scenery, lightin g,
1 3
performance, curtain, stage, props, fame, icon.
1 vid eo gam e A counsellor
2 chaser 1 Kylie M inog ue is still a reigning ............................
flig h t
3 ^ w a lke r in th e w o rld o f pop music.
secret
4 D a tte n d a n t 2 He's in charge o f p a in tin g t h e ...............................
sales
5 E shopper fo r th e play.
camp
6 F coach 3 The tw is t a t th e end o f th e play was a com plete
police
7 G assistant surprise fo r t h e ............................................................
dog
8 H te ste r 4 A lo t o f child actors a c h ie v e ...................................
storm
9 I o ffice r a t a very young age.
sports
5 The lead actor gave an e x c e lle n t..............................
b) W h a t jo b w o u ld you like to do? 6 A ctors need to kn o w th e ........................................
plan so th e y kn o w w h e re to stand.
Extreme Sports
7 A t th e beginning o f th e play there w ere no
2 Label th e pictures. actors on t h e ................................................................

stre e t luge speed skiing w in d s u rfin g 8 They b ro u g h t d ow n th e ...........................................


a t th e end o f th e play.
m ou n ta in biking p aragliding m otocross
9 The f in a l...................................o f the film was very
w h ite w a te r ra ftin g rock clim bing
dram atic.
10 W hen the curta in rose th e o n ly .............................
on stage w ere a table, a chair and a glass.

The Internet
Fill in : interface, engine, account, login, profile,
browse, sign up, com munity.

1 A lex set up an e m a il.................................... so th a t


w e could keep in touch.
2 M y fa v o u rite search .............................. is Google.
3 This social n e tw o rk seems to be a very tig h t-
k n it .......................................
4 You have to typ e in y o u r .........................................
name to open yo u r account.
5 You can personalise y o u r .........................................
in a num ber o f ways.
6 You c a n ................................................................to get
th e ir e-new sletter.
7 This program has a m uch m ore user-friendly
.................................than a lo t o f others I've used.
8 You c a n .......................................... fo r new contacts
by name or location.

5
i
] 1


module
The Weather The Environment
5 Circle th e odd one out. g Fill in: global, fossil, greenhouse, lose, caps,
threat, temperature, extinct.
1 SNOW: blizzard - breeze - hail - sleet
2 RAIN: to rn a d o - flo o d - show er - drizzle 1 Sea levels w ill rise and cause w idespread
3 W IN D : gale - to rn a d o - breeze - storm flo o d in g if th e polar ic e ...................................m elt.
4 TEMPERATURE: b o ilin g h o t - chilly - sunny 2 A rise i n ................... w ill cause m ore heatw aves.
spells - freezing cold 3 ................................ w a rm in g is one o f the biggest
issues facing our pla n e t today.
Health Issues 4 We w ill need to fin d an a lte rn a tiv e p ow er
g Fill in: strain, loss, thum b, swelling, rash, source w h e n ........................................fuels run out.
infection, shoulder, upset, immune, insom nia, 5 Carbon dioxid e is a ............................... gas w hich
watery, sickness. traps heat above the earth.
6 O ur w ay o f life is u n d e r .......................... because
1 We need a h e a lth y ....................................... system
o f th e changing clim ate.
to fig h t o ff infections.
7 D e fo re sta tio n is causing a num ber o f species to
2 The ............................. w e n t d ow n a fte r he p u t an
.....................................th e ir habitats.
icepack on the injury.
8 Soon a num ber o f plants and anim als could
3 My mum gets te rrib le t r a v e l.................................. ,
b e c o m e ......................................like the dinosaurs.
so she rarely goes anyw here.
4 Jean g e t s .......................... eyes and a runny nose Everyday English
because o f her hay fever.
0 Choose th e correct response.
5 We should take regular breaks from the
co m p u te r screen to prevent e y e ............................ 1 A: W h a t was th e perform ance like?
6 Roland g o t a .......................................strain playing B: a N ot really. b It was fantastic.
tennis last w eek, n o w he ca n 't m ove his arm. 2 A: W h a t seems to be th e problem ?
7 My uncle suffered h e a rin g ....................................... B: a It's my shoulder, b I'm afraid it's infected.
because he w o rke d w ith loud m achinery. 3 A: W h a t does he do fo r a living?
8 I g o t an itch y ............................on th e side o f my B: a He works shifts, b He w o rks as a nurse.
face a fte r I bo rro w e d my friend's m obile phone.
4 A: I'll m ake sure it do e sn 't happen again.
9 She's n o t g e ttin g enough sleep because she has
B: a You're w elcom e.
b Thanks. I'd really appreciate th a t.
10 The cut from th a t rusty nail gave me a skin
5 A: If w e o ffe r you th e jo b , w hen can you start?
B: a I'll be in touch, b Im m ediately.
11 He had a te rrib le ........................... stom ach a fte r
he ate curry last nig h t. 6 A: Do you w a n t to go o u t later?
12 Sending a lo t o f SMS messages can cause B: a Sure! b It was nothing special.
.....................................a rth ritis . 7 A: Hello. I'd like to book a room , please.
B: a Your boo king reference is 2223344.
Appearance & Character b C ertainly. W hich dates, please?
~J Circle th e odd one out. 8 A: Should I come and see you again?
1 m iddle aged - old - teenager - plum p B: a Yes, it's very red. b O nly if it gets w orse.
2 w e ll-b u ilt - o v e rw e ig h t - skinny - m edium 9 A: W h a t day?
3 neck - beard - m oustache - hair B: a 12 M e rto n St. b 19th July.
4 curly - w avy - pierced - s tra ig h t 10 A: You look nice. Is som ethin g d iffe re n t?
5 w rin kle s - freckles - ta tto o - eyebrow s : a I g o t a new haircut,
6 p a tie n t - generous - o u tg o in g - blonde b You've g ro w n your hair.


Vocabulary: w o rld events, volcanic eruption s,
accidents & injuries, types o f TV program m es,
w e a th e r phenom ena, disasters
Grammar: present & past tenses (revision); past
p e rfect & past p e rfect contin uous; q u a n tifie rs
Everyday English: deciding w h a t to w a tch on TV
Into nation : echo questions
Phrasal verbs: back, call, carry
W ord form ation: com pound adjectives
Breaking news
W ritin g: a story
Culture Corner: H urricane K atrina: The tra g e d y o f
New Orleans
Curricular (Geography): Tsunamis
Russia 1: Yuri G agarin___________________________

Close your books and


say a fe w things you
rem em ber abo ut the
events th a t have
happened in th e 21 st In 2002, the Microsoft Corporation
century so far. j 1 ) ....................the first ever tablet PC,

In 2010, 33 men were 2 ) ......................


from a collapsed mine in the Atacama
Desert, Chile.

In 2005, Hurricane Katrina 3 ) ..................


massive flooding and loss of life in New
Orleans, USA.

In 2011, a 9.0 earthquake 5 ) .................


followed by a huge tsunami that killed
In 2010, the Eyjafjallajokull volcano thousands of people.
in Iceland 4 ) ...................and
people had to evacuate.
I a Volcano chasers
V o c a b u la r y
Volcanic eruptions
Listen and say. Use the
In the
of th;
picture and th e captions to tell

Li owe
th e class w h a t happens w hen a

volcano erupts.
s?v *

L is te n in g & R e a d in g
a) Read th e title o f th e te x t,
th e in tro d u ctio n and th e When a volcano erupts, m ost people want to get as far away as
first sentence in each possible, as quickly as they can! German engineer Martin Rietze,
on the other hand, grabs his camera and tries to get as close as he
parag rap h . W h a t is th e te x t
can and stay alive at the same tim e!
about?
Q Listen, read and check. Hes so close that he can feel the heat burning his face even
through his gas mask. The lava flow is about a metre away and its
getting closer every second. The ground beneath his feet is
shaking and there is a deafening roar like a plane taking off. He
cant stay this close for too long because the gases and acids will
volcano, erupt, grab, heat, burn, gas
mask, lava flow , ground is shaking, destroy his camera, but Martin Rietze waits just long enough to
deafening roar, take o ff, acid, flam ing see flam ing hot lava and ash explode out of the nearby crater -
hot lava, freelance, stunning and gets the perfect shot.
photograph, in high demand, Martin is a freelance photographer whose stunning photographs
dedicated, dorm ant volcano, steam, of volcanic eruptions are in high dem and with newspapers and
block the view, m ystify, be w o rth it, magazines all over the world. He is one of a small but dedicated
be on the scene, spectacular shot, lava
group of volcano chasers. When a dorm ant volcano becomes
fountain , je t o f lava, shoot up, shelter,
active, they book the first flight to be as near as possible to it, set
boulder, take precautions, poisonous
gas, sharp, adm it, m atter o f survival up cam p and wait, som etim es for as long as two weeks. It takes a
lot of patience as a volcano can erupt at any time, night or day
and clouds, fog and steam often block the view. The final results
though, like M artins shots of volcanic lightning - a phenom enon
that still mystifies scientists - are definitely worth it!
When the Eyjafjallajokull volcano in Iceland erupted in 2010 and
ash clouds closed airspace over Northern Europe, Martin was
already on the scene for some of his most spectacular shots. After
spending three sleepless nights in freezing temperatures, Martin
got within three feet of the lava flow and even took photos of lava
fountains - jets of lava that shoot up as high as a thirty-storey
building! He d idnt get any sleep because the volcano was
throwing out rocks the size of cars, so for most of the time he was
sheltering behind a large boulder!

Martin says that hes had more accidents when mountain climbing
than volcano chasing, but that doesnt stop him from taking
precautions because this is a job where safety is a priority. Goggles
and a gas mask provide protection from poisonous gases, but
gloves are just as important because fresh lava can be as sharp as a
knife. Volcano chasing is quite risky. As Martin admits, One has to
know when it is safe to come near and when it is a matter of survival
to stay away - sometimes many kilometres away!
z?
b) N o w read th e te x t again M atch th e w ords in bold in th e te x t to th e ir synonym s.
and fo r questions 1-5, W h a t p art o f speech is each? rock, earth, devoted,
choose th e best an sw er A, puzzles, moving up and down, not employed by others, prevent
, or D. Justify your you from seeing, h id in g , safety measures.
.'"':'"' ' :'W'S
answ ers.
^ Use w ords from th e box in th e
1 M artin Rietze can't stay near a correct form to co m p lete th e sentences
* volcano fo r a long tim e because ...
* A it's bad fo r his equ ipm ent. 1 The 3300 f t Chilean Chaiten v............................e...........................
he ca n 't stand th e heat. last Thursday fo r the first tim e a fte r thousands o f years o f
it's to o loud. causing earth trem ors.
D it's dangerous fo r his health. 2 The d ...........................r...........................scared people w h o hurried
to evacuate th e area.
2 Volcano chasers have to be ... 3 The d ...................v................... aw oke a fte r 9,000 years o f silence.
A very active. 4 P. g caused bre a th in g problem s fo r residents.
ta le n te d scientists. 5 F.......................... h .......................... I........................... started
p a tie n t. flo w in g d ow n th e volcano.
D freelancers. 6 Clouds o f steam and ash b ............................ th e v...........................
3 W hen th e E yjafjallajokull volcano fo r miles, making it d iffic u lt to see.
erupted, it was d iffic u lt fo r M artin
see pp.
to ... G ra m m a r GR 1-4
A g e t a flig h t to Iceland. Tense revision 4
fin d som ew here to stay.
Put th e verbs in brackets in present sim ple, present
g e t close enough to take good
continuous, pa st sim ple, pa st continuous or present perfect.
photos.
Give reasons.
D p ro te c t him se lf from flyin g
rocks. J o h n ......................................................... (trip ) a n d .............................
(cut) his knee as he ............................... (w alk) up th e volcano.
4 It seems th a t M a rtin ...
M a rtin ...................................................(not/reach) th e crater yet.
A d o e sn 't take enough safety
Look at th e volcano. Huge r o c k s .....................................................
precautions.
(explode) o u t o f th e crater!
understands th e risks he's
T h e y ..............................................(go) volcano su rfin g to m o rro w .
ta kin g .
Luke ............................... (w o rk) hard fo r the last thre e weeks.
o fte n gets injured.
W e ................................................. (leave) fo r Chile next M onday.
D underestim ates the dangers o f
People ............................................... (look) a t th e volcano as lava
volcano chasing.
............................(flo w ) d ow n d urin g the e ru p tio n last n ig h t.
5 M a rtin suggests t h a t ...
Use th e adverbs to m ake sentences a b o u t you: every
A he som etim es takes photos
day, last week, a t this tim e last M onday, ago, yet, now, for a
w h en he know s it's to o
m onth, already, since last weekend.
dangerous.
volcano chasing is fo r anyone. S p e a k in g & W r it in g
volcanoes aren't as dangerous as
people think. Im agine you are M artin Rietze and you are
D a volcano is som etim es to o close to an eru p tin g volcano. W h a t has happened? W h at
dangerous to p h o to g ra p h up can you hear and see? H ow do you feel? In three
close. m inutes w rite a fe w sentences on th e topic. Read them
to th e class or your p artner. S tart like this: The volcano
has ju s t erupted. I can h e a r...
(!) Vocabulary Bank 1 pp. VB1-VB2) 9
azi

faint with exhaustion & slam a door on your


tw ist/sprain your
[ dehydration - see a doctor^ , finger - be very painful
ankle - go to hospital .

V o c a b u la r y
Accidents & injuries
*| a) Listen and say.

b) Have you ever had any accidents sim ilar to these?


Tell th e class w h a t happened.
%
I once slamm ed a door on my finger a t home. I had to go to hospital.
I

C heck th e s e w o rd s

rem ote, canyon, sacrifice, clim bing 2 a) Look a t th e picture and read th e title and th e
gear, first aid kit, crack, disaster in tro d u c tio n . W h a t sacrifice do you th in k Aron had
struck, boulder, trap, canyon w all, to m ake? Read to find out.
struggle, get free, chip aw ay at,
exhaustion, dehydration, delirious,
b lu n t penknife, adm inister first aid,
be missing, n o tify authorities, rescue
crew, live life to the fullest, prosthetic
arm, m otivational speaker, disabled
athlete, troubled teenager, desperate
struggle, loved ones
W h e n 2 7 -y e a r-o ld A ro n R a ls to n s e t o u t t o c lim b in th e
r e m o te B lu e J o h n C a n y o n in U ta h o n e S u n d a y in M a y 2 0 0 3 , h e h a d n o id e a
t h a t he w o u ld h a v e t o m a k e a n in c re d ib le s a c rific e t o s ta y a liv e .
Aron had gone clim bing alone many tim es before, only body w e ig h t to bend his arm until he fe lt it break. Then,
this tim e, he hadn't to ld anyone where he was going using his blunt penknife, he slowly cut through his arm.
and he d id n 't even take his m obile phone. A part from The w hole procedure took an hour. He administered
his clim bing gear, Aron carried only a backpack first aid to himself, then he fixed a rope to the rock and
containing a small first aid kit, a knife, a video camera, climbed dow n nearly 21 metres to the canyon floor.
one litre o f water, and a few snacks. A fte r hiking 8 km, he came across a Dutch fam ily w h o
Aron had been clim bing all day and was about to stop, gave him w a te r and helped him to w alk on.
b ut as he was crossing a 1-m etre w ide crack in the M eanwhile, Aron's friends and fam ily had realised he
canyon, disaster struck; a 365-kilo boulder moved and was missing and notified authorities w h o found out
trapped his arm against the canyon wall. Q H There Aron had used his credit card to buy groceries in Moab,
was no w ay he could move. Utah. W hen a rescue helicopter crew finally spotted
A t first Aron hoped th a t help w o uld arrive, but nobody him, the rescuers were amazed to see Aron w alking
came. He struggled to get free, and using his penknife, back to his truck. He hardly needed them to rescue him!
tried to chip away at the boulder w ith o u t success. H H W ith his prosthetic arm, he has become a better
Aron used his video camera to keep a video climber than before his accident. He also works as a
diary and then to record a goodbye message to his m otivational speaker, helping disabled athletes and
parents. Fighting exhaustion and dehydration, Aron troubled teenagers. In 2010, a blockbuster film came
became more and more delirious. o u t about his experience called 127hours, the exact
On the fifth day, Aron reached a decision to do the am ount o f tim e he spent trapped. Aron still
one thing - the only thing - th a t could save his life: revisits Blue John Canyon to remember his
desperate struggle to survive and return to
to cut o ff his ow n arm. He used his
his loved ones. A . .
see .

G r a m m a r pGR4;
> ......
Past perfect & past perfect
continuous
b) Read th e te x t again. Five Read th e th e o ry and find exam ples in
sentences are missing. th e te x t in Ex. 2.
M atch th e sentences (A-F)
We use the past perfect (had/hadn't + past participle) for an action that
to th e gaps (1-5). There is happened before another action in the past. He had left before she arrived.
one e x tra sentence. Justify Time expressions: before, after, until, by the time, already, yet
you r answ ers. We use the past perfect continuous (had/hadn't + been + verb -ing) for an
It crushed A ron's arm so tig h tly he action that had been happening for a period o f time before another action in
could only feel his fin g e rtip s . the past. She had been w aiting for ten hours before help arrived.
Time expressions: for, since
If he didn't rescue himself now, he
We can use the past perfect or the past perfect continuous for an action
w o u ld n 't have the strength to do it
which finished in the past and whose results were visible in the past. They were
later.
very happy because they had managed to reach the top o f the mountain. He was very
It was a struggle fo r him to get free.
tired. He had been hiking all day. (emphasis on duration)
D Aron hasn't let his accident stop him , ___
from living life to the fullest. 5 Put the verbs in the past perfect or the past perfect continuous.
He fe lt sure he w o u ld be back
1 By the tim e w e arrived at the canyon, it ....................................
before n ig h tfa ll.
............................... (stop) snowing.
Four days and freezing cold nights
2 Jane's feet were aching because she ............................................
passed w ith Aron in terrible pain and
..................................................... (w alk) since early th at morning.
surviving on ju st sips o f w a ter and
3 Most people ...................(leave) before the volcano erupted.
pieces o f chocolate.
4 Simon got lost because he ...............................................................
C o m p lete th e sum m ary using (n o t/ta k e ) a map w ith him.
w o rd s/phrases from th e 5 Julia and Amy were soaking w et because they .......................
J2 box in the ............................................................(hike) in the rain.
correct form .
g Use th e phrases to m ake sentences. Put th e verbs in
Aron Ralston, an experienced climber, bold in th e past p e rfect o r th e p ast p e rfect continuous. Use
w ent on a trip into the remote Blue John th e adjectives in th e phrases to ta lk a b o u t you.
1 ) .................................
He hadn't told anyone where he was 1 Jeff/happy - w in first prize; 2 Lucy/tired - w ork/all morning;
going and he only had a knife, a small 3 Betty/sad - fail the test; 4 they/exhausted - dig the garden/all
2) .......................................................... a day; 5 M ark/thrilled - g radu ate from college
video camera and a few snacks w ith him.
Unfortunately, 3 ) ......................................... I was happy because I had passed m y test. I was tired because...
while he was crossing a three-foot-wide
crack in the canyon. A 4 ) .............................. S p e a k in g & W r it in g
slipped and trapped his arm against the
7 Q Listen and read th e te x t. Im agine you are
canyon wall. He 5 ) ............................ to get
in te rv ie w in g Aron fo r a TV show. Prepare questions
free, but he couldn't. He was trapped for
five days and he suffered from 6) .............. and answ ers. Present you r TV in te rv ie w to th e class.
and 7 ) ................................He decided to cut
TV Presenter: Aron, great to have you on the showI Now, was this the
o ff his own arm using a 8) ........................ to
free himself. Meanwhile, his family had first tim e you had gone clim bing alone? Etc
9 ) ............................................. who managed
to find him walking to his truck. 8 1 5 1 D d Aron's decision surprise you? W hy? Do
Today, he has a 1 0 )........................................ you agree w ith his decision? In th re e m inutes, w rite a
that helps him lead a normal life. fe w sentences. Tell you r p a rtn e r or th e class a b o u t it.
()) Vocabulary Bank 1 pp! VB3 VB4) 1 1
g Culture Cor
^ H ow do you th in k Hurricane
Katrina affected N ew Orleans? V '_

Q Listen and read to find out.

2 Read again and m atch th e


subheadings (A-G) to th e
paragraphs (1-6 ). There is one HURRICANE KATRIMA:
ex tra headin g. Com pare w ith
THE TRAGEDY OF ffiW ORLEANS
you r p artner. W hich w ords
helped you decide? 1
On Tuesday, 23rd August, 2005, a tropical storm formed over the
A Surrounded by w a te r Bahamas, about 560 km east o f Miami, Florida. By August 25, the storm
G athering stre n g th had strengthened and become Hurricane Katrina. Residents o f the city
C ollapsing buildings of New Orleans had no idea that w ithin days, 80% o f their city would
D M ovin g on be underwater in one o f the worst disasters in US history.
E The b irth o f th e storm
Hurricane Katrina was one o f the most powerful storms that has ever
F Help a t last
hit the Atlantic coast w ith winds o f over 270 km per hour. As it became
G An a w fu l situ a tio n
stronger over the Gulf o f Mexico, the mayor o f New Orleans declared a
3 M atch th e w ords in bold w ith state o f emergency and started evacuating the city. When the eye o f
the storm missed the city by about 72 km, everyone thought the worst
th e ir m eanings: broke, m anage,
was over, but they were very wrong.
m oved from the sea to land,
sending people to a place o f safety,
New Orleans has always been under threat from flooding. W ith the
o ld people, in danger, asking Mississippi River on tw o sides, Lake Pontchartrain to the north and
anxiously, stealing, announced. most o f the city 150-300 m below sea level, a series o f high walls, called
4 Fill in: threat, recovery, beg, levees, protect it. As the hurricane came ashore, it brought an 800-
declare, shelters, pum p, tropical, metre-high storm surge that rode the rivers up to New Orleans, and
smashed through the levees.
level, rise, struggle, lose, eye.

1 ..................... storm ; 2 ..................... a state Over a million residents had already left the city, but tens o f thousands,
o f em ergency; 3 th e .................... o f the mainly the elderly and the poor, were in temporary shelters. As the
storm ; 4 be under .................... from ; waters rose, people were begging for help on roofs, and
neighbourhoods were suffering from looting and violence. Emergency
5 b elow sea ................ ; 6 in tem p ora ry
services struggled to cope.
; 7 w a ters ............... ; 8 ................
fo r help; 9 ....................... to cope;
Eventually, the m ilitary and the National Guard moved into the city and
1 0 .................... w a te r o u t; 1 1 .................... began to get food and water to the desperate few that remained. After
th e ir lives; 12 m ake a s lo w .................... 43 days, army engineers pumped the last o f the flood water out o f the
city. Almost 1,500 people had lost their lives because o f Hurricane
5 Im agine you lived
Katrina in New Orleans alone.
th ro u g h Hurricane K atrina. Use
th e phrases in Ex. 4 to n arrate These days, New Orleans is making a slow recovery. The city has
you r experien ce to th e class. improved the levees, the community is rebuilding itself, and everyone is
working hard to make sure that nothing like this will ever happen again.
Find inform ation
about a disaster th a t happened in
your/another country. Find out:
what kind o f disaster it was, when/why
strengthen, residents, declare, state of emergency, evacuate, eye
it happened, what happened, what
of the storm, below sea level, come ashore, levee, storm surge,
the situation is now. Compare it to smash, looting, violence, emergency services, struggle to cope, the
the disaster in New Orleans. military, desperate, army engineers, pump, slow recovery, rebuild
12
Deciding what
to watch on TV Everyday English
Channel 1 Channel 2 Channel 3 Find sentences in
5.30 Backyardigans - The Simpsons -
children's programme Jamie's 30-minute Meals - th e d ialo g u e w hich
cartoon cooking programme m ean: Actually, I'm
6.00 The Bold and the
2 W ild! - Sportsline- enjoying it. - Is there
B e a utiful-soap opera wiidl'rfe programme sp irts programme
6.30 The Daily Show - a no the r o p tio n ? - /
Hurricane Katrina How I Met your Mother -
talk show documentary th in k I'd enjoy th a t. -
sitcom
7.00 American Idol - No problem .
Big Brother - Deal or No Deal -
talent show reality show game show
8.00 News & Weather Grey's Anatomy - CSI: New York -
hospital drama police drama
In t o n a t io n : echo
questions
Replace th e u n d erlined w ords
w ith what, how much, how long, or
w hat time.

Q Listen and check. Listen


1 Look at th e TV guide. W hich are your fa v o u rite /le a s t again and say.
favo u rite TV program m es? W hy? Use th e adjectives/
phrases boring, interesting, educational, funny, relaxing, He's w a tch in g a h o rro r film .
exciting, thought-provoking, silly, predictable, a waste o f time, He's w atching a what?
and your ow n ideas and tell your partner. It's a docu m en ta ry a b o u t flo o d s .
The film 's on a t 10 o 'c lo c k .
1enjoy documentaries because I find them interesting and educational, He's paid 310.000 a show.
b ut I h a te ... The Simpsons have been running

2 Q Listen and say. Pay a tte n tio n to th e in to n a tio n . fo r over 20 years.

W hat are you w atching this for? It's nearly finished.


S p e a k in g
W hat's on later? W hy d o n 't you look in the TV guide?
I like the sound o f th a t. Isn't there anything else on? It's 5:50. Decide w h a t to
As long as we can change the channel at 8 . That's fine w ith me! w atc h on TV. Use th e sentences
in Ex. 2 and th e TV guide to act
2 Q Listen and read th e dialogue. W h a t do Andy and
o u t you r ow n dialo g u e. Follow
Becky decide to w atch on TV? W h a t TV show starts at 8 ?
th e plan.
Andy: W hat are you w atching this for? Documentaries are boring!
Becky: I happen to find it interesting. Anyway, it's nearly finished.
Express yo u r

Say it's nearly
A ndy: W hat's on later?
Becky: I d o n 't know . W hy d o n 't you lo ok in th e TV guide? dislike fo r finished
A ndy: OK. W ell, a fte r this there's a re a lity show on Channel 2 I w h a t's on TV.
or a gam e show on Channel 3. Ask w h a t's Suggest checking
Becky: I ca n 't stand game show s and I d o n 't like re a lity shows on. th e TV guide.
either. Isn't th e re a n yth in g else on? Tell tw o Express dislike & ask
A ndy: American Idol is on Channel 1. We can w a tch th a t. options. a b o u t a n o th e r
Becky: W h a t is it? o p tio n .
A ndy: It's a ta le n t show. Suggest A gree b u t say
Becky: OK. I like th e sound o f th a t! As long as w e can change ; a n o th e r o p tio n a n o th e r sh o w you
th e channel a t 8 . 1w a n t to see CSI. w a n t to w a tch later.
A ndy: OK. That's fin e w ith me! Agree
()) Vocabulary Bank 1 pp. VB5-VB 6) 1 3
l
n weird weather
V o c a b u la r y
Weather phenomena
*| In th re e m inutes com plete th e w o rd m ap
w ith as m any w ords as you can. Com pare
w ith you r partner.

tornado sunny

2 Q f i S H Close your eyes and listen to


th e music and sounds. W h a t is th e
w e a th e r like? W h a t can you hear,
see, fe el, smell? Tell th e class. '

3 Q Listen and say. Have you heard o f any o f


these phenom ena? W hich can you see in
th e pictures?

raining animals giant hailstones pink snow


red rain a never-ending lig h tn in g storm
ball lig h tn in g a fire torn ado blue moon
a m oonbo w (lunar rainbow )

R e a d in g & L is te n in g
4 Read th e title o f th e te x t and th e sub titles.
W hich o f th e w e a th e r phenom ena are th e y
about?
Q Listen and read to find o u t. Complete the sentences using words from the
m m r n m box in th e correct form .
5 Read again and m ark th e sentences T (tru e ),
F (false) or NS (n o t s ta ted ). Justify your 1 A ccording to the ........................................................
answ ers. it w ill rain th is evening.
2 If you are o u t in a .......................................................,
1 It rains a lo t in C atatum bo, Venezuela................. never take shelter under big trees.
2 It's possible th a t th e C atatum bo 3 The deva sta ting tsunam i in Japan made ...........
lig h tn in g is helping th e Earth. ......
................................., shocking people everyw here.
3 Ball lig h tn in g appears fo r longer
4 M ost tornadoes in th e n o rth e rn hem isphere
than norm al lig h tn in g . ......
4 Fire to rn a d o s can happen w hen
in th e opposite direction to th e hands o f a clock.
a fire is very h o t and it's w indy. ......
5 A ...........................................broke o u t causing the
5 They d o n 't happen very o fte n . ......
w h o le area to flo o d .
6 The rain o f fish is a new p h e nom enon.................
6 Scientists are w o rk in g hard to ..............................
7 Strong w in d s probab ly cause it. ......
th e ozone layer before it is to o late.
14
1

2 * ado^ a

* i c ; > ab: *r i J * ^
fwe**1-?,9

ssg sssg ^ ag
S S * ' j -
*
4 iJ t / C

: -3 " ^ 5 7 $v
'I/,
^ An

9

S r S s ^ s S e s s - L H

** 25*"*? ^ ^ st0W
J8
Check these words

weather forecast, wrap up warm, never-ending,


lightning storm, weather phenomena, constantly,
ree'' u o < i 9 ^ ;* U M *" UP crash into, violent, silver lining, nitrogen oxide,
restore, ozone layer, occur, whirling, temperature,
wildfire, (make) world news, astonished, spin,
Study skills 9(0Utld
ignite, rare, region, witness, violent storm, miracle,
Idioms underground river, above ground
Learning idioms improves your ability to read in
b) Use the idioms to complete the gaps.
English and understand colloquial conversation.
Compare idioms in the English language to idioms in 1 Take your big umbrella with you. It i s ................
your language. This will help you remember them
........................................................................................outside!
2 Go help Bill. H e's.................................................................I
W eather idiom s 3 Jane always leaves when there's a problem,
a) Match the idioms (1-5) w ith their she's such a .............................................................................
meanings (A-E). Are there similar ones 4 I found a new job that I like better after losing
in your language? my old one. You s e e ,........................................................ !
5 Jill ............................................. today. She's got a cold.
1 raining cats and dogs
2 every cloud has a silver lining Speaking & Writing
! fair-weather friend
Tell your partner four things you have
4 in a fog 8
learnt from the text.
5 is under the weather
however bad the situation is, something Imagine you have experienced
positive always comes from it one of the weird phenomena in the texts. In
confused, puzzled three minutes w rite about your experience
someone who is only around when things are good and feelings. Tell the class about it. Start
D pouring w ith rain like this: I'm in the region ofYoro, Honduras. It
E feels a bit ill has been raining since morning. Right now it's...
15

(

Disasters T h e Day th e Earth


V o c a b u la r y & R e a d in g
a) Read th e headlines and fill
O n 11th March, 2011, at 14:46 local time, an undersea
in: CLOSED DOWN, WASHES earthquake struck off the northeastern coast of Japan. The force
AWAY, RUNNING WATER, of the earthquake, the most powerful in Japans history, triggered
UNDERSEA, STRIKES, FORCE, a devastating tsunami. | 1 | The world faced a partial nuclear
EVACUATED. meltdown and the planet moved on its axis, shortening the length
Q Listen and check. Say th e of every day by 1.8 milliseconds. It was a terrible national tragedy
that the country will need a great deal of time to recover from. If
headlines in you r language. ii
In the days before the main earthquake, Japan had experienced
MASSIVE 1 ) ............................... quite a few foreshocks, some of which exceeded magnitude 7,
EARTHQUAKE 2 ) ............................. but nothing could prepare the nation for the main shock, a
OFF THE COAST OF JAPAN magnitude 9 quake. It was strong enough to be felt hundreds of
kilometres away in Tokyo where buildings shook violently and
1 0 -M E T R E T S U N A M I many office workers ran out onto the streets terrified.
3 ) ........................ H O U S E S & C A R S Much worse was yet to come as the authorities issued a tsunami
warning.
4 ) .........................OF JAPAN QUAKE Frantic residents headed for high ground, rooftops or upper floors
of buildings. Soon after, a wall of water, 10 m high in some places,
MOVES ISLAND BY 2 .4 METRES
rolled across the Pacific Ocean and crashed into the coast.
One giant wave even crashed through an airport in
NUCLEAR POWER STATIONS IN Sendai, leaving 1,300 people stranded on the upper floors. The
QUAKE AREAS 5 ) ................................
waters reached up to 10 km inland before heading back out to
sea, now loaded with debris and leaving a swamp-like landscape
HALF A MILLION JAPANESE 6) ......7....... of landslides and mud. TV viewers couldnt believe their eyes as
THEIR HOUSES & 1.4 MILLION WITHOUT these scenes were broadcast around the world.
7 ) .................................. By this time, many areas were without electricity as pylons had
crumbled which caused a major disaster at Japans nuclear
b) Use th e headlines to tell power stations. I 4 [ | The government immediately ordered an
evacuation of hundreds of thousands of residents. Explosions
th e class w h a t you th in k
rocked the plant as courageous technicians struggled to control
happened in Japan in M arch
the damage and prevent a nuclear meltdown.
2011 . Over the next few days, a large number of aftershocks continued
to shake Japan, causing plenty of problems for rescue teams as
: : In March 2011, an undersea earthquake
they raced to find survivors. Several countries sent relief workers
I*? struck o ff the coast o f Japan. Soon after,....
and the world held its breath while it waited to see how the

tragedy would end. 5 Over 15,000 people died that day and
W rite d o w n th re e questions r thousands more were missing. Several amazing tales of survival
you w o u ld like to ask a b o u t this came to the attention of the worlds press, though. A 4-month-old
disaster th en read th e te x t. Can baby girl was pulled alive from the rubble four days after the
you an sw er yo u r questions? ^ earthquake. A man was found clinging to his rooftop as it was
floating 14 km out at sea 2 days after the tsunami. And there was
the Japanese student in California, desperate for news of her lost
family, who found them on a YouTube news clip. It showed her
sister holding up a sign and sending a desperately-needed
message of hope across the world: We all survived.

strike, devastating, nuclear m eltdow n, axis, foreshock,


exceed, shake, epicentre, authorities, w arning, head for, roll
across, crash into, loaded (w ith), debris, landslide, mud,
pylon, evacuation, explosion, courageous, technician,
struggle, aftershock, relief worker, desperate, collapse, rip
apart, blaze, force, sweep away, inland, slam in to
Read th e te x t again. Five b) Choose th e correct w ords. Explain you r answ ers,

sentences are m issing. M atch th en m ake sentences using th e o th e r w ords.
each sentence (A-F) to a gap (1-
1 Were there any/som e aftershocks after the earthquake?
5). There is one e x tra sentence.
2 Rescue workers found very fe w /little survivors in the rubble.
Closer to th e epicentre, buildings 3 A lo t o f/M u ch people lost loved ones in the earthquake.
collapsed, roads and railways w ere 4 There was only a little /a fe w w ater left.
ripped apart and fires blazed. 5 M ost/Too much people in the tow n didn't have som e/any
The evacuation zone around the electricity after the earthquake.
nuclear po w e r p la n t was soon
6 There w asn't m uch/m any hope of finding any/som e
increased to 20 km.
survivors in the burning building.
Many thousands o f people lost th e ir
lives and roads, buildings and entire g Read the sentences. Which phrase is not possible in each
villages w ere sw ept away. sentence? Which can be follow ed by: a countable,
D Sadly, th e re w ere hardly any uncountable noun? Find more examples in the te x t in Ex. 2.
survivors.
1 There was a large am oun t o f/a great deal o f/a num ber o f/
W ith o u t power, the cooling system
at the Fukushima No. 1 Plant failed. plenty o f rain in the days after the earthquake.
It washed away houses and cars and 2 He heard quite a lot o f/q u ite a fe w /a little /p le n ty o f
hurled ships far inland, carrying them amazing survival stories after the disaster.
along and slamming them into 3 There were no/hardly a n y /an y/a small num ber o f survivors.
w hatever lay in th e ir path. 4 M uch/A large num ber o f/S e v e ra l/A couple o f nuclear
power plants were damaged during the earthquake.
5 A ll/S everal/E very/Each o f them had lost their homes.
M atch th e h ig h lig h te d w ords ~J Fill in: the whole of, both, neither, either, none. Check in th e
w ith th e ir m eanings: ho ldin g on G ram m ar Reference section.
tig h tly, panicked & frightened,
broken in to sm all pieces, started, 1 ...................................... Anna nor Steve were in Japan when the
incom plete, unable to leave, pieces earthquake struck.
o f bricks, stones & o th e r m aterials, 2 S adly,...........................the tsunami and the earthquake caused
very wet, v io le n tly threw. terrible damage.
3 .................................the world was shocked.
4 ..........................................w e leave now or w ait until they come.
5 Lots of people were in the building when the fire broke out,
Grammar grSHs) but fo rtu n a te ly .................................................... of them got hurt.
Quantifiers v
g M ake sentences based on th e te x t using: the whole of,
5 a) W rite (co u n tab le),
a large am ount of, hardly any, most people, little hope, a few.
U (u n co u n ta b le ) n ext to
each w o rd . S p e a k in g & W r it in g
1 n o t any C/U, f e w , m any ,a 0 Q Listen and read th e te x t. Im agin e you
fe w , m o s t...... w e re in Japan on th e day o f th e ea rth q u a k e and
2 not m a n y , som e , a lo t o f tsunam i in M arch 2011. W h ere w e re you? W h a t did you
to o m any ...... see and hear? H o w did you feel? In a fe w m inutes,
3 litt le , to o m u c h , very little w rite a fe w sentences. You can use th e headlines in
Ex 1a. Tell you r p a rtn e r or th e class.
4 not m u c h , lots o f , a little
D raw a picture or find pictures to raise
aw areness o f th e victim s o f th e disaster in Japan.
Present it/th e m to th e class.
17

1 rail accident I
2 landslide
3 flood
4 factory explosion
5 road accident
6 plane crash
7 Severe/freak storm
8 environmental disaster
9 tsunami
I earthquake
I 11 war
I 12 avalanche
V o c a b u la r y
Disasters
a) Q Listen and say the
U Oil Spill Blackens Coast
types o f disasters. W hich are:
natural? influenced by man? Which 20 SURVIVORS RESCUED FROM A IRCRA FT
can you see in th e pictures?
Dangerous Blast
b) W hich accid en t/d isaster (1-12) best CITY CENTRE BUILDINGS
At Chemical Plant
m atches each o f th e headlines (A -H ). DAMAGED BY HURRICANE
W hich w ords helped you decide? Q H R is in g R iv e r

2 a) Q L is te n to some people describing W a te rs C lo se R oads 1 Side Of Mountain


th e disasters in th e pictures 1-4. M atch th e Collapses Onto Homes
descriptions A-D to th e disasters 1-4. ...
b) Choose a picture and describe it to your L is te n in g
p a rtn e r in as much d e ta il as possible.
Q Y o u 'II hear a radio new s rep o rt. For
S p e a k in g questions 1-5, listen and tick ( / ) T
Giving bad news & reacting (tru e ) or F (false).
T F
Use th e headlines in Ex. 1b and th e
The tra in crash happened at
language in th e box to m ake exchanges, as in
lunchtim e.
th e exam p le.
No one died in th e accident.
Giving bad news Reacting The reason fo r th e lig h ts ' fa ilu re
Did you hear? There's been ... It's awful, isn't it? is n 't know n yet.
Did you see/hear about the ... on Oh no! That's awful/ The flo o d is due to a burst
the news? terrible! w a te r pipe.
Have you heard? Really? How horrible! The to w n suffered a w orse
Guess what happened! I don't believe it! flo o d last year.
You'll never guess what's happened! That's so sad/
Look at this! depressing, etc. Choose a disaster which was in
Did you hear? There's been a m ajor train crash and 50 the news last m onth. Prepare a short
people have been injured. news report fo r th e local TV station. Talk
It's aw ful, isn't it? about: place, date, event, w hat happened.
18
t
Curricular:
W h a t do you kn o w ab o u t H o w Tsunam is w o rk upw ard

tsunam is? W h a t else w o u ld you


like to know ? W rite d o w n th ree
questions you w o u ld like to ask.
Q L is te n and read to see if you
can answ er your questions.

2 Read again and m atch th e


subheadings (A-G ) to th e
paragraphs (1-6). There is one
extra heading.

A A fre q u e n t phenom enon


H appening one a fte r th e o th e r
High tid e
D Deadly po w e r
E A sudden m ovem ent A tsunami is a large wave that
F Less by degree travels at great speed towards
land. They are usually caused by
G Below th e surface
an undersea earthquake, but
they can also happen after a
3 C o m p lete th e sentences w ith
large undersea landslide and an
w ords/phrases from th e underwater volcanic eruption.
C heck th e s e w o rd s box.

A tsunam i can be caused by a(n) When an undersea earthquake happens, the Earth's tectonic plates move
suddenly downwards or upwards. This usually happens on a fault line and
.........................................und erw ater.
one plate slides below the neighbouring plate causing a large amount of
W hen th e E a rth 's ............................. water to be forced upwards.
m ove suddenly, an earthquake
happens. This water forms a wave. Just like when you throw a pebble into a lake, the
A tsunam i is sim ilar to th ro w in g water ripples outwards. It is the same with a tsunami, but the water
a ( n ) ........................ in to a lake, b u t doesnt stop moving until it reaches land.
on a m uch larger .............................
W hen th e w a te r reaches t h e ...... As the wave moves towards the land, it increases in speed and strength.
......................................... and comes Not all tsunamis are giant waves when they hit the shore, though. Many of
them come inland as a strong and fast tide. However, the impact of the
......................................... it destroys
water often destroys everything in its path.
e verythin g in its ..............................
A tsunam i can ..................................
After the initial tsunami hits land, there are often other waves following it,
buildings and destroy ecosystems. that can be just as big, which slowly get smaller over time. The same as the
ripples from the pebble mentioned before, but on a much larger scale.
Tell your partner or w rite four
things you have learnt about Water is a very powerful force and can cause tremendous damage. As
tsunam is. well as the loss of life that a tsunami can cause, it can flatten buildings
and trees and destroy whole ecosystems.

ICT Collect m ore


in fo rm a tio n a b o u t tsunam is.
speed, undersea landslide, volcanic eruption, tectonic plates,
Use th e key w o rd : tsunam i fa u lt line, slide, force, pebble, ripple, outw ards, shore, come
Present you r in fo rm a tio n to th e inland, fast tide, im pact, in its path, initial, on a larger scale,
class. trem endous damage, loss o f life, fla tte n , ecosystem
Writing
A story 2 Read th e story and answ er th e questions.

id 1 H ow does th e w rite r set the scene?


W ritin g stories 2 W h a t is th e clim ax event?
Stories can be abo ut real or im aginary situations. 3 W h a t happened in th e end?
They can be in first person (I, we) or th ird person 4 H ow did th e characters feel?
(he, she, they). Before w e start w ritin g a story, we
first decide on the type o f story, the main
characters and the plot.
In the first paragraph w e set the scene (w hen/
w here it happened, main characters, weather,
During my summer holiday, my friend James and I were
w h a t happened first).
travelling across the USA. One day, we decided to take a
In the main body paragraphs, we describe the
journey on a steam train which became a thrilling adventure.
events in the order they happened leading to the
Little did we know that we were in for a terrifying experience.
climax event (the main event), and the main event.
In the final paragraph w e w rite w h a t happened We had been enjoying the smooth ride when something
in the end and how the character(s) felt. went terribly wrong. We had just come out of a tunnel and
We normally use past tenses and time linkers (as, we were slowly making our way down a hill when suddenly
when, after, later, while, suddenly, finally, etc) to help there was a loud screeching noise. Then, instead of slowing
down we began to speed up.
the r;ader follow our story. We can also use a
varie o f adjectives and adverbs and direct speech People started screaming frantically. As we all held onto our
to m <e our story more interesting to the reader. seats, the train started rocking dangerously from side to
side. A man got out of his seat and ran quickly to the front
of the train. A few minutes later, the train began to slow

down. Soon after that, we pulled into the next station and
U nderstanding rubrics we all got up anxiously to see what had happened. It seems
To plan yo u r piece o f w ritin g you need to the driver had hit his head and fallen unconscious.
understand th e rubric as it contains in fo rm a tio n Luckily, the passenger had got there in time to slow down
on th e im aginary s itu a tio n , th e im aginary
the train and save the day. We were relieved to hear that no
reader w h ich w ill help you decide w h a t style
one had been hurt and that the driver was well.
you w ill w rite in, th e type o f w ritin g and any
specific details.
3 Put th e events in th e o rder th e y happened.
Com pare w ith you r partner.
'I Read th e rubric and look a t th e key w ords
A We heard a screeching noise.
in bold. A n sw er th e questions.
We pulled in to th e next sta tio n .
1
i A travel m agazine has asked its readers to send James and I w e n t on a tra in journey.
J sh o rt stories describing a nasty holiday D A man ran to th e fro n t o f th e tra in .
i experience th ey had. The best sto ry w ins a E The drive r h it his head.
J thre e-d ay v is it to London. W rite yo u r story fo r F The tra in began to speed up.
i th e co m p e titio n (120-180 w ords).
G The tra in started to slo w dow n.
1 W h a t are you going to w rite ? H The drive r was w e ll.
2 W ho is going to read it?
3 W h a t should your piece o f w ritin g be about? ^ W hich adjectives has th e w rite r used to
4 H ow m any w o rds should you w rite in? describe th e fo llo w in g ?
5 W ill yo u r narrative be in th e firs t person or the ... ride
th ird person. adve ntu re noise
20


5 W rite th e a d ve rb s th e w r it e r has
used to d e scribe th e fo llo w in g :
Setting th e scene
When we write a story, we start by setting the scene. To do so, we
1 m aking our w a y ............................... imagine we are looking at a picture and try to describe the place
2 s c re a m in g ............................................ (where), the time (when), the weather, the people involved (who), and
3 tra in ro c k in g ....................................... what happens. We can use our senses to make the descriptions
more vivid. We can describe what we see (e.g. a cute dog), hear
4 r a n ..........................................................
(barking), feel (soft grass) or smell (e.g. the scent o f orange trees).
5 w e g o t up ...........................................

0 Fill in th e se n te n ce s w ith a g Look a t th e picture and use th e prom pts to set th e


s u ita b le a d je c tiv e o r a d v e rb scene. S tart w ith th e sentence given.
fro m th e lis t.

deafening dark rapid ly sailing boat


carefully te rrifie d v io le n tly
massive heavy

1 The th u n d e r was ..............................


and th e w in d o w s w ere shaking frig h te n e d

Steve could never expect his weekend trip w ould end like this.
2 I fe lt a b so lutely .................................
w hen I saw t h e .................................. Put th e pictures in th e correct o rder (1-4) to m ake th e
w ave r u s h in g ..................................... o u tlin e o f a story.
to w a rd s us. Q Listen and check.
3 ................................. clouds fille d the
sky as th e ................................... rain
poured dow n.
4 Simon drove .......................................
across th e bridge.

~j Fill in: suddenly, before, and then,


eventually, as soon as, while, and.

1) we reached
London, we looked for somewhere to
spend the night. 2) .................................. we
came across a small cosy hotel.
3 ) ................................ we were waiting at 1 0 A m agazine has asked its readers to send in stories ( 120-
the reception, a young man entered. He ISO w ords) about a nasty experience. Use the pictures in
looked at us coldly then disappeared in Ex. 9 to w rite th e story. Follow th e plan.
the lift without saying a word.
4 ) .............................. we heard a scream.
Minutes later the young man came down (Plan']
the stairs. He looked very scared Para 1: set the scene: characters, when/where, weather (One hot day,
5 ) ....................................... his hands were Matt &.... After they...)
shaking. 6) ............................. we said a Paras 2/3: events in order they happened & climax event (By the
word he grabbed my hand and said, I time they got.... Dark clouds... . All of a sudden,...)
saw him. He is in my room waiting for me. Para 4: what happened in the end, feelings (Before long.... Everyone
Please, help me, 7 ) ......................... he sighed with relief.)
fainted.
()) W ritin g Bank: stories) 2 1


Skills
1 The strange events take place on
R e a d in g ( T /F /N S s t a t e m e n t s )
Halloween night, 1938. .........
Read th e rubric, th en read th e te x t th ro u g h once. W h a t 2 M any fam ilies w ere listening
is it about? to a play on the radio. ........
3 M any people believed th a t
You are going to read a te x t ab o u t a strange news story. aliens w ere invading. .........
Choose w hich o f the statem ents (1-5) are T (true), F (false) 4 Orson Welles was upset
I or NS (not stated). th a t people had been
tricked. ........
5 A fterw ards, people were
ladies and gentlemen, we in te rru p t quite angry abo ut w h a t
happened. .........
OUR PROGRAMME...
It was the night before Halloween, 1938, and families L is te n in g (M ultiple
around the USA changed stations on their radios to m atching)
find themselves listening to a radio programme featuring Ramon
Raquello and his Orchestra. a) Read th e ru b ric and th e
Suddenly, a voice interrupted it with some breaking news. A huge h e a d in g s A-F. T h in k o f
flaming object had fallen out of the sky in Grovers Mill, New Jersey. w o rd s y o u e x p e c t to h e a r in
The programme returned to the music, but then broke off almost
each re p o rt.
immediately for another bulletin. Something was climbing out of the
smoke-filled crater, something from another planet. Reporters e.g. narrow escape - lucky, no one h u r t ...
presented eye-witness accounts, the authorities advised citizens and
scientists gave informed opinions.
Listeners panicked. Some ran onto the streets using wet towels as i You w ill hear 5 different news
gas masks and some raced to be with their families in their last reports from a radio programme,
moments. Others loaded guns and hid in cellars, preparing to defend i Match the speakers (1-5) to the
themselves against whatever had landed! Also, phonelines were news headlines (A-F). There is
jammed as desperate citizens tried to find out exactly what was i one extra news headline.
happening.
What these people didnt realise was that they were listening to A NARROW ESCAPE
Orson Welles radio play of the science-fiction classic, The
DISASTER AT SEA
War of the Worlds. Welles impressive production staged
the events of the invasion as if they were really HOPE AFTER THE DISASTER
happening. It was an alien invasion! It was so realistic D DISRUPTION TO DAILY LIVES
that thousands of listeners were convinced that a real E TAKEN BY SURPRISE
alien invasion was taking place. F PAYING FOR A WRONG DECISION
How were people fooled so easily? Seventy years ago, very
few households had a television so people got their news from
newspapers or the radio. They believed what they read or
heard.
So when people found out that the invasion was just a radio
play, they were furious. The following day Welles name was all
b) Q Do th e task. W hich
over the newspapers and there were calls for the government
to pass laws to stop similar things ever w ords helped you decide?
happening again. Orson Welles went on to
have a glorious film career, but he will never
be forgotten as the man who convinced
America that the Martians had landed!

22

R e a d in g ( T /F /N S s t a t e m e n t s ) S p e a k in g
( P e r s o n a l q u e s t io n s )
a) Read the rubric. Then read the title o f the text and look
at the picture. W hat could the te x t be about? Read a) Listen and read. Underline
through quickly and check to get the general idea. the w ords/phrases the
person uses to express his
You are going to read a te x t a b o u t a "j likes/dislikes. W h at reasons
I p h o to jo u rn a lis t. Choose w h ich o f th e sta te m e n ts 1
does he give?
(1-5) are T (true), F (false) or A/S (n o t s ta te d
l___________________________________________

L IF E through the LENS J


I enjoy watching a variety o f TV
programmes, but I just love police
dramas like CSI. I find them really
Ive been a photojournalist for the last twenty years and I m exciting and interesting. I'm not really
frequently asked about the difference between what I do and what a fan o f soap operas, though, and I
a(n) ordinary photographer does. Well, most photographers - can't stand watching reality shows. I
paparazzi, w ildlife photographers, sports photographers, to name think both o f these are silly and a
but a few - use their images to illustrate an article; my photos waste o f time.
don t have words. I take a series of pictures that, I believe, get to ^ i
the heart of the story. It could be a conflict like Somalia or a
disaster like Hurricane Katrina and it often means spending weeks Likes Dislikes
away from home. I really/quite like/ I (just) hate ...
One of the things I love about my job is the diversity. Depending on e njoy... I (really) don't like
the story, I might be dodging bullets in a war zone, staying in a village I'm fond o f...
in India or walking the streets of Manchester with the homeless. I go
I (absolutely) love I'm not keen on
where the story is. Is it dangerous? Sometimes, but i t s worth it. I met
a woman three weeks ago who told me that my coverage of war
victims in Somalia had inspired her to become a doctor. She works I'm (really) keen on I'm not really a
for Medecins Sans Frontieres and travels the world helping the fan o f ...
injured. Thats what good photojournalism can achieve! I think th a t... is/ I find ... boring/
The job is charging, though, with digital photography. Photographers are really exciting, etc
used to wait days or weeks for the right moment to get the shot, but
fascinating, etc
with an HD video camera, you can film continuously and then just
freeze-frame to get the perfect picture. I m old-fashioned, though, I
still rely on my photographers instincts and a camera th a ts been b) Read th e rubric. In pairs,
with me from Alaska to Zanzibar. It was with me when I took some of th in k o f w ords relate d to
my most moving pictures - the ones of the 33 Chilean miners being th e topic.
rescued after two months trapped underground. The emotion on
their faces and the faces of their families w ill stay with me for a _ 4
lifetim e - and I have the pictures to prove it! Give a 1.5-2 m inute talk about TV.
i Remem ber to say:
1 The w rite r believes he is d iffe re n t to other what kinds of film s and
photographers. program m es you like and dislike i
2 The w rite r doesn't like spending tim e away w h a t yo u r fa v o u rite program m es
from home. i are and w h y |
3 He says th a t he likes the variety o f w o rk th a t w hen and h o w m any hours a
he gets to do. w eek you w a tch TV |
4 He has recently adopted new d igital
photog rap hy techniques. c) Do th e task.
5 He has had his old camera fo r tw e n ty years...............

b) Do the task. Compare your answers w ith your partner.


23

Word formation Key word transform ations
Read th e te x t. Fill in the gaps w ith the proper Com plete th e gapped sentences so th a t they
lexical form o f the capitalised words. have a sim ilar m eaning to th e original ones.
Compare w ith your partner. Use tw o to five w ords including the w ord
given. Accurate spelling and gram m ar is
James Boole is an incredibly lucky
man, jumped out o f a helicopter at required.
almost 2,000 m and lived to tell the 1 I had never flo w n thro ugh a thunderstorm before.
tale. James was making a 1) ................. DOCUMENT
TIME It was ..................................................
about parachutists and was trying to
..................................flo w n th ro u g h
get shots o f an athlete jumping from a
helicopter over an 2) ........................... ACT a th u n d e rsto rm .
volcano in Russia. When the athlete 2 A lo t has changed in earthquake prediction over
jumped, it was James' job to follow th e years.
him out o f the helicopter and get the MANY T h e re ...................................................
footage - something that required all ................................... in earthquake
his 3 ) ............................................... Falling CONCENTRATE
pre d ictio n over th e years.
through the smoke from the volcano,
he suddenly saw snow which meant he 3 Rescue team s w ere unable to fin d any survivors.
was far too close to the ground. He SUCCEED Rescue team s ...................................
pulled the cord on his parachute, but .................................... any survivors
he knew it was too late. He hit the 4 The m ountaineers d id n 't take any notice o f the
ground and blacked out. When James avalanche w arnings.
woke up, he was overjoyed to have
ATTENTION The m ountaineers ..........................
survived, but 4 ) ........................... that TERRIFY
......................................................... the
he had broken his back. The helicopter
crew found him in a 1m crater in the avalanche w arnings.
snow and took him straight to 5 A lo t o f new spapers w a n t to p rin t M artin 's
hospital. 5 ) ......................... his back FORTUNATE pho tog rap hs.
was only fractured and after six HIGH M artin 's p h o to g ra p h s ....................
months, he was able to jump again. .............................................w ith a lo t
o f newspapers.

W r itin g (a s t o r y )

a) Read th e rubric and underline the key CKeCWi#*


w ords. Brainstorm fo r ideas under the Have you divided yo u r story in to paragraphs
headings: characters, weather, where/when, w ith a clear beginning, m ain body and ending?
events in order they happened, clim ax event, Does your beginning set the scene? (characters, :
feelings a t end. W rite your story. w h e re /w h e n story happened, w eather, etc.)
4 Have you used a va rie ty o f past tenses?
Your college's English m agazine is asking fo r Have you presented th e events in th e order th e y i
readers to subm it stories w ith th e title 'A n happened in th e m ain body?
Am azing Rescue'. The best story w ill appear in Have you used lin kin g w o rds to show th e j
th e next e d itio n o f th e m agazine. W rite your sequence o f events?
sto ry (120-180 w ords). Have you used a variety o f in terestin g a d je c tiv e s !
and adverbs?
b) Go th ro u g h th e Checklist and m ake any Is your spelling, p u n ctu a tio n and gram m ar;
necessary im p ro vem ents to you r story. correct?
24
t
/

Language in Use
Phrasal verbs/Prepositions Word formation
Choose th e correct p a rtid e (s ). 4 Fill in th e sentences w ith th e correct w ord
in th e list.
back away: move backwards from sth/sb r _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
back down: give in, accept defeat Compound adjectives
back up: make a copy o f a file/programme, etc We form compound adjectives w ith tw o words, usually joined
back sb up: give support to sb by a hyphen. We often use adjective/noun/number + noun
back out: decide not to do sth
+ -ed (red-haired, two-faced), adjective/adverb/noun + past
call sb back: return sb's phone call
call off: cancel participle (short-tempered, well-known),
carry on: continue adjective/adverb/noun + present participle (long-lasting,
carry out: do sth as planned (a plan/order/threat, etc), time-consuming).
perform or conduct (repairs, research, tests, etc) \ ___________________________________________________

w e ll th o u g h t man th irty never


1 The guard asked the passengers to back aw ay/
dow n from the edge o f the train platform . 1 The lig h tn in g storm in C a tatum bo is alm ost
2 The school carried o n /o u t a fire safety drill. ............................................ending.
3 Despite his accident, Aron carried on/out climbing. 2 The children w ere v e r y .............................................
4 Back up /o u t your com puter files regularly. behaved fo r th e babysitter.
5 The match was called off/back due to heavy rain. 3 I saw a ............................ p rovoking docum entary
6 She backed d o w n /o u t from the race in the end. a b o u t earthquakes last n ig h t.
4 Lava fountain s can reach as high as a .....................
2 Choose th e correct p repo sition. storey building.
1 Tsunamis travel at/o n a great speed. 5 Lives are lost every year th ro u g h na tu ra l and
2 Aron Ralston lives his life fro m /to the fullest. ............................................made disasters.
3 M artin 's photos are always a t/in high dem and.
4 The tsunam i destroyed everything on/in its path.
Collocations
5 The man was begging in /fo r help. Fill in: arm, flow, dorm ant, volcanic, take, struck,
environm ental, tectonic, emergency, freelance.
Words often confused
plates 6 ................... services
3 Choose th e correct w o rd . 7 ..................................
lava
1 He trie d hard to stay/keep alive. disaster
2 The ground started to shake/jum p. p h o to g ra p h e r 8 ................... volcano
3 The clouds blocked/dosed th e view. 4 e ru p tio n 9 precautions
4 The w a te r raised/rose fast. 5 p r o s th e tic ............. 10 d is a s te r..................
5 The tsunam i reached/arrived land fast.

Read th ro u g h M o d u le 1 and m ark th e sentences T (tru e ) or F (false). N ow


w rite a quiz o f your o w n . Give it to you r partner. Check th e ir answ ers.

A lava fo u n ta in can shoo t up 5 Fire tornadoes are rare.


to th re e feet. 6 Lake P ortchartrain is in the
A ron Ralston was trap ped no rth o f New Orleans.
fo r a w eek. 7 Floods cause tsunam is.
Blue John Canyon is in Utah. 8 In Honduras, it rains fish
H urricane Katrina h it every summer.
New Orleans in 2005.
()] Revision 1 p. 127) 25
1
R e a d in g & L is t e n in g
J Look at the picture. W h at do you
know about this man? Think o f
three questions.
Q Listen and read the text. Can
you answer your questions?

Read th e te x t and m ark the It was at 10 am on 12th April, 1961 when Radio Moscow interrupted
scheduled broadcasting to announce something truly historic and
s tatem en ts T (tru e ), F (false), or
A/S (n o t stated ). magnificent. Here is our special news, it stated. The first cosmic
spaceship named Vostok 1 with a man on board has orbited around the
1 Yuri G agarin m ade the Earth from the Soviet Union. He is an airman, Major Yuri Gagarin.
announcem ent a b o u t his
flig h t on M oscow Radio. ....... An hour earlier the spacecraft Vostok 1, with Yuri Gagarin as its only crew,
2 Yuri was the only person was fired from a launch pad in Baikonur in Kazakhstan. It orbited the Earth
in th e spacecraft. ........ once at a speed of 27,000 kilometres per hour for a total duration of 108
3 Before his flig h t it was feared minutes. The ships flight path took it up to space and over the Pacific
th a t people could n o t travel Ocean, South America, across the equator, and the South Atlantic before
in space. ........ re-entering the Earths atmosphere and landing at Engels. His safe return
4 Yuri had already been fam ous put to rest worries that space flight could be fatal to humans and opened
in Russia before achieving his the doors to space travel.
flig h t.
5 Yuri received m any aw ards The news quickly spread and the world was astonished. The Soviet Union
fo r his achievem ent. ........ had beaten the USA in the race to get the first man into space and Yuri
Gagarin had become that man. The Soviet leader Nikita Khrushschev
3 Tell you r p a rtn e r th ree things congratulated Gagarin on his achievement and sent him a message from
th a t im pressed you from th e his Black Sea holiday home in which he said that the flight opened up a
te x t. new page in the history of mankind in its conquest of space. Major Yuri
Gagarin, a previously unknown army officer, instantly became a national
hero and an international icon.
4 W hy do you th in k
space e x p lo ra tio n is im p o rtan t? Today, the landing site at Engels has become a monument park at the
W ould you like to go to space? centre of which is a 25-meter tall sculpture of a silver metallic rocket ship
W h y (not)? Explain. and a three-meter tall statue of Yuri Gagarin. The space hero has not been
forgotten and on the 50th anniversary of his voyage into space world
cosmonauts honoured the hero when the Russian, American, and Italian
W r itin g crew of the International Space Station sent a special video message to
5 I IC T l ln groups o f th ree, wish the people of the world a Happy Yuris Night!
find o u t m ore a b o u t the
In te rn a tio n a l Space S tatio n . C heck th e s e w o rd s
M ake a poster. Present it to th e .nterrupt, scheduled, broadcasting, cosmic, orbit,
class. congratulate, m ankind, conquest, hero, icon, honour
26
i
/ Vocabulary: shops & services, m aterials and
W j substances, superm arket shopping, fu rn itu re &
appliances, fa u lty products
Grammar: fu tu re tenses (will, be going to, present
contin uous, fu tu re continuous), com parisons,
-/ng/ftoj-infinitive form , fu tu re p e rfect - fu tu re
p e rfect contin uous, clauses o f concession
Everyday English: buying clothes
Intonation: exclamations
Phrasal verbs: do, drop, get
W ord formation: verbs fro m nouns/adjectives
W riting: an em ail o f co m plaint
Culture Corner: Famous products from th e USA
Curricular (Citizenship): Responsible shopping
Russia 2: M oscow 's flea m arket

V o c a b u la r y
Shops & services
1 Listen and say. In w hich o f th e shops
w o u ld you hear sentences 1- 12 ?

shoe shop clothes shop superm arket


chem ist's bookshop optician's
je w e lle r's post o ffice
butcher's baker's flo ris t's W h at kinds o f shops do
hair salon you have close to your
home? Compare them
1 "H ave you g o t th is in a sm aller size? w ith the shops in the
2 "Four chicken breasts, please. city centre. Which do
3 "Excuse me, w here are the biographies?" you visit most o ften and
4 "I'd like to g et my eyes tested, please." w h a t do you buy?
5 "Tw o bunches o f d a ffo d ils, please."
6 "I take a size 6 ."
7 "Can I try these earrings on, please?
8 "I'd like a cut and blow -dry, please."
9 "I'v e com e to pick up my p re scrip tio n ."
10 "C an I send this firs t class, please?"
11 "C ould you te ll me w h ich aisle th e frozen foods
are in ?"
12 "A re these rolls freshly baked?"

Q Listen to th e dialogues. In w hich


shop does each ta k e place?
................................. ..........

Choose a picture
and say or w rite a short
d ialo g u e or a
p arag raph a b o u t it.
Tell th e class.

>] Vocabulary Bank 2 p, VB7


Products of he future ^
V o c a b u la r y
Materials & substances
Tomorrow's
Q Listen and say. M ake
sentences as in th e exam p le. ; |
Think a b o u t a n o rm al day. W hat do you u sually
w e ar? W hat tech n o lo g y do you use? W hats your
h ouse lik e? N ow le ts se e w h a t everyd ay life w ill
b e lik e ify th e fu tu re.
fabric (c o tto n , silk m etal (alum in ium ,
w o o l, nylon, etc) steel, etc)

The bag is made o f silk.


R e a d in g & L is te n in g
Read th e title , th e introd uction ,
and look a t th e pictures. W h a t
do you expect th e te x t to be
about?
Q Listen and read to find o u t.
Read and m ark th e statem en ts
T (tru e ), F (false) or A/S (n o t
W o u ld n t it be great if you
sta ted ). Justify you r answ ers.
could ju st th in k o f som ething
1 Spray-on clothes d o n 't you w ant and p rin t it out on a
com puter? W ell, believe it or
last long.
not, you can. For the first tim e
2 Spray-on clothes can be
ever, scie ntists have fo u n d a
recycled. w ay to print o ut fu lly-w o rkin g
3 M any people are already m achines using a 3D printer.
buying spray-on clothes. The first item is a fu lly-fu n ctio n a l
4 3D prin te rs are very b icycle m ade o f nylon called the A irbike. Its as strong as steel
expensive to buy. but m uch lighter. It com es out as a co m p le te bike w ith no
a ssem bly required. The po ssib ilitie s for this new te c h n o lo g y
5 3D p rinters could be used
are endless. M edical researchers hope th a t w ith a special
in m edicine. c a rtrid g e o f hum an cells and b io -frie n d ly gel, it can be used to
6 The e-hom e is activated print out skin grafts for burn victim s. They have already
w h en you ta lk to it. m anaged to dem onstrate the potential m edical uses by
E-homes are already available........ p rin tin g out a co p y o f a hum an ear in 30 m inutes.
28
see pp.
GR 5-6
G ra m m a r >
Future tenses (will, be going to.
present continuous, future
continuous)
M atch th e exam ples to th e descriptions.
Find m ore exam ples in th e te x t in Ex. 2.
As you arrive hom e w ith the shop pin g,
G race tells you w ho pho ned w hile you w ere 1 It's h o t in here. I'll o pe n th e w in d o w .
out. You put yo u r g ro ceries dow n on the
2 She's g o in g to b u y a p rin te r soon.
kitchen co u n te r and she gives you recipe
3 D o n 't w o rry. I w o n 't be late.
ideas, tells you how to cook them , and gives
you dieta ry advice. As you m ove into the 4 Sarah's ta k in g her d rivin g te st next w eek.
living room she organises yo u r evening 5 Our homes w ill be very d iffe re n t in the future.
enterta inm ent. A w in d o w m ade of sm art 6 I w o n 't be s tu d y in g to m o rro w a fte rn o o n .
glass beco m es a TV, w a llp a p e r chan ges on 7 He's g o t th e car keys. He's g o in g to drive
dem and and every surface d o u b le s as a in to th e city.
to u ch screen w ith instant Internet access.
But G race is n t a m em b er of the fam ily, at a a prom ise
least not yet. S h es a netw o rk of voice- b a fixed arrangem ent
activated co m puters that runs the e-hom e - a pre d ictio n based on w h a t w e believe/im agine
the house of the future. Grace is the star of a
d a plan or in te n tio n
show hom e by M icrosoft that dem onstrates
m uch of this technology and all of it is going e an o n -th e -sp o t decision
to be on the m arket within the next few years. f an action in progress at a certain tim e in the future
So, before long we will be talking to the walls! g a pre d ictio n based on w h a t w e see

Choose th e correct verb form . Id e n tify th e


C heck th e s e w o rd s reason fo r th e use o f each tense.
develop textiles, generate electricity, m o n ito r
1 That's the phone. I w ill answer/am answering it.
fitness, spray-on fabric, m inute fibres, dry instantly,
tu rn into, garm ent, dissolve, go on sale, trendsetter, 2 I th in k he is going to b e /w ill be happier there.
booth, drop in, look into, bandage, fu rn itu re 3 N ow th a t I've g o t some m oney I w ill be buying/
covering, fu lly-w o rkin g machine, fully-functional, am going to buy a new PC.
lighter, no assembly required, endless possibilities,
4 W ill you w o rk/A re you w orking to m o rro w
cartridge, skin graft, burn victim , dietary advice, on
dem and, instant, voice-activated afternoon?
5 This tim e next w eek w e are tra v e llin g /w ill be
Fill in: turn into, access, instantly, endless, travelling to Chile.
dissolve, assembly. 6 Sorry! I w o n 't/a m not going to lie again.
7 He's w earing his T-shirt, shorts and trainers. He
1 Spray-on clothes contain m in u te fibres w hich
w ill be playing/is going to play football.
d r y ........................................
2 The A irb ike is ready to ride as it d o e sn 't require
a n y ........................................
7 Say tw o thin gs you: w ill be doing this tim e
next week, are doing to m o rro w evening, w ill do
3 Dr Torres has developed a fabric th a t can ......... in the sum m er, are g oing to do this weekend.
..........................................any garm ent.
4 The possibilities o f using th e new spray are S p e a k in g & W r it in g
5 A touchscreen gives you in s ta n t ........................... 1 1 H ow do you th in k each invention
to th e In te rn e t. in th e te x t w ill im prove our lives? In three
6 Some superm arkets are using plastic bags w hich m inutes w rite a fe w sentences. Tell th e class
.........................................in w a ter, leaving no trace. or your p artn er ab o u t it.


'
. /

You only w anted some m ilk and a loaf of


bread, so w hy is your basket overflow ing
by the tim e you get to the checkout? W ell,
the answer lies in the tricks supermarkets use
to m ake you spend m ore. Lets grab a trolley
and find out some of the secrets behind those
sliding doors!
Ex
1
THE TRI f
As you walk into the supermarket, the delicious smell o f
freshly-baked bread hits you and you im m ediately start
feeling hungry. Then, right by the entrance, you see
beautiful displays o f fresh and colourful produce,
m aking you feel even hungrier. This is all intentional, Dont expect supermarkets to use packaging strategies
because every superm arket knows that hungry customers th a t make it easy to w ork out which goods are the
buy more fru it and vegetables. Also, starting your cheapest either. It may be easier to grab some pre
shopping by selecting healthy, fresh fru it and vegetables packaged apples, but they're also a lo t more expensive
may make you feel less gu ilty about picking up a few than loose ones.
extra treats later on.
Have you ever noticed that just when y o u ve learnt
W ho can resist a 'buy one get one free deal? Yet, w ith where the tom ato ketchup is, the shop moves it?
around one third of the food the world produces going to Supermarkets love doing this, so th a t you have to spend
waste, is that second chocolate cheesecake really tim e w alking up and down the aisles looking for w hat
necessary? In the same way, '3 for 6 m ight sound like a you w ant to buy. Then, when you fin a lly arrive at the
great bargain, but always check how much an item costs checkout, there are tem p ting displays o f sweets and
individually. You m ight not be saving very much at all and magazines to throw into your trolley w hile y o u re w aiting
yo u ll have tw o extra items that you don't really need. in line.

Supermarkets know that customers tend to choose If you th in k all these things are sneaky, look at what
products that are at eye level, so the items on the m iddle supermarkets are planning fo r the near future! Shops w ill
shelves are usually the most expensive ones. Cheaper scan your loyalty card as soon as you w alk in and send
brands are on high shelves that are hard to reach. So, m oney-off coupons to your m obile phone as you shop.
remember to give your neck a w orkout and check out 3D displays w ill address you by name and as you're
what's on the top shelves. w alking out you m ight even get an SMS te llin g you that
you've forgotten to buy m ilk!

Vocabulary
and m atch th e
Supermarket shopping
subheadings (A-G ) to th e
a) Listen and say. paragraphs (1-6). There is one
superm arket aisle tro lle y checkout cashier ex tra subheading. Justify your
superm arket sections custom er pre-packaged food answ ers.
b) Use w ords/phrases from Ex. 1a to describe th e BUY NOW, PAY LATER
picture in th e te x t. WRAPPING IT UP
a) H o w o fte n do you shop a t a superm arket? Do you SEARCHING THE SHOP
m ake a shopping list b efo re you go? Do you stick COOKING UP MORE TRICKS
to it? If n o t, w h a t extras do you usually buy? TEMPTING YOU WITH SPECIAL
b) W h a t tricks do superm arkets use to te m p t us in to OFFERS
APPEALING TO THE SENSES
spending more?
Q Listen and read to find o u t. LINE OF SIGHT
30
Check these words
Put th e adjectives in brackets in to th e correct form s.
expose, overflow , the answer lies, grab,
sliding doors, freshly-baked bread, the 1 O rganic products are m uch ..............................................................
smell hits you, fresh produce, ..............................................(expensive) than non -organ ic ones.
intentional, resist, deal, go to waste,
2 T h a t's ...................................................(big) superm arket in to w n .
bargain, tem pt, tend to, at eye level,
brand, give your neck a w orkou t, 3 Superm arkets' ow n brands can be ju s t as ..................................
strategy, pre-packaged, loose, aisle, .............................. (good) as w e ll-k n o w n brands.
checkout, tem pting display, w a it in line, 4 The ......................................................... (long) custom ers stay in a
sneaky, scan, loyalty card, m oney-off
superm arket, th e ......................................... (much) th e y spend.
coupons, address sb by name
5 S um m erton Superstore has by f a r .................................................
a) Fill in: sliding, tempting, (good) q u a lity m eat.
pre-packaged, environmentally, 6 The price o f staple foods is g e ttin g ................................. (high)
eye, money-off, w ait in, loyalty. and .................................................................... (high) every m onth.
Use th e phrases to m ake 7 Heinz is one o f ........................................................................ (good)
sentences, as in th e exam ple. kno w n brands o f to m a to ketchup.
1 ................................ products; 2 .................. see pp.
coupons; 3 .................................. frie n d ly; GR6-7
4 .............................card; 5 .......................... Fill in -ing form , fo -in fin itive, or in fin itive w ith o u t to. Find
line; 6 ....................... doors; 7 ....................... exam ples in th e te x t. Give one exam ple fo r each category.
level; 8 ..................................displays
1 avoid, consider, deny, miss, suggest + .........................................
I prefer to buy loose fru it and vegetables
2 make, le t + .............................................................................................
than pre-packaged products.
3 w o u ld like, w o u ld prefer, w o u ld have + ......................................
b) M atch the words in bold to 4 enjoy, like/love , prefer, d o n 't m ind, ca n 't stand, is used to +
their meanings: exhibitions,
training, dishonest, planned, 5 to o /e n o u g h ... + ...................................................
good buy, get. 6 ask, agree, hope, expect, refuse, prom ise +
see 7 w ill, may, can, m ust, w o u ld + ..........................
G ra m m a r
p. GR 6
Comparisons > ... ,

Read th e exam ples. H ow 8 Put th e verbs in brackets in to th e (fo j-in fin itiv e or
-ing fo rm . H o w does each verb d iffe r in m eaning?
do w e form th e c o m p a ra tiv e /
su p erlative form s o f a He f o r g o t ............................................................... (buy) lemons.
adjectives? Find m ore b He'll never fo rg e t ......................(shop) a t Camden M arke t.
exam ples in th e te x t in Ex. 2. a They s to p p e d .............. (g et) coffee fro m a service sta tio n .
......................... '11 ' L*4 b They stopped ....................................... (w o rk) to have lunch.
Loose vegetables are cheaper than pre
a I prefer ........................................................... (live) on my ow n.
packaged ones.
b I'd p r e fe r ...............................(go) to th e m arket on my ow n.
That supermarket is the most expensive
a We regret ................... (spend) so m uch m oney on clothes.
of all.
b W e r e g r e t.................................(inform ) you th a t you failed.
This pack isn't as big as that one.
a T r y .......................(cut) d o w n on sweets. Y o u'll feel better.
The bigger the supermarket, the easier it
b Try ...........................(stick) to a list w hen you go shopping.
is to get lost.
He spends more and more money every day.
The fruit from my local market is a lot S p e a k in g & W r it in g
better than the fruit from the supermarket. W h a t did you learn from th e te x t? H o w w ill
These biscuits are by far the best I've ever this in fo rm a tio n be h elpful to you? In th re e m inutes,
tasted. w rite a fe w sentences. Tell you r p a rtn e r or th e class.
()) Vocabulary Bank 2 pp. VB 8-VB 9) 31
Culture Corner
W h a t do you know abo ut the
products in th e text? W h at
is th e history behind each product?
Listen and read to find out.
wonder, story, go back, durable

made mthe usa cotto n, manual worker, big hit,


generation, ban, staple item , take
revenge, fussy diner, batch o f fries,
crispy, fast-forw ard, form ula, brass
kettle, serving, sales rise,
ingredients, trade secret
W ho doesnt w e a r jean s, d rin k cola and
eat po tato chips? Alm ost eve ry o n e does! Read again. W hich product or
But have you e v e r w o ndered products:
w h a t th e stories are behind
1 was o rig in a lly hom em ade?
these products?

2 was invented by som eone in a bad


m o o d ? ....................................
3 was a surprise h it w ith th e public?

JEANS POTATO CHIPS


4 became successful a year later?
The story o f jeans goes back to the In 1853, George Crum was .....................................
19th century when sailors from w orking as a chef at a restaurant
5 was originally designed fo r another
Genoa, Italy, wore durable cotton in New York. One day, a custom er
p urpose ?....................................
and wool denim trousers. Then, in sent Crum s French fries back to
6 w a s n 't allo w e d in some locations?
1853, 24-year-old Levi Strauss the kitchen, saying they were too
....................................
travelled to San Francisco from thick. Crum got very angry and
Germany and decided to design decided to take revenge on the M atch th e w ords/phrases in
trousers fo r manual workers from fussy diner; he made a new bold in th e te x t w ith th e ir
this m aterial. They were a big hit, batch o f fries so thin and crispy m eanings: difficult-to-please
and by the 1950s jeans had th a t the custom er couldn t eat restaurant customer, very pleased,
become very popular w ith a them w ith a fork! To Georges forbade, popular, punish, portions
whole generation o f young surprise, the guest was thrilled o f food or drinks, men who work on
people. At first, many places w ith them and other diners began a ship, people who work with their
such as theatres and restaurants asking fo r them , too. Fast- hands, not thin, recipe, basic,
banned them. Nowadays, forw ard to the 21st century and, crunchy, components o f a mixture.
jeans are a staple item of in the US alone, sales o f potato
clothing in everyones chips am ount to over $6 billion
M ake notes a b o u t each product
wardrobe! per year.
under th e headings: when
invented/by whom, how it became
COCA-COLA
popular, the product today.
John Pemberton, a pharm acist from Georgia, invented the
Present th em to you r p a rtn e r or
original Coca-Cola form ula in a three-legged brass k e ttle in his
to th e class.
backyard! The soft drink was firs t sold as a m edicine in a
ch em ists on 8th May, 1886. Dr Pemberton sold about 9
servings each day. He made about $50 in the firs t year, but ICT Find o u t
u n fo rtu n a te ly it cost him about $70 to make the cola! In 1887, in fo rm a tio n a b o u t a w e ll-
a businessman bought the form ula and by 1900 sales had risen kn o w n product from your
by over 4000%. Coca-Cola remains the most famous soft drink cou ntry under th e headings in
in the w o rld, but its exact ingredients are s till a tra d e secret! Ex. 4. Tell th e class.


Everyday English
Buying clothes Find se n te n ce s in th e d ia lo g u e w h ic h m ean:
a) Q Listen and say. Is it a lrig h t i f I use m y credit card to pay? - They
are reduced in price rig h t now, a re n 't they? -
b) The sentences are from a dialogue
Could you please give me yo u r ID card? - Are they
b e tw e e n a shop assistant and a
the rig h t size? - We d o n 't have m any le ft.
custom er. W ho says each sentence?
Q Listen, read, and
see
check. In t o n a t io n : exclamations p. g r i
> .....
1 What size are you? a) L iste n and read th e e xa m p le s. Does
2 Any good? th e sp e a ke r use fa llin g o r ris in g
in to n a tio n a t th e end o f th e
3 Can I try them e x c la m a tio n ?
on, please?

4 Weve almost sold out What a/an + countable How + adjective/


noun What a nice dress! adverb
5 Can I pay by credit card?
What + uncountable or How silly of me!
6 Your receipt is in the bag plural noun How quickly the time
What great weather! passes here!
7 Do you need any help?

8 Could I have your ID, please? b) Fill in w hat (a/an) o r how.


Q L iste n and check, th e n say.
9 Theyre on sale at the moment, arent they?
^ 1 .................................nice ja cket!
10 Yes, they fit me really wel 2 .................................b e a u tifu l sunglasses!
3 .................................great you lo ok in those jeans!
4 .................................kind you are!
A: Do you need any help?
B: Oh, yes please. I'm lo okin g fo r th e s lim -fit
jeans th a t are in the w in d o w . They're on S p e a k in g
sale a t the m om ent, a re n 't they? Use th e sente n ce s in Exs. 1 & 2 to act
A: Yes, th e y are, b u t w e 've alm ost sold o u t. o u t a d ia lo g u e in a sh o p . F o llo w th e p la n .
W h a t size are you?
B: I'm a size 10.
A: Let me take a quick look ... OK, yo u 're in
Ask if needs any help-^- ^>Say w h a t yo u 're

luck. These are th e last pair in yo u r size.
B: Great. Can I try them on, please? lo o kin g for.
A: Sure, th e fittin g room s are over there. ... Ask w h a t size is. ---------/Say w h a t size. Ask
A ny g oo d...? to try it/th e m on.
B: Yes, th e y f it me really w e ll. I'll take them . Look for/F ind item o f ^ V S ay you like th e
Can I pay by credit card? clo th in g . Tell A w h ere / clothes & w a n t to
A: Yes, th a t's no problem . That's 38 then, fittin g room is, th e n a s k / buy them . Ask to
please. Can I have your ID, please? if any good. / pay by cre d it card.
B: Here you are. Agree & say th e p r ic e .^ 3/ O ffe r cre d it card.
A: Just sign here, please. Here's your credit Ask A to sign. Give card ^>Thank A & say
card and ID back. Your receipt is in the bag. receipt to c u s to m e r ^ - '''''" goodbye.
B: Thank you very much. Goodbye. Reply.
A: Goodbye.
33

The good

Vocabulary & R e a d in g
Furniture & appliances
a) In a m in u te w r it e as m any
w o rd s as p o s s ib le u n d e r th e
h e a d in g s .

Life in the 21st century is fast-paced and ruled by mobile phones, the
Internet and gadgets, so it's easy to understand why some people long
to go back to the simpler times o f the past. Meet Joanne Massey who is
b) Loo k a t th e p ic tu re . W h a t living in a 1950s time warp!

doe s it t e ll us a b o u t life in The 1950s were an era of colourful homes, clothes and
th e 1950s? accessories, black and white TVs, rock and roll m usic and
traditional values. Joanne Massey, from Birm ingham , England, not
c) T h in k o f th e k itc h e n in y o u r only cherishes these times, but has also chosen to live as people
did back then! Her home is just like a 1950s tim e capsule with retro
hou se. C o m pa re it w ith th e
decor and second-hand v in ta g e appliances. Her cooker, which
o n e in th e p ic tu re . she bought from a farm er for 32, her radio, bright pink telephone,
The kitchen in my house has a lo t o f modern and metal kitchen units are all authentic 1950s appliances. Joanne
also loves 1950s fashion and never leaves the house without her
electrical appliances whereas th e ....
50s-style bright lipstick on. I only ever wear 1950s clothing, such
as tight pencil skirts, with a white blouse and a wide belt," she says.
Read th e t it le and th e
in tr o d u c tio n o f th e te x t. W h a t . ..............
d o y o u th in k Joan ne M assey's Read th e t e x t a g a in a n d fo r q u e s tio n s 1-5 choo se th e
life is lik e ? b e s t a n s w e r (, , o r D). C o m p a re w ith y o u r p a rtn e r.
Q Listen and read th e te x t to
fin d o u t. In th e firs t paragraph, w e learn t h a t ...
A Joanne lives as cheaply as she can.
Joanne was born in th e 1950s.
Joanne d o e sn 't like m odern technology.
rule, long, tim e w arp, era, values,
cherish, tim e capsule, retro decor, D Joanne's husband shares her love o f th e 50s.
second-hand, vintage, authentic, One thing Joanne admires about people in the 50s is th a t they ..
lipstick, tig h t, convention, trilb y hat,
A always dressed w e ll. d id n 't w a ste thing s.
bland, make do, mend, th ro w aw ay
fashion, pension, distressing, adm it, were always cheerful. D didn't worry about their appearance.
conveniences, o u t o f sight, spoil,
She tries to copy th e 1950s sp irit by ...
in retreat from , violence, greed,
A baking every day. repairing and reusing things.
m aterialism , shudder
helping others. D living life a t a slo w er pace.
34
I I I I I
While Joannes husband Kevin (whom she met at a
convention for 50s fans) has to wear modern clothes for
work, he too likes to relax in a stylish suit and trilb y hat 'J a
at the weekends. Joanne and Kevin can also be seen
driving around in a 45-year-old Ford Anglia! But why do 201 a) Fill in: bright, TVs, conveniences, fashion,
Joanne and Kevin live this way? music, career, back, warp, values,
I feel I was born in the wrong tim e, says Joanne. When appliances, stylish, tips. Use th e phrases
I was young Id watch all the old singing stars in the to m ake sentences based on th e te x t.
cinem a and dream that I could be like that one day.
1 t im e ...................... 7 suit
Everything modern just seems bland in com parison. 251
Joanne says that she also really respects the values of 2 black and w hite 8 throw aw ay
the 50s, the make do and m end attitude that is so 3 rock and r o l l .....
different from our age of th ro w a w a y fashion and ever- 4 traditional ......... 9 singing .........
changing technology. I do think the 50s were happier 5 21 st century 10 cleaning ......
tim es, she says. Everyone knew everyone else and they | 11 second-hand
all looked a fte r each other. Joanne tries hard to bring
lipstick 12 then
this spirit into the 21st century; she bakes cakes for
friends and does shopping and collects pensions for b) M atch th e w ords in bold in th e te x t to
elderly neighbours. Joanne also cant stand shopping in th e ir m eaning.
superm arkets and she doesnt read newspapers as she 35 1
finds them too distressing. desire to have more o f sth than you need
W hile Joanne says she's happy to be a traditional 50s a hat made of felt advice hidden
housewife, she doesnt spend all day at home baking moral principles adores took care of
biscuits. She has a successful singing career touring the
money for retired people from the state
UK as a 1940s-style singer called Lola Lamour and she 4ol
dull large meeting energy antique
writes a blog giving 40s and 50s-style shopping and
cleaning tips! She adm its to owning some 21st century disposable upsetting confesses
conveniences, too, though. Joanne and Kevin have a running away from useful equipm ent

laptop, a microwave, a DVD player and a washing shake in disgust


machine, although Joanne tries to keep all these things 451 culture of valuing shopping and goods
o u t o f sight so that they don 't spoil the 1950s feel. Even
the m odern TV is hidden inside a 1950s cabinet and they
only watch things like Agatha Christie's Miss Marple and
Poirot! W eb diagram s
I adm it I am in retreat from the 21st century, Joanne sol Using w eb diagrams helps you to organise your
says. When I look at the reality of the world today, with ideas and take better notes.
all the violence, greed and materialism, I shudder. I
d o n t want to live in that world. Living like this makes me
S p e a k in g & W r it in g
happier.
5 Read the te x t again and com plete the w eb
diagram to take notes about Joanne Massey's
life. Then use your notes to describe Joanne's
life to your partner.
bakes cakes for friends
1950s cooker
Regarding modern technology, Joanne ...
LIFESTYLE
A refuses to use it.
JOANNE
only uses it when it's necessary for her work.
APPEARANCE/
is getting used to it.
wears b rig h t lipstick CLOTHES
D uses it, but doesn't w an t it to be seen.

The quote from Joanne in the final paragraph W h a t kind o f person do you
expresses her belief t h a t ... th in k Joanne is? Tell th e class. Give reasons
A the world was a better place in the 50s. from th e te x t.
people were happier in the 50s.
Compare your lifestyle to Joanne's.
there is nothing good about the 21st century.
In three minutes w rite a few sentences on the
D more people should live as she does.
topic. Read them to your partner or to the class.
35
Skyscraper farms
R e a d in g & L is te n in g
Look at the picture, then
g ro w in g
Stories o f The Hanging Gardens o f
listen and say. W h at do you think
Babylon, one o f the seven wonders o f the ancient
a skyscraper farm is? H ow does it world, te ll o f a structure with lush green gardens on different levels
w ork? Read th e te x t to find out. m any m etres high. These are long gone, but as our m odern consum er
society continues to drain the w orld o f its resources, the population
rises and food prices soar, a m odern-day equivalent m ay soon be
springing up in your neighbourhood!
According to UN statistics, by the year 2050, the population of planet
Earth will have risen to over 9 billion and feeding 1 ) these people
will require extra farmland the size of Brazil! Finding this agricultural land
will be a 2) challenge, but one that some creative scientists believe
Solar panels and they have solved with the idea of vertical farming. The idea is actually very
wind turbines simple. Just as an apartment block has different storeys, a vertical farm
power the will have many different floors growing a variety of fruit and vegetables.
building.
On one floor there will be lettuces, on the next floor carrots and on
another tomatoes, and so on. The walls will be made of glass to allow in
sunlight and instead of soil, the produce will be grown in a solution of
nutrients and water.
Different storeys Dr Dickson Despommier, a professor at Columbia University, points out
grow a variety of that just one 30-storey building could provide food for 10,000 people.
fruit and With about 160 of these buildings, you could feed all of New York, he
vegetables. says. But as 3 ) as offering a solution to possible food shortages,
\ this idea is environmentally friendly. Often, by the time food 4 ) on
your plate, it will have been travelling for days or even months! Vertical
farms, however, will go up in the centre of the city and will be powered by
solar and wind power so well save on transport costs, burn less fossil
fuels and well all be eating fresh local produce from the skyscraper next
door!
The idea isnt without its problems, though. Crops nearer the glass would
get more light which means they would grow quicker than crops farther
away. The only whole floor to get 5 ) sunlight would be the top one.
Possible solutions include having a permanent light source on every floor
Glass walls like the ones we now have in industrial greenhouses. At the moment, the
allow in 6) ........... of building and lighting these modern Hanging Gardens of
sunlight.
Babylon is far too high, but that doesnt mean we wont
be able to do it soon.
Mankind has been
farming horizontally for Convert the rooftop ot your ------------------
over 15,000 years, but
now almost 80% of our into a garden and grow your own
The produce is grown farmland is already in
in a solution of use. Isnt it about time we U sfw in d o w boxes to grow fru it and veg
nutrients and water.
started growing up?

rinvolved
; s rin 9oa local project like th.s or even
start o n e of your ow_nJ________ ^ ......
C heck th e s e w o rd s ------------------

wonder, structure, lush, long gone, drain, rise, soar, equivalent, spring up, vertical
farm ing, solution, nutrients, food shortage, environm entally friendly, powered,
tran sport costs, local produce, perm anent lig h t source, industrial greenhouse,
m ankind, horizontally, consume, convert, wasteland

Read th e te x t again and fo r Fill in: cosfs, friendly, food, vertical, wind, real, local, direct.
each gap ( 1- 6) choose th e w ord Use th e phrases to m ake sentences, as in th e exam p le.
th a t best fits. Give reasons. 1 food shortages 5 ................................fa rm in g
1 A every w h o le 2 e n viro n m e n ta lly ............. 6 ...............................produce
all D each 3 ............................ challenge 7 tra n s p o rt ..........................
4 ...............................tu rb in e s 8 ...............................su n lig h t
2 A real sincere
tru e D valid If the population continues to rise, there m ig h t be food shortages.
see
3 A long w e ll jr a m m a r p.grs
much D far
Future perfect - Future perfect continuous
4 A arrives arriving
Read th e th e o ry and find an o th e r exam p le o f each
w ill arrive D arrived
tense in th e te x t in Ex. 1.
5 A free equal :jr........... V
We use future perfect (will have + past participle) to describe an action
s tra ig h t D direct
that will be finished before a stated future time. They w ill have finished
6 A charge cost making the roof garden before the end o f next week.
expense D price Time expressions used with future perfect: before, by, by then, by the
time, until/till (in negative sentences)
We use future perfect continuous to emphasise the duration o f an action
up to a certain time in the future.
J Choose th e correct w o rd . Check By next month, James w ill have been w orking at the farm for five years.
Time expressions used with future perfect continuous use: by ... for
in yo u r dictionaries. v_

1 Finding enough food fo r the g Put th e verbs in brackets in future perfect or future perfect
w o rld 's g ro w in g p o p u la tio n w o n 't continuous.
be easy; it'll be a big challenge/
test. 1 By th e end o f th e year, w e .................................................... (live)
2 The p o p u la tio n on Earth has in this house fo r 10 years!
raised/risen in recent years. 2 Simon hopes he ....................................................... (start) his ow n
3 M any new shops and businesses business by next year.
are springing up/open up in the 3 Sam ........................................................ (w o rk) as a gardener fo r
area. 30 years by th e tim e he retires.
4 We need to save/conserve on 4 I ca n 't m eet you a t 6 o'clock. I .......................................................
tra n s p o rt costs. (n o t finish) w o rk by then.
5 The machine is powered/controlled 5 ....................... (w e /fin d ) a solution to food shortages by 2050?
by solar power.
W rite : two things you hope you will have done by the time
6 Harry's busy jo b som etim es drains/
you're 30, two things you will have been doing for over five
exhausts him o f his energy.
years by the end o f this year. Tell you r partner.
7 The farm shop sells fresh produce/
ou tlet such as beans, straw berries S p e a k in g & W r it in g
and corn.
8 Fuel prices are advancing/rising at g Q Listen and read. W h a t did you learn from th e te xt?
the m om ent; prices have nearly Tell yo u r partner.
doubled since last year.
W hy are vertical farms a good idea? H ow can
th ey b en efit society? In three m inutes w rite a fe w
sentences on this topic. Read your sentences to th e class.
37

L is te n in g
a) Q Listen to fiv e people w h o have ordered goods
o n lin e /b y post and m atch th e problem s to th e
speakers. There is one e x tra problem .
o c a b u la r y A An item is dam aged.
Faulty products There was som ething m issing. J
The custom er has changed th e ir m ind.
1 a) M atch th e problem s w ith
D The goods h a ve n 't arrived.
th e products.
E There is a paym ent problem .
Q Listen and check. Listen
F The w ro n g item was sent to the custom er.
again and say.

1
1 2 3 4 5
The heel is broken.
2 The strap is to rn .
3 A b u tto n is missing. b) Q Listen again. W h a t did each person ask for?
4 The lens is scratched.
5 The lid is cracked. S p e a k in g
6 There's a chip in it. Making complaints & requesting action
7
8
There's a hole in the sleeve.
The earphones are dam aged.
3 p Use th e lan g u ag e in th e box and th e products &
problem s in Ex. 1 to act o u t exchanges, as in th e
exam ple.
b) Have you ever b o u g h t any
Making complaints Requesting action
products th a t w e re fau lty?
I have a problem w ith Could I exchange it/them , please?
W h a t w as th e problem ?
t h is .... It's/The ... Could you give me a replacement,
W h a t did you do? Use the
There's something wrong please?
phrases b e lo w to te ll your
w ith this. ... Is it possible to get a refund?/l'd like
partner.
I bought this/these ... to have my money back, please.
take it back to th e shop and ... . Can you take a look at it, please?
g et it repaired Responding to complaints
get a refund No problem. Could I see your receipt, please?
exchange it fo r another one Of course. Have you got the receipt?

I once bought a dress and there was a hole / bought this coffee m ug and there's a chip in it. Could you give me
in it. I took it bock to the shop and a replacem ent please^
exchanged it for another one. g. /\/0 problem . Have you g o t your receipt, please?


mship
a) W hich o f these
sentences best
describe you?

1 I enjoy b a rg a in -h u n tin g .
2 I always check w h ere and
h o w a pro d u ct was made. a responsible shopper
3 I o fte n shop online.
In todays world of endless consumer choices, it's very easy to spend
4 I always choose fa irtra d e ;
without thinking. Many people enjoy bargain-hunting, but our quest to pay
products. less may have hidden dangers. The following is a guide to responsible
5 I prefer big chain-store retailers. shopping, which combines an awareness of human rights and green
6 I o fte n buy second-hand. issues, as well as how to save our hard-earned cash!
I
7 I never buy recycled products.
Be ethical:
8 I try to avoid unnecessary While you probably have no problem remembering where you bought your
packaging. T-shirt from, do you actually know where and how it was made? Why not do
9 I never th ro w a n yth in g o u t. some research on the policies of big chain-store retailers in order to be
ethical when it comes to shopping? Find out where they manufacture their
10 I usually buy things th a t are on sale.
goods and in what conditions. How do they treat their employees? Are they
b) Do you kn o w h o w to be a involved in sweatshops or the use of child labour? These days, the Internet
is a mine of information on big companies and how they operate. Also, you
responsible shopper? can always choose products labelled fairtrade, which is a guarantee the
Q Listen and read to find goods have been made under acceptable working conditions.
out. Be green:
First of all, choose products that use fewer natural resources, and avoid
Read th e te x t and com plete th e goods which come in unnecessary packaging. The goal is not to waste
sentences. Then exp lain th e anything! Another great option is buying second-hand. You can find a
w ords in bold. treasure trove of quality second-hand items at low prices on Internet sites
like eBay, as well as in traditional charity shops. Its really worthwhile, as
1 We can go o n lin e to fin d o u t second-hand goods are often much better quality than cheaply made new
products for sale at similar prices. Then, of course, theres always recycling.
w h ere big com panies .................... Try to buy products that can be recycled, or products that are already made
2 'F a irtra d e ' labels mean .................. out of recycled materials. Also, think twice before you throw anything out:
you could always try to recycle your belongings yourself!
3 It's a good idea to buy second
Be smart:
hand because ...................................
Dont throw your money away! Spending wisely involves some thought and
4 Instead o f th ro w in g th in g s away, research as well. First of all, before you buy, be clear about what you want to
w e s h o u ld ........................................... buy to avoid unnecessary purchases. Then, compare prices so that you
dont end up paying too much. One great way to save money is to take
5 C om paring prices helps u s ........... advantage of seasonal retail shifts, such as the January sales, or late July
6 The sales period is a good tim e and August, when they sell summer products off at reduced prices.
Lastly, try to remember that responsible shopping isnt just about trying to
spend as little as possible. The goal is to find a good balance between being
Fill in: working, hard-earned, reduced, ethical, being green, and using good money sense!
seasonal, take, human, wisely, child.
C heck th e s e w o rd s
M ake sentences using th em .
bargain-hunting, quest, awareness, hum an rights, hard-earned
1 ..................................................... rights cash, policy, ethical, m anufacture goods, trea t, sweatshop, child
2 .................................................... labour labour, m ine o f in fo rm a tio n , operate, guarantee, natural
resources, treasure trove, purchase, seasonal retail shift, sell o ff,
3 ........................................... co n d itio n s reduced prices, balance, m oney sense
4 prices
5 .................................... advantage o f Has the inform ation in the te x t helped you
6 ........................................................cash see things from a differen t perspective? How m ight this
7 spend .................................................. help you become a responsible shopper? In three minutes,
8 ..........................................reta il shifts w rite a fe w sentences. Tell the class or your partner.
39
Writing
Letters/Emails of
com plaint

We usually w rite letters/em ails o f Dear Sir/Madam,


co m p la in t in a form al style. I am w ritin g to complain about an mp3 player order I placed
In the first paragraph, we w rite our through your website www.shop.com on 18th April. Unfortunately,
opening remarks, including our reason I experienced a number of problems w ith the product, as detailed
fo r w ritin g and a b rie f description o f below.
the problem . I ordered a Cooltunes 1004 mp3 player and, despite the
In the main body paragraphs, we promise that I would receive the item w ithin 5 working days, it did
present details abo ut w h a t the not arrive until 2nd May, over 10 days later. To make matters worse,
problem (s) is/are, including exam ples/ when I eventually received the mp3 player, it was badly scratched.
reasons/justifications. We use a variety Furthermore, the product description on your site stated that a case
o f linking words/phrases e.g., although, was included. However, this was missing.
despite, as a result, but, however, to link I w ould appreciate it if you could replace the mp3 player, and
the com plaints to th e ir examples/ include a case. In addition, I feel I deserve an explanation for the
reasons. delay. I am sending the item back to you together w ith my invoice.
In the final paragraph, w e include the I look forw ard to your prom pt reply.
action w e request to be taken e.g., get Yours faithfully,
a refund/a replacement/an apology and Jane M orley
our closing remarks.
We can use mild or strong language
to express o u r com plaints depending
on our feelings or th e seriousness o f
th e com plaint. C o m plete th e ta b le w ith
th e com plaints and th e ir
Mild Complaint: I am writing to complain
ju stific atio n s .
about...// hope you will deal with the matter
quickly.
Strong Com plaint: I am w riting to Complaints Justifications
express my disgust a t th e ... ./I insist upon
full compensation or I w ill be forced to
take this m atter further.

a) Read th e em ail and m atch


th e headings b elo w (A-D )
to th e paragraphs (1-4). M ark th e sentences 0 fo r opening or fo r closing
A rem arks. W hich are stro n g /m ild com plaints? Com pare
details o f yo u r co m p la in t
reason fo r w ritin g & b rie f w ith you r partner.
description o f problem I am w ritin g to express my to ta l dissatisfaction w ith th e mp3
action requested player I recently b o u g h t from ... .
D closing com m ents I insist on an apology, as w e ll as a fu ll refund.
I hope you w ill lo ok in to th e m a tte r p ro m p tly and replace ....
b) Is it a m ild or strong em ail o f I am w ritin g to inform you th a t I was very disappointed w ith
com plaint? the product I recently b o u ght from ....
40
Clauses of concession Lin k in g w o rds

see
4 a) Read th e exam ples, p GR g Choose th e correct w o rd . Com pare w ith you r partner.
> .....
/ ' *N 1) A lth o u g h /H o w e v e r th e bag was supposed to be delivered
Although/Even though + clause w ith in th re e w o rk in g days, I s till have n o t received it.
Although I had ordered a size M black dress, 2) Furtherm ore/B ut, w hen I trie d to co n ta ct you, th e person w h o
I was sent a size L red one. answ ered th e phone was very rude to me 3) a n d /b u t ke p t me
In spite of/Despite + nou n l-ing fo rm / h o ld in g th e line fo r ten m inutes before she aggressively said th a t
the fact that my o rd e r had been dispatched and w o u ld be delivered th e day
Despite being assured o f receiving a after.
refund, I still have not been sent one. 4) In a d d itio n /H o w e v e r, I s till have n o t received a n yth in g . As a
Despite your assurance that I would regular custom er o f yours I feel very disa p p o in te d w ith th e w a y I
receive a refund.... have been tre a te d . 5) T herefore/D espite, I w o u ld like to cancel
Despite the fact that I was assured of my ord e r and expect to receive a w ritte n apology.
receiving a refund.... . __
a p " ~
Read th e rubric, and an sw er th e questions in th e plan.
W rite you r em ail o f co m plaint (120-180 w o rd s). Use
b) Join th e com plaints to th e ir phrases from th e Useful Language box.
exam ples/reasons, using
I You recently ordered an item from th e w e bsite
th e linking w ords/phrases
! w w w .a re a ts h o p p in g .c o m . but you w ere very
in brackets.
I disappo inted w h en it arrived. W rite an em ail o f co m p la in t i
1 The pro d u ct description said the J (150-200 w ords) e xplaining th e reasons fo r your
rem ote co n tro l w o u ld w o rk w ith I co m p la in t and sta tin g w h a t you w a n t th e com pany to do. i
any TV. I trie d it and it d id n 't w o rk
w ith my TV. (despite)
Plan
2 The dress I ordered still hasn't Para 1: W h a t are y o u r o p e ning rem arks/your reason fo r
arrived. The w e b site said I w o u ld w ritin g ? (I am w riting to com plain... which I ordered...)
receive it last w eek, (in spite o f) Para 2: W h a t exactly are y o u r com plaints? (Iordered... b u t....
To make matters w orse....)
3 The w ebpage state d th e DVD Para 3: W h a t do you w a n t th e com pany to do? (I would
player was m u lti-re g io n a l. It can appreciate it if y o u ...)
only play region-2 DVDs, (however) Para 4: H ow w ill you end y o u r em ail? (I look forw ard to ....)

4 The camera is n 't in very good


c o n d itio n . The seller said it was as
U seful lan g uag e
good as new. (despite th e fact
th a t) O pening remarks: (M ild ) I am w ritin g to com plain a b o u t/
re g a rd in g /o n account of/because o f/o n th e subject o f .../I am
5 The bag I received is plastic. I had w ritin g to d ra w y o u r a tte n tio n to .../I am w ritin g to you in
ordered a leather one. (in spite of) connection w ith ..., etc.
(Strong) I was appalled a t/l w a n t to express my strong
dissatisfaction w ith /l feel I m ust p ro test/com plain about, etc.
Closing Remarks: (M ild ) I hope/assum e you w ill replace/l tru s t th e
s itu a tio n w ill im prove/l hope th e m a tte r w ill be resolved/l hope
w e can s o rt th is m a tte r o u t am icably, etc.
(Strong) I insist you replace th e item at once/l dem and a fu ll
re fu n d /1 hope th a t I w ill n o t be forced to take fu rth e r action, etc.

(l^ W ritin g Bank: formal emails/letters) 41



R e a d in g
( M a t c h h e a d in g s t o Around me, factory workers, some o n ly\
p a ra g ra p h s ) 12 years old, were bent over ancient sewing machines. The smell o f
chemicals was suffocating and the heat was intense. M y supervisor
held up the shirt I was sewing. "You have to work faster!" he told me.

1 | I Everyone loves a bargain and the h igh streets these days are fu ll 5
M atch headings to paragraphs o f th e latest fashions at ro c k -b o tto m prices. M any tim es, I w o u ld buy a
Read the te xt quickly to get an idea dress in th e m o rn in g , w ear it at a party th a t n ig h t and then hardly ever
o f w h a t it is about. Reach each w ear it again. The n ext w eek I m ig h t do th e same again. I never th o u g h t
a b o u t w here it cam e fro m , w h o m ade it and w h y it was so cheap. But
paragraph to understand the main
then I saw an advert in a local new spaper fo r yo u n g people to take p a rt 10
idea. Look a t the headings and find in a TV docum entary. We w o u ld be w o rk in g at a clothes fa c to ry in N ew
words or inform ation in the D elhi, India, fo r tw o weeks to fin d o u t h o w m anufacturers c ould make
paragraphs th a t relate to them. such cheap clothes. I was studying journalism at university, so this
Match the heading to the seemed perfect. A nd after all, h o w hard could m aking T-shirts be?
2 M y first day in th e fa c to ry began at 7:30 am . As I approached, I 15
appropriate paragraph. Remember
was im m e d ia te ly shocked by th e dirty, ru n d o w n b u ild in g . The
there is on extra heading. When you supervisor show ed m e the basem ent w here I w o u ld be w o rk in g . It was a
have finished the task check th a t the huge, noisy, b o ilin g h o t room w here at least a hundre d o th e r people
leftover heading doesn't go w ith any w ere already hard at w ork. I sat d o w n at one o f th e o ld sewing
machines. Today, I was sew ing pockets o n to shirts and m y goal was fifty 20
o f the paragraphs.
an hour, b u t after 30 m inutes, I'd finished just four. M y supervisor cam e
over and to ld m e disa p p ro vin g ly th a t if I c o n tin u e d like that, I w o u ld n 't
g e t p a id . I fe lt like crying.
Read th e rubric, th en read th e 3 I w o rke d fo r 12 hours, w ith just fifteen m inutes fo r lunch, b u t at
te x t th ro u g h quickly. W h a t is it the end o f th e day th e fa cto ry o w n e r handed m e 100 rupees - a b o u t 25
1 .5 0 ! Later, I w e n t to buy som e toothpa ste , b u t fo u n d it cost m ore
abo ut?
th a n a day's wages. By fa r the b iggest surprise, th o u g h , was th a t ju st like
i th e o th e r fa cto ry w orkers, I w o u ld be sleeping on th e fa c to ry flo o r every
Read the te x t and m atch the n ig h t! T hat evening, I spoke w ith som e o f the y o u n g girls. "W h y a re n 't
headings (A-F) to the num bered yo u a ngry a b o u t the co n d itio n s in th e fa cto ry? " I asked one o f th e m . "I 30
i paragraphs (1-5) o f th e te x t. Use am , b u t there is no o th e r w o rk here," she explained. "It's the fa c to ry or
each heading once. There is one th e street and if you say a n yth in g , you lose y o u r jo b ." The o th e r girls
nodded in agreem ent.
i extra heading.
4 For tw o weeks, I w o rke d 12 hours a day fo r 6 days a w eek and
slept in th e factory. It was th e m ost exhausting tim e o f m y life. I never 35
m anaged to w o rk fast en o u g h o r w ell enough , so m y wages w ere
Read th e headings and
2 a> low ered and I was m oved fro m sew ing shirts to g lu in g parts o f shoes
u n d erline any key w ords. In together. The chem icals in th e h o t glue m ade it d iffic u lt to breathe and
pairs, try to find w o rd s/ strange rashes appeared on m y skin. Eventually, I was d e m o te d to the
phrases in th e paragraphs low liest position in the fa cto ry - sew ing on buttons. The o n ly tim es I 40
th a t re la te to th e headings. was ha p p y w ere w hen I was ta lking to m y frie n d Aleya after w ork. I
started teaching her to read. Lack o f education is a m ajor p ro b le m here.
W h o has tim e fo r school w hen 12 hours' w o rk can barely b u y y o u r
A No choice fa m ily food?
H ealth risks Back hom e, I refuse to g o in cheap h igh street shops anym ore 45
D oing my b it because they m ake m e feel sick. H o w can people spend 15 on a T-shirt
w h ile Aleya slaves fo r 9 a week? So I've started cam p a ig n in g fo r ethical
D C urious to see
fashion; I w rite letters to governm ents and big stores to com plain a b o u t
E G reat jo urn alism
sweatshop labour. I still like fashion, b u t I've fo u n d fairtrade designers
F Terrible w o rk e n viro n m e n t online. They're m ore expensive, b u t n o w I just buy one q u a lity piece o f 50
c lo th in g every fe w m onths. I hope th a t w hen people see the
b) Do th e task. docum entary, th ey'll th in k tw ic e before g ra b b in g th a t d irt-cheap pair of
jeans in the fu tu re . We all need to understand th e tru e cost o f cheap
clothes.
42
b) Read the questions below . W ho w ould
Listening (M ultip le m atching)
ask each: the customer or the shop assistant?
Q You w ill hear fo u r short dialogues.
Do you need any help?
D efine w h e re these dialogues ta k e place.
Can I try it on?
Use th e places (A-E) from th e list only once.
H ow m uch is it?
There is one e x tra place in th e list.
Have you g o t it in size ...?
Can I pay by cre d it card?

c) Do th e task.

Writing
(a description of a place)

Articles describing a place


Descriptions o f places or buildings can be found
in magazines, travel brochures or on websites.
We usually use present tenses for descriptions
o f places and past tenses to w rite about
historical facts or actions in the past. Use a
variety o f adjectives and adverbs and your
A clothes shop D cafe senses to bring your description alive.
post o ffice E shoe shop
electronics shop
a) Read th e rubric and u n d erline th e key
w ords. W h a t do you have to w rite and
1 2 3 4
w h o w ill read it? W h a t m ust you
include?

An English m agazine fo r to u ris ts is looking


Speaking (Buy clothes) fo r articles a b o u t in te re stin g places to go
shopping in your area e.g. a m arket, a
^ a) Read th e rubric and th e in fo rm a tio n . In shopping street, a d e p a rtm e n t store, a mall.
tw o m inutes, w rite dow n as m any W rite yo u r article, describing th e place and
w o rd s/phrases as you can relate d to explaining w h y a to u ris t to yo u r to w n m ig h t
th e th em e. Com pare w ith yo u r partner. w a n t to visit it (120-180 w ords).
,
You are staying at your English pen friend's house. b) W rite you r article. Follow th e plan.
His/Her sister is getting married and has invited you ?
to the wedding. You are in a clothes shop looking for
Plan
an appropriate suit/dress for the wedding. Ask the i
Para 1: name o f place/location/reason for
sales assistant for help. choosing
Ask: Paras 2/3: description o f place (history, what
fo r your size and preferred colour it's like, w hat you can do/see,
to try a dress/suit on facilities, atmosphere etc) & why a
fo r price, agree to purchase and ask abo ut tourist would w ant to visit it
Para 4: final comments/feelings
means o f paym ent I
.*
Word form ation
Read th e te x t. Fill in th e gaps w ith the proper
6
lexical form o f th e capitalised w ords.

Vending machines have been around for a lot longer than


we m ight think. A Greek 1 ) ................................... called
Hero is said to have invented one over 2,000 years ago.
However, vending machines as we w ould recognise them
made their first 2 ) ...................................in London around
1880 selling postcards and soon after, the famous gumball
machines for chewing gum arrived in the USA. Since then,
their 3 ) .......................... has skyrocketed globally.
Nowadays, vending machines sell everything from live
lobsters and fresh eggs to gold bars and works of art. So
how w ill vending machines change in the future? Some
will have touch screens th a t give customers
4 ) ............................................inform ation and some will read
customers' thum bprints and take the money
5 ) ........................................... out of their bank account.
They'll never lose a coin again!

Key word transform ations


Complete the gapped sentences so th a t they have a similar m eaning to the original ones. Use
tw o to five w ords including th e w ord given. Accurate spelling and gram m ar is required.

1 The dress cost less th a n I had expected. 4 M y mp3 player is n o t w o rk in g properly.


AS The dress ........................................ SOMETHING There's ..............................................
................................ I had expected ................................ my m p3 player.
2 Sarah plans on buying a new car this summer. 5 Responsible shopping does th e en viro n m e n t
GOING Sarah ................................................ good.
a new car th is sum m er FOR Responsible s h o p p in g ...................
3 The to p shelves are to o high fo r me to reach. ............................th e enviro nm ent.
ENOUGH I'm .....................................................
...............................th e to p shelves

44

Language in Use A

Phrasal verbs/Prepositions Word form ation


Choose th e correct particle. Fill in th e sentences w ith th e correct w o rd
derived from th e w o rd in brackets.
do up: 1) fasten (clothes), 2) decorate (a room, a building)
Forming verbs from nouns/adjectives
do sth over (again): repeat sth
drop by/in: visit a place/person We can form verbs from nouns and adjectives by adding
drop out: leave before the end (school, college) the prefix en- or the suffix -en: danger-endanger,
get across: make sb understand, communicate rich - enrich, length - lengthen, wide - widen.
get along (with someone): be friendly w ith someone
1 People o f t e n .................................................................
get ahead: do well in a career
the name Coca-Cola to ju s t Coke. (SHORT)
Exercise and eatin g h e a lth ily helps .....................
1 Sam dropped in /o u t o f his m arke ting course.
your body. (STRENGTH)
2 I've p u t on w e ig h t. I ca n 't do o ver/u p my jeans!
P le a se ............................................................. you have
3 They d o n 't g et along/across.
your receipt w hen retu rning fa u lty items. (SURE)
4 Can w e drop up/by th e superm arket on our
H ow much w ill it cost to ..........................................
w ay to Darren's house? We need some bread.
these photographs? (LARGE)
5 This essay is n 't good enough. I th in k you should
We m u s t .........................................................................
do it over/u p again.
consumers to shop responsibly. (COURAGE)
6 He c o u ld n 't g et th e message across/along.
Collocations
Fill in: fo, on, at, of, for, from. Fill in: m anual, medical, appliances, responsible,
high-heeled, advice, loyalty, sliding.
1 Shoppers o fte n buy products th a t are on the
sh e lv e s .....................eye level. d ie ta ry 5 ....................... shopper
2 Tracey always takes advantage ............................. ... shoes 6 ...............................card
special offers. ... doors 7 household ................
3 A m y exchanged th e d re s s ..................... a T-shirt. w o rke r 8 researcher
4 3D prin te rs are a lre a d y ...................th e m arket. Words often confused
5 It's unbelievable h o w m uch food goes ...............
w aste. Do or make? C o m plete th e phrases. Check in
6 This T-shirt is m ade .................. recycled m aterial. your diction aries.
7 Cheese is m a d e ..............................m ilk. 1 ................ research; 2 .................. sense; 3 ..................
th e shopping; 4 ..................sb feel hun gry; 5 ................
your best; 6 ..................an o ffe r; 7 ................. y o u r hair;
8 ................ you good; 9 .................. badly; 1 0 ..................
a mess; 1 1 an e ffo rt; 1 2 friends

M ark th e sentences T (tru e ) or F (false). Correct th e false sentences. Read th ro u g h


M o d u le 2 and w rite a quiz o f you r o w n .
Fabrican to o k 20 years to develop. 5 Products labelled 'fa irtra d e ' mean
An e-hom e runs on a n e tw o rk o f th e y have been made by children.
com puters. 6 Joanna Massey lives in a tim e capsule
Am ericans th ro w aw ay h a lf o f the 7 Coca-Cola was firs t sold as a
food Am erica produces. m edicine.
Levi Strauss used denim to design 8 Products are sold o ff a t reduced
trousers fo r teenagers. prices in ch arity shops.
[)) Revision 2 p. 128
Moscow's
FLEA MARKET

R e a d in g & L is te n in g

1 a) Look at th e picture and the


title o f the text. W h at do you
know about the place? W hat
w ould you like to know?
Think o f tw o questions.

b) Listen and read the text.


Does it answer your Izmaylovo Market is a famous open-air flea market located near the
lovely Izmaylovo Park in Moscow and is one of the citys top tourist
questions?
attractions.
The market covers an area of 3 km2 and is constructed on three
2 Read th e te x t and m ark th e levels. The ground floor has got many stalls selling folk art and
s tatem en ts T (tru e ), F (false) or souvenirs including a huge range of colourful matryoshka dolls and
A/S (n o t s ta te d ). Correct th e other traditional wooden carvings and is very popular with tourists.
Fur hats, linens, pottery, chess sets, toys and beautiful hand-made
false statem en ts.
rugs from the Caucasus and Central Asia can also be bought there.
1 Izm aylovo M arke t is the On the first floor of the market you can find a range of old and
largest ope n-a ir m arke t in second-hand products from cutlery or CDs to vintage cameras and
other odds and ends while the top level houses a number of antiques
Europe.
and artwork dealers. You can find just about everything Russian at
2 A lo t o f to u ris ts v is it the Izmaylovo Market and people say that prices on a lot of items are a lot
m arket. lower than in the city centre. There are also lots of food stalls serving
3 Products sold a t th e m arket fast food such as kebabs. Although the market is officially open every
te n d to be cheaper th a n in day from 9 am to 6 pm some sellers only come at the weekend so
Saturday and Sunday is the best time to visit if you are looking for a
th e centre o f M oscow.
bargain.
4 The fast fo o d sold at the
Izmaylovo Market is a great place to spend some time, have fun, and
m arket can be expensive.
listen to buskers performing on the stage-set medieval palace just
5 The w eekend is the best
inside the entrance. Its beautiful surroundings also make it a great
tim e to visit th e m arket. to go for a walk with friends on a sunny day in Moscow.

3 Find w ords in th e te x t th a t
m ean:

1 va rie ty .............................. C h eck th e s e w o rd s


2 a good deal ..............................
flea m arket, open-air, construct, level, cutlery, vintage,
3 fa v o u rite .............................. stall, officially, bargain, busker, m edieval, surroundings
4 highest ..............................
5 used ..............................
Use th e w ords in th e to present
6 stre e t m usician .............................. 4
Izm aylo vo M a rk e t to th e class.
7 very old ..............................
8 cheaper ..............................
Think o f an o th e r m arket in you r to w n . W rite a
parag raph describing it. Present it to th e class.
46

\
Vocabulary: com m unity action, members o f society,
/ w
. o rld problem s, raising awareness, space,
u
environm ental problem s
Grammar: m odals (revision), conditionals (type 0, 1,
2, 3), wishes, relative clauses, mixed conditionals
Everyday English: calling to make a d on ation to a
charity
Intonation: p o lite requests
Phrasal verbs: hand, hang, jo in
W ord form ation: prefixes used w ith nouns to form
nouns
W riting: an opinion essay
Culture Corner: G lastonbury Festival
Curricular (Geography): D eforestation
Russia 3: VITA is life

V o c a b u la r y
Community action
1 M atch th e phrases to th e
In pair th in k o f you r
pictures.
com m unity. W h a t could you do *
Q Listen and check, then say.
to m ake it b e tte r? Tell an o th e r
recycle old m aterials pair.
pick up litte r in your
If we b u ilt an a nim a l shelter, there
neighbourhood
w o uldn 't be stray anim als in the streets.
help the elderly
/ could a ls o .... j
donate to charities
Then.... A
look a fte r stray animals

2 Use th e vocabulary in Ex. 1 and


th e ideas b e lo w to m ake
sentences, as in th e exam p le.

have fo o d to eat
n o t so m uch rubbish
n e ig h b o u rh o o d /b e clean
help people in need
im prove th e ir q u a lity o f life

If we recycle old m aterials, there


w o n 't be so much rubbish.

m m

30NATION
BOX
Before you abuse, criticise and

a Life swap accuse, walk a mile in my shoes.


(American singer/songwriter Joe
South, 1969)

V o c a b u la r y
Members of society A day in the shoes of...
a) Q Listen and say.
fP
f
f

The c ity can be an u n frie n d ly p lace a t th e b est o f


tim e s . Im a g in e th e n , h o w it m ig h t fe e l fo r th e e ld e rly
o r th e hom eless - p e o p le w h o are o fte n m a rg in a lis e d
by th e re s t o f society. So to fin d o u t w h a t it's re a lly
lik e to be in so m eo n e else's shoes, tw o re p o rte rs w e n t
u n d erco ver, o n e as an e ig h ty -y e a r-o ld and a n o th e r as a
hom eless perso n . T he resu lts w e re e y e -o p e n in g !

.an elderly lady by Tracy Bond

Turning 25-year-old me into an 80-year-old was no easy task; with


the help of a make-up artist, I had to be covered with layers of
prosthetic make-up. After putting on a shabby coat and holding
tightly onto a walking stick, my transformation was complete - and
very convincing! Then it was time to set out to see how the world
would react.
Making sure that my voice sounded old and weak, I immediately tried
to make small talk on the bus with the young woman sitting next to
b) Q Listen to fo u r people me. She stared straight ahead. She might not have heard, I thought. I
ta lk in g . W hich group does tried again, but it was quite clear that the woman didnt want to talk
each belong to? to a chatty senior citizen. Then it was time for some shopping. At my
favourite make-up counter, where the assistant usually laughs and
jokes with me, she looked as if she couldnt wait to get rid of me.
Later, in a music shop, my request for some CDs was met with

2 | Choose one o f th e laughter from sales assistants who couldnt believe an 80-year-old
was interested in the latest chart hits! I felt incredibly embarrassed
m em bers o f society from Ex. 1a.
Say a fe w sentences a b o u t th e ir and lonely, as if nothing about me was important, except that I was
lifestyle. old! All day, only one person seemed to want to chat to me - a
homeless man, he too was invisible and unwanted by society.
R e a d in g & L is te n in g As I finally took my make-up off, I couldnt help wondering how I
would have treated 80-year-old me. Over the next 50 years, the
3 Look at the people in the pictures number of elderly people in society will triple. Remember that the
in the te x t. W h at can a typical next time youre out and about and come across an elderly person.
day in th eir lives be like? One day, it could be you!
Q Listen and read to fin d out.
48
V /

.a homeless mae by Sam Browne


Carrying a sleeping bag and wearing scruffy clothes, I headed for the spacious shop doorways
where the homeless spend their nights. When I arrived there, I was shocked to see men and
women already curled up in most of the doorways. I got into my sleeping bag in the large,
w ell-lit doorway of a boutique, but I couldnt sleep. It wasnt just the biting cold, but I was
constantly aware of people walking close to my head and the hard stone floor dug into my
shoulder and hip. I finally dozed off, only to be woken up at about 5 am by the cleaners who
arrived to wash the steps.
As I walked, people avoided looking at me and crossed the road. I walked into a cafe to use
the toilet and I was angrily told I had to leave. At the public toilets I couldnt believe the
reflection I saw in the mirror. My eyes were red and puffy, my skin pale and my hair was
frizzy. I looked terrible.
Later, at a soup kitchen, I got a free hot meal and I spoke to people who were on the streets
because of terrible debts or family break-ups. 19-year-old Rob told me that he couldnt get
off the streets because he had no official identity. I suddenly remembered how many
* .. times I had walked past young homeless people and thought, You should just get a
job! forgetting that you cant be employed without an address and ID.
My day as a homeless person has taught me how much the homeless need our
help, not our judgment. These days, I donate money to a homeless charity and
volunteer at a soup kitchen. Maybe you could do the same.

abuse, criticise, accuse, marginalised, go


undercover, eye-opening, prosthetic make-up,
shabby, w a lkin g stick, convincing, set out, make
small talk, chatty, senior citizen, get rid of,
embarrassed, invisible, scruffy clothes, curled up,
>4
dig into, doze o ff, p u ffy eyes, frizzy hair, debt,
fam ily break-up, ju dgm ent, donate

G ra m m a r see pp-
GR 8-9
4 Read again and com plete th e sentences w ith w o rd s/ Modals ( r e v is io n ) >
phrases from th e te x t. R e w rite th e sentences. Use:
1 Tracy changed her looks in order to ........................................ cant, should, must, could, m ustn't,
2 Sales assistants made her f e e l ................................................... d idn't have to. Find exam ples o f
3 A t th e end o f th e day she f e l t ................................................... m odal verbs in th e te x t.
4 Sam c o u ld n 't sleep w e ll on th e streets because .................. It's im possible fo r M ike to fin d a
5 Comm on reasons fo r homelessness a r e ..................................... jo b . M ike can't fin d a jo b.
6 The homeless o fte n ca n 't w o rk b e c a u s e ................................. Is it OK if w e go now ?
It w a s n 't necessary fo r Ian to go.
g Fill in: eye-opening, talk, senior citizen, invisible, frizzy, It's a good idea to help th e poor.
identification, debts, curled. It's fo rb id d e n to e n te r th e area.
It's your duty to inform John about it.
1 She has retire d from w o rk . She's a ( n ) ......................................
2 Living one day on th e streets can be a ( n ) ..............................
experience. 7 Ta^e r0^S* act 0ut an
in te rv ie w w ith th e people in
3 it seemed nob ody could see him , he was ..............................
th e texts.
4 W hile w a itin g fo r th e bus, he m ade s m a ll..............................
w ith th e person next to him. S p e a k in g & W r it in g
5 He ..................................................................up in his bed and slept 3 j T M T B l Imagine you spent a
6 The beggar's hair was dry a n d ........................................................ day as an unemployed person.
7 He c o u ld n 't pay o ff h i s .............................................................so he W rite a short account o f w h a t you
had to leave his fla t.
did, how people treated you, and
8 W ith o u t any o f f ic ia l...................................... you ca n 't g e t a jo b. how you felt. Tell the class.
49

Giving your time
V o c a b u la r y
World problems
a) Q Listen and say.

hom elessness
poverty illite ra c y

racism

hunger
1 ageing
population grow th P P lation

b) Are th ere any o f these problem s in


w o r th w h ile , p riv ile g e d , a ffe c tio n , s lu m , a p p a llin g ,
your country? If so, w h a t do you thin k v o lu n te e r g ro u p , h y g ie n e , lite ra c y , m a k e s h ift
can help th e situation? Tell your partner. s c h o o l, w e a lth y , b ro k e n h o m e , v io le n c e , b e g , s h in e
shoes, n e rv e -ra c k in g , tu r n u p , eager, d e s titu tio n ,
There is a high rate o f crim e in our country. I th in k we
shack, leak, re p u ta tio n , h o s t fa m ily , a d o p t,
need more police. This way the crime rate w ill drop. u n o ffic ia l, e y e -o p e n in g , m iss o u t

V h a t w o u ld you do if you had th re e m onths to do up to my first English lesson were really friendly and eager to
v h a te v e r you w a n te d ? M itch M cG regor spent his learn. They only got one meal a day of just rice and beans
hree m onths in Rio de Janeiro, B razil, w h e re he and at night they slept under bridges and in doorways, but
a u g h t English to homeless s tre e t children. He to ld these children saw learning English as a possible way out of
j s all a b o u t his life-changing experience. their lives of danger and destitution. As days went by, I got
used to the place. The roof of the little shack leaked when it
Most of my friends were travelling the world during their
rained and there wasnt a schedule or textbooks; still, the kids
summer holiday, but I wanted to do something worthwhile; I
trusted me and some of them made a lot of progress. During
wanted to volunteer, but where and how? At the age of 2 0 ,1
break times, we headed out into the tiny yard to kick a ball
would say Id had a privileged childhood. My parents had put
around and I found out why Brazilians have a reputation as
me through school, fed and clothed me, and given me plenty
the best football players! Then we cooked and ate together,
of love and affection. So, after reading about the favelas, the
but at the end of the day when they left to go b a ck... where?
slums of Brazil, where thousands of street children live in
... I often wondered whether I would ever see them again.
appalling poverty and often dont even reach the age of 1 8 ,1
decided that Id spend part of my summer helping these The host family that I stayed with was marvellous. They
adopted me as an unofficial Carioca , which is the name for
children in whatever way I could.
I set off for Rio de Janeiro where I would join a volunteer someone who was bom and lives in Rio de Janeiro. It was
group that taught basic skills such as hygiene, literacy, the school, though, that made my time in Brazil truly special.
English, and business skills in a makeshift school in the heart Even though I was the teacher, the street children taught me a
lot more. I learnt that no matter how bad conditions are, there
of the favelas. The residents of these slums, which stretch up
is always hope for the future. My time in Brazil was eye-
the hillsides around and away from the wealthier city centre,
make up about one fifth of the population of Rio de Janeiro. opening. If I hadnt gone, I would have missed out on the
experience of a lifetime. If I could do it all again, Id jump on a
The poverty leads to many broken homes and, if they
experience violence at home or their families cant look after plane right now!
them anymore, children end up on the streets. Those who
cant survive by begging, selling newspapers, or shining " R e a d in g
shoes, often turn to crime to survive. I was going to work in a
school which gave those kids a basic education. Read th e title o f th e te x t, th e in tro d u ctio n ,
My first day at school was really nerve-racking. Id never and th e firs t sentence o f each parag raph.
taught before, I only knew a few words of Portuguese and I W h a t do you th in k M itch's experience w as
just didnt know what to expect. The ten children who turned
like?
Q Listen and read to fin d o u t.
50
i

Read th e t e x t a g a in a n d fo r q u e s tio n s 1-4, Put th e verbs in brackets in to th e correct
choo se th e b e s t a n s w e r , , C, o r D. J u s tify tense. Say w h a t ty p e co n d itio n al each
y o u r a n sw e rs. sentence is.

1 M itch chose to vo lu n te e r in order to 1 If I ...........................................(w in ) a lot o f money,


A m ake his parents proud. I'd donate it to charity.
do th e same as his friends. 2 If Sarah ...................................... (learn) Portuguese,
help those less fo rtu n a te than him self. she would have enjoyed her stay in Brazil more.
D fo rg e t his ow n problem s. 3 W hen ch ild ren .......................................... (n o t/h a ve)
loving homes, they develop emotional problems.
2 The favelas are a poor area
4 If it rains tom orrow, we ............................................
A close to c ity centre.
(n o t/p la y ) football.
five tim es larger than th e urban centre.
5 If I ....................................(be) you, I w ouldn't do it.
w h ere fo u r fifth s are unem ployed.
. pp.
D situ a te d on a m o u n ta in to p . W ishes g r 9-
> .....
3 M itch's jo b was d iffic u lt because Read th e exam ples. W hich sentence refers
A m any kids d id n 't come to class. to th e present? past?
he had to cook as w e ll as teach. I wish I was/were in Rio. (I w ant to go to Rio)
it w a s n 't easy fo r th e kids to learn. I wish I had gone to Rio. (but I didn't go)
D he only had basic facilities.
0 W h a t could each person w ish for?
4 M itch's host fa m ily
A w a n te d him to stay in Rio. 1 Pete wants to travel abroad, but he doesn't have
tre a te d him like a native. enough money. I wish I had enough money.
gave him Portuguese lessons. 2 Kate didn't get into college because she hadn't
D have in vite d him back to Brazil. studied enough.
3 She doesn't have any friends; she feels lonely.
4 Fill in : poverty, host, eye, make, shine,
4 Bob wanted to go to the party, but he was ill.
privileged, basic, broken, truly, makeshift, eager,
5 He didn't get the job because he doesn't speak
experience. C hoose fiv e o f th e phrases and
Spanish.
m ake se n te n ce s a b o u t M itc h .
S p e a k in g & W r it in g
1 ..........................child h o o d ; 2 to live i n ........................ ;
3 .....................skills; 4 ..................... school; 5 ..................... g C o m plete th e sentences.
homes; 6 t o .....................shoes; 7 to b e ..........................
1 If I w ere M it c h , ........................
to learn; 8 ...................progress; 9 .......................fam ily;
2 If M itch h a d n 't gone to Rio,
1 0 ...........................special; 1 1 ......................-opening;
3 If m ore people volunteer, ....
1 2 .................................... o f a life tim e
4 I w ish I w e r e .............................
G ra m m a r see 5 I w ish I had e x p e rie n c e d ......................................

Conditionals Type 0-3 > GR9


*1 0 Imagine you are Mitch in Rio.
Read th e e x a m p le s . H o w d o w e fo rm each
a) Use the inform ation in the te x t
ty p e ? Find m o re e x a m p le s in th e te x t.
to call your fam ily and talk to them
When/If there is war, innocent people die. (Type 0) about your experience.
Ifyou do volunteer work, you'll help those in need. (Type 1) b) W rite a le tte r to your fam ily about your
Ifhehadajob, hewouldearn money, (but he doesn't - Type 2) experience there. W rite about: the place,
If I were you, I'd volunteer for a charity. (Type 2 - advice)
the school & the children you teach, the host
If he had known, he would have helped, (but he didn't Type 3)
_______________________ family, your feelings. Read your le tte r to
the class.
( ) Vocabulary Bank 3 pp. VB12 V B 1 3 ) 5 1
t
Culture Comer
W h a t do you kn o w a b o u t th e G laston bury Festival?
Read again and m atch
H o w are these nam es relate d to it: Vale o f Avalon,
th e headings w ith th e
A rcadia, Glasto, The A rctic M onkeys, O x fa m l
paragraphs. There is
Q Listen and read to find o u t.
one e x tra heading.
Justify yo u r answ ers.

|| [i [ ! A A ttra c tin g Big Names


M aking People Famous
In tro d u cin g G lasto!
D Serving a Deeper Purpose
E Spoiled fo r Choice
i f you follow the signs for Worthy Dairy Farm in Pilton,
I Somerset, youll find the place where a music festival was first held
f in 1970, over 40 years ago! Now Glastonbury Festival is one of the 2 Fill in: perform ing, loyal, music,
largest, most popular greenfield music and performing arts festivals solstice, raise, pitch, stands, live,
in the world, raising thousands of pounds for charity and attracting
muddy, a ttract, spiritual,
150,000 or more people to see over 700 live performances every
year! The organisers of Glastonbury have always considered it to be a vegetarian. Use th e com pleted
special, mystical place; it takes place on a weekend in June around the phrases to m ake sentences
time of the summer solstice, in the Vale of Avalon, a part of southwest a b o u t th e fe s tiv a l.
England famous for its legends, mythology, and spiritual traditions.
1 festival
I The organisers compare a visit to Glastonbury to a visit to a new
2 ............................. arts festival
country! First things first; you pitch your tent in a huge (usually very
3 m oney fo r charity
muddy) field, or you rent a teepee. Then its time to explore the huge, 900-
acre site with nearly 20 different unique areas, each with their special 4 people
attractions and loyal fans. Wander over to the Green Fields and you can 5 sum m er ..................................
get a massage and enjoy vegetarian food for free. Then theres Arcadia 6 ................................. tra d itio n s
and its amazing fire shows, the Campo Pequeno, a huge amphitheatre 7 ......................................a te n t
with Mexican wrestling and Glastos very own La Tomatina , which i s ... 8 ........................................... fans
a huge tomato fight! Everywhere, there are food stands, performers,
9 ........................................... food
dance areas, and music performances. If in doubt, the organisers say, just
wander around because Glastonbury is full of surprises. 10 fo o d ........................................
The most familiar view at Glasto is the huge, steel Pyramid 11 perform ances
Stage where top musicians including U2, Shakira, Kylie Minogue, and 12 ........................................... fie ld
The Arctic Monkeys have played. The festival organisers modelled it
after the Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt, choosing a pyramid shape to
ICT Find in fo rm ation
attract the energy of the sun and stars!
abo ut an interesting festival
G la s to n b u r y isnt just famous for music and mud! Its also
in your country. Find out:
about promoting green issues, humanitarianism, and freedom of
expression, principles which the festival organisers have never left name, place/tim e, purpose,
behind. Glastonbury supports many charities including WaterAid, w hat you can do there.
Oxfam, and Greenpeace. Festival-goers are also encouraged to recycle , W rite a short te x t about
and leave the site as tidy as possible, respecting the land and helping it j L it. Read it to th e class.
to recover... until the next Glastonbury weekend!

perform ing arts, mystical, summer solstice, legend,


spiritual trad ition, muddy, teepee, loyal, fan,
massage, am phitheatre, if in doubt, wander, familiar,
pyramid, stage, prom ote, hum anitarianism, freedom
o f expression, principles, respect, recover
Everyday English _ J |
Making a donation to charity
Q Listen and say.

H ow can I help you?


I'd like to m ake a d o n a tio n . m
W ould you like to make a single d o n a tio n or We are passionate about ^
a regular m o n th ly don ation? protecting the Earth!
-
That's w o n d e rfu l!
Just 5 a month could help us take
Could I g e t yo u r fu ll name and address,
action against plantation owners
please?
who are destroying the rainforest!
Could you give me yo u r cre d it or d e b it card H -
num ber, please? Donate by post, online,
And w h a t's th e expiry date? or call 0800-722-6995
Thank you so m uch fo r yo u r d o n a tio n .
Y ou're very w elcom e. Find sentences in th e d ialo g u e w hich m e a n f
What can I do fo r you? - 1w ant to give some
The sentences above are from a d ialogue money. - Great! - When does the card expire?
b e tw e e n a rep re s e n ta tiv e w o rk in g fo r a
charity and a caller. W hich sentences do th e Intonation: polite requests
re p /calle r say? Q Listen and rep ea t. Pay a tte n tio n to th e
Q Listen, read, and check. in to n a tio n .

Rep: Hello, W aterA id. H ow can I help you? H ow can I help you?
John: Hi. I've been reading one o f yo u r leaflets M ay I speak to M r Brow n, please?
and I'd like to m ake a d o n a tio n to W ould you like to leave a message?
W aterA id, please. I'd like to m ake a d o n a tio n , please.
Rep: OK, th a t's great. W ould you like to make Could you give me yo u r name and address?
a single d o n a tio n or a regular m o n th ly Could you ask Mrs Sm ith to call me back,
don ation? please?
John: I'd like to m ake a regular d o n a tio n o f 10
per m o nth, please. Speaking
Rep: That's w o n d e rfu l! Could I g e t yo u r fu ll You've read th e le a fle t above and
nam e and address, please? you w a n t to m ake a d o n a tio n . Act o u t you r
John: Sure, it's John S taffo rd. That's S-T-A-F-F- dialo g u e. Follow th e plan.
O-R-D. M y address is 20, Dell C ourt,
Charing Cross, London.
Rep: And a co n ta ct num ber? G reet & ask h o w you^- ^ S a y w h y yo u 're
John: 020-7730-1024. can help. / calling.
Rep: Could you give me yo u r cre d it or d e b it Ask w h a t kind o f -^yR eply.
card num ber, please? d o n a tio n w a n ts to
John C ertainly. It's 7654 3234 9456 3225. m ake.
Rep And w h a t's th e expiry date? Respond & ask fo r B's f - -*y G iv e yo u r
John It's June next year. nam e & address. / nam e/address.
Rep OK, th a t's all, M r S taffo rd. Thank you so Ask fo r B's phone - 4 d iv e yo u r phone
much fo r yo u r d o n a tio n . num ber. num ber.
John: You're very w elcom e. G oodbye. Ask fo r B's p a y m e n tX --..*vG ive details.
Rep: G oodbye and th a n k you again. details. -
T h a n kB . -^ R e s p o n d .
53
s V o c a b u la r y
8 D
Raising awareness

(
|
*| Listen and say.

1 raise funds by organising a


| m usic fe stiva l o r an a rt
contest
2 jo in a conse rva tion/
en viro n m e n ta l group
3 s ta rt a blog cam paign
4 organise a slide show o r a
lecture
5 create in fo rm a tiv e w in d o w
displays and posters
6 m ake a video and upload it to
YouTube
7 w a lk th ro u g h th e Am azon
R ainforest

R e a d in g & L is te n in g
2 Look a t th e p icture in th e
te x t. W hich o f th e activities
in Ex. 1 do you th in k this
m an has done to help save
th e rain fo rest? i
Q Listen and read to find out. |
C h eck th e s e w o rd s

en tire length, face terrifyin g hazards, source, trickle, gather,


electric eel, drug sm uggler, m alaria, hostile tribes, sh arp -to o th ed Fill in: who, which, where, whose.
caim an crocodile, tru e inspiration, fo rm e r arm y captain, jung le Put commas w h e re necessary.
exp ed itio n , d efo res ta tio n , raise public aw areness, grab a tte n tio n ,
set o ff, hair-raising m om ents, p it viper, sw arm o f wasps, inject 1 Tropical rainforests .........................
w ith antibiotics, forest w orker, d ra w a bow , reach a destination, cover a b o u t 7% o f th e Earth's
collapse w ith exhaustion, n atu ral w onder, conserve, a t all costs surface are hom e to m any anim al
and p la n t species.
Read th e te x t again. Five sentences are m issing. M atch 2 The p la n t s ...........................................
g ro w in rainforests are used to
th e sentences (A-F) to th e gaps (1-5 ). There is one extra
m anufacture 25% o f W estern
sentence. Com pare w ith you r partner. Justify your
m edicines.
answ ers.
3 Peter ............................... fa th e r is a
A He co n sta n tly strug gled to stay healthy. doctor joined a conservation group.
Crossing under or over fallen trees, w ading th ro u g h m ud, and 4 Ed S tafford is th e man ...................
w a lkin g th ro ugh razor-sharp grass made progress painfully w a lked th ro u g h th e rainforest.
slow, b u t Ed never considered giving up. 5 The m a n ............................... fell in to
But, som ehow , Ed fin a lly m ade it. the river was saved by the villagers.
European explorers sailed it in th e 16th century, b u t no one 6 Frequent rainfall characterises the
was brave enough to w a lk it. a re a s ...................................... tropical
Ed nearly gave up. rainforests exist.
Firstly, Ed w a n te d to prove th a t this w a lk was possible,
sim ply because everyone said it c o u ld n 't be done! Use th e te x t to m ake sentences
abo ut th e fo llo w in g using who,
M atch th e h ig h lig h te d w ords w ith th e ir m eanings which, where, o r whose.
b elow . W h a t p a rt o f speech is each w ord?
Ed S taffo rd GPS
very angry frig h te n in g dangers sm all flo w Am azon Rainforest
dangerous and thre ate ning a ttra c t interest quickly A m erind ian trib e p it vip er
very painful persuade to n o t do sth p ro te ct Ed and Gadiel's guide Ed's
area w h o le w a lk in g th ro u g h w a te r/a s o ft substance jo u rn e y A tla n tic coast o f Brazil
strangers
Ed Stafford is the man w ho walked the
G ra m m a r see entire length o f the Amazon River.
p. GR 10:
Relative clauses >
S p e a k in g & W r it in g
Read th e exam ples. W hich re la tiv e prono uns/adverb s
are for: people? places? th in g s ? possession? Find
exam ples in th e te x t.
8 Im agine you
are Ed S taffo rd and your
* " p a rtn e r is a jo u rn a lis t. You've
The rainforest where Ed's expedition took place is the largest in the world.
ju st finished you r journey.
Rainforests, which are home to many species, are in danger.
Prepare questions and answ ers
Ed, who was a former army captain, walked through the rainforest.
fo r a radio in te rv ie w . Act o u t
Ed, whose partner left him, continued hisjourney on his own.
D efining relative clauses are essential to th e m eaning o f th e sentence
you r in te rv ie w .
and are n o t p u t b etw e en com m as. People who/that destroy rainforests should
be sent to prison. N o n -d e fin in g relative clauses give extra in fo rm a tio n n o t
Prepare
essential to th e m eaning o f th e sentences and are b etw e en com m as.
a slide show or a lecture to
Gadiel, who was a forest worker, joined Ed on hisjourney.
raise aw areness
rainforests.
f]
J l i l j / L /
V o c a b u la r y
Space
Say the names o f the planets in
our solar system. Listen and Future or Fantasy?
check. Since Neil Armstrong stepped foot on the Moon on 20th July, 1969 and declared
One small step for man, one giant leap for mankind, people have been dreaming
about creating futuristic communities in space. Science-fiction films such as 2001: A
R e a d in g
Space Odyssey and Star Wars have filled our minds with images of spacecraft
Read the title o f the text and the travelling at the speed of light to colonies on other planets in other solar system. Until
quote. W hat could the problems now, these ideas have just been fantasy, but now leading scientists such as Stephen
of space colonisation be? How Hawking say that colonising space is the only answer for the future survival of
could these problems be solved? mankind otherwise we will die out. 1 But is space colonisation really possible?
One solution would be for us to move to space stations orbiting near Earth. After
Read to find out.
all, astronauts have already been living on NASAs International Space Station
(ISS) continuously since 2000. The ISS gets its power from solar panels, it
I dont think the human race generates its own oxygen and even recycles water, but theres still a huge
will survive the next 1,000 years problem; all of its food and other supplies have to be sent from Earth.
unless we spread into space. So maybe colonising the Moon would be a better solution! The Moon
Stephen Hawking, has rich resources which could be used to construct a colony. Also, in 2009,
English physicist & cosmologist scientists found water on the moon, which could be used to extract oxygen for
breathing. I 3 | | There is no atmosphere on the Moon and it is boiling hot
during 13 days of sunlight and then freezing cold during 13 days of darkness. So
any human colony there would have to live in a huge indoor biosphere*.
Mars would be another option, but the problems there would be similar to those on
the moon. Scientists have suggested creating a more Earth-like atmosphere there by
releasing carbon dioxide and warming it up, but this could take about 1,000 years!
Stephen Hawking believes that the best solution is to look for Earth-like planets
to colonise. If only 1% of the 1,000 or so stars within 30 light years of Earth had
an Earth-sized rocky planet in just the right place for life, there would still be 10
planets for colonisation in our neighbourhood, Hawking said. However, even if
we found the perfect planet, we wouldnt be able to get there at the moment!
Travelling on Voyager 1, the fastest spacecraft weve ever sent into space, it HP
would take over 700,000 years to get to Alpha Centauri, the closest star system.
Hawking, though, believes that new technologies could soon help us to travel
just below the speed of light, reaching the next star to Earth in only 6 years.
If we had endless amounts of money for space exploration, we would have
*f j already overcome these problems and built the first space colonies. The fact is, it
costs about 6,000 to put half a kilo of anything into near-Earth orbit. 4 |
Just imagine - if people hadnt given Columbus money for his voyage to America
in 1492, NASA probably wouldnt even exist today!
So, although there are many challenges to overcome, Professor Hawking still
believes it will only be a matter of time before we are living in space.
What do you think? Is space truly the final frontier?
* an environment that supports life

spread, colonisation, leap, m ankind, futu ristic com m unity, orbit,


solar panel, generate, supplies, resources, construct, colony, extract,
atm osphere, carbon dioxide, w arm sth up, endless, exploration,
overcome, final frontier, self-sufficient, centuries, m illenia, afford,
harsh, w ip e out, catastrophe, meteor, nuclear w ar
1' :
4
see
G r a m m a r p GR1
Mixed conditionals
For each gap 1-5, choose from th e sentences Study th e ta b le . Find exam ples in th e te x t.
A-F th e one th a t best fits each gap. One
sentence is extra. Compare w ith your IF-CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSE
partner. Justify your answers. (type 2) If we had the (type 3) we would have

A Humans w o u ld need to be se lf-su fficie n t to technology to travel faster, colonised other planets by

survive in space lo ng-term . (b u t w e h a ve n 't) now. (w e h aven 't)


The only question is w h e th e r th is happens in (type 3) If Tim had studied (type 2) he w ould be a doctor
years, centuries or m illennia. Medicine, (b u t he d id n 't) now. (he isn't)
Exploring space, how ever, is n o t w ith o u t risk.
R e w rite th e sentences using m ixed
D Nevertheless, Professor H aw king believes th a t
con ditionals, as in th e exam p le.
w e can a ffo rd to give 0.25% o f th e w o rld 's
finan cial resources to colonise space. A n gie d o e sn 't like science-fiction film s, so she
E Life there w o u ld be very harsh, th o u g h . d id n 't go to th e cinem a w ith th e others. If
F He believes th a t sooner or la te r w e w ill be Angie liked science-fiction films, she w ould have
w ip e d o u t by a catastrophe such as a m eteor gone to the cinema w ith the others.
or nuclear war. Sam do e sn 't have good eyesight, so he w a sn 't
accepted on th e a stro n a u t tra in in g program m e.
M ark d id n 't hand in his project, so he w o n 't
pass th e astro nom y course.
Fill in: self-sufficient, harsh, warm up, afford, Greg was stu d yin g all n ig h t, so he's tire d now.
release. He ca n 't a ffo rd it, so he hasn't applied to study
Jupiter's m oons have v e r y clim ates w ith abroad.
ice fields, storm s and acid rain, so it w o u ld be Janet is in terested in astronom y, so she visited
im possible to live there. th e p lanetarium yesterday.
The ISS i s n 't because it ca n 't produce
or m ake e ve rythin g th a t it needs. S p e a k in g & W r it in g
C lim ate change could .................. th e Earth by
3C by 2100.
8 w Listen and read th e article in Ex. 3
again, th en te ll you r p a rtn e r th ree reasons
Power stations .................. carbon dioxid e and
w h y colonising space is d iffic u lt.
o th e r greenhouse gases in to th e atm osphere.
O nly th e w o rld 's richest can .............. to be a Colonising space is d iffic u lt because colonies w ould
space to u ris t; it costs a b o u t $20 m illio n ! have to be self-sufficient.

0 ili ^ Close yo u r eyes and im agine


Choose th e correct w ords. Check in your yo u 're in a spacecraft. W h a t are you doing
dictionaries. and w h a t can you see and hear? H o w do
you feel? Tell your partner.
1 Supplies/Resources such as food and equipm ent
are sent to the ISS from Earth. I'm wearing a spacesuit and I'm flo a tin g around in the
2 H aw king believes w e can pass/overcom e all spacecraft. O ut o f the w indow I can see s ta rs ...
th e problem s and colonise space.
3 Some scientists believe a huge asteroid or Q W ould you like to live in a
com et could e x tra c t/w ip e o u t life on Earth. space colony? W h y /W h y not? In a fe w
4 There are m any o p tio n s fo r colonising space; m inutes, w rite a fe w sentences on this
th e possibilities are endless/continuous. topic. Read you r sentences to th e class.
(!) Vocabulary Bank i p. VB14) 5 7
2 rubbish

V o c a b u la r y
Environmental problems
a) Q Listen and say.
b) M atch th e problem s (1-6) to th e ir
solutions (A-F). W hich problem s
are th e m ost serious in you r country?

A We should all ride bicycles instead o f using cars.


We should recycle a t hom e and try to reuse things.
J W e m ust fin d new sources o f renew able energy. L is te n in g
] We should stop c u ttin g d ow n trees.
Predicting content
] M anufacturers should be responsible fo r disposing o f old
electronic equipm ent. a) Q You're going to listen to
M a tt ta lk in g a b o u t an
] We should use non-chem ical biodegradable detergents.
e n viro n m en tal project. Read
S p e a k in g th e sentence stems (1-4)
Expressing your opinion and th e possible endings.
W h a t problem is th e
a) Read th e ta b le and th e exam p le. dialogue about?
Expressing your opinion
M a tt g re w up in
In my o p in io n , ... I (tru ly) th in k /b e lie v e t h a t ...
A a big city. the country.
To my m ind, ... The w ay I see it, ...
Lynton.
Agreeing Disagreeing
I (to ta lly ) agree w ith you. I (co m ple tely) disagree.
He started the tre e -p la n tin g
Y ou're (com pletely) rig h t. Also, ... But d o n 't you th in k ...?
proje ct because he w a n te d to
Yes, I th in k th a t to o . On th e o th e r hand, ...
A do some v o lu n te e r w o rk.
I agree to a certa in e xte n t, b u t ... I d o n 't really agree w ith you because ...
bring the co m m u nity together.
make his area lo ok better.
We should all ride bicycles instead o f using cars, (reduce air
The com m u nity's reaction to the
pollution, cheap way o f com muting, exercise; BUT slow, im practical for
proje ct was
the elderly, long journeys)
A enthusiastic. slow.
A: In my opinion, we should a ll ride bicycles because this w ould help
unexpected.
reduce a ir p ollution. It's a cheap way o f com m uting and exercising,
too. N ow M a tt hopes to
: I agree to a certain extent, but don 't you think th a t bicycles w ould A set up a w e bsite.
be too slow and also im practical for the elderly to use? Also, for organise various co m m u n ity
long journeys, you need a car. activities.
see m ore trees planted.
b) Think o f ideas fo r and against solution in
Ex. 1b. Use you r ideas and th e phrases fo r b) Q Do th e task. Justify your
expressing opinion to discuss th e topic. answ ers.
58
i
Curricular: Geography ^ 9

Read th e title and subheadings


in th e te x t. Can you an sw er any
o f these questions? WHAT IS DEFORESTATION?
Q Listen and read th e te x t and Deforestation occurs when people cut down whole forests of trees. Tropical
rainforests are particularly under threat. Two thirds of the lowland tropical
check.
rainforests in Central America, for instance, have been turned into land for
grazing since 1950.
2 Read again and com plete th e W hy is it h a p p e n in g ?
sentences in you r n o teb o o k. Small farmers cut down a few acres of trees in order to grow crops or let their
animals graze. They clear them in a process called slash and burn.
1 In 100 years, there m ig h t n o t be Loggers also cut down a lot of trees for wood and paper products and urban
a n y .... developers turn areas of forest into mines, new roads, homes, or factories.
2 Farmers burn dow n forests Natural factors such as wildfires sometimes contribute to deforestation, too.
because th e y w a n t to .... W hy is it s u ch a p ro b le m ?
3 M any plants useful fo r m aking Deforestation is a major threat to the delicate ecosystem of our planet.
Basically, it destroys the homes of animal and plant species and many of
... are o n ly fo u n d in rainforests. them die out including many unique species that could be used to make
4 Greenhouse gases increase if .... medicines for some of the worlds worst diseases. More than two thirds of all
5 W e should try n o t to eat m eat th a t medicines with cancer-fighting properties, for example, come from rainforest
plants. Also, trees absorb harmful greenhouse gases. When forests are cut
down or burnt, most of these gases stay in the Earths atmosphere, which
Replace th e h ig h lig h te d w ords speeds up global warming. In fact, in the next 24 hours, deforestation will be
w ith th e w ords in bold from responsible for the release of as much C 02 into the atmosphere as that from
as many flights as it takes to carry 8 million people from London to New
York!

ill
H o w c a n w e h e lp to fig h t d e fo re s ta tio n ?
Take part in tree-planting days to replace some of the lost trees.
1 Rainforests accom m odate animals Recycle paper and buy recycled paper products such as notepads.
such as raccoons, g ia n t salam anders Eat less meat or at least check where it has come from. If its \
and m ountain beavers. from rainforest areas, its likely that rainforests were cut down in
order to raise cattle.
2 Plants set free oxygen in to the
Encourage your family, friends, and neighbours to think about
atm osphere d u rin g photosynthesis. the rainforests too by telling them all about the issue and how
3 Rainforests are in danger. they can help.
4 Coral reefs are very easy to damage. Support charities and companies that support rainforest
5 M ost o f the plants take in dam aging protection by donating money and buying wood products like
furniture made from sustainable forests*.
gases.
*forests grown for commercial use
6 Sheep and cows eat the grass and
plants in th e field. R A IN FO R ES TS: FAST FACTS The

Tropic? f f i S S n 2>The c o " 90'


T H IN K ;! \ Im agin e plants and 9 < ; East Asia 4) New Guinea. 5) Madagascar.
*?<
trees could ta lk . W h a t could
th e y te ll us ab o u t s l n d due to deforestation. If this rate c o the
d e fo re s ta tio n ? In th ree m inutes, wor|tfs - n . o r e s . s - ,an and anima,
w rite a fe w sentences. Tell your Raln .,MH species become e ^ ^ ^
p a rtn e r or th e class.

C heck th e s e w o rd s
ICT Find o u t m ore
tropical rainforest, tu rn into, slash and burn, logger, urban
in fo rm a tio n a b o u t d e fo re s ta tio n .
developer, mine, contribute, m ajor threat, ecosystem, including,
Use th e key w ord: d e fo re s ta tio n . die out, unique species, disease, cancer-fighting properties, gpg?
Tell th e class. greenhouse gas, global w arm ing, sustainable, commercial


Writing
An opinion essay

An opinion essay is a form al piece o f w ritin g in


w hich w e present our personal opinion on a topic
and support it w ith reasons and examples. An | F The num ber o f private vehicles on our roads is
opinion essay consists of: constantly increasing and causing serious
an introduction in which w e introduce the environm ental problems. In my opinion, banning all
topic and clearly state our opinion; private transport in our tow ns and cities could be a
a main body consisting o f three paragraphs. good idea, as it w o uld reduce pollution levels and
The first tw o present separate view points, therefore im prove our quality o f life.
Firstly, our cities w o uld be far healthier w ith o u t
each supported by reasons/examples, and the
constant streams o f traffic. For example, few er
th ird paragraph presents the opposing
cars and motorcycles w ould vastly im prove air quality;
vie w p o in t supported by reasons/examples.
and harm ful gases th a t contribute to global w arm ing
Each paragraph starts w ith a topic sentence
w ould be greatly reduced. Also, public transport
w hich summarises the main idea o f the
systems w ould im prove and everyone w ould get to
paragraph; their destinations much faster.
a conclusion, in which w e restate our opinion ! Moreover, w e w o uld be safer. M ore people w ould
in diffe re n t words. choose to w alk or cycle to w o rk or school. As a
We norm ally use present tenses. We link our ideas result, there w ould be few er road accidents.
w ith appropriate linking words. On the other hand, some people argue th a t a
Adding more points: Moreover, Furthermore, Also, to ta l ban on private transport restricts people's
Apart from this, In addition. rights and freedom . Rather than a ban, they simply
Listing points: To begin with, Firstly, In the first place, suggest encouraging the public to use buses and trains
Secondly, Last, etc more, by making them cheaper to ride and more
Introducing opposing viewpoints: On the other accessible.
All in all, after public transport is im proved, I feel
hand, Although, However, etc
th a t a ban on private transport could be an
Introducing examples/reasons: For
effective way to create better tow ns and cities. People
example/instance, Such as, Therefore, In particular, etc
could com m ute more efficiently in a cleaner
Expressing results: As a result, Consequently, So, As a
environm ent.
consequence, etc
Concluding: To sum up, All things considered, Taking
everything into account, etc
To express our opinion w e use phrases such as: / 1 Read th e rubric. U n derline th e key w ords
believe, In my opinion, I think, It seems tom e that, To and answ er th e questions.
my mind, I strongly disagree with, I am totally against, I
completely agree with, etc I You have had a class discussion ab o u t the
We do not use colloquial expressions, everyday fo llo w in g statem ent: "Allprivate transport such 1
language, short verb form s or chatty personal I as cars and motorcycles should be banned in c itie s ,
i to help protect the environment." N ow your I
language. We use formal expressions, longer
teacher has asked you to w rite an essay
sentences, full verb forms and formal linking
I giving your opinion and reasons to supp ort i
words.
1 your views. i
We can also find this type o f w ritin g in the form
o f an article in newspapers, magazines, etc. 1 W ho is g oing to read your essay?
2 W ill you use co lloq uial expressions and short
verb form s? W hy? W hy not?
3 W hat is your opinion on the topic? Give reasons.



Use phrases fro m th e W ritin g T ip to express
y o u r o p in io n on th e fo llo w in g . Use th e
ideas b e lo w .

w e /h e lp th e elderly - q u a lity o f life im prove


I strongly believe th a t we should help the elderly. If
we do so, their qua lity o f life w ill improve.
Read the essay and match the paragraphs w e /d o n a te to charities help those in need to
(1-5) to the headings A-E below.
have decent lives
A restate o p inio n 3 w e/recycle w aste m aterial - conserve our
second v ie w p o in t & reasons/exam ples na tu ra l resources
state to p ic & o p inio n 4 w e /jo in in clean-up days -> cities look b e tte r
D firs t v ie w p o in t & reasons/exam ples
6 a) Read th e essay to p ic and th e
E opposing v ie w p o in t & reasons/exam ples
v ie w p o in ts (1-3).
b) Answ er th e questions.
"It should be m andatory for all young people to
1 W h a t is th e w rite r's opinio n? volunteer to help protect the environment."
2 W h a t v ie w p o in ts and reasons/exam ples does he
1 This w o rk w o u ld b e n e fit young people in the
use to su p p o rt his opinio n?
3 W h a t is th e opposing vie w p o in t? fu tu re .
2 It is u n fa ir to force youn g people to give up
a) Read th e essay again. W hich o f the th e ir free tim e.
linking w ords in bold: 3 Young people c o n trib u te to e nviro nm ental
in tro d u ce an opinio n? problem s and should th e re fo re help solve them .
list points?
b) Q L iste n to B ill and T ina ta lk in g a b o u t
add m ore points?
th e to p ic . W h a t re a s o n s /e x a m p le s do
show results?
th e y g iv e to s u p p o rt th e v ie w p o in ts ?
in tro d u ce an opp osite v ie w p o in t?
in tro d u ce examples? 1 Use ideas fro m Ex. 6 a n d th e p la n to w r ite
conclude? y o u r essay (120-180 w o rd s ). Use phrases
fro m th e Useful Language box.
b) Replace the words in bold in the essay
w ith: In addition, Consequently, To start with,
Planj
For instance, In conclusion, In my view, However,
Para 1: state the topic, give your opinion (Our
Secondly. Check w ith your partner.
Earth is threatened by... I feel that all young
people should...)
Topic/Supporting sentences Paras 2 & 3: present viewpoints & support them with
reasons/examples (Firstly,... For example,...)
4 Read th e topic sentences. Use th e phrases Pa ra 4: present the opposite viewpoint with reasons/
to w rite sup porting sentences. examples (On the other hand,... It would be...)
Para 5: restate your opinion in other words (Allin
1 On th e o th e r hand, some people believe th a t all, I believe...)
space e xp lo ra tio n is very im p o rta n t.
help resolve Earth's o ve rp o p u la tio n U seful lan guag e
fin d natural resources
In the first place ... ; Furthermore, it is essential ... ;
2 Riding bicycles instead o f cars helps improve city life.
On the other hand, it can be argued ... ; All things
reduce air p o llu tio n considered it seems to me that ... ; For example ... ;
good fo rm o f exercise M oreover...; As a result, we .....................
[)) W riting Bank: Opinion essays) 6 1


R e a d in g ]
(T/F/NS statements)
a) Read th e rubric and
W m
th en read th e te x t
th ro u g h once quickly.
W h a t is it about?

I You are going to read a te x t about When we talk about endangered species, we might mention the sea
>
shark conservationist, Rob Stewart. turtle or the giant panda or maybe even the Asian elephant, but we
I Choose w hich o f the statem ents (1-6) rarely consider the shark. That's not surprising when we see sharks in
I are T (true), F (false) or NS (not stated). films, TV series and books portrayed as man-eating predators. In fact, the
shark population has dropped over the last 30 years by 90%, mainly
because of illegal fishing. Sharks may be at the top of the food chain,
but they have a vital role in maintaining the ecosystem. When their
numbers decrease, it disturbs the natural balance of the oceans.
True/False/N ot stated One man, Rob Stewart, has dedicated himself to raising awareness
Read the statem ents and underline about sharks, whose bad reputation is, he believes, completely
the key words. Skim the te xt looking undeserved. Sharks kill about 5 people a year and yet they are
fo r any words related to the key loathed, he says. Elephants kill at least 100 people but when a single
elephant falls in Africa the world goes crazy.
words; these words can be synonyms,
Stewart first became fascinated by sharks as a child and after
antonym s or simply words th a t are
graduating with a degree in Marine Biology, he became a wildlife
related to the key words. Read the photographer. It was on an assignment to the Galapagos Islands, one
sentences in which the related w ord of the worlds most protected marine reserves, that he came across
appears and compare it to the hundreds of dead sharks hanging from a 60 km length of commercial
statem ent to see if it agrees or fishing line. If that kind of illegal fishing could happen there, what was
disagrees. If you cannot find any happening in the rest of the world? He found that up to 100 million
sharks are being killed every year and a third of the 500 species of
inform ation th a t relates to the
shark are under threat of extinction. Shark fins are incredibly valuable
statem ent choose 'N ot stated'. as a luxury item particularly for use in shark fin soup. Dried fins go for
as much as $300 for half a kilo, but the rest of the shark is discarded.
b) Do th e task. Com pare your Yet, people arent as concerned about the mass murder of sharks as
they are about koala bears.
answ ers w ith you r partner.
Stewart decided the best way to show the world what was happening
was to make a documentary. After spending his life savings, watching
1 M ost people are n o t aware
DVDs on his laptop and learning the basics of film-making, he set off
th a t the sharks are in danger. .
for Costa Rica where he swam with and even hugged the sharks while
2 Sharks kill m ore people every making his film. As sharks are afraid of humans, he spent an enormous
year than any o th e r anim al. amount of time underwater just hoping for the sharks to come near.
3 S tew art became interested in Stewart learned how to control his heartbeat to avoid panicking the
sharks a fte r gradua ting from sharks. After coming into conflict with organised crime and local
university. authorities, he had to escape by boat. Another time he caught a flesh-
eating disease that led to a stay in hospital. Despite such difficulties,
4 Shark fins are a prized
Stewart managed to produce Sharkwater, a powerful documentary
ingredient. about the cruel way mankind treats sharks. It has been a huge success,
5 S tew art ran o u t o f money winning lots of international awards, but Stewart is carrying on with his
w h ile m aking the film . mission to save the shark. The oceans feed most of the planet. Its a
6 N ot everyone in Costa Rica was system we cant mess with," Stewart says. Its not just about saving
happy w ith w h a t S tew art was sharks, its about saving ourselves.
doing.
L is te n in g b) Do th e task.

( M u l t i p l e c h o ic e ) ^ a) Read th e rubric and brainstorm fo r


various charities and events.
a) Read th e rubric and th e questions and
u n d erline th e key w ords. C harities: homeless people environm ental groups
Events: organise a clean up day organise a bazaar

You w ill hear a conversation between tw o


i friends, Rachel and Brendan. Choose the i
correct answer A, or for the questions
! (1-4).

1 H ow long did Brendan w o rk?


A all sum m er tw o weeks six weeks

2 Brendan's jo b was to
A raise m oney fo r th e shelter.
conduct guided tours o f the shelter.
feed the anim als and clean th e ir enclosures.

3 Brendan says th a t to w o rk in th e shelter you


have to Your school would like to collect some money and i
A w o rk w e ll in a team . donate it to a charity and is planning to organise a
be caring b u t strong. charity event. As a student leader, you have been asked ^
be a good manager. for your opinion on which type o f event to organise and
to which charity or charities the money should go to. 1
4 Brendan thinks th a t
A anyone can volunteer. Before making a decision, ask your teacher about:
volunteers should be trained. w h ich charities the school is considering
there are enough volunteers. h o w the charities help people and society
w h a t events th e school is considering

b) Q D o th e task. W h a t in fo rm a tio n th a t You s ta rt the conversation.


you heard helped you decide on your Remember to:
answers? Com pare w ith you r partner. be active and p o lite
ask the questions and find out all the inform ation
you need
S p e a k in g decide on w hich event and charity and give
(Make decisions) reasons fo r your choice
a) Read th e rubric. In pairs, th in k o f w ords
U seful lan guag e
relate d to th e topic.
*1
Expressing your opinion: I believe ..., I think ..., In my
Give a 1.5-2-m inute talk about environmental view ..., To my mind ..., The way I see i t ...
problems in your country. Suggesting ideas: It would be a good idea to ..., Why
Remember to say: don't we organise ...?, How a b o u t...?, If we organised 1
...., we could raise ..., We should ..., We could also ...
w h a t form s o f p o llu tio n there are
Agreeing: I (totally) agree ..., You are right, also ..., I j
w h a t dam age th e y cause agree to a certain extent, b u t ..., Yes I think that too.
w h a t possible so lutions exist Disagreeing: But don't you think ...?, I don't really
agree w ith you because ...

b) Take roles and do th e task.


63
Writing Word form ation
a) Read th e rubric and Read the text. Fill in th e
und erline th e key w ords. gaps w ith th e proper
lexical form o f th e
Your teacher has asked you to capitalised w ords.
w rite an opinion essay w ith the
title : "S hould w e spend great
am ounts o f m oney on space
exp lo ra tio n ? " W rite your essay
(120-180 words).
When photographer David Slater w ent to snap some black
Macaque monkeys in Indonesia, he got a bit of a surprise!
b) Read th e ta b le . In pairs, try The black macaque is a rare, endangered species o f monkey
to th in k o f reasons/ and is being studied in Indonesia by a team o f scientists
exam ples to sup port each interested in 1 ) ............................ Macaques may be rare, but CONSERVE
v ie w p o in t. they aren't shy! While David was walking w ith them he
began to notice that the monkeys were very interested in
his photography 2 ) ............................. Finally, overcome by EQUIP
Should we spend money on space
3) , one o f the monkeys stole the camera from CURIOUS
exploration? David's bag. When he caught 4 ) ............................... of his own SEE
/ reflection in the camera, the naughty macaque was
1 We need to explore other planets to fascinated. Clearly, the macaque was pleased w ith his
ensure the survival o f the human 5 ) ........................because he found the camera's button and APPEAR
race. began to snap photos of himself and his friends! "He must
have taken hundreds o f photos," says David "bu t not many
2 The cost o f space exploration is
were in focus. He obviously hadn't worked that out yet"!
small compared to government
spending on other things.
3 Important scientific discoveries made Key w ord transform ations
in space can help us here on Earth.
g Com plete the gapped sentences so th a t they have a
similar m eaning to the original ones. Use tw o to five
Some people believe it can be very
words including the w ord given. Accurate spelling and
expensive and the money could be
gram m ar are required.
better spent on other things.
It can be risky and space missions 1 John regrets n o t helping th e homeless man.
often fail. WISHES John ..............................................................................
....................................................th e homeless man.

c) Q Listen to M ark and 2 He volu n te e re d a t an anim al shelter.


Sarah discussing th e topic. WHERE The p la c e .....................................................................
...................................................... an anim al shelter.
Did th e ir reasons/exam ples
3 Unless Bob pays his rent, he w ill lose his fla t.
m atch yours?
PAY Bob w ill lose his f l a t ................................................
......................................................................... his rent.
Do th e task. Use ideas from 4 Sally do e sn 't have enough m oney so she ca n 't go on holiday.
Exs. 5b 8i 5c. MORE If Sally .................................................... go on
holiday.
5 It's a p ity I ca n 't go on holiday th is year.
ABLE Iw is h ..............................................................................
................................................. on holida y this year.
64
%
Language in Use
Phrasal verb s/P rep o sitio n s Word form ation
*| C hoose th e c o rre c t p a rtic le . 4 C o m p lete th e sentences w ith th e correct
w o rd derived from th e w ords in brackets.
hand in: submit
Use ap p ro p ria te prefixes.
hand out: distribute
-------- ---------- _ ---...... r -
hand over: give (usually w ith o u t wanting to) Prefixes used with nouns to form nouns
hang out: spend time relaxing (usually w ith friends)
Some o f th e prefixes used to form new nouns in English are:
hang on: w ait a short time
join in: become involved in an activity w ith others auto-(self) (automobile), co-(joint) (co-founder), ex-(former)
join up: become a member o f (a club, etc) (iex-chairman), inter-(between) (interchange), super-(more
than) (superpower), tele-(distant) (telemarketing).
1 Sam is p la n tin g trees in th e park th is w eekend. , ,, ....................................
W hy d o n 't w e jo in in /u p , too? 1 Superman and Spiderm an are ...............................
John fo u n d a w a lle t on th e stre e t yesterday and (HEROES)
he handed it o u t/in a t th e police sta tio n . 2 New te ch n o lo g y has im proved ..............................
Hang o n /o u t a m in u te and I'll come w ith you. ................................. greatly. (COMM UNICATIONS)
Sally hangs o n /o u t w ith friends on Saturdays. 3 He decided to w rite his ............................................
The cashier handed in /o v e r 100,000 in cash. (BIOGRAPHY)
People w ere handing o u t/o v e r leaflets ab o u t 4 She m et her ................................................... w ith his
en viro nm ental p ro te ctio n in to w n today. new w ife a t th e children's party. (HUSBAND)
C hoose th e c o rre c t p re p o s itio n . 5 They need to m a k e .....................................................
w ith th e site easier. (ACTION)
Poverty can lead in /to crim e.
He m anaged to survive o n /in very little food.
Words often confused
The w o rld 's rainforests are u n d e r/a t th re a t.
He donates m oney f o r / t o th e homeless. Choose th e correct w o rd . Check in your
Can success c o n trib u te o n /to happiness? dictionaries.
He succeeded in /o n raising money fo r charity.
1 He w o n d ered /w an d e re d around Europe fo r
C o llo catio n s m onths before he s ettled /liv ed in London.
2 A school/sw arm o f bees attacked/struck him.
Fill in : natural, walking, long-term , unique,
3 He w a n te d to g rab/hold people's a tte n tio n
solstice, hair-raising, vicious, toxic, badly, scruffy.
and raise pub lic/private awareness.
1 circle 6 ......................species
4 He spent/passed the night in the chilling/
2 aim 7 .................. m om ents
biting cold.
3 .... w aste 8 .................. resources
5 If you are in qu estio n /d o u b t, ask som eone to
4 behaved 9 ......................clothes
help you.
5 stick 10 s u m m e r...................

M a rk th e se n te n ce s T (tru e ) o r F (fa ls e ). C o rre c t th e fa lse se n te n ce s. Read


th ro u g h M o d u le 3 a n d w r it e a q u iz o f y o u r o w n .

In 50 years, there w ill be tw ic e as m any elderly people as there are now.


The Am azon ju n g le is in Peru.
A b o u t 20% o f people in Rio de Janeiro live in slums.
The G lastonbury Festival takes place in th e autum n.
Ed S taffo rd spent nearly 2 /2 years in th e Am azon ju n g le .
H a lf o f th e w o rld 's anim als live in th e Am azon.
Rainforests cover 5% o f th e Earth.
"C arioca" means frie n d in Portuguese.
j f ^ ) Revision 3 p 129
65
VITA animal rights centre is a non-profit charity organisation in
Russia whose aim is to protect animals against cruelty through peaceful
means. Its main activity involves campaigning for better conditions for
R e a d in g & L is te n in g
farm animals and for a ban on the testing on animals of medicines and
'j W h at do you know about VITA? cosmetic products. VITA also fights for better living conditions for
W h at does it do? animals in zoos and circuses as well as providing food, shelter, and
Q Listen and read to find out. medical assistance for stray cats and dogs that roam the streets.
VITA works in a number of ways to protect and improve the lives of
animals. One of its major roles in society is to try to make people aware
2 Read again answ er th e
of the plight of suffering animals and in order to achieve this takes part
questions in you r ow n w ords.
in numerous television and radio programmes, gives lectures on animal
1 W h a t is VITA? issues and organises special events. The organisation also works with
2 W h a t are VITA's objectives? the government to try to introduce new animal welfare laws.
3 W h a t is its m ain activity? Many celebrities support VITA and
4 W h a t o th e r a ctivitie s is it involved have helped it achieve some great
in? victories in the recent past. In
5 W h a t has been a m ajor success fo r March 2008, VITA took a
VITA? number of Russian stars
including Alyona Sviridova to
the coastal village of Letnyaya
3 M atch th e w ords in bold in th e
in an attempt to put a stop to the
te x t w ith th e ir m eaning.
killing of newly born Greenland
1 w ins .............................. seals. The trip attracted a lot of
2 proper .............................. publicity and shortly afterwards a ban
3 help .............................. was placed on the hunting of baby seals.
4 stru g g le .............................. The organisation co-operates with well-
5 w a lk around .............................. known international charities and is a
member of the World Society for the
Prevention of Cruelty to
4 W h a t did you learn a b o u t VITA? Animals and the RSPCA.
Tell th e class. It hopes to be able to do
more in the future to
protect animals
W h a t can w e do to and give them a
p ro tect anim als and m ake th e ir decent life.
lives b etter? Discuss in pairs.

W r it in g
Use you r answ ers from Ex. 2 to
w rite a sum m ary o f th e te x t.
Present it to th e class.

66
.

Vocabulary: m ysterious events/places, UFOs,


characteristics o f strange creatures, ways o f
lo o kin g , unexplained phenom ena, types o f books
Gramm ar: th e passive, personal & im personal
constructions, articles, reflexive & em phatic
pronouns
Everyday English: booking tickets fo r a guided to u r
Into nation : question tags
Phrasal verbs: keep, let, pick
W ord form ation: fo rm in g nouns from adjectives
W ritin g : a book review
Culture Corner: Haunted London
Curricular (Literature): TheD ayoftheTriffids by John
W yndham
Russia 4: The Tunguska Event
W hich th re e
m ysteries
V o c a b u la r y im pressed you th e
most? Present them
Mysterious events/places Roswe UFO incident
to th e class.
^ Com plete th e descriptions w ith : was
assassinated, was built, was launched, have been
reported, have crashed, is known, was captured.

I t ............................................... betw een 3100 BC


and 2800 BC. The reason is still u n kn ow n.
M any sightings o f a large hairy ape-like
c re a tu re ........................................................ in the Bigfoot
Pacific N orthw est, b u t no real p ro o f exists Apollo 13
The s p a c e c ra ft...............................................
on 11th A p ril, 1970. Two days later the
oxygen ta n k exploded. The crew returned
safely to Earth on 17th A p ril, 1970.
In 1947, an extraterrestrial spacecraft was
reported t o ................................................. in New
M exico and its alien c r e w ...................................
Located in the w estern part o f the North
A tla n tic Ocean, the region ..................................
fo r m ysterious disappearances o f aircraft and D JFK's assassination
ships.
The 35th Am erican p re s id e n t............................
in Novem ber 1963. To this day, no one is sure
w h o killed him and why. the Bermuda Triangle

M atch th e descriptions to th e im ages.


Q Listen and check.

F Stonehenge (Wiltshire, England)


7 7 / E TRUTH
I S N ' T T H E R E . . . O R I S !T P >
he annual UFO festival in Roswell, New Mexico
T attracts thousands of visitors each year to this
remote desert town. This year, we sent travel journalist
Ruth Bradley to take part in a new UFO Discovery Tour to visit
key sites in the area where the famous 1947 Roswell UFO case
unfolded. Did her out-of-this-world experience make her a true
believer?
When I was first asked by my editor to report on a UFO discovery
tour, my heart sank. I just co uldnt understand why I was being
sent - me, a true sceptic!
A few days later, I was greeted at the airport in New Mexico by the
tours friendly guide and the other enthusiastic UFO-spotters in my
group. We were driven to the hotel along busy freeways lined with
UFO diners, UFO souvenir shops and even UFO motels. Little grey
aliens stared down at us from billboards and road signs with huge
insect eyes. D l If nothing else, I had the feeling I would be
having some fun on this assignm ent!
The follow ing m orning, we were taken to the spot in Roswell where
a cattle farmer, Mak Brazel, came across some large pieces of
metal and a huge hole in the ground on 8th July, 1947. Our guide
told us that shortly after'M r Brazel reported what he had seen, the
newspaper wrote that he had seen a flying saucer. The next day,
however, they changed the story and reported that it*wasnt a UFO
at all, but sim ply a weather balloon. I wandered away from the
group and looked around in the grass, half hoping to find one last
piece of debris from the craft. I I had to admit, the story so
u nfo ld, rep ort (on), sceptic, freew ay, lined far was fascinating and I found myself looking forward to the
w ith , billbo ard, assignm ent, spot, ca ttle _ next stage of the tour where we would be shown Building
farm er, w e a th e r balloon, debris, a irc ra ft^ 84, This was the huge aircraft hangar on the old army base
hangar, arm y base, rem ains, eye-w itn ess where the remains of the strange craft were taken to be
account, hieroglyphics, autopsy, examined. It was an im pressive sight. Eye-witness accounts later
oval-shaped, burst, h o ts p o t, w e ird ,
described the craft as unlike anything that had ever been seen
fo rm a tio n , d o u b tfu l, eerie, rattlesnake
on Earth. They said it w as'm ade of a material as light as plastic,
as strong as steel, im possible to burn and covered in strange

Vocabulary & Reading


*| Listen and read th e headlines. W h a t do you th in k happened in these incidents?

A 8th July, 1947 f f -^l f I


POLICE OFFICER REPORTS
FLYING SAUCER
CAPTURED ON SICHTINC OF ALieni

R4NCH,N m S0C : w Z c T
ROSWELL
REGION
A"enBoaiesll 9e&
A t * 0sw en tZ mi! n e a THOUSANDS WITNESS ,
i
KSase STRANGE LIGHTS OVER
PHOENIX, ARIZONA -xmeafI

Now read th e title o f th e te x t and th e introduction. W h a t do you expect to read about?


Read th ro u g h to find o u t.
68

hieroglyphics. Others described seeing alien bodies. The day ended m
with a visit to the UFO Museum and I was fascinated by some
creepy sketches of alien bodies on autopsy tables which were M atch th e w ords/phrases in bold
drawn by a nurse w orking in the base hospital at the time. H I
w ith th e ir meanings: moved
The next day, we visited the town of Socorro where, in 1964, Lonnie
quickly up, bothered, fe lt unhappy,
Zamora, a respected police officer, reported an oval-shaped object with
two small creatures inside. As he drew near, blue flames burst from the destroyed remains, walked w ithout a
craft and it soared into the sky. When Zamora came back with other purpose, strange & frightening,
officers, all that could be seen were burn marks on the ground and floating in the same position, scary.
strange footprints. The locals in this area have many stories like this one
and I asked whether we were going to go back home with a UFO story of see pp.
our own. 6 G ra m m a r g r 10-11

That night, we cam ped out in one of the Nevada Deserts UFO The passive 4
hotspots. As we looked up into the dark sky, one couple from
Phoenix, Arizona, told me about the night in March 1997 when they ~J a) Read th e exam ples. W hen
saw a weird form ation of lights hovering above the city. They do w e use th e passive? H ow
w erent alone; th a strange phenom enon had been witnessed by is it form ed?
over 10,000 locals and there is even video footage of it. What
better souvenir to take back to the editor than a photo of a real UFO! A c tiv e : Some tourists spotted a UFO yesterday.
Im still doubtful whether UFOs and aliens exist. However, after spending The researchers are investigating the sighting.
a night under the stars in the eerie Nevada Desert, I have to admit that if Passive: A UFO was spotted by some tourists
intelligent life from a far-off world decided to land on Earth, I wouldnt be yesterday. The sighting is being investigated.
at all surprised if this was the place they chose to visit!

b) Find exam ples o f th e passive


Read again. Five sentences are m issing. M atch each in th e te x t. Then rew rite the
sentence (A-F) to th e gaps (1-5). There is one extra passive sentences into
sentence. Justify you r answ ers. active sentences.

A Instead, I disturbed an enorm ous rattle snake and quickly 1 Steve p u t up th e te n t.


made my w a y back! The tent was p u t up by Steve.
I was a b it disappointed th a t I saw n o th in g w o rth 2 The mayor opened the UFO museum.
p h o to g ra p h in g th a t nig h t. 3 Lots o f UFO-spotters visit Roswell,
"W a it u n til to n ig h t," th e to u r guide to ld me. New M exico.
D I c o u ld n 't help sm iling a t these am using sights. 4 People are m aking preparations fo r
E I started to lose hope d urin g th e nig h t. th e to w n 's firs t UFO festival.
F As w e headed back to th e hotel, I stared up in to th e starry 5 Sam is starting a UFO tour in the area.
n ig h t and c o u ld n 't help w o n d e rin g if anyone - or 6 Locals have seen m any strange
a n yth in g - was lo o kin g d o w n ! lig h ts in th e desert.
7 They w ill publish Bill's book ab o u t
local m ysteries next m onth.
q Listen and read th e te x t. W h a t is th e
w rite r's purpose?
g R e w rite th e headlines in Ex. 1 in
" Choose th e correct w ords. M ake sentences using th e
th e passive.
o th e r options.

1 The trip /to u r d ow n to New M exico w a s n 't very long. S p e a k in g & W r it in g


2 We were shown the exact spot/mark where the spacecraft crashed.
3 They lost th e ir w a y around th e dessert/desert. 0 You w e n t on th e to u r w ith
4 The experts examined/experienced the remains o f the spacecraft. Ruth. W rite a parag raph a b o u t
5 We had a great vie w o f th e crash site/sig h t from th e h illto p . your experience. Read it to th e
6 The locals/natives in Roswell are used to UFO-spotters. class.
7 People disagree about the events/facts th a t took place in Roswell.
(!) Vocabulary Bank 4 pp. V B lT ) 6 9

I
* r b ] Strange creatures
R e a d in g & V o c a b u la r y
^ Look at the monsters in the
pictures. Which creature: looks like
a dinosaur? has a long neck? is a large
hairy ape-like creature? Tell your
partner. Outside the International Cryptozoology Museum, an eight-foot, replica Bigfoot
stands guard. Glancing around the two rooms, visitors see plaster casts of Bigfoot
The Loch Ness Monster ^
and Yeti footprints, hair samples and a life-size model of a coelacanth*. Most of the
looks like a dinosaur. 2,300 specimens of the weird and wonderful that can be found here come from
the personal collection of Loren Coleman, the museums owner and the worlds
leading cryptozoologist.
Loren first became fascinated by the study of cryptids or hidden animals as a
twelve-year-old after seeing a documentary on Yetis, but his teacher told him
that it was all just nonsense. Unconvinced, he set about finding all there was to
know about legendary beasts such as yetis, lake monsters, giant snakes and
chupacabras. His interest led to a lifelong passion for monster-hunting and
cryptozoology. To date, he has written over 30 books and has spent countless
hours travelling and camping out all over the American continent and abroad,
interviewing witnesses and examining possible evidence of cryptids existence
such as footprints, hair samples, scratches, audio tapes of screeches, videos
and photos.
2 Read th e title o f th e te x t Not surprisingly, Loren is often the first person TV producers turn to when they
want an expert on the unexplained. He holds a BA in Zoology and
and th e first sentence o f each
Anthropology, an MA in Social Work and has done post-graduate work in
parag raph. W ho do you th in k Sociology and Anthropology. His opinion is valued because even though he
Loren Colem an is and w h a t firmly believes cryptids exist, he still demands hard evidence. Until I have a
Mi does he do? hair sample or footprint or twisted branch, Im really kind of sceptical," he says.
J j f ' p Listen and read th e te x t > 80% of all accounts are ordinary animals - a few fakes, a few hoaxes. But its
that 20% of unknowns that keeps me going.
I to find out.
A particular interest of Colemans is one of the most famous cryptids of all,
Bigfoot or Sasquatch, which is said to inhabit forests mainly in the North
western United States. He believes that there is lots of convincing evidence of
its existence, including the famous 1967 Patterson-Grimlin footage of a Bigfoot
walking into the forest. Despite many people claiming they were the person in
the suit, Loren points out that the creature walks the way an ape does, with
little mobility in the hips and neck.
So why hasnt anyone found a real Bigfoot yet? Well, Loren points out that, until
150 years ago, it was believed by most in the western world that mountain
gorillas didnt exist and before that the giant panda was virtually unknown.
C heck th e s e w o rd s Tales of sightings were taken with a pinch of salt; they were thought to be
legends told by native tribes. Respected scientists had to change their
stand guard, plaster cast, sample, opinions, though, when these creatures were found high up in the mountains
specimen, leading, cryptozoologist, and deep in the forests. Similarly, the coelacanth is a huge 1.5-metre-long fish
legendary beast, countless, witness, that was thought to have become extinct about 65 million years ago until it was
scratch, screech, valued, hard evidence, rediscovered in 1938. But no one had mentioned this to islanders in the Indian
sceptical, fake, hoax, footage, m obility, Ocean, who had been happily eating it for ages! So if a fish from prehistoric
hips, virtually unknow n, tales o f
times is still swimming around, why cant Bigfoot and other strange creatures be
sightings, native tribe, become extinct,
hidden away in a forest somewhere? Loren argues that cryptids are not
prehistoric times, human settlem ent,
monsters at all, just species of animal that are few in number, live far from
secretive, panther-like, reluctant
human settlements and are highly secretive.
Cryptozoology is definitely Lorens life, but has he ever seen a cryptid himself? He
admits that one dark night on the way home, he glimpsed a large panther-like
creature, but hes reluctant to call it a cryptid. Western science decides if animals
exist or dont exist, he says. Loren isnt trying to prove anything to the world, he just
wants to find out the truth.
3 Read again and fo r questions 1-5, choose 5 Read th e d e fin itio n s , th en choose the
th e best answ er, , , or D. correct w o rd .

1 W h a t inspired Loren to study cryptids? glance: look at quickly glimpse: see for a short
A The books he read on C ryptozoology. glare: look at angrily time, catch sight of
stare: look at for a long peer: look at something
His teacher's encouragem ent. w ith difficulty
time (rudely)
A film he saw as a young boy. gaze: look at for a peep: look quickly, often
D His travels and cam ping trips. long time secretly

2 Loren is pop ular w ith TV producers because he 1 M a tt only gazed/glim psed th e creature fo r a
A is w e ll-lik e d by audiences. second so he w a s n 't sure w h a t he really saw.
dem ands p ro o f and is n 't easily convinced. 2 We peered/glared into the dark forest, but we
has lots o f evidence th a t cryptids exist. couldn't see much.
D gets excited by cryptids. 3 A n d re w gazed/p eeped a t th e plane flyin g over
his head.
3 He believes th e P atterson-G rim lin fo o ta g e 4 Simon peeped/glared at her angrily.
A appeared to show a real creature. 5 The g o rilla peeped/glim psed th ro u g h th e trees
was a clever trick. a t us.
d re w a tte n tio n because o f the costum e. 6 Jane glared/stared at the creature - she couldn't
D should be m ore fam ous. stop looking at it.
7 Tom glim psed/glanced a t his w a tch and
4 The w rite r uses the highlighted phrase in the te xt
realised he was late.
to show th a t
see .
A people believed in th e reports a b o u t pandas
G ra m m a r p. gr i y
and gorillas.
stories a b o u t hidden anim als come from Passive (im p e r s o n a l/p e r s o n a l

trib a l legends. c o n s t r u c t io n s )

scientists o fte n change th e ir minds. 0 Read the examples. How do the tw o passive
D th e w e stern w o rld know s little ab o u t constructions differ? Find similar constructions in
hidden anim als. the text. Then turn the sentences into the passive.
5 In th e last paragraph, Loren suggests th a t he
People think (that) hedidn'tseeaBigfoot. (active construction)
A doesn't respect western science. It is thought (that) he didn't see a Bigfoot. (im personal passive
accepts th a t cryptids may not exist. c o n stru ctio n )
believes people should He is thought not to have seen a Bigfoot. (personal passive
be m ore open- c o n s tru c tio n )

m inded. - < 4
1 They believe th e creature was a panther.
D is certain he has
It is believed th a t the creature was a panther.
seen a cryptid.
The creature is believed to be a panther.
2 Experts say m any frogs are becom ing e xtin c t.
3 They report th a t Yeti fo o tp rin ts have been found.
4 M atch th e w ords in bold to th e ir
4 They th in k th e photos are fakes.
m eanings: p ro o f, live in, colonies,
alm ost, m odel, top, respected, lo o kin g ,
Loch Ness M onster
u n w illin g .
S p e a k in g & W r it in g
Find the main idea to each paragraph.
Use them to w rite a summary o f the text in
your ow n words. Tell the class.
Culture
Corner London dates back to Roman times and has a long, often violent and tragic history. For
this reason, it is believed by some to be one of the most haunted capital cities in the
Read th e title o f th e te x t
world. There are hundreds of stories of ghosts in old buildings, parks, streets,
and th e headings. W h a t graveyards and even theatres and tube stations! If you arent too afraid, read o n ...
kind o f ghosts do you
th in k th e re are in these
places? Read to find ou t. The Theatre Royal, Drury Lane

From Medieval times to the early 20th century, the Tower


of London has had a long, cruel history of imprisonment,
trials, executions and torture. It's no wonder then that
1) of ghosts are a common occurrence here!
One of the most frequently 2 ) ................. ghosts is the
headless Anne Boleyn, the unlucky wife of Henry VIII who
was beheaded at the Tower in 1536. There is also the
white lady whose perfume 3 ) .................to fill the air
surrounding the White Tower and who was once spotted
waving to a group of children visiting the opposite
building. Stories of ghostly goings-on at the Tower of This theatre first 4 ) .....................its curtains to the public in
1663 and is therefore Londons oldest working theatre.
London are numerous and still occur today.
Many phantoms supposedly make their presence felt during
the performances here. Some say that Joseph Grimaldi, a
mischievous clown who died in 1837, often kicks actors,
ushers and cleaners from behind as they work! Another
clown, Dan Leno, who was famous 5 ) ......................... his clog
dance, can sometimes 6 ) .....................practising his routine
over and over again. The theatre's most famous ghost,
however, is the Man in Grey, who only appears at the
beginning of a successful performance. Unlike most ghosts,
he does not make people freeze in terror and is seen as a
welcome addition to the theatre!

Fill in: successful, freeze, cruel, capital, common,


mischievous. Use th e phrases to m ake
graveyard, cruel, im prisonm ent, trial, execution, sentences based on th e te x t.
to rtu re , occurrence, behead, spot, ghostly goings-
on, occur, phantom , make presence felt, usher, clog 1 ................................................................................city
dance, welcom e addition 2 ................................................................. occurrence
ffl! ' 3 ..............................................................perform ance
2 For gaps 1-6, choose th e best answ er, , , 4 long ....................................................................h istory
or D. Find evidence in th e te x t. 5 ............................................................................in te rro r
6 ...........................................................................clow n
A view s 3 A says 5 A of
sightings said fo r 4 Listen and read. Im agine you
pictures is said to saw a ghost w h ile visiting one o f these
D scenes D is saying D w ith places. W h a t did you see, hear, feel? In five
A view ed 4 A uncovered 6 A heard m inutes w rite a fe w sentences. Tell th e class.
w atched d re w is heard
noticed opened be heard 5 Is M A re th e re sim ilar places in your
D seen D unlocked D be hearing country? Collect in fo rm a tio n . Tell th e class.
72
i
Everyday English
Booking tickets for
a guided tour
1 >
Listen and say. Tour includes:
This is th e rig h t place to get ticke ts fo r Stories of Londons past, told by a spooky conductor
Onboard entertainment with real actors
th e Tower o f London, is n 't it?
Tours run most days at 7:30 pm & 9 pm, departing
Yes, it ce rta in ly is.
from Northumberland Avenue (off Trafalgar Square)
Could you te ll me w h a t th e tic k e t price
Fares: Adults 18, Children 12, Family ticket 50
includes, please?
Book now online or from our ticket office
I'd like to book some ticke ts fo r this
a fte rn o o n then, please. Find sentences in th e d ialo g u e w hich m ean:
H ow m any ticke ts w o u ld you like? That's rig h t. - W hat do you get fo r the price o f
M y pleasure. Enjoy yo u r visit. the tic k e t? - You're welcome. Have a great tim e.
see
b) The sentences above app ear in th e In t o n a t io n : question tags p. GR11
> .......
d ialogue below . W ho says each, a to u ris t a) Choose th e correct question tags. Check
or a tic k e t office atte n d a n t? Q Listen and in th e G ram m ar Reference section.
check.
b) Q Listen and m ark w hich questions
expect an answ er ( s ) and w hich ask for
A: G ood m orn ing. This is th e rig h t place to get
c o n firm a tio n ('). Check in th e G ram m ar
ticke ts fo r th e Tower o f London, is n 't it?
Reference section.
B: Yes, it ce rta in ly is.
Let's v is it th e castle, shall w e /w ill we?
A: Could you te ll me w h a t th e tic k e t price
You w e n t on a gho st to u r last summer, d id n 't
includes, please?
y o u /w e re n 't you?
B: Sure. It includes a guided to u r by one o f the
You w o n 't te ll him , w o n 't y o u /w ill you?
Yeoman W arders and e n try to see th e Crow n
Sam likes history, does h e/doesn't he?
Jewels and o th e r special e xhibitions.
You c o u ld n 't lend me 20, could you/can you?
A: That sounds great. I'd like to book some
D o n 't leave th e fla t unlocked, do y o u /w ill you?
ticke ts fo r th is a fte rn o o n then, please.
Yes, o f course. Tickets are valid fo r 7 days from S p e a k in g
the day o f purchase. H ow m any ticke ts w o u ld
you like? Act o u t a dialogue b e tw e e n a to u ris t
: 2 adults, please. and a tic k e t office a tte n d a n t using th e
: OK. That's 39.60 then. ad v e rt fo r th e bus tour. Follow th e plan.
: A lrig h t. Here you are.
: Thanks.
G reet & ask if yo u 're -'''"^ /C o n firm .

: Could you te ll me w h ere the guided to urs s ta rt
in th e rig h t place.
from ?
Ask w h a t tic k e t ~ ^ T e l l A.
: Sure. They s ta rt from ju s t inside th e gates
includes.
every h a lf an hour. So you can choose your Say y o u 'd like to bo o k-* ' ' ^ A s k h o w m any ticke ts
o w n tim e. ticke ts & w h en for. / A w o u ld like.
: Thank you very much. Say h o w m any a d u lt s ^ ^ S a y price.
: M y pleasure. Enjoy yo u r visit. & children. ,
O ffe r m oney. ^T hank A
Ask w h e re to u rs s t a r t r * '^ T e l l A.
Thank B. ------ ------------- Wi sh A a pleasant visit.

73
t
Unexplained
phenomena
Reading
Read th e introduction o f th e te x t and the
headings. W h at do you know about each
place? W h at makes each a mysterious place?
Q Listen and read to find out.
I f e 7? - ------------------- -
The Hum - New Mexico, USA & Woodland, UK
M u ltip le matching Everyone knows how annoying constant, low level noise
Read the questions and underline the key words. can be. The sound of a slow dripping tap, or someone
Scan the te xt for the inform ation you need. As you repeatedly tapping their foot could drive a saint to
are reading underline the parts related the distraction. So imagine what it must be like to live with
questions. Read again and answer each question. that kind of irritating sound all the time.
Some inform ation is paraphrased. In the 1990s, residents of the town of Taos in New
_ Mexico began complaining about hearing a faint sound
like a distant car engine. Not everyone hears the strange
2 Read again and for questions 1-15, choose noise called The Hum, but many of the victims
from the places A-D. Justify your answers. complain of loss of sleep, dizziness, headaches and
anxiety. Investigators have suggested that the noise is
Which place: caused by sounds produced naturally by the ear or by
1 waves crashing together on the ocean floor. Most
has an attraction th a t has no visible means o f
recently, a Hum also struck the tiny English village of
life support? Woodland in 2011. Its loudest on Sundays, says one
reports a phenom enon th a t gets worse at a resident. Its a bit like a fridge, but it definitely isnt my
particular tim e? fridge. For the moment The Hum remains a mystery
that continues to drive its victims mad!
has reports o f an event occurring in previous
centuries?
do locals believe is protected by a god?
H i The Tree of Life - Bahrain
m ight someone experience health problems?
Sitting majestically on a hlah sandy hill in the m iddle of
has a phenom enon th a t occurs annually?
the desert, two kilometres from Jebel Dukhan in Bahrain,
has a phenom enon th a t could be caused by the is one of the most fascinating natural wonders of the
human body? world. The Tree of Life, an ancient mesquite tree, has
8 has a phenom enon th a t makes no sound? survived in the desert for 400 years, miles from any other
9 form of vegetation, and with no apparent source of
is where visitors are w arned o f dangers?
water. Although the mesquite tree can develop a very
10 has an attraction th a t is far away from any w ide and deep root system, scientists and biologists
other species o f its kind? have been unable to locate the source of water that
11 has a phenom enon some believe is caused by a sustains the tree. This baffling enigma has made the tree
mythical creature? a major tourist attraction in the M iddle East.
But for the local Bedouin tribes, there is no mystery
12 has a phenom enon th a t does not affect about the tree. They believe that the mythical god of
everyone? water, Enki, has blessed the tree and has kept it alive
13 is where the frightening sounds are said to be and growing all these years.
from trapped people?
14 has a phenom enon witnessed by large crowds
o f people?
15 has a legendary animal th a t is said to kill people?

M atch th e u n d erlined adjectives to th e ir


opposites in th e list: nearby, silly, shallow,
low, tiny, lig h t, a rtificia l, loud, norm al.
74
Check these w ords -

t a p d r ip p in g , t a p f o o t , d riv e s b t o d is tr a c tio n ,
ir r it a t in g s o u n d , d iz z in e s s , a n x ie ty , re m a in a ^ Explain th e w ords in bold.
m y s te ry , d riv e sb m a d , m a je s tic a lly , v e g e t a tio n , W h a t p art o f speech is each?
a p p a r e n t, s u s ta in , b a f f lin g e n ig m a , b le ss,
g lo w in g , g a th e r, s e r p e n t, m e th a n e g a s b u b b le s , Sound verbs
r iv e r b e d , la b y r in th , m a z e , s u f f o c a tin g , e e rie
s o u n d , d ra g , la ir, in t r ig u in g ly , re s e m b le a) Q Listen to th e sounds, th en say.

b lo w buzz crack crunch p a tte r rustle

T h e N a g a F ire b a lls T h a ila n d & Laos scratch splash stam p w h is tle drip

Every year, around the time of the October full moon and b) Use th e verbs in Ex. 5a in th e ir correct
at the end of the Buddhist rains, hundreds of red glowing form to com plete th e gaps.
| balls of light are seen shooting up from the Mekong River
before silently e xp lo d in g in mid-air. Sceptics put the 1 b e e s ..........................; 2 th e w in d ....................... ; 3 dogs
phenomenon down to a clever hoax, but there are records b ones lo udly; 4 dogs' n a ils ........................................... the
.
written by monks who w itn e s s e d the mysterious fireballs flo o r; 5 leaves ............................. in th e w in d ; 6 rain
hundreds of years ago.
..................... the w in d o w s; 7 a tap ............................. ;
To many of the thousands of believers who gather along
the banks of the Mekong to view this amazing sight the 8 c h ild re n ..........................th e ir fe e t on th e flo o r; 9 one
fireballs are the breath of Naga, a mythical serpentthat a tu n e ; 10 c h ild re n .............................................................. in
.

lives in the river. I've seen the Naga," says one local. It th e w a te r; 11 tree b ra n c h e s .............................
was like a huge, silver snake swimming down the river
Others, however, believe that the fireballs are a natural j Grammar see pp
. , GR 11-12
phenomenon c a u s e d by methane gas bubbles escaping A rticles >.
from the river bed.
g Fill in a, an or the w h e re necessary. Check in
th e G ram m ar Reference section.

Mysterious ghost lights are frequently seen near 1 ) ..........


town of 2 ) Marfa in 3 ) Chihuahua Desert in
4) Texas in 5 ) USA. They are basketball-sized
balls of light that bounce around during 6 ) night and
they have puzzled visitors and locals for more than
7) century.8 ) ...........first reported sighting dates
F o rm e d fro m v o lc a n ic m a g m a a ro u n d 2 6 0 m illio n years back to 9 ) .......... 1883 when Robert Ellison claims to have
a go , Black M o u n ta in is m a d e u p o f a la b y rin th o f seen ghost lights shining for days. Many people now
m assive b la c k b o u ld e rs . It's a w o n d e rfu l, u n iq u e place believe that ) Marta Lights are actually just
b u t it has a d a rk h is to ry a n d locals c la im visito rs s h o u ld reflections from car headlights. Some true believers still
beware. E xplorers have d e scrib e d th e m aze o f caves w ont accept, however, that there is probably 1 1 ) ..........
a n d n a rro w passagew ays in th e m o u n ta in a n d som e ordinary explanation for 1 2 ) .......... lights. There is even
have re p o rte d an in te rio r in h a b ite d b y v a m p ire bats and
1 3 ) ....... .. viewing platform in 1 4 ) .......... area where
g ig a n tic p y th o n s w ith in p o cke ts o f s u ffo c a tin g bad air.
hopeful light spotters can go!
C ou ntless stories te ll o f th e p e o p le w h o have w a lk e d
in to th e caves n e v e r to re tu rn . Even a fa rm e r a n d his
h e rd o f c a ttle are said to have d isa p p e a re d in to th e Speaking & Writing
m y s te rio u s caves. S om e say th a t th e eerie sou nd s o f
lo u d cries a n d b a n g in g are th e lo s t try in g to fin d th e ir 7 TeH p a rtn er tw o things you
w a y o u t. O th e rs insist it's th e n a tu ra l sou nd s o f w a te r rem em ber about each o f the places in the text.
a n d c ra ck in g stones in th e caves. T here is also a leg e nd
th a t a c a t-lik e b east calle d 'th e Q u e e n sla n d tig e r' is 3 I I I I H ku* * N o w im agine yo u 're in one o f
re sp o n sib le fo r th e d isa pp ea ra nce s as it p ro w ls th e area
th e places. W h a t can you see, hear, sense?
a n d d rag s v ic tim s in to its la ir in th e caves. In trig u in g ly ,
d e s c rip tio n s o f th e Q u e e n sla n d tig e r closely re sem b le a H o w do you feel? W rite a fe w sentences to
species o f lio n w h ic h b e c a m e e x tin c t in Q u e e n sla n d describe your visit, th en read th em to th e
a b o u t 2 0 ,0 0 0 years a go ! class or to you r partner.
75
1
Recreating monsters

Jack is not the only one following this line of research. At McGill
W hen the last Pyrenean ibex died, killed by a falling tree, the
species officially became extinct. But scientists had University in Canada, Hans Larsson has conducted experiments
already taken and carefully preserved DNA samples from this into reactivating dinosaur DNA in birds. He had been
wild mountain goat. Using these samples and a domestic goats investigating the evolution of dinosaurs long tails into birds
ovary eggs, they were able to bring the Pyrenean ibex back to short tails more than 150 million years ago. Larsson noticed that
life. Even though the clone lived for only seven minutes, some as an embryo a chickens tail has 16 small bones, but only five
scientists claim that advanced techniques could now be used to when it hatched out of the egg.
clone dinosaurs and unleash a real-life 'Jurassic Park on the Larsson found that by changing the genetic make-up of a
world! chicken he could enlarge its tail by three more bones. |_5 '
Could a T-rex really walk the Earth again? Well, dinosaurs were Larsson is convinced that this reverse evolution means that we
roaming the Earth over 65 million years ago and dinosaur DNA could see a type of dinosaur within the next hundred years!
doesnt last that long, even in teeth or bones. I 1 1 Jack The Tokyo researchers believe that they can bring the
Horner, a world famous palaeontologist at Montana State woolly mammoth back from the dead very soon. This distant
University, however, disagrees. "Of course we can bring them ancestor of an elephant died out 8,000 years ago, so the chances
back to life, he says. The science is there. of finding usable DNA are much higher. They intend to go on an
In fact, in 2003, Jack and his team made a breakthrough that expedition to frozen Siberia where they are optimistic that they will
amazed scientists. While excavating the skeleton of a find the necessary organic material.
Tyrannosaurus rex at a remote site in Montana, its thigh bone Scientists like Jack Horner are fascinated by the idea of
broke in two as they were lifting it by helicopter. Back at the unlocking the mysteries of a lost prehistoric world! He imagines
university, one of Jacks students was running tests on the bone himself teaching students on stage accompanied by what he
when she suddenly found organic material. I 2 | | it was an calls a dino-chicken on a lead! I 7 I Jack says, There is
astonishing finding that suggests that DNA might last a lot now nothing to stop us bringing back dinosaurs but ourselves.
longer than originally believed after all. He continues, though, Whether it is a good idea or not is
So does this mean that we will be sharing Earth with cloned T- another question.
rexes in the future? Jack believes its possible, but a complete
genetic map of a dinosaur would have to be worked out first and
that might take decades. I 3 | 1 Most scientists believe that
birds are distant relatives of certain types of dinosaur and have
some dormant DNA from their ancestors. So perhaps the
answer lies with birds?
^

, ' V o c a b u la r y & R e a d in g '

1 Read th e d e fin itio n and th en the


new spaper headline. Could DNA help bring
e x tin c t anim als back to life ? Read th e te x t
to find o u t.

D N A : acid in the cells of living things which determ ines the


structure and function of every cell; also responsible for
characteristics being passed on from parents to children.

DINOSAUR BLOOD VESSELS


FOUND IN 68 -MILLION-YEAR-OLD T-REX SKELETON

76
officially, preserve, domestic, clone, unleash, roam,
last, make a breakthrough, excavate, remote, thigh i*
bone, organic m aterial, finding, genetic map, distant
relative, dorm ant, ancestor, conduct experiments, see
reactivate, evolution, em bryo, hatch, reverse, G ra m m a r p- GR12
expedition, optim istic, prehistoric, lead, revive,
impressive, alteration, m agnify, am bitious, satisfying, Reflexive/Emphatic pronouns
blueprint, survive
5 Fill in: myself, yourself, him /her/itself, ourselves
or themselves. Check in th e G ram m ar
2 Read again and choose from th e sentences
Reference section.
A-H th e one w hich fits each gap (1-7).
There is one e x tra sentence. 1 Jack in tro d u ced .........................to the audience.
2 Jack and H a n s ......................... don't know exactly
A For th is reason, he is also lo o kin g a t o th e r ways
how long it will take to recreate a dinosaur.
to revive dinosaurs.
3 The student was very proud of .......................
This may n o t seem so im pressive, b u t a series
when she uncovered the dinosaur bone.
o f a lte ra tio n s could result in a com plete ly new
4 Did you make this discovery........................?
kind o f dinosaur.
5 Jack Horner ....................... isn't sure w hether
A fte r it was placed under a m icroscope and
bringing dinosaurs back is a good idea.
m agnified 4,000 tim es, she realised she was
6 We really e n jo y e d .........................at the museum.
lo o kin g a t dinosaur blood vessels ... 68 m illio n
years old! Key word transform ations
D That seems a long tim e to w a it, b u t some
g C o m p lete th e second sentence so th a t it
Japanese scientists are m ore am bitious.
m eans th e same as th e first. Use tw o to
E Ig n oring w h a t th e others said, he carried on
fiv e w ords including th e w o rd in bold.
w ith his research.
F He th in ks th a t w o u ld be th e m ost satisfying 1 The scientists found the discovery astonishing. (BY)
lecture he could ever give. The scientists......................................the discovery.
G It seemed th a t th e em bryo o f a m odern-day 2 Tom enjoyed himself at the exhibition. (GREAT)
bird could contain th e b lu e p rin t fo r a dinosaur. T o m ............................. at the dinosaur exhibition.
H It is generally accepted th a t it can survive 3 Archaeologists report that they have found a
100,000 years a t the m ost. dinosaur skeleton. (REPORTED)
A dinosaur s k e le to n ....................................................
2 Fill in: make, conduct, bring, become, break, been found.
hatch, roam, preserved, advanced, distant. 4 Sarah likes being by herself. (M IN D )
S a ra h .......................................................... tim e alone.
1 ..................e xtin c t 5 ................ samples
5 People say th at house is haunted. (SAID)
2 .................................... 6 ...................in tw o
That h o u s e ....................................................haunted.
back to life 7 ....... experim ents
3 .................................. 8 .....o u t o f an egg
S p e a k in g & W r it in g
a b reakthrough 9 ........... techniques
4 ..............the Earth 10 ...............relatives ~J ) Listen and read.
W h a t in fo rm a tio n in th e te x t did you find
th e m ost in terestin g ? Tell your partner.
Replace th e w o rd s/phrases in bold using
w ords from th e Q 2 2 2 E S 3 X E E 2 b x
b) th in k it's a good
th e ir correct form .
idea to bring back dinosaurs and o th e r
1 Do w e w a n t dinosaurs to w an d er around the e x tin c t species? W h y /W h y not? In th ree
Earth? m inutes, w rite a fe w sentences. Read
2 He enlarged th e im age o f the th ig h bone. them to th e class.
3 M ost scientists believe DNA c o u ld n 't continue
ICT
to exist fo r 68 m illio n years. 8 Collect in fo rm a tio n ab o u t
4 Dinosaurs are believed to be relatives o f birds. dinosaurs. R eport to th e class.
77
% Skills
Vocabulary Speaking
Types of books 3 a) Look a t th e list o f adjectives in th e ta b le . W hich
\ W hich are your are: p ositive, negative, n e u tra l in m eaning?
fa v o u rite /le a s t fa v o u rite types m ysterious, clever, in terestin g, exciting, gripp ing,
o f books? W hy? Tell th e class, plot w ell/poo rly-d evelo ped, fast/slow -paced, predictable,
using th e ideas b e lo w and any w eak, funny, unim aginative, original, b rillia n t, a w fu l
o f you r ow n ideas, in te re stin g , w e ll-ro u n d e d , likeable, d u ll, evil,
thriller characters
romance shallow , unusual
biography
beginning/ confusing, fla t, unexpected, d isa p p o in tin g ,
historic a/
ending e xcitin g , surprising, satisfying

b) Use th e language to ta lk ab o u t books you


have read, as in th e exam ple.
A: I recently read The Curious B: What did you think o f the plot?
m ake you th in k fascinating Incident o f the Dog in the Night A: Its really clever and original.
th rillin g exciting relaxing time'. It's about an autistic boy B: What about the characters?
learn a lo t a b o u t the past who decides to investigate the A: I found them unusual but
in te re stin g to read a b o u t o th e rs' murder o f a dog. likeable.
lives & experiences
educational 4 a) Read th e rubric, th en do th e task.
a w aste o f tim e u n re a lis tic
b o rin g /d u ll predictable silly Look at pictures 1, 2 and 3. You are spending a week at your
to o frig h te n in g English pen friend's house. It's his birthday and you w a n t to
buy him a book as a present. Choose one o f the three books
1 enjoy biographies because I find it
below. Choose the book you th in k is the most suitable and
interesting to read about other people's lives
ju stify your decision. Explain w hy you rejected the other tw o .
and experiences, I'm not so keen on science-
fiction books as I find them boring and
unrealistic.

Listening
2 Q Y ou'll hear a young w om an
ta lk in g a b o u t a book she
recently read. For questions
1-5, check T (tru e ) or F (false).
T F fa n ta sy/a d ve n tu re s to ry ] crim e/d ete ctive s to r y ) [classic rom ance f
Ann m ostly reads
scie nce-fiction novels. U seful lan guag e
The novel is one o f a I think the best choice is... because/l would choose... because.../would be
series. a good choice because.../it's a good read/interesting/fun, etc
The m ain character is I don't think... would be a good idea because... doesn't really like this type
accused o f a crime. of book. I don't think I'd buy... because it's boring/uninteresting, etc
Ann th o u g h t the
characters were poorly- b) A n sw er th e questions.
developed.
A previous jo b helps the 1 W h a t is your fa v o u rite typ e o f book? W hy?
author to w rite well. 2 W hat's your fa v o u rite book? W h a t is it about?
3 W hich book character do you like th e m ost? W hy?
78
i
The picture shows some triffids.
W h at is special about them ?
Q Listen to find out.

2 Read th e te x t. For each gap


(1-5), choose from th e sentences
(A-F) th e one th a t best
com pletes each gap. There is
one extra sentence you w ill not by John W y n d h a m
need to use.
I wish , I told Susan, irritably, youd not keep on saying they hear, as
A She realised th a t should n o t be so, if they were animals. Theyre not. They dont hear. Theyre just plants.
and tu rn e d on th e lig h t. All the same, they do hear, somehow, Susan said. Well - anyway,
I crossed the bedroom on tip to e , well do something about them I promised.
and pulled th e w in d o w shut As time went on the numbers collected along the fence continued to
sharply. increase in spite of our traps. 1 They simply settled down,
That was n o t d iffic u lt. wriggled their roots into the soil, and remained. At a distance they
D It m isted the goggles, and th e firs t looked as inactive as any other hedge. But if one doubted their
th in g I did in th e outhouse was to alertness, it was only necessary to take a car down the lane. To do so,
you had to battle through such viciously slashing stings that it was
wash it o ff my face.
necessary to stop the car at the main road and wipe the windscreen
E They d id n 't try an yth in g or do
clear of poison.
an yth in g there. Early one morning, Susan came running in to tell us that the things had
F I to o k no risks w hen I w e n t to broken in, and were all around the house. The sky outside her
fetch them . bedroom window was grey, but when she went downstairs, she found
everything there in complete darkness. 2 The moment she saw
2 M atch th e w ords in bold w ith : leathery green leaves pressed against the windows, she guessed what
the fro n t p a rt o f your foot, h it had happened.
sharply, invaders, violently, turned Even as it closed a sting whipped up from below and smacked
against the glass. We looked down on a group of triffids standing ten
quickly.
or twelve deep against the wall of the house. The flame throwers were
in one of the outhouses.
4 W rite th e adjectives th e a u th o r
n thick clothing and gloves, with a leather helmet and goggles
uses to describe th e fo llo w in g :
under a wire mask I hacked my way through the triffids with the largest
1 ............................stings carving knife I could find. The stings whipped and slapped at the wire
2 ............................sky mask so frequently that the poison began to come through in a fine
3 ............................darkness spray. | 5 [ I didnt dare use a thrower more than once to clear my
4 ............................leaves way back for fear of setting the door and window frames on fire, but it
moved them enough for me to get back unharmed.
5 ............................clo th in g
6 ..............................helm et ... Two more days passed before Susan and I could be sure that we
7 ............................knife had searched every corner of the enclosure and accounted for the very
8 ............................spray last of the intruders.... Four months later they broke in again ...
C heck th e s e w o rd s

Q Listen and irritably, trap, settle dow n, hedge, d ou bt, alertness, lane, slashing
read th e te x t. Im agine you are sting, w ipe, break in, w h ip up, smack, flam e-throw er, outhouse, wire,
in a car surrounded by triffid s . hack, unharm ed, enclosure, account (for), mist
W h a t can you hear and see?
H o w do you feel? Tell you r
partner.
Writing
A book review Read th e review and m atch th e
paragraphs (1-4 ) to th e
headings A-D below .
A book review is a short description to inform readers o f a a summary of the plot
magazine or website, etc about a book you've read. Present background inform ation about
tenses are usually used as well as a variety of adjectives to the book
make your description more specific and interesting. writer's opinion/recommendation
A review usually includes: with reasons
an introd uction giving background inform ation about the general comments on the book
book, e.g. the title, type o f book, the name of the author;
a m ain body consisting o f tw o paragraphs, one presenting Choose th e correct w o rd s/
the main points o f the plot and the other w ith general phrases. Check in a dictionary.
comments on the plot, the main characters, the beginning/
The story is set/based at the
ending, etc;
beginning o f the 20 th century.
a conclusion in which you recom m end/don't recommend the
Pride and Prejudice tells the story
book, giving reasons.
of/plays the part o f the Bennetts
and their five daughters.
This is a fantastic read - I couldn't
put it d o w n /th ro w it aw ay.
E clipse, by S tephanie M eyer, is the This book is set in/is based on the
th ird novel in the p o p u la r T w ilig h t A incredible life story o f Martin
series. It is a g rip p in g a d ve ntu re Luther King Jr.
fa n ta sy novel w h ich co n tin u e s the The exciting plot keeps the reader
in trig u in g s to ry o f B ella Sw an and absorbed/involved from beginning
to end.
E dw ard C ullen.
T he sto ry b e g in s w ith a strin g o f m yste rious The m ain/chief character is
a ctio n s in Seattle. The m ain character, Bella, fin d s herself 12-year-old Artemis.
su rro u n d e d by danger and actio n m ust be taken Overall, I found the book quite
im m ediate ly. D espite th e ir differences, the va m p ire s and thick/dull, but it had an interesting
w erew olve s jo in fo rce s and a tte m p t to co m b a t th is evil force . plo t/tw ist at the end.
M eanw hile, B ella has to ch o o se betw een her fe e lin g s for This exciting novel is sure to be a
E dw ard and her frie n d sh ip w ith Ja co b . M ore im p o rta n tly, w ill bestseller/box office hit.
she ch o o se life over death? W ill she sa crifice her hum an
W hich adjectives has the w rite r
existe nce in o rd e r to spen d e te rn ity w ith E dw ard?
used to describe th e fo llo w in g in
The b o o k s fa st-p a ce d p lo t is gua ra n te e d to keep
the review in Ex. 1?
readers a b so rb e d to the very end. It is full o f th rillin g
m om ents and d a rk te n sio n as the a u th o r creates th e dram a
le adin g up to B e lla s life -ch a n g in g d e cisio n at the end of the adventure-fantasy novel
book. The m ain ch aracters are w e ll-d e ve lo p e d and b e lievable 2 story
a nd w h a t ad d s to the n o v e ls app eal is its re a listic portrayal 3 force
of y o u n g a d u lts re la tio n sh ip s, stru g g le s and anxieties. 4 plot
I th o ro u g h ly re c o m m e n d E clip se . It is w ell w o rth reading. 5 moments
If you like rom ance and e xcite m en t and enjoyed the first tw o 6 ...................................................tension
in sta lm e n ts o f th is series, th is sa tisfyin g sequ el w ill not 7 ................................................ decision
d is a p p o in t you. D o n t m iss it! 8 ............................................... portrayal
9 .................................................... sequel
80
t
Your turn

^ Fill in : gripping, strong, well-developed,
mysterious, predictable, heart-w arm ing, likeable, Read th e rubric and u n d erlin e th e key
surprising, original. w ords, th en answ er th e questions.

1 The p lo t is s o .................................. ; you can guess * A w ebsite is asking fo r book reviews. W rite
w hat's going to happen rig h t from the beginning. | your review o f an adventure fantasy story
2 This is an e x tre m e ly ..................................................... i your have read, describing the p lot, m aking
story - I've never read a n yth in g like it before. | general com m ents abo ut it and giving your
3 This is a ..................................................................story i recom m endation (120-180 words).
ab o u t a man w h o m eets a strange w om an 1 W h a t do you have to w rite ?
dressed all in w h ite . 2 W ho is going to read it?
4 This is an a b s o lu te ly .................................................... 3 W h a t tense(s) w ill you use?
book - I ju s t c o u ld n 't stop tu rn in g th e pages. 4 W hich o f th e fo llo w in g should you include?
5 It's a v e r y .............................................................. story title & type o f book
o f a w om an w h o moves to the Congo to help h o w th e sto ry ends EH
save endangered gorillas. nam e o f a u th o r EH
6 T h e .................................................. characters are so h o w m any o f your friends have read it
....................................................th a t you feel like you w h e th e r you recom m end it
kn o w them personally by th e end o f the book. m ain points o f p lo t EH
7 The ending is v e r y ....................................................... - w h ere you can buy it EH
I d e fin ite ly w a sn 't expecting it! general com m ents on characters/p lot, etc EH
8 The them es o f love and fa ith fu ln e ss are very
................................................ th ro u g h o u t th e book. "J Use th e plan and th e phrases from th e
Useful Language section to do th e task.
Recommending
5 a) C o m p le te th e gaps w ith th e phrases in Plan
th e lis t. Para 1: background inform ation (title, type, author)
Para 2: main points o f the plot
co u ld n 't p u t it dow n is d e fin ite ly fo r you
Para 3: general comments (plot, chars,beginning/ending)
make sure it's this one in my opinion Para 4: recommendation & reasons
I've ever read you are looking for
w o n 't regret it w ould definitely recommend U seful lan g uag e
11 ) this book to Background: This is a w ell-w ritten/fascinating/
anyone w h o enjoys b e a u tifu lly -w ritte n , rom antic informative, etc book w ritten by ...; The story is set
stories. I 2 ) .................................................................from in/takes place in ...; The book tells the story o f ...
th e very firs t page. M ain points o f th e plot: The story begins/is a b o u t...;
The plot/beginning/ending is (rather/quite) dull/
If 3 ) ............................................................ a fast-paced, boring, etc; The plot/beginning/ending is (absolutely)
gripping read, this novel 4 ) ............................................. thrilling/gripping, etc; The plot has an unexpected
tw ist (at the end) when ... .
.................... It's one o f the most exciting and cleverly-
General comments: It is rather confusing/slow/dull, etc
w ritte n crime thrillers 5 ) ..................................................
(in parts).; The main character(s) is/are well-developed/
shallow/very likeable, etc; The book has a tragic/
If you read one book this year, 6 ) ............................... surprising ending.; The beginning/ending is slow/exciting,
^ .......................... You 7 ) .......................................................... etc; The book is full of thrilling/funny, etc moments....
8) it's th e author's Recommendations: I thoroughly recommend this book
best book so far. with its ... .; This is well worth reading a s ; This is
bound to be a bestseller.; This is a highly entertaining/
b) W hich sentences does th e w rite r use to fantastic etc read. You w on't be able to put it down!;
recom mend the book in the review in Ex. 1? Don't bother reading this. It's ....
()) W ritin g Bank: book reviews) 8 1

1
The Canterville Ghost
Listening by Oscar W ilde
(M ultiple m atching)

fr a

M u ltip le m atching
Remember th a t th e w ords in the
headings are unlike ly to be used by
the speakers in the audio. Think o f
synonym s fo r them and oth e r
related vocabulary before you do
th e listening exercise. This w ill help
you to understand th e content. W h e n Mr Hiram Otis of America bought Canterville Chase, everyone
told him he was doing a very foolish thing, as there was no doubt at all
that the place was haunted. Indeed, Lord Canterville himself had seen it
as his duty to mention the fact to Mr Otis.
a) Read th e rubric and th e
We have not lived in the place ourselves, said Lord Canterville, since
headings. In pairs, my great-aunt, the Dowager Duchess of Bolton, was frightened into an
brainstorm fo r vocabulary illness from which she never really recovered by two ghostly hands being
relate d to th e key w ords in placed on her shoulders as she was dressing for dinner, and the ghost
has been seen by several living members of my family, as well as by the
each heading.
vicar. After the unfortunate incident with the Duchess, none of our
younger servants would stay with us, and my wife often got very little
You w ill hear five people sleep at night because of the mysterious noises that came from the
ta lk in g a b o u t theories fo r corridor and the library.
My Lord, answered Mr Otis, I come from a modern country where we
i th e reason fo r th e b u ild in g
have everything that money can buy. I reckon that if there were such a
o f Stonehenge. M atch the thing as a ghost in Europe, wed have it at home in a very short time in
i headings (A-F) to the one of our museums, or on the road as a show.
speakers (1-5). There is one I fear that the ghost exists, said Lord Canterville, smiling, even though it
heading th a t do e sn 't m atch has avoided your travelling entertainers. It has been well-known for three
centuries. If you dont mind a ghost in the house, it is all right. Only you
i any speaker.
must remember that I warned you.
A few weeks after this, the Otis family arrived on a lovely July evening. The
A DESTINATION FOR THE SICK air on their journey from the railway station was delicate with the scent of
RELIGIOUS CENTRE
A GIANT CLOCK
Reading (M ultiple choice)
D LANDING SITE
E FOR THE DEAD Read th e rubric and th en th e te x t quickly. W h a t is th e
F OBSERVING THE STARS e x tra c t about?

Read the extract from The Canterville Ghost by Oscar W ilde.


For questions 1-5, choose the correct optio n, , , or D.
b) Q Do th e listening task.
W hich w ords helped you
decide? n rn

1 2 3 4 5 M u ltip le choice
The questions are num bered in th e same order th a t the
answers appear in th e te x t. Before a tte m p tin g a que stion, try
to id e n tify exactly w h ich p a rt o f th e te x t relates to it. This
w ill help you to focus on th e relevant section o f th e te x t.
82

pinewoods. As they entered the grounds of Canterville Chase, however,
the sky suddenly became overcast, despite a strange stillness in the air. A
big group of black birds passed silently over their heads, and before they
reached the house, some large drops of rain had fallen.
Standing on the steps to receive them was Mrs Umney, the housekeeper. S p e a k in g
She said in an old-fashioned manner, I bid you welcome to Canterville (Decision-m aking)
Chase. Following her, they passed through the fine hall into the library, a
long, low room of black wood. Mrs Otis caught sight of a dull red stain on ^ Read th e rubric. Then read th e
the floor just by the fireplace. She said to Mrs Umney: I am afraid description. W hich book is
something has been spilt there.
Yes, madam, replied the old housekeeper in a low voice, blood has being described?
been spilt on that spot."
How horrid! cried Mrs Otis; It must be removed at once. Look a t pictures 1, 2 and 3. You
The old woman smiled, and answered in the same low, mysterious voice, i are on holiday in a cottage. The |
It is the blood of Lady Eleanore de Canterville, who was murdered on that
three books below are available
very spot by her own husband, Sir Simon de Canterville, in 1575. Sir Simon
survived her by nine years, and disappeared suddenly under very fo r guests to read. Decide w hich
mysterious circumstances. His body has never been discovered, but his i one you w o u ld m ost like to read, i
guilty spirit still haunts the house. The blood stain cannot be removed, no Decide w h ich book you are
matter how hard you try. It has been much admired by tourists and others. likely to fin d the m ost
Nonsense, cried Washington Otis, Pinkertons Stain Remover will clean in te re stin g and explain why. i
it up in no time, and before the terrified housekeeper could interfere, he
Explain w h y you rejected th e
fell upon his knees and began to scrub the floor. Then a flash of lightning
+
lit up the sombre room, a terrible roar of thunder made them all get to their
feet, and Mrs Umney fainted. Mrs Umney came round after a few
moments, but she was still extremely upset.
I have seen things here, sir, she said, "that would make anyones hair
stand on end, and many a night I have not closed my eyes in sleep for the
awful things that are done here. Mr Otis, however, and his wife warmly
assured her that they were not afraid of ghosts.

a) Read th e questions and th e options. Find th e p art


o f th e te x t each question relates to.

1 Lord C anterville believes th e D ow ager Duchess o f Bolton


A became a ghost. scared the servants.
saw a ghost. D died because o f a ghost.
2 M r O tis tells Lord C anterville th a t Am erica is "I w o u ld choose it because it's a
A fu ll o f rich people. interested in European culture. classic novel th a t w o u ld m ake me
keen to fin d ghosts. D an advanced society. th in k and teach me a lo t a b o u t th e
3 The w e a th e r a t C anterville Chase on th e fam ily's arrival is past. I m ig h t fin d it m ore slo w
A summery. cloudy. w indy. D icy. paced th a n a m odern novel, b u t I
th in k it w o u ld be a satisfyin g read
4 Mrs Um ney says th e stain on th e flo o r
w ith in te re stin g characters."
A was p u t th e re fo r visitors.
appeared w hen Sir Simon de C anterville disappeared.
show s the scene o f a crime. Do th e speaking task. Use
D is th e result o f an accident in th e 16th century. language from th e Useful
Language box.
5 Mrs Um ney appears to
A be alarm ed by M r O tis's actions.
U seful lan g uag e
have seen a ghost.
have inspected th e house tho ro u g h ly. Justifying preferences
f I think it would be ...; It lo o ks...; I have a
D feel like sleeping.
feeling I would find i t ...;... doesn't/ don't
b) For each q u estion, decide on an o p tio n th a t you appeal to me; I'd rather read a ... than a
believe is d e fin ite ly w ro n g and explain w hy. ...;... just isn't/aren't my cup of tea
c) Do th e task. Compare your answers w ith a partner's.
1-
Skills 4 i
v:

Text completion Word Formation


Read th e rubric, th en do th e task. Com pare a) Read th e rubric, th en read th e te x t
w ith you r partner. quickly. W h a t is it about?
i
Read the text. Fill in the gaps w ith the proper i Read the text. Fill in the gaps w ith the >
i gram mar form o f the capitalised words. proper lexical form o f the capitalised
i words. i

Coincidences are those amazing little


accidents of chance th a t seem like a one in a
- f 6 o n
m illion. We've all experienced them at one
tim e or another. But w hy do you think they
1 ) ...................... ? Is it, as mathematicians say, HAPPEN
V Not Quite
just a m atter of numbers? Or, is there some It was like something from a sci-fi film. In
other force at work in the universe? Let's take 2007, a spacecraft sent to Mars by the ^
a look at some amazing coincidences and American space 1 ) ..................................
you can decide w hat the answer is. NASA photographed something that
John Adams and Thomas Jefferson were both looked like a large gorilla-like creature. As
president's and Founding Fathers of the the image seemed to show a figure with
United States w ho 2) ...................... to w rite HELP arms and legs walking down a hillside, it
the Declaration of Independence. This led to 2 ) ..................................... with the
docum ent was signed on 4th July, 1776, legendary Bigfoot. However, there was a
which is Independence Day in the US. Adams much more 3 ) ...............................................
and I fferson both died on the same day. explanation. NASA insisted that the photo
They ed on 4th July, 1826, exactly 50 years showed merely a feature of the
aftei ) ...................... the declaration they SIGN 4) Martian landscape.
both elped to write. They said it was in fact a stone that had
In the early 70s, the famous actor Anthony been carved by the wind. Whats more,
Hopkins got a part in a film called The Girl this Bigfoot was a 5 ) ...............................
smaller one - at just 5 cm tall!
from Petrovka, based on a novel by George
Feifer. Anthony tried all over London to get
hold of the book but no bookshop 4 ) ............ HAVE
it. Then as luck would have it, he found a
copy on a bench in a train station. When he b) Do th e task. M ake sure your spelling is
opened it, he realised that it was George accurate. Check w ith you r partner.
Feifer's personal copy of the novel.
Is it just luck that many celebrities' names form
W r it in g (a story)
anagrams that tell you a great deal about their
lives? For instance, out of Albert Einstein's g a) Read th e rubric and u n d erlin e th e key
name you can find the phrase, 'ten elite
w ords. W h a t could your story be
brains'. It's also pretty spooky that Princess
Diana's name turns into 'end is a car spin'. But abo ut? Decide on: m ain characters, place,
there's no doubting that Sean Connery can tim e, th en w rite a p lo t fo r your story.
5 ) .......................'on any screen'. FIND
The jury is still o ut on whether coincidences Your fa v o u rite English-language radio
are anything more that just blind luck. W hat s ta tio n is running a sh o rt story
do you think?
co m p e titio n on th e them e o f unexplained
experiences. W rite a sto ry w ith the title A
Mysterious Occurrence (120-180 w ords).

b) Use your notes in Ex. 8a to w rite your


story.
84
Language in Use - j

Phrasal verbs/Prepositions Word formation


*f Choose th e correct p a rtid e (s ). Fill in th e sentences w ith th e correct w ord
derived from th e w o rd in brackets.
keep away: prevent access to, hold back **................... " r .............. "S,

.
keep off: stay away, prevent from stepping/climbing on sth Forming abstract nouns from verbs/adjectives
keep on: continue We can use -ance (import-importance),
keep up w ith : move at the same speed -ence (occur-occurrence), -cy (accurate-accuracy),
le t dow n: disappoint -ion (predict-prediction), -(i)ness (lazy-laziness),
le t o u t (of): release (from prison/captivity)
-ity (popular - popularity) to form nouns from verbs/adjectives.
pick on: treat unkindly
pick out: choose 1 T h e ......................................................................... o f the
pick up: 1) lift w ith hands 2) take someone away in a car
strange lights over the city was reported on the
1 Please keep o ff/a w a y th e grass! evening news. (APPEAR)
2 D o n 't w orry. Anna w ill never let you o u t/d o w n . The Sm iths enjoy t h e ..................................................
3 The girls kept up w ith /o n ta lkin g . (QUIET) a n d .................................................(PRIVATE)
4 Sam has ju s t been le t o u t/d o w n o f prison. o f th e ir b e a u tifu l hom e in th e country.
5 I'll pick you u p /o u t at 7:00 at th e a irp o rt. Loren Colem an ow ns a la r g e ....................................
o f a rtifa cts fro m strange creatures. (COLLECT)
2 Choose th e correct p repo sition. W hat's t h e ......................................................betw een
1 They had lots o f th in g s in /a t com m on. an allosaurus and a T-rex? (DIFFER)
2 He is an expert fo r/o n strange creatures. U FO -spotting is a p o p u la r .........................................
3 He blam ed him se lf fo r/o n th e m istake. in New M exico. (ACTIVE)
4 W hy is th a t man staring to /a t us?
Collocations
5 Some species o f anim als are fe w in /a t num ber.
Fill in: weather, lifelong, annual, demand, native,
Words often confused travel, video, full, welcome, drive, highly, closely.
2 Choose th e correct w o rd . 1 ..... .... festival 8 secretive
1 The festival attrac ts/d raw s a lo t o f visitors. 2 ..... jo u rn a lis t 9 a ...............................
2 Her heart dropped/sank as th e plane to o k o ff. 3 ..... ... balloon a d d itio n
3 They w andered/w ondered aw ay from the group 4 .................. fo o ta g e 10 to ............................
looking for any rem aining debris. passion you crazy
4 We all ad m itted/accepted th e to u r was great. to ........... 11 ....................... m oon
5 Is it possible to take/bring dinosaurs back to life? evidence 12 resemble
6 They ca n 't say w h ere th e answ er lies/lays. tribes

M ark th e sentences T (tru e ) or F (false) and correct th e false sentences.


Read th ro u g h M o d u le 4 and w rite a quiz o f your o w n . Give it to your
partner. Check h is/her answ ers.

The Roswell Incident The Naga fireballs lig h t up


happened in 1947. th e sky every fu ll m oon.
5,000 locals saw lights in the There are vam pire bats in the
sky above Socorro. Black m ou n ta in caves.
Loren Colem an became interested Dinosaurs died o u t around 150
in strange creatures a fte r w a tch in g m illio n years ago.
a docu m en ta ry a b o u t B ig fo o t............ JFK died o f natural causes.
The coelacanth died o u t in 1938.......
f) Revision 4 p. 130 8 5

f f :

1 ^ f aJ ' K ' 4
f* / ' .4 l . k
t '/ 1. ' -
. - / r ', # f i
- -.y ; h v 1 Jr f
ri t t . v /

f \ V-
Suddenly ... the sky was split in two and high above the The Tunguska region is so remote that it took over a decade for
forest the whole northern part of the sky appeared covered in scientists to organise an expedition to investigate the event.
fire. At that moment, there was a bang in the sky and a Most experts now believe that a comet or asteroid was to blame
mighty crash ... followed by a noise like stones falling from for the destruction. They say that as it ripped through the sky it
the sky, or of guns firing. The earth trembled. This is how a heated the air around it to 24,700 degrees Celsius and
witness described one of the most mysterious and frightening eventually exploded into a fireball at 8,500 meters above the
events to occur on the planet in history. ground, releasing energy equal to about 1000 times the atomic
It was around 7 am on 30th June 1908 near Vanavara in bomb dropped on Hiroshima. Recent studies of the area have
Siberia and people were just waking up when suddenly there revealed a pleasantly surprising fact though. The soil in the
was huge explosion in the skies above the Podkamennay Tunguska area is richer than volcanic ash and the plant life is
Tugunska River. The shock of the blast was so strong that it growing four times faster than it normally should. In fact, it
was recorded by instruments as far away as England. Millions seems the comet, meteor, or asteroid, may have been a gift from
of trees were flattened and thousands of reindeer and other the heavens as the area is becoming like a Garden of Eden.
wildlife were killed. Surprisingly, and fortunately, there were no
C heck th e s e w o rd s
human victims though. After the blast, thick clouds gathered in
the skies over the region reflecting the sunlight away. At the splitTbang, m ighty, trem ble, witness,
occur, explosion, blast, flatte n,
time no one understood what had happened and local people
reindeer, gather, region, reflect,
thought that the god Ogdy had punished them. rem ote, expedition, com et, asteroid,
blame, rip, release, reveal, volcanic
- ash, heavens

R e a d in g & L is te n in g ^ M atch th e w ords in th e list to


th e w ords in bold in th e te x t.
| Look at the picture. W h at do you know about the
Tunguska event? Think o f three questions. 1 d is ta n t ..............................
Q Listen and read the text. Can you answer your questions? 2 be the cause o f ..............................
3 shake v io le n tly ..............................
4 m ove rapid ly ..............................
> Read th e te x t again and choose w hich o f the statem ents
5 very p o w e rfu l ..............................
(1-5) are T (tru e), F (false) or NS (n o t stated).
6 happen ..............................
1 M illio ns o f people saw th e explosion in th e sky........................
2 People fe lt th e blast as fa r aw ay as in E ngland......................... 4 Tell th e class fo u r things th a t
3 The explosion killed m any anim als................................................. you have le a rn t a b o u t th e eve n t.
4 A t first, the locals th o u g h t the blast
was caused by a god. .......................................................... ICT Find o u t m ore a b o u t the
5 The explosion was alm ost as pow erful Tugunska e ve n t. W rite a short
as the Hiroshima bom b .......................................................... te x t a b o u t it. Read it to th e
6 A lo t o f people w ere killed or injured in the explosion............... class.
Vocabulary: learning experiences, martial art skills,
' school subjects, technology in education,
achievements, gap year experiences, higher education
Grammar: reported speech (statements, questions,
commands), special introductory verbs, tim e clauses
Everyday English: borrowing library books
Into nation : word stress
Phrasal verbs: pass, stick, think
W ord form ation: abstract nouns
W riting: a for-and-against essay
Culture Corner: The Duke of Edinburgh's Award
Curricular (PSHE): Train your Brain (improving
memory)
Russia 5: Yuri Rozun Foundation

Do you think th a t school


V o c a b u la ry studies teach people
Learning experiences everything they need to
know? W hy (not)? family & home environment
Look a t th e pictures. W hich o f
Discuss in pairs.
these influences have ta u g h t
you th e m ost at d iffe re n t
stages in you r life?

under 5 years old 12-16 years old fthe mass media


[educational
6-12 years old 18+ years old , institutions

When I was under 5 years old, I learnt


the m ost from my fam ily and home
environm ent.

Q Listen to someone talking


about different life skills. travelling
Then, discuss the saying,
"Learning does not start
and stop at the classroom
door." [free-tim e activities!

f \ \ i 7-
f t youth groups &
mmm '- f * -- ^ - - - * ^social organisations]
mmp
RationsI
JcOEO

inform ation technology

nature & the environment


n Extraordinary skills
V o c a b u la ry
M a rtia l art skills
^ Q Listen and say. W hich o f
th e actions can you see in
th e pictures?

balance body on the tips o f


spears lie on a bed o f nails
break bricks on som eone's body
th ro w oneself in to the air
w a lk b a re fo o t up a staircase o f
knives fig h t b lin d fo ld e d
do the splits stand still w ith
legs bent craw l on hands and
knees dow n a m ountain

W hich o f these qualities does


som eone need to have to be
able to do these actions:
courage, patience, discipline, pride,
determination, inner strength,
arrogance?

I th in k th a t someone needs to have


courage to be able to do these actions as
they seem dangerous to me. I also th in k ...

R e a d in g
1

Predict content
Read th e title and th e firs t
and the last sentence in each
paragraph.
This w ill
help
you predict co n te n t o f
te xt.
v
Read th e title , th e first and
th e last sentence in each
paragraph. W h a t is the
te x t about? Read
through and check.
conditions with many of them A I M atch the w ords in bold w ith th eir meanings
beginning at the age of five, then I f - ~
below . W h at part o f speech is each word?
could survive a m onth here!
Well, the m onth flew by and by the firm ly decided tire d very hard ta le n te d
end, I felt incredible. H I The monks
passed quickly ben t tiredness
constantly told us that we would build
character and learn hum ility through d iffic u lty am azem ent
hardship and discipline and that's exactly m oved fo rw a rd on hands and knees
what I experienced. Although I couldnt preparation by doing exercises
quite break bricks on my head, I left the m ore d iffic u lt aggressive
academ y with a new inner strength and J4P
see
determ ined to work hard to achieve my goals
in life. Still, upon my return, I co u ld n t wait $
G ra m m a r p .g ri3
for a hot shower tm g s g * - ... Reported speech (statem ents)
and a relaxing sleep in %J r i
my com fortable bed. \^ Study th e exam ples. W h a t is rep o rted
speech? H o w do direct statem en ts
d iffe r from rep o rted statem ents? Check
in th e G ram m ar Reference section.

DIRECT SPEECH REPORTED SPEECH


1 ^ Z Z Z T .T a"d ,,1* a" 'We went to a Shaolin monks Joseph told Phil tha t they had
performance last niqht,"said gone to a Shaolin monks
a b o u t then^.^0rm anC e ' iUSt k" e" 1 > < '> m m ore
Joseph to Phil. performance the night before.
v ~
b) Report th e fo llo w in g , as in th e exam ple.
s i S s Sr le b U ,IC O M n ', d o i l '0' ^ r e , ^ a le w
1 I'm leaving fo r China next Friday, (next Saturday)
inS n e S K S e 'S mabU' PSi,i ",W 3 feW m i s I th o u g h t you said you were leaving on Saturday.
2 Jack is a Kung Fu teacher, (karate)
th in k in g '"' SUr e 3 mo * ' remember
3 Sue has spent a m onth stu dying yoga, (a year)
4 Joseph le ft last w eek, (a m onth before)
Check these words
5 W e'll g e t up a t 6 am to m o rro w . (5 am)
spin, land, spear, gasp in am azement, stunning scenery, 6 I was planning to go fo r a run later, (go to the
take breath away, muscles, to my relief, bent, failure, gym )
punch, kick, m artial art, m editation class, constantly,
7 She is learning Chinese. (Japanese)
build character, hum ility, discipline, inner strength,
m ental strength c) Find th ree reported statem ents in the
te x t. Change them in to direct speech.
4 Read again and m atch th e sentences (A-F)
to th e gaps (1-5). There is one extra
S p e a k in g & W ritin g
sentence. W hich w ords helped you decide? Q Listen and read. You're a radio
8
presen ter and you r p a rtn e r is a Shaolin
5 Fill in: inner, goals, exhaustion, stunning, life- m onk. Prepare questions and answ ers fo r a
changing, gasped, character, failure, breath, energy. radio in te rv ie w a b o u t daily life a t a Shaolin
School. Act o u t you r in te rv ie w .
5 experience
in am azem ent 6 feel sick f r o m ........ ^ W h a t did Joseph learn w h ile he
2 .....................scenery 7 feel fu ll o f .............. w as tra in in g w ith th e Shaolin monks? H o w
3 take y o u r ............... 8 b u ild ......................... do you th in k this experience w ill help him?
aw ay 9 ................... stren gth In th re e m inutes w rite a fe w sentences,
4 feel like a ............... 10 achieve my ........... th en read th em to you r partner.
()) Vocabulary Bank 5 pp. VB 18-VB 19) 8 9
i a The way we learn
V o c a b u la ry
School subjects
'I In a m in u te list as m any
sch o o l/u n iversity subjects as
you can th in k of. W hich are
you r fa v o u rite ones?

Chemistry - M aths - Medicine

T echnology in
education ACADEMY
a) Q Listen and say. Salman Khan, a Harvard University graduate, sits in a converted cupboard
at home in Boston. Hes studying for a lecture hes going to give, but it
take an o n lin e course wont be a typical hour-long lecture in a lecture theatre for forty or fifty
w a tch lectures/educational students. Salmans lecture will take place on YouTube, it wont last for more
than ten minutes, and it will reach a potential audience of millions. He
videos online
records up to eight lectures like this every day.
com plete an MBA th ro u g h a This all grew from a young girls desire to do better at school. In 2006,
Facebook app lication Salmans 13-year-old cousin Nadia was having trouble with Maths, so she
have priva te lessons asked him if he could tutor her. Then when other relatives and family friends
enrol a t a sch o o l/university asked him when he could tutor them, too, he didnt want to keep explaining
the same things over and over again, so he suggested creating videos and
have lessons w ith in te ra ctive
putting them on YouTube. To Salmans surprise, his cousin admitted that
w h ite b o a rd s she preferred the virtual Salman to the real thing! She explained that on
YouTube she could watch the clip whenever she wanted and repeat
b) Listen to th re e people
anything she didnt understand. She was learning successfully and Khan
ta lk in g . W hich o f th e realised it was because she could go over and over something at her own
learning m ethods in Ex. 2a pace without feeling embarrassed.
is each ta lk in g about? W h a t Salman's homemade video lectures soon attracted peoples attention on the
ad van tag es does each Net. As he recorded more and more videos, he eventually decided to quit his
job as a financial analyst to create a free educational website, the Khan
m ention?
Academy. Before long, tens of thousands of people were watching his lectures
every month. In each video, he explains a principle of a subject ranging from
$ m
Maths, Chemistry and Economics to History and Biology. The clips are far from
high tech. Khan never appears in his videos. Instead, with just his voice and his
scribbles on a digital sketchpad, he makes a complicated topic entertaining
R e a d in g and easy to understand through his informal, chatty style. My biggest goal is to
Read th e firs t tw o paragraphs try to deliver things the way I wish they were delivered to me, he says.
When Salman doesnt know anything about the subject he wants to teach,
o f th e te x t. H o w are th e
he gives himself a crash course in it first. He researches it until he feels he
fo llo w in g relate d to Salman can explain it in his own words, step by step so that a motivated 7-year-old
Khan? H arvard U niversity, Boston, would understand it. Khan admits that he makes occasional errors with this
YouTube, Nadia learn-as-you-go approach, but he believes that students see the process
Q Listen and read to find out. better when they watch him stumble through a problem himself.
Bill Gates, chairman of Microsoft, claims that Khan is his favourite teacher and
Check these words uses the videos, which now have about 2 million users, with his children.
Some teachers are also using the videos as a teaching resource. They have
university graduate, converted,
told their students to use Khans videos at home and have seen fantastic
lecture, potential, tuto r, adm it, virtual,
results. As for the future of the academy, Salman is planning to translate his
clip, at your ow n pace, a ttra ct
a tte n tio n , q u it, principle, scribble, videos into ten languages and he is even thinking of opening his own private
crash course, m otivated, occasional school. He is full of new ideas such as not dividing classes by age, using
error, approach, process, stum ble, board games to teach negotiation skills and even teaching history backwards.
claim, teaching resource, negotiation It seems hes committed to challenging and changing the way people learn.
skills, com m itted In the meantime, though, its back to his cupboard to record more videos!
90
ia
4 a) Read th e te x t again and fo r 5 Choose th e correct w ords.
questions 1-5, choose th e 1 I'm enrolling/studying for exams at the m om ent.
best an sw er , , or D. 2
Jane adm its/claim s th a t she som etim es bores her students.
Justify you r answ ers.
Sam fo u n d th e lecture m otivated /co m p licated.
1 Salman began recording videos in 4 Khan's style is c h a tty /ta lk a tiv e and in fo rm a l.
order to 5 Kate researched/investigated her project online.
A avoid tu to rin g his niece. 6 M arg are t pays fo r her children to go to p rivate/in d ivid u al
help his niece w ith schoolw ork. school.
save him se lf some tim e. 7 Tom gives lectures to a(n) crow d/audience o f thousands,
D im prove his tu to rin g skills.
see pp. \
2 Salman believes students learn
b e tte r w hen they
G ra m m a r ^ R 1 3 '14

A can use m u ltim e d ia resources. Reported qu estio n s/co m m an d s


have a private tu to r. g a) Read th e exam ples. H o w do w e report: a yes/no
are in terested in w h a t th e v 're q u e stio n ? a wh- q u e stion? the im perative?
learning.
D d o n 't feel under pressure. DIRECT SPEECH REPORTED SPEECH
Is he a teacher!1" she said. She asked if/whether he was a teacher.
3 W h a t seems to m ake Salman's
Where is he fro m she asked. She asked where he was from.
videos pop ular is
Make notes," he said to me. He told me to make notes.
A th e sim ple w a y he
Don't write on the screen,"he said to me. He told me not to write on the screen.
com m unicates.
his am azing know ledge.
his use o f advanced technology. b) Fill in said, told or asked, th en re p o rt th e sentences.
D th e ir a ttra c tiv e design. 1 "W hen does th e class s ta rt? " Tim asked me. Tim asked me
4 Salman believes th a t his m istakes when the class started.
A m ake his videos m ore fun. 2 "H ave you w a tche d any o f Salman Khan's video lectures?"
can help students. M a tt Sam.
m ake students like him more. 3 "C all me to n ig h t!" J a n e to Tom.
D can be a problem fo r some 4 "W hen w ill you be hom e fro m school?" I Danny.
students. 5 "C an I b o rro w this boo k?" K im ............... Julie.
6 "D o n 't ta lk in th e lib ra ry !" s h e ................u s .
5 Salman's plans fo r th e fu tu re
include
A encouraging more schools to use
S p e a k in g & W ritin g
his m ethods. W ork in groups o f th re e . Y ou're a radio
try in g o u t new teaching p resenter in te rv ie w in g Salm an Khan fo r you r show.
m ethods. Your p a rtn e r is Salm an. Prepare fo u r questions and
recording videos on new answ ers based on th e te x t. Act o u t you r in te rv ie w . The
subjects. th ird m em ber in th e group reports th e d ialo g u e to th e
D changing the education system. class.

b) M atch th e w ords in bold to


th e ir m eanings: m istakes, 8 * l l l l i T - M Khan Academ y's goal is to p rovide free
confessed, varying, possible, edu cation to anyone an y w h e re . H o w can it help
considering, changed, give people? In th re e m inutes w rite a fe w sentences. Tell
up, d iffic u lt, dedicated. th e class.
()] Vocabulary Bank 5 p. VB20)

is Culture Corner
W h a t do you kno w a b o u t th e
Duke o f Edinburgh's A w ard?
Read th ro u g h to fin d o u t.

Read again and fo r gaps 1-6,


choose th e best answ er , , or
D. Give reasons.
Q Listen and check.
DE
he Duke o f Edinburgh's Aw ard (also called the D o f E ) is a
very well-known and popular youth programme in the U K
that aims to help young people aged 14-24 1 ) th e ir fu ll
potential! It gives young people the chance to develop their character
and their life skills as they take 2 ) ...... in all kinds o f exciting
3 Fill in : different, pick, full, easy, extracurricular activities. Started as a small all-boys programme in
charity, comes, skills, rescue, gold. 1956 by the Duke o f Edinburgh, today 275,000 young people from
different backgrounds are working towards their D o f E at any one
1 ......................................... p o te n tia l
2 life ........................................................ tim e in the U K !
Participants can progress through three levels o f the D o f E, the
3 ....................................background bronze (challenging), the silver (more challenging) or the gold
4 ........................................... to achieve (extremely challenging and not fo r the faint-hearted). I t s definitely
5 a n im a l.......................................centre not easy to achieve any o f the awards. 3 ) ...... have to take part in
6 ................................................. shop activities in four areas: Volunteering, which could mean volunteering
7 ...........................................an a c tiv ity at an animal rescue centre or w orking in a charity shop fo r six months;
8 ............................................ awards Physical, which m ight be getting a certificate in parachuting or
9 ............................................. your w ay flamenco dancing; Skills, which could be doing a jewellery-m aking,
first aid or cookery course; and Expedition, which could be planning a
rowing trip down the Danube in Germany. A ll this can take anything
4 a) Q Listen and read. Explain from three months to three years! The best thing is - young people
th e d iffe re n t types o f this can pick exactly which activities they want to do in 4 ) category.
a w ard . U ltim ately, it s all w orth it and all the gold awards 5 ) by the Duke
o f Edinburgh him self at a royal palace.
From beginning to end, it s great fun doing a D o f E and employers,
b) H o w can this
colleges and universities get excited if they see it on a persons CV.
aw a rd help young people?
In th re e m in utes w rite a The important thing though, is that, You learn to love something, work
fe w sentences. Tell th e hard, be focused and disciplined and then you will be ready fo r when the
rr w ___ j
class.
said 6) her silver award.

ICT Find info rm ation A reach A Competitors A presented


touch Contributors are to be presented
a b o u t an aw ard th a t young meet Players are presented
people can obtain or a youth D come D Participants D have presented
organisation th ey can belong to A action A all A about completing
in your country (e.g. w hat it is, part every having completed
place each to complete
how it started, w h at it involves, why
risk D many D to have completed
someone should do it/ta k e p a rt in it.)
W rite a paragraph abo ut it then
Check these words
read it to th e class.
aim, fu ll potential, extracurricular activity, progress, challenging,
anim al rescue centre, charity shop, parachuting, first aid, expedition,
row ing trip , pick, ultim ately, royal palace, focused, disciplined
92
Everyday English
B o rro w in g 2 Find sentences in th e dialogue w hich mean:
library books Someone has borrow ed th a t book. - W ould you
H o w o fte n do you like me to keep it fo r y o u ? - Here you are. - You
use a library? have to retu rn the books in one week. - Let me
W here? W h a t for? have a lo o k on m y com puter.

1often use the school library


to do research for a project. P ro n u n c ia tio n : emphatic stress
2 a) Q Listen and say. Pay a tte n tio n to th e 4 a) Q Listen and rep ea t. W hich w o rd /
pro n u n ciatio n . syllable is being em phasised in each
Do you know the title o f the book and the sentence?
author?
1 a Sam came to the lib ra ry w ith me yesterday,
I'll check on th e co m p u te r fo r you.
b Sam came to the lib ra ry w ith me yesterday.
I'm afraid it's o u t rig h t now.
W ould you like to reserve it? 2 a You m u s tn 't ta lk so loudly,
W hen w ill it be back in? b You m u s tn 't ta lk so loudly.
Can I take these tw o books out, please?
They're due back one w eek from today. b) Q Listen to tw o d iffe re n t w ays o f
saying th e sentences below . W hich
b) Which o f these sentences w ould a
w o rd /s y lla b le is stressed each tim e?
librarian, a student say? Decide in pairs.
H o w does th e m eaning change?
Q Listen and read to find out.
I'd prefer to go to th e library later.
Jane: Hi, I w o n d e r if you could help me. John le n t me th is b rillia n t book.
Librarian: O f course. W hat's th e problem ? The m aths te st was very d iffic u lt.
Jane: I'm lo okin g fo r a book fo r my First Aid
class.
Librarian: Do you know the title o f the book and the S p e a k in g
author? I'll check on the com puter fo r you.
Jane: It's First Aid Made Easy by Sally Bryan. Use th e sentences in Ex. 2a to act
Librarian: A lrig h t. Just one m om e nt ... Oh yes. I'm o u t a sim ilar d ialo g u e a t th e library. Follow
afra id it's o u t rig h t now . W ould you like th e plan.
to reserve it?
Jane: Yes please, th a t w o uld be great. W hen
w ill it be back in? Ask lib ra ria n fo r help.- Reply.
Librarian: It's due back in three days. W ould you Say w h a t you c a n 't fin d . Ask fo r title /a u th o r.
like to leave your name and num ber? I Reply. Tell A it's o u t & ask if
can call you w hen w e have it. th e y w a n t to reserve it.
Jane: Oh yes, th a n k you. That w o u ld be great. Ask w h en it' Tell A w h en & ask fo r
It's Jane Sm ith, 7463546. Also, can I take back in. phone num ber.
these tw o books o u t, please? Give phone num ber & Ask to see card.
Librarian: Certainly. Can 1 see your lib ra ry card, th e n say you w a n t to
please? take o u t some books.
Jane: Yes, here it is. O ffe r card. Say w h en books are
Librarian: OK, there you go. They're due back one due back.
w eek fro m today. Thank lib ra ria n . End conversation.
Jane: OK, th a n k you very much.
Librarian: You're w elcom e.
93
Overcoming th
V o c a b u la ry
A chievem ents
Q Listen & say. Which
would you most like to
achieve in the future? Every night, William
Kamkwambas sisters
get a degree would huddle around the
in ve n t som ething to faint light of a kerosene lamp
to read and study in the hope of
im prove people's lives
a better future. That was before
pass yo u r d rivin g te st their brother, who was only fourteen
establish a successful at the time, built windmills that
business brought electricity to his village of
Masitala in Malawi, Africa. Now, this self-
w in a scholarship to a
taught inventor is setting his sights even
co lle g e/u niversity higher, aiming to light up an entire country!
learn to speak a fo re ig n It all began with the famine of 2001 when
language food was so scarce in Malawi that
ten thousand people died of
ta ke p art in a charity
starvation. Williams family
proje ct survived on just one
w in a sports com petition meal a day, but they *
do w e ll in yo u r exams/a didnt have enough money
to afford the $80-a-year tuition
test
fees for Williams school. Forced to
I'd like to win a scholarship to a drop out, he refused to give up and carried on his education from
textbooks in the small local library. There he learnt all about
university and get a Law degree.
electricity and motors, but it was the cover of one book in
particular that truly captured his imagination. It showed
R e a d in g windmills. With a windmill, I could stay awake at
night reading instead of going to bed at seven with the rest of Malawi, William realised,
Look at the picture and Wed finally release ourselves from the troubles of darkness and hunger.
the title of the article. He set about building one from an old bicycle and pieces of scrap metal from tractors.
Ignoring the other villagers (including his mother), who thought he was crazy, over two
Which o f the things in
months he managed to assemble a 5-metre high windmill that supplied enough power
Ex. 1 do you think William to light four small light bulbs. In a country where only 2% of thepopulation has access
Kamkwamba has to electricity, this was like a miracle! Villagers came from all around to see the electric
achieved? wind. With the addition of another windmill that helped irrigate his fathers crops,
William was transforming his village through renewable energy all by himself.
Q Listen and read to find News of the boy who built windmills spread through blogs and newspaper articles. Bryan
out. Mealer, an American journalist, had spent five years in Africa when he heard about William. He
immediately knew that this was the story that he had been waiting for and in 2009, The Boy
Check these words Who Harnessed the Wind, was published. Soon, influential people started to see that William
was a real asset to his country and before long, he was invited to speak at conferences, he had
huddle, faint, kerosene lamp,
documentaries made about him and universities abroad were offering him scholarships.
self-taught inventor, set one's
William is currently studying for a degree in America, but he plans to return home with
sights high, famine, scarce,
more ideas to help his village. Thanks to generous donations, Masitala now has clean
starvation, tu itio n fees, drop
drinking water and solar panels. William also finished a project to build new classrooms
out, truly, capture, scrap metal,
for his old primary school which is equipped with laptops that run on energy from his
ignore, w in d m ill, lig h t bulb,
windmills. He still worries about his mother, though: I havent solved the problem of
have access to, miracle,
firewood. Each day, my mother has no choice but to walk three hours to collect a
irrigate, renewable energy,
handful of wood to cook the family meal. Its a walk that gets longer every day as
influential, real asset,
Malawi loses about 500 sq kilometres of forest every year due to illegal deforestation.
scholarship, generous,
Experiments with solar ovens made out of tinfoil havent quite worked out yet, so for the
donation, due to, tin fo il,
moment William has turned to a more hands-on method - planting more trees.
hands-on m ethod, shining
William Kamkwamba might not have the solution for everything just yet, but hes a shining
example
example of all that can be achieved when just one person dreams of a better world.
94
b) M a tch th e w o rd s in b o ld to th e ir
la
1 a) Read again. Say w h a t focus each question
m eanings: spare, caught, a t present, bright,
has, then choose the correct answers
intending, stop, made known, lack o f food.
(, , or D). Justify your choices.

1 W illiam and his sisters used kerosene lamps because , C hoose th e c o rre c t w o rd s . Check in y o u r
A th e y w a n te d a b e tte r fu tu re . d ic tio n a ry . M a ke se n tences u sin g th e w o rd s
it was th e o n ly lig h t source th e y had. y o u w o n 't choose.
it helped save electricity.
1 Sam fe ll/d ro p p e d o u t o f un ive rsity because he
D they enjoyed reading a t nig h t.
c o u ld n 't a ffo rd th e high tu itio n /te a c h in g fees.
2 W hy did W illia m leave school?
2 A fte r fa ilin g several tim es to g e t in to university,
A He needed to w o rk to help feed his fam ily.
Jim was ready to give u p /a w a y .
He dropped o u t th ro u g h lack o f interest.
3 A picture o f a w in d m ill on th e c o v e r/to p o f a
He c o u ld n 't pay fo r his lessons.
book c a p tu re d /c a u g h t W illia m 's im a g in a tio n .
D He was able to g e t a b e tte r education a t the
4 Kerosene lamps provide a fa in t/fa d e d lig h t.
library.
5 They s u rv iv e /re m a in on one meal a day.
3 In little m ore than 8 w eeks W illia m m anaged to
6 Solar panels p ro d u c e /s u p p ly po w e r to M asitala.
A produce sm all am ounts o f e le ctricity fo r his
7 W illia m was o ffe re d /p ro v id e d scholarships.
village.
8 W illia m is a s h in in g /b rig h t exam ple o f w h a t
provide tw o per cent o f his country's electricity.
one person can do.
b uild w in d m ills all around his village.
D end th e villa gers' food and m oney problem s. see
4 H ow did Bryan M ealer hear a b o u t W illiam ? G ra m m a r ^ GR15
A In a boo k w ritte n by an Am erican jo u rn a lis t.
Special introductory verbs
A t a conference he was in vite d to .
From various reports in blogs and articles. Use th e s e v e rb s to r e p o rt th e sen te n ce s:
D In a docu m en ta ry th a t was made a b o u t him. promise, suggest, com plain, deny, remind, offer,
5 In paragraph 4, 'asset' is used to show th a t apologise, explain.
W illia m 1 " I'll help you w ith your essay," she said.
A had im pressed some im p o rta n t people. 2 "W h y d o n 't you study fo r a degree?" he said.
was an excellent public speaker. 3 "M y h isto ry le cturer is so b o rin g !" Ann said.
could be o f good use to his country. 4 "I d id n 't cheat in th e exam ," Phil to ld me.
D w o u ld do very w e ll a t university. 5 "D o n 't fo rg e t to hand in yo u r essay to d a y,"
6 A t the m om e nt W illia m is Ann to ld Jane.
A in sta llin g solar panels in his village. 6 "W o u ld you like to share my boo k?" he said.
b u ild in g new classrooms a t his old school. 7 "I'm sorry I copied yo u r w o rk ," Bill to ld her.
collectin g d o n a tio n s fo r his projects. 8 "I was late because I missed my bus," he said.
D stu d yin g a t a fo re ig n university.
7 W illia m 's m o th e r has to S p e a k in g & W ritin g
A cook w ith a solar oven.
p la n t trees fo r fire w o o d . Tell th e class fo u r th in g s t h a t im p re sse d yo u
w a lk great distances daily. fro m th e te x t.
D prepare only one meal a day.
8 The w rite r's purpose is to Im a g in e y o u are W illia m . You
A advertise W illia m 's inventions. have ju s t p u t to g e th e r th e w in d m ill a n d are
relate an inspiring story. a b o u t to te s t i f it w ill lig h t th e b u lb s . W rite
encourage others to become inventors. a fe w se n te n ce s d e s c rib in g y o u r fe e lin g s .
D pro m o te a book. Tell th e class.
95

Taking a gap yeai
V o c a b u la ry

^
G ap year experiences
a) Q Listen & say. W hich o f these ^
Take a break
-----------------
experiences give th e chance to: Chelsea Toblin was feeling burnt out after so much hard
help the e n viro n m e n t? work for her degree and so decided to take a break before
starting her Masters. Almost as soon as she had made her
help a co m m u n ity? learn (a) new skill(s)?
decision, she was on a plane down under to become a
w o rk as a beekeeper rancher for the next eight months on an isolated sheep station
study opera in Italy deep in the Australian outback hundreds of kilometres from its
nearest neighbour. Training as a jiilaroo was just the kind of
coach fo o tb a ll a t a school in Zambia
excitement and sense of freedom that Chelsea had been
help re h a b ilita te injured anim als looking for, but she soon learnt that it was back-breaking work
drive sled dogs in Siberia too. Not long after she arrived, her work clothes were already
help b uild an orphanage in China grubby from grooming horses and cleaning out the stables.
learn to be a c o w b o y/co w g irl on a ranch The most challenging part of my first week was helping with
the sheep shearing. It was a lot harder than I thought. It took
do a massage course in Thailand
all my strength to push the animal into the shearing shed. The
help conserve coral reefs in Fiji shearers were absolutely brilliant, too. They work incredibly
quickly and can shear a whole animal in less than a minute.
b) W hich ones can you see in th e pictures? By the time Chelsea left the farm, she had learnt a lot about
looking after both horses and sheep, mending fences,
lassoing and whip cracking, too. It
R e a d in g wasnt all hard work, though Many
evenings, we toasted
2 Look a t th e pictures and read th e first marshmallows over a campfire and I
sentence in each te x t. W h a t do you th in k played my guitar and we all sang
each person's experience involved? songs, Chelsea says. "Above us
Q Listen and read to find o u t. was the clearest and starriest
sky Id ever seen. So what did
Chelsea miss most when she
Read again and fo r questions 1-15, choose got home? Pulling on her
from th e people A -. C om pare w ith you r cowboy boots,
partner. mounting her horse
and riding out into
W hich person ... the Australian
outback, of
_____________ W\|^V-I 14-1IV_\
course!
had ju s t a tta in e d a q u a lifica tio n ?
set o u t to achieve a long held goal?
could have stayed closer to home?
to o k exercise classes?
stayed near a m ajor city?
lived in a place fa r fro m a to w n ?
had to take a safety precaution?
w as im pressed by th e ir co-w orkers?
p u t th e ir university studies on hold?
fo u n d th e w o rk physically dem anding?
had to pay to learn som ething? Masters, sheep station, outback, groom , stable, sheep
shearing, shearing shed, mend, w h ip cracking, lassoing,
had fo u n d th e ir studies very tirin g ?
toast, m arshm allow, starry sky, requirem ent, w o rk-
had to m anage w ith fe w supplies? based, coach, resources, rolled up, sticky tape, fo o tb a ll
intends to re tu rn to th e co u n try th e y pitch, practice, eager, average wage, session, clap, kit,
visited? beat, poisonous, step back, grand, fall in love w ith ,
96 voice coaching lesson, rehearsal, breathing control

I
For Paul Skarr it all started with
his Sports Science degree
requirement to do a work-based
learning project. Most students
Ever since Olivia Stewart was a young girl, she has
find work locally, but I was keen to
dreamt of singing in a grand concert hall. Her dream became
volunteer in a needy part of the
a reality when she interrupted her Music degree to take a year
world, says Paul. So off he went to
off on sabbatical to get a taste of opera in Italy. Living with an
Zambia to coach football at a school in a
Italian family and having language lessons each morning was
small village not far from the capital, Lusaka
an essential part of the experience. Mastering the language
When Paul arrived he found a rundown school house with very few
takes your performance to an entirely different level when you
resources. He was amazed to see that the children were using
learn not only how to pronounce the words properly, but also
rolled up plastic bags held together with sticky tape to play football!
the deeper meaning of what youre singing, Olivia says.
One of Pauls first tasks was to get the children to mark out a
Opera is like great literature set to beautiful music. You cant
full-sized football pitch in a clearing in the woods next to the
help falling in love with it.
school. They erected goal posts made from tree branches, too.
Olivia spent her afternoons having private voice coaching
At the first practice, about 75 youngsters arrived, very eager to
lessons, performance rehearsals and even pilates classes to
go! Some had even come from neighbouring villages. It was
help develop muscles for better breathing control. The
some of the childrens first opportunity to play proper football,
highlight of Olivias stay, though, was performing opera at
which isnt surprising when a football costs about $60 and the
an open-air concert in a beautiful
average monthly wage is just $40. The session was a great
piazza.*
success. After wed finished practice the children clapped
After she finishes her music
excitedly and then they all rushed to clean my boots, and get all
degree, Olivia hopes to make
the kit ready for the next day! Paul told us.
it back to Italy and continue
One exciting part of each day for Paul was when he and the
studying opera and, she
children beat the ground of the pitch before they started to play
says, to sample more of
to chase away poisonous mamba snakes. But despite some
the amazing Italian
difficulties because of the harsh living conditions, it was a great
gelato,**which is to die for!
experience for Paul. The kids are so happy to play and have a
*piazza = square
coach even though they have so little else... It really made me
gelato= ice cream
step back and think about whats important in life.

g Use these w ords/phrases to


G ra m m a r p . Gr 16
m ake sentences a b o u t your
Time cla u se s4 fu tu re plans: when, as soon as,
Read th e exam ples. W hich o f th e h ighlig hted w ords is not by the time, after, until.
a tim e w ord? W hich sentences refer to th e present/
I'll study Biology when I finish school.
future? W h a t tense do w e use a fte r a tim e w ord w hen
When I finish school, I'll study Biology.
th e sentence refers to th e future? W hen do w e use
commas to separate a tim e clause from th e m ain clause?
S p e a k in g & W ritin g
By th e tim e John arrived, they had left.
I'll take a gap year w hen I finish school. Im agine you are
W hen will she be back? one o f th e people in th e
te x t. Tell you r p a rtn e r all
Choose the correct tim e word and put the verb in brackets a b o u t your experience.
into the correct tense. Put commas w here necessary.
She spoke Italian well by th e tim e/since s h e ............................... W h a t do you
........................................... (leave) Italy. th in k each person le arn t
U n til/A s soon as h e .............................................................(arrive) in from th e ir experience? In
Zambia he met the students at the school. fiv e m inutes w rite a fe w
Before/W hen I ........................................................................(see) you sentences. Tell th e class.
I'll show you my photos.
Chelsea saddled her horse since/after s h e .................................... g * W hich o f these
(groom ) it. experiences w o u ld you choose
They didn't play football by th e tim e /u n til i t .............................. to have as p a rt o f a gap year?
(stop) raining. W hy? Tell th e class.

t
Subjects
Biochemistry
^ 0 Skills History o f A rt

V o c a b u la ry People
Buildings &
H igher education stu d e n t
facilities
lecturer
^ C om plete th e w o rd lists. Try to science lab
add m ore w ords o f your ow n. library Types o f
Com pare w ith your partner. learning

librarian Media Studies lecture theatre sem inar


classroom M odern Languages tutorial
online university Philosophy
hall o f residence Medicine gym
vocational college professor canteen
lecture tu to r head o f departm ent b) Compare the photos and talk about the pros
and cons o f learning. Use the ideas below
S p e a k in g and the language in the box to help you.
a) Describe th e Lectures: gives an overview o f main them es - guidance
pictures. on how to research fu rth e r - lecturer gives a reading
list and raises questions to develop students' th in kin g -
passive/not interactive - boring
Online learning: easy to access & convenient, students
study w hen they w a n t - isolates students, requires
com puter skills

Comparing Speculating
In picture A, ...; It looks like ...;
w hile /b u t/a lth o u g h in ... seem(s) to be ...;
picture ...; ... is/are p ro b a b ly ...;
b) Q Listen to som eone com paring th e However, ...; (in) both/ne ithe r It m ay/m ight/could
pho tog raphs. H o w is each learning o f the p ic tu re s ...; be ...;
s itu atio n effective? On the one hand ... on the I'd say it / t h a t ...;
other hand ... P erhaps...
N o w look a t pictures & D and describe
3
th em .
^ W hich w a y o f learning do you th in k is th e
m ost en jo ya b le and w hy? Tell you r partner.

Listen in g
5 Q You w ill hear studen ts ta lk in g ab o u t
th e ir experiences in higher edu cation .
M atch th e speakers (1-5) to th e headings
(A-F). There is one e x tra heading.

A NOT FOR ME D NEW CHALLENGES


Comparing photos A SHAKY START E THE BEST OF BOTH
W hen com paring tw o photos, s ta rt w ith a THE TIME OF MY WORLDS
general sum m ary o f th e to p ic. Then m ove o n to LIFE F FITTING IT ALL IN
a com parison o f th e tw o photos. Finally, give
yo u r o p in io n w ith an explanation/exam ples.

98
t
Curricular: p s h e i a

Read th e t it le o f th e te x t, th e
in tr o d u c tio n and th e h e a d in g s.
H o w can w e im p ro ve o u r You forgot someone's name, you
left your essay a t home or maybe
m em ory? Read and check.
you can't remember where you
parked your car! Mem ory is your
m m ability to store, retain and recall
inform ation in your brain, but
O pen cloze sometimes our memories let us
down. Fortunately, there are lots
Read the te x t once to get the general
o f creative tricks you can use to
idea. Read again and try to id e n tify keep your memory in top form!
w h a t part o f speech each missing w ord
is e.g. verb, noun, conjuction, etc. Pay
a tte n tio n to the w ords before and afte r Chunking
Try breaking down strings of information, 0) like phone numbers, into smaller
each gap. They w ill help you do the chunks. So instead of trying to remember 791845, remember it as 79 18 45.
task. Read the com pleted te x t to see if This works even 1 )........................if you associate something meaningful with
it makes sense. each chunk, too. Let's say you're 2 ) .............................for a History degree at
university. You could say 79 AD is the year Vesuvius erupted in Pompeii, 18 is
your age and 45 is your room number in your hall of residence. Finding
Read a g a in a n d c o m p le te th e personal connections like this anchors information in your memory.
gaps w ith th e c o rre c t w o rd . Thinking in pictures
C o m pa re w ith y o u r p a rtn e r. Try thinking in images rather 3 ) ................words. Let's say you have a new
part-time job and your boss's name is Alice Barker. To remind you
4 ) ................ her name, make some connections: Alice w ith Alice in
Find a ll th e p h ra sa l Wonderland and Barker w ith a huge barking dog. Now picture Alice falling
down the rabbit hole closely followed 5 ) ................a snarling dog. The more
v e rb s in th e te x t. M ake
vivid and weird the images, the better this technique works.
se n te n ce s u sin g th e m .
Word association
"Mnemonics 6 ) ....................... as '30 days has September, April, June and
4 Fill in : remember, memorise, recall, November..." have long been used by people to help 7 ) ..................remember
remind. tricky information. So the next time you need to remember the spelling o f a
difficult word or the names o f some people you've just met, why not try
1 .................. me to call John to n ig h t! coming 8 ) ................. w ith your own silly rhyme, song or poem? The sillier and
funnier the better!
2 ................... to lock th e fro n t door!
Location, location, location!
3.................................. these 10 w ords
The Romans used a visualisation technique called 'loci' to remember lists o f
fo r M onday. things. Imagine a room in your house. Mentally place the things you need
4 I can happy tim es playing to remember on the furniture. When you want to recall the items,
9) an imaginary walk around the room. When you recall the
in th e park w hen I was young. furniture, which is easy because the room is familiar 1 0 )................ you,
you'll recall the objects easily, too.
Q Listen and read. Use th e
Practice makes perfect
in fo rm a tio n in th e te x t to This is true, but psychologists say that we remember more effectively when
e x p la in h o w w e can tra in o u r we space out our learning. So don't cram for tests and exams! When
b rain s to rem e m be r th in g s . 11 ) .................. to memorise new words in a foreign language, for instance,
repeat them a few times, then take a break. Then come back to them. Perhaps
W hich te c h n iq u e s do you put flashcards around the house w ith words written on them ... you will
th in k can he lp you? 12 ) ..................seeing them and they will be slowly burnt into your long-term
memory.
b) ICT Do som e In te rn e t These are just a few tips. Experiment to see what works best for you! Above all, eat
well and get plenty of sleep and exercise. Staying healthy will give your memory the
research on o th e r m e m o ry best boost of all!
te c h n iq u e s y o u can use. Use
Check these words
th e key w o rd s : w a y s to
im p ro v e y o u r m e m o ry . Tell retain, recall, let sb down, keep in top form, chunk, break down, string o f
th e class. inform ation, erupt, personal connection, barking, snarling, weird,
mnemonics, tricky, rhyme, visualisation, mentally, effectively, space out,
cram for, take a break, burnt into your memory, long-term memory, boost QQ

I Writing
A fo r-a n d -a gain st essay

W ritin g for-and-against essays


For-and-against essays present th e advantages and disadvantages
o f a to pic. They norm ally consist of:
! H ow w o u ld y o u like to take an
an introduction presenting th e to p ic without giving an opinio n;
e n tire ye a r o ff to see th e w o rld ? M any
a main body presenting the points fo r and against the issue in
sc h o o l-le a v e rs c h o o s e to d o ju s t th a t by
separate paragraphs. Each argum ent is supported w ith ta k in g a gap year. T he y tra ve l a ro u n d ,
ju stifica tio n s and examples. Each paragraph should sta rt w ith a w o rk in g to s u p p o rt th e m se lve s as th e y
to p ic sentence th a t summarises the main idea o f the paragraph; go, b e fo re re tu rn in g to a p e rm a n e n t jo b
a conclusion presenting th e w rite r's o p in io n or g iving a o r u n iv e rs ity studie s. Is th is re a lly a
balanced consideration o f th e to pic. w o rth w h ile th in g to do?
W ith o u t a doubt, th e re are m any
For-and-against essays are w ritte n in a form al, im personal style
a rg u m e n ts in fa v o u r o f ta k in g a gap
so short sentences, co lloq uial expressions and idiom s are avoided.
year. To begin w ith, it is a w e lc o m e
You can begin and end your essay w ith any o f th e fo llo w in g b re a k a fte r fin is h in g s e c o n d a ry s ch o o l.
techniques: Y o ung p e o p le have tim e to stand back
address th e reader directly: We a ll know how frightening it can be and c o n s id e r th e n e xt step in th e ir
to sit an im p o rta n t exam. career. C onsequently, th e y re tu rn
h o m e w ith m o re e n e rg y and a fre sh
include a q u o ta tio n : As M artin H Fischer said, "Any m an who does
o u tlo o k . In addition, a gap y e a r can
n o t make him self proficient in a t least two languages other than his
p ro v id e th e ch a n ce to e xp e rie n c e o th e r
own is a fo o l." c u ltu re s o r be in v o lv e d in a w o rth w h ile
include a rhetorical question: Isn't it amazing th a t you can now v o lu n te e r p ro je c t. Lastly, because it is
study subjects like video game engineering and surfing science? o fte n a y o u n g p e rs o n s firs t ta ste o f
in d e p e n d e n c e , it can h elp th e m
d e v e lo p a m o re m a tu re and re s p o n s ib le
^ Read th e rubric and answ er th e questions.
- ch a racter.
i You have seen th e fo llo w in g ann ouncem ent in an ! On the o th e r hand, ta k in g a gap
J in te rn a tio n a l trave l m agazine: ye a r doe s have c e rta in disadvantages.
I "Should all school-leavers take a gap year before starting work Firstly, tra v e llin g is n o t cheap. P aying
fo r expenses such as flig h ts , fo o d and
1 or university?" Send us an essay discussing th e pros and
a c c o m m o d a tio n co u ld easily g e t yo u
i cons o f th is proposal.
in to d e b t. M o re o v e r, w h e n y o u n g
1 W rite your essay (200-250 w ords).
p e o p le re tu rn , th e ir frie n d s m ay have
m o ve d on to new jo b s and new frie n d s .
W h a t typ e o f essay do you have to w rite ?
As a result, it m ay be d iffic u lt to f it back
W h a t style w ill you w rite it in? in to life at h om e.
W rite A fo r advantage and D fo r disadvantage next to items In conclusion, I b elieve th a t ta k in g
1-8 related to taking a gap year. Compare w ith your partner. a gap y e a r can be an in c re d ib ly
1 welcome break after studying cultures Q 6 friends will have re w a rd in g e x p e rie n ce , d e sp ite th e
d ra w b a cks. As Saint A u g u s tin e o n ce
^ j; 2 can be a waste o f time moved on1when you return Q ;
w ro te : The w o rld is a b o o k and th o s e
without good planning Q ; 7 makes you more mature & w h o d o n o t tra ve l read o n ly a page.
3 teaches life skills & builds responsible Q 8 more time to
character Q ; 4 expensive & can decide what you really want to do
create debt Q 5 chance to see with your life [[ W hich parag raph (1-4): gives the
the world/learn about different w riter's opinion? presents the topic?
2 Read th e essay. W hich techniques has th e w rite r used gives the argum ents against? gives
to s ta rt/e n d th e essay? the argum ents for?
100


see
p. GR 16 Your turn
LINKERS
To list/add points: Firstly, First o f all, To start/begin w ith , 0 Read th e rubric, u n d erline th e key w ords
Secondly, Finally, In addition, Furtherm ore, Moreover, and an sw er th e questions.
To introduce/list advantages: The first/Another advantage
o f ..., One point in favour o f ..., Some people feel/argue that I A w e b site fo r students is asking fo r opinions
..., W ithout a doubt/Certainly there are many argum ents... 1 on th e fo llo w in g issue: Should all teaching and
To introduce /list disadvantages: The first/m ain/O ne/ J learning take place online these days? W rite a for-
A nother disadvantage o f ..., One argum ent against ... is i and-against essay discussing th e pros and
t h a t ..., Some/ Many people are a g a in s t... because ... cons o f this proposal (120-180 w ords).
To introduce examples/justifications: For example/instance,
1 W h a t do you have to w rite and w h o w ill read
such as, like, because, as, since, as a result, therefore, etc.
it?
To show contrast: On the othe r hand, However, In
2 W h a t w ill each paragraph include?
contrast, although, even though
3 H ow could you beg in/end yo u r essay?
To conclude: In conclusion, To conclude/sum up, All in all,
4 W hich sentence (1-3) is in favour o f the proposal
Finally, Taking everything into account
and w hich is against it? M atch each v ie w p o in t
To give your opinion: I think/believe th a t ..., I am
w ith a ju stifica tio n /e xa m p le (A-) below.
strong ly/tota lly in favour o f ..., In my opinion/view, I am
strong ly/to tally a g a in s t..., It seems/appears to me t h a t ... Students can
X................................................. ^ It is more
Participate in lessons Online teaching
4 Choose th e correct w ords, th en replace th e convenient than
from anywhere in the and learning can
linkers in bold in th e te x t w ith alte rn a tiv e s . traditional schools
world. be cold and
and classroom s^
1 As a result/To begin w ith , there are many impersonal. 5]
advantages to using the Internet in the classroom.
Furthermore/For example, it has a lo t more There are no fixed hours and students can
in form ation than the average school library. log on and o ff w hen th e y w a n t.
2 Some people feel th a t/O n e argum en t against A com puter cann ot replace th e face-to-face
students should be allow ed to study subjects com m u nica tion betw een a teacher and a
th a t in te re st them therefore/because they class.
w o u ld learn m ore effectively. Students livin g in rem ote areas can s till have
3 All in all/ln contrast, some people argue th a t access to an education.
online learning facilitates learning. M oreover/
For instance, students m ust be w ell-organised to 5 Think o f more advantages/disadvantages
be able to keep up w ith the pace o f the course. and justifications/exam ples to support them .

Put th e sentences in th e correct o rder 1-5.


W hich is th e topic sentence? Suggest an
Use you r ideas in Ex. 6 to w rite your essay.
a lte rn a tiv e .
Follow th e plan b elow . Use d iffe re n t
A These w ill be extrem ely valuable to students techniques to s ta rt/e n d you r essay.
in th e ir fu tu re careers.
For example, one school found th a t 30 m inutes
o f exercise improved students' reading scores.
Plan
First o f all, there is evidence th a t brain Para 1: present topic
a ctivity is enhanced by physical exercise. Para 2: advantages with justifications/examples
Para 3: disadvantages w ith justifications/examples
D There are m any advantages to m aking PE a
Para 4: conclusion & own opinion
com pulsory subject in schools.
E In a d d itio n , sports teach skills such as
te a m w o rk and o rg anisation al skills.
()) W ritin g Bank: for-and-against essays 1 0 1

L isten in g
You w ill hear an in te rv ie w
b e tw e e n a radio presenter and
a stu d en t. Choose th e correct
answ er A, or fo r th e
questions (1-4).
How would you like to attend a university that teaches
1 Am y says she took a gap year to you how to find inner peace in stressful times, or how to
A g e t some trave l experience. be happy without 1 ) ...................... money? For many SPEND
g e t some w o rk experience students, doing a degree not only opens their minds to
have a long holiday. new academic ideas, but also to new ways of living as
they meet people from different backgrounds and live
2 H ow did A m y pay fo r her trip to independently at the same time. But why not address
Africa? lifestyle choices in the lecture theatre too? Thats the
A Her parents gave her the money. philosophy at Alfred University in New York, USA, where
An o rg a n isation funded it. optional seminar-style classes in recent years
She w o rke d and saved up. 2 ) ...................... Movement and Stillness: Yoga and INCLUDE
Meditation; Happiness and Stinginess, and the Good Life
3 W h a t did A m y fin d d iffic u lt? on a Dollar a Day. The latter 3 ) ...................... on the idea BASE
A th e accom m odation that capitalist society was built on a lie - that you will be
n o t being able to sleep happy if you spend money. Alfred students have also
th e w o rk studied the reasons behind the success of popular
culture hits such as the Harry Potter books and the TV
4 W h a t does A m y say she le a rn t in show The Sopranos in the sessions, which are held in the
particular? evening. The classes have been popular with students.
A firs t aid One 4 ) .....................that they created an environment SAY
h o w to teach kids where learning for fun was put first, while another said he
enjoyed 5 ) ...................... around people who knew not to BE
h o w to w o rk in a team
take life too seriously, but took their studies seriously.

Text com pletion Speaking


Read th e te x t. Choose th e Read th e rubric. Do th e task.
proper gram m ar form o f th e _ _ _ _ _ . _ _ _ _
capitalised w ords in bold. Fill in I Your school has recently decided it w ould like to introduce i
th e gaps. some new extra-curricular lessons and activities for students,
i As a student leader, you have been asked for your opinion on i
which subjects and activities students w ould enjoy most,
i Before m aking a decision, ask your teacher about:
w h a t subjects and activities the school is considering
i th e cost, if any
w h a t days and tim es they are offered

You sta rt th e conversation.


i Remember to:
be active and p o lite
1 ask the questions and find out all the inform ation you need 1
i decide on w hich extra-curricular lesson or a c tiv ity and (
give reasons fo r yo u r choice


R e a d in g (M a tc h h e a d in g s
to p ara grap h s) My life is my message
4 a) Read th e rubric, th en read
th e title and th e
Gandhi
in tro d u ctio n o f th e te x t. In India he is remembered as the father of the nation'and he
W h a t is it about? is famous the world over for his belief in peace and non
violent protest. Gandhi believed that people have the power
to achieve positive change by walking the path of peaceful
Read th e te x t a b o u t Gandhi resistance. It's a path Gandhi walked all his life...
and m atch th e headings
I (A-E) to th e num bered
paragraphs (1-4) o f th e te x t. Gandhi was born Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi in India on
2nd October, 1869 into a merchant family. When he was 19, Gandhi
Use each heading once. There
broke with tradition and left India to study Law in London. Then, in
I is one extra heading.
1891, he accepted a job at an Indian law firm in Durban, South Africa,
where he remained for twenty years. Gandhi was shocked by the
b) Read th e headings and discrimination against Indian immigrants in South Africa and headed a
u n d erline any key w ords. In campaign for their civil rights. During this time, Gandhi developed his
pairs, try to find w o rd s / principle of 'satyagraha' which means 'devotion to truth' through non
phrases in th e paragraphs violent action. Gandhi was sent to prison many times for leading
th a t relate to th e headings. peaceful campaigns of civil disobedience. Before he left the country,
though, the South African government made many of the changes he
had called for.
c) Do th e task.
2 I | In 1914, Gandhi returned to a troubled India which was
A V icto ry against th e odds occupied by the British Empire. Gandhi felt that India could never truly
An everlasting influence be free as long as it remained under British rule. He wanted to work
towards Indian independence and create greater understanding
A religious man
between all classes and religious faiths across the country. In 1919, he
D G row ing beliefs
joined the new Indian National Congress Party and launched a policy of
E The long w a lk peaceful non-cooperation with the British, including a boycott of British
goods and institutions. One of Gandhi's most famous protests was
against the tax on salt imposed by the British authorities. He led
thousands of people on a 320 km 'march to the sea' to make their own
salt from seawater. Because of his various campaigns, Gandhi was
imprisoned four times: in 1922, 1930, 1933 and 1942.
3 ] | Nevertheless, as a result of Gandhi's talks and negotiations
with the British government, India won independence in 1947.
However, there remained fierce tension between different religious
groups in the country. On 30th January 1948, Gandhi, then aged 78,
was assassinated. The assassin could not accept Gandhi's belief that all
faiths were of equal value. Gandhi was on his way to a prayer meeting
when he was shot three times in the chest.
Gandhi maintained his life-long belief in peace, non-violence
and that all people were created equally. His beliefs informed all areas of
his life; in meetings he always wore the simple clothes of an Indian
villager, while the politicians around him dressed in formal suits. He also
followed a vegetarian diet and lived a simple life. In India, he was called
'Mahatma' Gandhi which means 'great soul'. There, his birthday is
celebrated as an official holiday and also as an international day of non-
Gandhi spoke to everybody, everywhere when he said, "Be the
you want to see." And indeed, his achievements remain an
to people all over the world; his life truly was his message.

103

W o rd fo rm ation W ritin g
Read the text. Fill in th e gaps w ith th e proper lexical form
o f th e capitalised w ords. j a) Read th e rubric and
u n d erline th e key w ords.

TS NEVER TOO LATE TO W rite an essay (120-180


BECOME A SWIMMER w ords) discussing the
advantages and
Swimming is much easier to learn as a child than as an disadvantages o f going on
adult. Children are better able to relax and float in the a school exchange visit to
pool, whereas grown-ups have had more time to a n o th e r country.
develop afear of the water. However, swimming
1 ) .............................. often say that teaching adults is the INSTRUCT
most rewarding part of their job. Thats because theyre
b) Use th e list to com plete
so 2 ) ............................ of what the teacher does for APPRECIATE
th e ta b le . Add you r ow n
them after so many years of unease around water. Not
3) ............................. , people who have suffered SURPRISE ideas.
4) .............................. water-related experiences like near- TRAUMA
learn a b o u t a n o th e r culture
drownings usually take longer to become
deal w ith cultural differences
confident in the water than others.
Swimming teachers need to have new experiences
5 ) ........................... they teach SURE g e t hom esick
such pupils at their own pace expensive
and that they never feel forced develop language skills
to do something that makes them feel
6 ) ............................... COMFORTABLE

Key w o rd tran sfo rm a tion s

Use the words in capitals to rew rite the sentences, keeping


the original m eaning. Use tw o to five words including the
w ord given.

1 The headteacher called a m eeting o f all th e s ta ff im m ediate ly


on arriving .
SOON As ................................................... , th e headteacher
called a m eeting o f all th e sta ff.
2 The librarian said to me, "D o n 't ta lk so lo u d ly !"
NOT The lib r a r ia n .................................................................
......................................................................... so loudly. 0 Do th e w ritin g task. Use ideas
3 I was really lo o kin g fo rw a rd to s ta rtin g my course. from Ex. 7 to help you. Try to
W AIT I ........................................................................................... use d iffe re n t techniques to
.......................................................................my course. s ta rt/e n d you r essay.
4 The villa ge has clean w a te r because o f John's in ve n tio n .
THANKS It i s ....................................................................................
...................................... th e village has clean w ater.
5 He d id n 't leave his jo b ; he decided to study fo r a degree p art-
tim e.
INSTEAD He decided to study fo r a degree p a r t - t im e ......
............................................................................. his jo b .
104

Language in Use
Phrasal verb s/Prep osition s W o rd form ation
Choose th e correct particle. Fill in th e correct w o rd derived from th e
w o rd in brackets.
pass out: 1) distribute, hand out 2) lose consciousness
pass up: not take advantage of
Word formation - abstract nouns
pass away: die
stick at: keep trying to succeed at sth difficult We can add the suffixes -ship (relation-relationship)
stick around: not leave and -hood (adult-adulthood) to the end o f words to
think up: imagine, create make abstract nouns.
think through/over: consider carefully v_________________________________________________ /

1 The course was tough but she was determ ined to Dan had a h a p p y ........................................... (CHILD)
stick at/around it. He w o n a ........................................................ to study
2 They th o u g h t up/over a great way to raise money. A rt History. (SCHOLAR)
3 He passed u p /o u t th e essays he'd m arked. M y .......................................... w ith Brian began five
4 D o n 't go hom e yet; stick at/a ro u n d fo r a w h ile ! years ago. (FRIEND)
5 Ann's dog passed u p /aw ay yesterday. There is a fa n ta stic lib ra ry in my ..........................
(NEIGHBOUR)
> Fill in: to, in, w ith, of. Tom sta rte d his ow n business a fte r doing a
tw o - y e a r ............................................. as a mechanic.
1 They d ie d ........................sta rva tio n . (APPRENTICE)
2 Helen fe ll in lo v e .................... her new house.
3 She g a s p e d ......................am azem ent. C ollo cation s
4 She d r e a m t ............................... tra v e llin g abroad.
Fill in: course, activities, fees, halls, inner,
5 They d o n 't have access..........................electricity.
occasional, negotiation, financial, energy, full,
6 He is a real asset ...............................th e com pany.
university, art.
W o rd s often confused ........................ skills 7 m a r t ia l...................
j Choose th e correct w o rd . gradua te 8 c ra s h .......................
tu itio n ................... 9 .....................analyst
1 He to o k /h eld a short break to have lunch.
renew able ........... 10 p o te n tia l
2 He had th e opportunity/occasion to w o rk in
e xtra curricular 11 o f residence
an anim al shelter.
12 ........................ error
3 Training to be a cow boy is hard jo b /w o rk .
6 .................. stre n g th
4 They set th e ir goals/sights high.
5 He is a shining/sparkling exam ple to everyone.

M a rk th e sentences T (tru e ) or F (false). Correct th e false sentences. Read


th ro u g h M o d u le 5 and w rite a quiz o f you r o w n .
The Shaolin m onks are tra in e d 6 Fees at Khan Academ y are high.
in the a rt o f Kung Fu. 7 W illia m Kam kw am ba b ro u g h t
Salman Khan is a university lecturer........ e le ctricity to A frica.
The Boy who Harnessed the Wind 8 Breaking d ow n in fo rm a tio n
is a b o u t Bryan Mealer. helps you rem em ber it.
Tai Chi is a m artial art. 9 Jilaroos are opera singers.
The Duke o f Edinburgh's A w ard 10 'D o w n und er' refers to A ustralia.
is fo r u n iversity students.
Revision 5
R e a d in g & Listen in g
W h at is Yuri Rozun Foundation?
Q Listen and read to find out.

Read th e te x t again and choose


w hich o f th e statem en ts (1-5)
Russia has always been known for its gifted musicians and the country
are T (tru e ), F (false) or N5 (n o t
has produced som e of the greatest com posers and performers in
stated ).
history including world fam ous Tchaikovsky and Rakhmaninov.
Tchaikovsky and R akhm aninov Nowadays, in order to preserve and continue this great musical
b oth g o t scholarships w hen tradition m any institutes and private individuals support talented
they w ere young. ...... children who hope to one day follow in the footsteps of their
2 Yuri Rozum scholarships are forefathers and becom e musicians.
fo r children o f all ages. ...... The Yuri Rozum International Charity Foundation was created in 2005
3 C hildren seeking a scholarship to invest in the musical future of Russia. Since then, it has been
have to perform before awarding scholarships to children from the ages of 7 to 17 who wish to
study music but whose parents cannot afford school fees. The idea
judges. ......
behind the program m e is that if a child is talented they should be
4 The scholarship has to be used
given every opportunity to be able to develop their skill. To select the
to pay music school fees..................
children who will be given an award, com petitions are held every year
5 A lo t o f th e m oney is raised
in all of Russias regions. Children are invited to com e and perform
th ro u g h music events. .......
before a jury of judges who decide whether they are worthy of an
award or not. Those who are selected are given financial support to
M atch th e w ords in bold in th e help them with their musical studies for one year. They can spend this
te x t to th e ir m eanings. m oney to buy instruments, pay school fees or private lessons and for
travel and living expenses if they have to live away from home. At the
1 deserving s o m e th in g ........................ end of the year judges review the participants progress and if they
2 able to pay ........................ believe that the child has worked well the scholarship can be renewed
3 keep ........................ for another year.
4 choose ........................ Money to support the foundation is raised in different ways but the
5 a b ility ........................ main fund-raising events are concerts. Every year on the UNESCO
6 chance ........................ International Day for the Protection of Childhood the foundation holds
a music festival in M oscow during which the winners of the previous
years scholarship perform. It is a fantastic way to show what great
Tell th e class a short sum m ary
work the foundation does and raise m oney to help even more young
o f th e te x t.
musicians.

ICT Find o u t m ore a b o u t th e


Yuri Rozum In te rn a tio n a l
Check these words
C h arity Foundation. W rite a
short te x t. Present it to th e gifted, composer, preserve, fo llo w in sb's footsteps,
class. forefather, invest, award, fee, jury, w orthy, financial support,
expenses, review, scholarship, founda tion, fund-raising


Vocabulary: appearance & character, changing
one's appearance, types o f people, body language,
body types, com m unication mistakes
Grammar: the causative, speculations, inversion,
clauses
Everyday English: rearranging an app ointm ent
Intonation: expressing sym pathy
Phrasal verbs: fill, hold, try Getting to
know you
W ord form ation: form ing nouns from verbs
W riting: a description o f a person
Culture Corner: Haka (New Zealand - cerem onial
dance)
Curricular (Science): Anim al com m unication
Russia 6: The captain's daughter by Pushkin
vow/
Describe tw o people
P7 you know .
I ] Lauren is our neighbour. She's in
her m id-thirties and has
stra ig h t brown hair and a M r Sm ith
tanned com plexion. She seems
mi|[i
to be trustworthy.

gsIT*
I *1*1iVAfi] 1fH

...................
iiil >](>]
M r Harris
;
7 square/o v a l / ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ M tace
8 a o a te e /IIIH IH IW W illH IB illlllilllilliH llllllllilllH beard

Q Listen and check, th en say.

Character / i
2 M atch the adjectives to their synonym s.:
Listen and check, th en say. : ;
kin d-h earte d aa eager
eager :g
Q | a m bitious bb shy
shy
E H fu n -lo vin g caring
caring
in tro v e rte d d o u tg o in g
e ffic ie n t e ill-te m p ere d
tru s tw o rth y f organised
m oody g reliable
rude h im p o lite

2 W h a t does each person in th e photos look


like? W h a t does each person seem to be
like? Use w ords/phrases from Exs. 1 8i 2 to
describe th em .

M r Smith is in his late sixties. He's got wrinkled skin, a full


white beard and moustache and bushy eyebrows. He seems
to be a kind-hearted person. He doesn't seem to be rude.
Changes
V o c a b u la ry
C h a n gin g one's appearance
^ a) W Listen and say.

b) 4 ,i W hich o f these changes have y o u /y o u r


frie n d s /fa m ily m em bers m ade? Tell you r partner.

I've had m y ears pierced.

R e a d in g
2 Read th e title and th e first sentence in
each parag raph. W h a t is th e te x t about?
Q Listen and read to find o u t.

You a re what
you think you are! 1
Two teenagers, Joe and Kate, are standing in front of their epic films flex beautifully toned rippling muscles. But more
mirrors getting ready for school. Joe thinks to himself: Tm than likely, they have had them digitally enhanced, or
too skinny. Why arent I tall and muscular? Its not fair. And photoshopped, as they call it in the trade. Not to mention 35
look at those spots - I look really awful! A little inner voice the fact that many celebrities choose to have cosmetic
5 tells Kate: Youre fat and ugly in these jeans. Your legs surgery done to enhance their appearance. None of this
should be longer. And you hairs horrible - all curly and reflects a realistic body image, so its no wonder
frizzy. No one will look at you twice! If these thoughts sound adolescents are made to feel inadequate and unsure of
familiar, thats because Joe and Kate are far from being themselves. 40
alone.
The good news is that, however dissatisfied you are with
Its very common for teenagers to have a negative image of your looks, the chances are its only temporary! Those extra
their own bodies. They insist they are hopelessly ugly, no kilos and that spotty skin usually disappear by themselves in
matter how much their parents and friends tell them time. While your body is sorting itself out and settling into
otherwise! Magazine problem pages and Internet blogs are its final form, you need to ride out the change! Resist the 45
full of agonised accounts. The young people who write them temptation to compare yourself with your peers. This is
15 are convinced they are unattractive and therefore unloved easier said than done when you are the tallest girl in your
and rejected by others. class or the only boy who has started growing a beard. You
tend to feel the odd one out and may even get teased or
Why do teenagers see themselves in an unflattering way?
bullied. Just remember that although teens bodies change at 50
The fact is, puberty has a lot to do with it. During your early
different speeds, everyone ends up at more or less the same
teens, the body is preparing itself for adulthood. New
place in the end!
20 chemicals are moving around the body as it adjusts to adult
hormone levels. The body alters its shape, sometimes Its important to realise what things you can change about
resulting in puppy fat. Skin problems such as acne are also yourself and what things you cant. Correct diet and exercise
common. Teens are affected psychologically too. They can do wonders for your appearance. Having your hair 55
become confused and anxious about their changing restyled, your nails manicured or your teeth whitened will
25 appearance. This in turn can lead to feelings of insecurity also help boost your self-confidence. The things you cant
and low self-esteem. alter, like your height or your shoe size, should be seen as
strengths and not weaknesses. They are, after all, the
Nor is the situation helped by the media. Young people are
features that make you a unique individual! 60
bombarded with images of the ideal body. Top fashion
models in glossy magazines are all far taller and skinnier So dont be like Joe and Kate! Stop worrying so much about
30 than the average woman. They have their hair and make-up the way you look and learn to accept yourself as you are. Tell
done professionally. After a fashion shoot, magazine editors yourself you are just as attractive, intelligent and cool as the
have the photographs airbrushed before they are published next person. If you feel good about yourself, the chances are
to give the models a flawless complexion. Male actors in other people will feel good about you too! 65
108
Sp ecu latin g & m akin g f \
p. GR17 ;
assu m p tio n s >

pluck eyebrows j a) Read th e sentences. W hich sentence:


refers to the p a s t? expresses duration?
3 Read again and fo r questions 1-5, choose
th e best an sw er , , or D. 1 He must be tired. He's gone to bed early. (I'm
sure he is.)
1 The firs t paragraph o f th e te x t im plies th a t 2 That can't be Tom. He's got short hair. (I'm sure
A no one has a perfect body. it isn't.)
many teenagers w o rry about their appearance. 3 She says she m ig h t/co u ld /m ay get a tattoo.
being u n a ttra c tiv e is unfair. (It's possible)
D boys and girls com pete to look good. 4 Suzy's hair is curly. She must have had a perm.
2 A ccording to th e te x t, p u b e rty is a tim e (I'm sure she did.)
A w hen you are sure to gain w e ig h t. 5 It's 10:00 pm. He can't be w orking. (I'm sure he
th a t is d iffic u lt to prepare for. isn't.)
th a t influences your m ental w e ll-b e in g . b) R e w rite th e sentences using m ight/m a y/
D to seek help fro m an adu lt. could, must or can't, as in th e exam p le.
3 Fashion m odels
1 I'm sure Andy hasn't gone to the hairdresser's.
A travel w ith th e ir ow n personal m ake-up artist.
Andy can't have gone to the hairdresser's.
are a source o f in sp ira tio n to th e average
2 I'm sure that Sandra is talking to Steve.
w om an.
3 I'm certain James didn't get a tattoo.
are as keen as film stars to have cosmetic surgery.
4 Perhaps Jane borrowed your coat.
D have th e ir appearance im proved a rtificia lly.
5 I'm sure she had a facelift.
4 Teens are advised n o t to com pare them selves 6 I don't believe Carol is having surgery again.
w ith others because
A th e y may end up g e ttin g bullied. M ake as m any assum ptions ab o u t
it w ill upset th e ir classmates. th e pictures as possible. Use th e phrases.
it's d iffic u lt to m ake accurate com parisons. sit exam stressed
D everyone develops a t a d iffe re n t rate. know answers
5 Joe and Kate are exam ples o f teenagers w h o revise properly
A try hard to be accepted. He m ust be sitting an exam.
d o n 't m ake th e m ost o f th e ir good points.
are u n a ttra c tiv e to th e ir peers.
D d o n 't w o rry a b o u t th e rig h t things.
feel happy work
Gram m ar see pp \ cruise around the
GR 16-17/
The causative > .... Mediterranean

4 a) Read th e exam p le sentences. W hich


suggests th a t th e action is done by
M ake notes on each parag raph o f
an o th e r person? 7
th e te x t, th en use them to te ll your p a rtn er
( Wendy is painting her nails. Sue is having her nails painted.
a sum m ary o f it.
b) R ew rite th e sentences in th e causative.
1 Mrs Jones is making a dress for Jo. 8 jTiTTffSl The w rite r says th a t w e should
learn to accept ourselves as w e are. In three
2 The hairdresser has dyed Anne's hair.
m inutes w rite a fe w sentences expressing
3 Steve will shorten Tom's trousers.
your opinion. Read them to the class.
4 Someone should re-heel your shoes.
()
] VocabularyBank6p. 21) 109
| Negative
i I
personality types ['ill

V o c a b u la ry
Types o f people
M atch th e types o f people to th e d e fin itio n s T T h e g ss'P might seem harmless, but when
theyre talking about you, it can be extremely
and m ake sentences. upsetting and embarrassing. Gossips take
Q Listen and check. great delight in passing on bad news: Did you
1 N gossip hear about p o o r... They are not that worried
A w alks all over others
about the truth either. As long as it sounds
2 b u lly likes to cause problem s good, theyre more than willing to pass the
3 w h in g e r is easily disorganised story on, usually exaggerating it in the process.
4 The gossip will often try to find out what you
k illjo y D likes h u rtin g others
know in order to tell someone else later on, but
5 snob E loves having a good tim e avoid getting
6 tro u b le m a ke r F exaggerates th e ir em otions involved. If
necessary, be
7 scatterbrain G ju s t w o n 't stop ta lk in g direct: Sorry. Im
8 k n o w -it-a ll H th in ks th e y 're b e tte r than others just not interested _ ~
9 ch a tte rb o x I com plains a b o u t everythin g in gossip! * j
Gossip usually
10 bighead J is always te llin g others w h a t to do dies down
11 dram a queen th in ks th e y kn o w m ore than others quickly when no
12
13
14
p arty anim al
nosy parker
bossy boots
L stops others enjoying them selves
M th in ks th e y are very im p o rta n t
N enjoys ta lk in g a b o u t o th e r people
one wants to listen
or contribute.
ro
15 steam roller 0 pries in to o th e r people's business
The steam roller very hostile and
A gossip is someone who enjoys talking about other people. aggressive and will walk all over you without a
second thought. They may shout, make threats
and even physically intimidate their victims to get
R e a d in g & Listen in g what they want. It is essential to be calm when
dealing with a steamroller so that they dont get j

2 Look a t th e pictures in th e te x t. W h a t ty p e is each even angrier. Dont shout back or appear scared
person? H o w can w e deal w ith each ? or nervous as this is what they want - for you to
be afraid of them. Let the steamroller see that
' 'L is te n and read to find o u t.
you take them seriously,
even admit they may
3 a) Read again and fo r questions 1-15, choose from th e have a point, but be
people A-F. Justify you r answ ers. assertive and firmly
state your
W hich person/people ... case.
could appear m ore in n o ce n t th a n th e y really are? Sometimes
you have to
may respond w e ll to some kind words?
stand up
make th in g s seem worse? for yourself
could be m ade w orse by your behaviour? and not
back down.
have positive aspects to th e ir character?
do n o t le t you ta ke p a rt in th e conversation? [To 11
harmless, take delight in, exaggerate
w a n ts you to feel less im p o rta n t? 12
process, direct, die dow n, contribute hostile,
should you refuse to listen to? 13 aqgressive, w ith o u t a second though t,
d o e sn 't seem open to being helped? 14 intim idate, adm it, assertive, back dow n
dom inate, neutral, issue, drag couldn t care
tries to get you to have negative em otions? 15
less, trivial, bizarre, downside, dismiss, moan,
b) W h a t is th e author's purpose? handle, interrupt, firmly, life-threatening,
110 take an interest, trium ph, tragedy
The k n o w - it - a ll ... well, thinks they know it all! They
can have valuable opinions to offer, but the problem is,
they cant stand being wrong. The know-it-all tends
to dominate conversations and often tries to
make other people feel small because of th e ir. see pp. .
lack of knowledge. One way to deal with these GR 17-19/
kinds of people is to not get involved in Gram m ar > .....
whatever they are talking about: stay neutral or Clauses (purpose, result, reason &
admit to seeing both sides of an issue.
m anner)
Dont forget that the most important
thing for know-it-alls is winning an 4 Read th e exam ples. W hich w ords do w e use
argument. If they try to drag you
to introd uce each ty p e o f clause? Find
into one, let them know that you
couldnt care less about winning. exam ples in th e te x t.
Theyll soon get bored if they cant show off! ^ . \
Clauses of purpose
Am y m oved seats so as to/in order to /so that she could avoid
The whinger complains about absolutely everything! It
Sue.
doesnt matter how trivial or bizarre the complaint (The ice
cream was far too cold!), the whinger will go on and on She'll leave early so that she w on 't be late.
kabout it as if its the end of the world. They Clauses of result
ksee the downside of everything and dismiss He's so talkative/such a talkative person that I can't get any
every solution you come up with. The
work done.
W ife' problem is, deep down they love
moaning. One way to handle a whinger is He talks a lot. As a result, I can't work.
to agree with them completely: Youre It was such bad weather that we stayed in.
absolutely right. I dont know how you put up Clauses of reason
: with it all. Whingers often just want a little bit of
He avoids Tracy because she's a gossip.
sympathy; once they get it, they should
complain less. Okay, they might complain Since/As Tracy is a gossip, he avoids her.
less! The reason why he avoids/His reason for avoiding Tracy is
she's a gossip.
No matter what vou do, you cannot get a word in edgeways; Clauses of manner
the ch atte rb ox talks on and on ... and on! These She behaves as if she was the boss, (but she isn't)
people are sociable and often have big hearts, but they
He looked as if he had seen a ghost, (but he d idn't)
dont listen to what you have to say and as a result its s________________________________________________ ^
impossible to get anything done around them! Try taking
control by interrupting them firmly and saying something like 5 Choose th e correct w ords.
Wait a minute, let me ask you a question about
that. You can also try listening 1 Sue c o u ld n 't w o rk the reason w h y /d u e to the
to these people for a while fact th a t Tanya w o u ld n 't stop ta lkin g .
after all, they may just be 2 Simon can be so/such a w h in g e r th a t no one
lonely - and then say, with
a smile, Ok, well nice w a n ts to w o rk w ith him.
talking to you but I ) 3 W e sat far aw ay from Harry in order to /d u e to
really have to get avoid speaking to him.
back to this now, 4 He behaves since/as though he ow ned the place.
and hope they get
the message! 5 Ann trie d to stay calm so as to/so th a t Tony
w o u ld n 't g e t even angrier.

When a dram a queen stubs a toe, its a life- S p e a k in g & W ritin g


threatening injury, but when they find a plaster its
as if theyve won an Oscar! They exaggerate Im agine you kn o w som eone w h o
everything that happens to them and share it
behaves as described in th e te x t. Describe
with the world through tears of pain and joy.
The thing to do is react as little as h im /h e r to you r partner. Your p a rtn er
possible. By taking an interest in their advises you how to deal w ith th em .
latest triumph or tragedy, you
are just encouraging them ICT Choose an o th e r o f th e types o f people
to keep blowing things in Ex. 1. Find o u t w h a t these people are like
out of proportion.
and h o w to deal w ith th em . W rite a short
parag raph. Tell th e class.
(>) Vocabulary Bank 6 p. VB22) 1 1 1
-I

a Culture Corner
^ Listen to th e ch an t and The Haka originates from the native inhabitants of New Zealand, the Maori
look a t th e picture. W h a t people. It is a very physical dance w ith chants 0) which were traditionally
do you th in k Haka is? W h a t performed as war cries. Nowadays, it is performed to welcome im portant
guests, to recognise great achievements 1 ) .........................sim ply to entertain.
special featu res does it
If you ever watch New Zealand playing rugby, you 2 ) .................................. also
have? W hen do you th in k see the team, the All Blacks, perform ing the Haka. They do this to show
th e Haka is p erform ed? respect 3 ) .............................past and present players, the supporters and New
Read th e te x t to fin d o u t. Zealand and ... to scare their opponents. The All Blacks performed
4 ) ................................ first Haka in 1888 in Britain, but it is now recognised all
over the world.
2 Read again and co m p lete th e The dancers imagine that their body is an orchestra in 5 ) ..............................
gaps w ith th e correct w o rd . their hands, feet, legs, body, voice, tongue and eyes all represent musical
instruments. The Haka involves a lot o f powerful body movements; slapping
Com pare w ith y o u r partner.
your hands 6 ) .................................. your body, showing the whites of your eyes
(pukana), sticking out your tongue (whetero) and stamping your feet -
3 M atch th e w ords in bold w ith imagine a tribe of Maoris doing all this holding weapons
7 ) .................................preparing to go into battle!
th e ir m eanings: ru n n in g away,
The Maori people perform in a traditional o u tfit called a kakahu. The
few er in num ber than a n o the r costume is 8 ) ........................................... up of a grass skirt and a belt w ith
group, one o f a kin d, vio le n t, u n iq u e engravings. The M aori people are also famous 9 ) .......................... their
frig h te n in g . tattoos or M oko, which cover their faces, making this dance look even
more ferocious!
The most well-known Haka is called Ka Mate. The story goes that the most
4 Fill in: welcome, stamp, feared tribal chief, Rauparaha, was fleeing from his enemies. As he
physical, body, ou tfit, was greatly outnum bered, he hid in a pit protected 1 0 ) ................................
sf/c/couf, _ - another chief and his wife. The chant below is about the moment the
enemy tribe passed near the pit to look for him and his thoughts
native,
^.switched between living and dying. The 'hairy man' is the chief
tribal. f
who hid him and 1 1 ) .......................... sure he saw the sun again. It is
fc said that he came up with this chant while in hiding and that he
J performed it as 1 2 ) ......................... as he returned to his village.
in h a b ita n ts ' Now, the Ka Mate is performed as a celebration of the trium ph of life
iJ B over death.
dance

guests Ka mate, ka mate! Ka ora, ka ora! I die! I die! I live! I live!


4 ........... Ka m ate, ka mate! Ka ora, ka ora! I die! I die! I live! I live!
Tenei te tangata puhuruhuru This is the hairy man who fetched the sun
m vem ents Nana nei i tiki mai w hakaw hiti te ra And caused it to shine again
5 to .... M f/,
A, upane! Ka upane! O ne upward step! Another upward step!
yo u r fe e t
1 to ...
A, upane, ka upane, w hiti te ra!
Hi!
An upward step, a n o th e r... the sun shines!

yo u r ton g u e
W hy d o n 't you take a look at a Haka on YouTube?
tra d itio n a l
f wm&f
Check these words

originate, native, chant, w a r cry, supporter, opponent, slap, stick


o u t your tongue, stam p yo u r fe e t, tribe, w eapon, g o in to battle,
Q Listen grass skirt, engraving, p it, enem y, sw itch, triu m p h
and read. Tell
y u r p a rtn e r fo u r
th in g s y o u 6 Research a tra d itio n a l dance o r cerem ony in
re m e m b e r from the yo u r country. Find o u t: how i t originated, when it's
te x t a b o u t th e Haka perform ed, w h at perform ers lo o k like, any o th e r interesting
in fo rm a tio n . Com pare and con trast it w ith Haka dances.
Everyday English ^
R e arran gin g an a p p o in tm e n t 2 Find se n te n ce s in th e d ia lo g u e
w h ic h m ean: That's to o bad.
1 Have ever had to cancel or rearrange an
a p p o in tm en t? W hy? Tell you r p artner, using ideas - W hen w as th e lesson scheduled
sim ilar to th e ones b elo w or you r ow n ideas. fo r? - I'm sorry, b u t th a t tim e is
booked.
stuck in tra ffic and ca n 't get there on tim e
n o t feeling w e ll
tw is te d ankle and to o p a in fu l to w a lk on P ro n u n c ia tio n :
had a fa m ily em ergency had to w o rk late a t short Expressing sympathy
notice had fo rg o tte n a b o u t som ething m ore im p o rta n t
Q L iste n and say. L iste n a g a in
1 recently had to rearrange a dentist's appointm ent because I d id n 't and u n d e rlin e th e stressed
feel well. w o rd s .

2 a) Q Listen and say th e sentences. 1 I'm so sorry to hear th a t!


2 Oh no, th a t's a w fu l!
I'm calling to see if I can rearrange my dance lesson.
3 That's such a shame!
I'm sorry to hear th a t.
4 I really hope things get better soon.
W h a t tim e was yo u r lesson supposed to be?
5 Oh dear!
W hen w o u ld you like to rearrange it for?
I'm afra id th a t tim e is n 't available.
Could you m ake it on Saturday the 11th a t 10 am? S p e a k in g

b) Which o f the sentences w ould a receptionist, a caller 5 Im a g in e y o u w a n t to call


say? a nd re a rra n g e a d e n tis t's
Q Listen and read to find o u t. a p p o in tm e n t. Use th e sente n ce s
in Ex. 2a and th e ideas in Ex. 1
R: Good m orning, Swan Lake Dance Studios. to a ct o u t a d ia lo g u e .
C: Oh, hello, this is Fiona Simpson. I'm calling to see if I can
rearrange my dance lesson. I tw is te d my ankle yesterday
m orn ing and it's p a in fu l to w a lk on today.
G reet & s a y -------*ks Say w h o you
R: I'm sorry to hear th a t. W h a t tim e
name o f d e n tist's / are & w h y
was yo u r lesson supposed to be?
C: It was supposed to be a t 5:30 pm
/yo u 're calling &
give a reason
today. It's a private flam enco
fo r rearranging.
dancing lesson w ith Laura.
Sym pathise if S Reply.
R: OK. W hen w o u ld you like to
necessary & ask
rearrange it for?
w h a t tim e
C: How about Thursday next
a p p o in tm e n t was. /
week at the same tim e? My
ankle should be fine by then.
Ask w hen ^ ^S uggest
) w o u ld like to / day/tim e.
R: I'm afraid th a t tim e is n 't available. Could
rearrange for.
you m ake it on Saturday th e 11th a t 10
am?
Tell th a t tim e J
is n 't available. *
Erm ... yes, th a t should be fine.
Suggest an -*sA gree.
R OK. So see you on the 11th.
G reat. Thank you very much.
alte rn a tive . /
C onfirm d a y /tim e .^ V T h a n k A.
R Y ou're w elcom e. Goodbye.
End conversation. > /

113
t
_ Body talk
V o c a b u la ry
B ody la n g u a g e
'j a) Listen and say,

Craig smiles confidently and answers 'yes' to the question


while rubbing the back of his ear. The interviewer continues to
ask him questions about his CV. Darren Stanton is sitting
quietly next to the interviewer throughout the interview. M r
Stanton says nothing, but intensely studies Craig as he answers 5
each question. Little does Craig know, but he has been hired
by the company to tell them when interviewees are lying. After
Craig has left, M r Stanton points out which of his answers were
lies and which were truthful. By analysing Craig's body
language, such as when he rubs his ear, he is able to 10
distinguish between lies and the truth. Stanton, now known as
'the human lie detector', picked up these skills during the time
he was working as a forensic psychologist and a police officer.
Studies have shown that in an average 10-minute
conversation, people tell at least 3 'lies'. Our bodies give off a 15
' mixture of subconscious signals and signs which cannot be
look rig h t & bite your nails cover your m outh
concealed even by the most clever of liars. According to
Stanton, most of these lies are told to avoid hurting someone's
feelings or in awkward situations. They are simply a part of
human nature. If this is true, w hat can the average person do 20
to know if they are being spun a yarn? M r Stanton gives his
top tips for spotting a fibber in action!
Look me in the eye, but not for too long..
It is often said that liars are unable to look you straight in the
eye. This can be true and they may rub their eyes, for instance,
open your eyes & m outh w ide to avoid eye contact. But it may surprise you to know that 25
frow n
really good liars often overcompensate by maintaining eye
b) H ow do you th in k each person feels: contact longer than normal in order to convince you they're
embarrassed, confused, scared, worried, telling the truth. If they hold eye contact for longer than six
seconds, be suspicious about w hat they are telling you.
disgusted, annoyed, surprised, shocked?
Busy hands...
1 think the person who is scratching his head is confused. I While telling a lie, people often instinctively use their hands to 30
I touch their faces, scratch their heads or cover their mouths
R e a d in g & Listen in g j which show their discomfort. Sometimes they will even hold
I an object in front of them such as a book to create a
2 W hich o f th e gestures in Ex.1 could 1 subconscious barrier to hide behind.
suggest th a t som eone is lying? Stalling for time..
Q Listen and read to find ou t. When faced w ith a question a person doesn't w ant to tell the 35
114


Check th e s e w o rd s i
Read th e te x t and mark th e statem ents T (tru e), F (false)
confidently, rub, intensely, hire, or NS (n o t stated).
tru th fu l, distinguish [between], lie :
:
detector, forensic psychologist, It takes M r S tanton ten m inutes to decide w h o is ly in g .........
subconscious signal, conceal, awkward, 2 M r S tanton has used a lie d e te cto r fo r m any years..................
human nature, spin a yam, fibber, eye
contact, overcompensate, convince,
suspicious, instinctively, discomfort,
I 3
4
W e all te ll lies. ..........
Rubbing yo u r eyes suggests you are te llin g th e t r u th .............
barrier, stall, mirror, telltale sign, tw itch, 5 People te n d to use th e ir hands w hen te llin g lies. ..........
muscle spasm, flash [across], eyelid, 6 A short reply to a question suggests th e person
droop, tricky, spot, instinct, pull the
w ool over someone's eyes, itchy is te llin g th e tru th . ..........
7 O nly rig h t-h a n d e d people te ll lies. ..........
truth about, they often m irror or repeat the 8 A change in th e co lour o f o u r face show s if
language of the person asking the question w e are lying. ..........
so as to buy tim e to think. For instance, if a
9 A smile do e sn 't always suggest som eone is happy...................
truthful person is asked, "D id you go to the
10 Body gestures always reveal th e person's fe e lin g s...................
cinema instead of studying?" they will 40
reply "N o, I d id n 't", whereas a liar, having
Fill in: intensely, forensic, hurt, spin, confidently, signals,
no tim e to think, will m irror the question
by saying, "N o, I d id n 't go to the cinema
spasms, body, nature, contact.
instead of studying." There may also be an sm ile ................................... 6 to one's feelings
increase in the num ber of 'urns' and 'ahs' 45 .....................................study 7 hum an ...............................
they use, again showing that they are ..............................language 8 to ............................. a yarn
thinking while talking.
....................... psychologist 9 e y e .......................................
Right- or left-handed..
su b co n scio u s.................... 10 muscle ...............................
Whether a person is right-handed or left-
handed also plays a role when telling lies.
Body idiom s
Right-handed people tend to look right 50
when lying while left-handed people tend Fill in: chest, feet, eyes, hand, eye, leg.
to look left. Q Listen and check. Are th ere sim ilar idioms in your
Face to face...
language?
Most liars will have a telltale sign on their
face such as going as w hite as a sheet or the We asked o u r neighbours to keep a ( n ) .......................................
exact opposite - blushing. Such changes 55 on our house w h ile w e w ere on holiday, (w atch to protect)
are subconscious responses to stress
D o n 't le t Tom pull the w ool over your ...................; ask
brought on by lying. Also, look out for
him w h e re he really was last n ig h t, (trick/deceive you)
micro-expressions, little nervous twitches or
muscle spasms around the eyes, cheeks or Just before her w e d d in g , Jane started to g e t c o ld ..................
neck which flash across people's faces, 60 (feel nervous before an event)
giving away their true emotions. Someone Can I give you a ..................w ith th e housew ork? (help you)
may be smiling at you, for example, but I'm n o t really a police o ffice r; I'm ju s t pulling y o u r !
suddenly you spot their eyelids, eyebrows
(joking)
and the corners of their mouths drooping.
Thanks fo r listening to my problem; I ju st needed to get it o ff
This could mean they are actually feeling 65
sad. Be warned, though - micro m y ............................................. (talk abo ut it)
expressions last for less than a second, so
they're really tricky to spot.
S p e a k in g & W ritin g
Above all, trust you r instincts! If you Use th e te x t to te ll you r p a rtn e r h o w one can
th in k someone is tryin g to pull the wool 70
d etect a liar.
over yo ur eyes, you're probably right.
Having said that, d o n 't take things too
ICT Do research to find o u t m ore a b o u t body
far. Your friend m ig h t scratch th e ir head
w hile they're talking to you, bu t maybe language and w h a t it tells you ab o u t som eone. Tell th e
it's just itchy! 75 class.
()] Vocabulary Bank 6 p. 23) 1 1 5
Dr Denise Herzing knows the names of all the members of the w hich
pod of w ild spotted dolphins she studies. She knows w ho the are too high-
grandparents are and when their grandchildren were born. She frequency for
recognises scars on flippers and can remember when the wounds hum ans to make
first appeared. When the dolphins appear, she mimics their out. IT! Her
behaviour by swim m ing upside dow n to say hello. She is very elegant solution, therefore, was to come
fam iliar w ith each individual dolphin. This isn't surprising as she up w ith a new simple language that both
has shared 27 summers off the Florida coast and has had over humans and dolphins could share. Her latest
2,600 encounters w ith dolphins. She has spent more tim e w ith experim ent involves a small w aterproof com puter that
dolphins than anyone else on Earth. But this is still not enough for divers w ill wear called CHAT (Cetacean Hearing and
Denise. 1 | | In fact, Denise has already spent years Telemetry). It w ill send out one of eight signals that
experimenting with com m unicating w ith the dolphins, but her correspond to som ething in the undersea w orld, seaweed for
greatest wish is that one day very soon the dolphins w ill be able to example. The com puter w ill listen to see if the dolphins m im ic
speak back and tell her what's on their minds. the signals. After the system has 'learnt' dolphin, all the sounds
Dolphins have the second most evolved brain on the planet the dolphins make w ill then be put through the com puter which
after the human race and they are highly sociable and intelligent w ill try to w ork out patterns in them in order to decode the
and remarkably skilled at problem solving. They live in a com plex vocabulary and gram m ar of 'dolphinese'. This
society in w hich, together w ith friends and relatives, they raise underwater translator is only at the trial stage at the m om ent, but
their young, share responsibilities and resolve conflicts. So clever if it is successful, it could have a huge impact. N ot only w ould it
are these aquatic mammals th a t they can understand up to tw o delight marine biologists such as Denise Herzing, but it may be
hundred human words using gestures and sym bols and even the possible to adapt the system to enable tw o-w ay com m unication
difference between a statem ent and a question. 2 "M any w ith other animal species, too. Scientists w orking at SETI (The
studies ask dolphins to respond to human commands, using fish Search fo r Extraterrestrial Intelligence) have also expressed a lot of
as a reward, b ut rarely do we ask dolphins to seek som ething interest in the device! They hope that CHAT could be used to
from us," says Dr Herzing. make contact w ith life in distant galaxies! Herzing says that her
Denise knows th a t it w o n 't be easy to get dolphins to 'speak' research "m ay be our best training ground fo r exploring the
to us. Both the vocal chords of humans and dolphins and the cosmos fo r other life, because if we can't understand life on this
sounds they produce are extrem ely different. Dolphins planet then there is no hope fo r our exploration of the galaxy."
com m unicate w ith whistles, clicks and other sounds, some of The o nly question is, w h a t on Earth are they g oing
to say to us?
Check th e s e w o rd s

pod, scar, flipper, w ound, mimic,


Read a g a in . Five se n te n ce s are m is s in g . M a tc h each
encounter, evolved brain, rem arkably
skilled, resolve conflicts, aquatic s e n te n c e (A-F) to th e gap s (1-5). T h e re is o n e e x tra
mammal, vocal chord, w histle, high- se n te n c e . J u s tify y o u r a n sw e rs.
frequency sound, seaweed, impact,
delight, adapt, make contact w ith , A Then scientists can learn h o w to 're p ly ' w ith d o lp h in -like
distant galaxy, training ground signals them selves.
Denise has come a long w a y since then.
Reading "I w a n t to kn o w w h a t th e y 're th in k in g ," she says.
a) W h a t do you kn o w ab o u t D "They live in a sensory w o rld w e can only im agine, fu ll o f
dolphins? Tell th e class. d iffe re n t sounds, sights and ta ste s," Dr Herzing explains.
E Scientists like Denise Herzing hope th a t it's on ly a
b) How do dolphins communicate?
m a tte r o f tim e before w e can speak to dolphins.
W hy are scientists trying to
F So far, how ever, a tte m p ts to ta lk w ith dolphins
decode their language?
have been m ostly one-w ay.
Read to find out.

3 a) Choose th e correct w ords, G ra m m a r p. GR 19
th en m ake a sentence w ith Inversion > ....
th e o th e r w o rd . Com pare
5 Read th e th e o ry box, th en find exam ples in th e te x t.
w ith you r partner.
s s
We can invert the subject and the auxiliary verb in a sentence to give emphasis:
1 Denise is fam iliar/com m on w ith
when the sentence starts w ith ra re ly , s eldom , so, such, etc. Rarely
all th e dolphins; she know s all
does Andrea stop talking. Such a long time has Denise worked with the
th e ir names.
dolphins that she knows them all by name.
2 There are dolphins o ff the
w ith so, n e ith e r, n o r to express agreem ent/disagreem ent. John loves
shore/coast o f Florida.
animals and so does Hannah.
3 Dolphins can conclude/resolve
w ith should, w ere, had when they come at the beginning o f an if-dause
conflicts.
instead o f if. Had she done better at school, she'd have studied Marine Biology.
4 D olphins send o u t high-
in the main clause when the expressions o n ly a fte r/b y /if/w h e n , n o t u n til
frequency signals/signs th a t
start a sentence. Only if the dolphins mimic the signals, will the experiment work.
hum ans ca n 't hear. \ ^
5 Denise is in vestig atin g /
g Use th e w ords in brackets to re w rite th e sentences,
exp erim enting w ith d iffe re n t
using inversion.
ways to com m unicate w ith
dolphins. 1 She didn't know dolphins would become her life's work, (little)
6 CHAT could have a huge Little d id she know (that) dolphins w ould become her life's work.
im pression/im pact on th e search 2 Anna has never been diving and Tom hasn't either, (not only)
fo r e xtra terrestrials. 3 If you see Mike today, ask him if he wants to go diving on
7 SETI w a n ts to m ake touch/ Saturday, (should)
contact w ith aliens. 4 Swim w ith dolphins and you will realise how amazing they
are. (only if)
b) M atch th e w ords in bold to
5 Greg had a tiring day so he fell asleep on the bus home, (such)
th e ir meanings: trying to, sort
out, meetings, understand, Key word transformations
im itates, developed, interpret,
C o m p lete th e second sentence so th a t it means th e
consequence, m ost recent.
same as th e first. Use tw o to fiv e w ords including th e
Collective n o u n s - an im als w o rd given.
4 Fill in th e phrases w ith th e
1 Sam had just dived into the w ater when the dolphins
w ords in th e list.
appeared. (SOONER)
pack pod colony No ................................................................into the w ater than the
shoal swarm pride herd dolphins appeared.
flo ck litte r 2 We w o n 't swim here under any circumstances. (WILL)
Under .................................................................................. swim here.
1 a ..........................o f cow s/elephants
3 Jo was happy and she couldn't stop smiling. (WAS)
2 a ................................o f wasps/bees
S o ........................................................... she couldn't stop smiling.
3 a ..................................................o f fish
4 They can only see if CHAT works if they test it. (TESTING)
4 a ................................o f birds/sheep
Only ....................................................................see if CHAT works.
5 a ..........................o f p u p p ie s/kitte n s
6 a ...............................................o f lions S p e a k in g & W ritin g
7 a .......................................o f dolphins
8 Listen and read th e te x t. Im agine you are Denise
8 a ................................................ o f ants
Herzing and you are giving a talk abo ut your life's w ork.
9 a ................................o f dogs/w olves
M ake notes on each paragraph o f th e te x t, then use your
Listen and check. notes to give your talk.
117

So w e 're m eeting Elaine
Skills and Jo a t 7 o'clock a t ...
Sally? Sally, are you
John, this is F ra n c e /)

W e're going
liste nin g to me?
to Ann's and
a fte r th a t
w e 're having
d in n e r w ith
my cousin.
Did you say
som ething? Nice to m eet you,
V____________ ^ John. H ow do you
V o c a b u la ry L isten in g kn o w Sandy?
Com m unication
You're going to listen to a man talking about solving
m istakes
problems through effective com m unication. Listen and for
^ a) Listen and rep eat. W h a t questions 1-4, choose the correct answers (, , or D).
are these phrases in your
language? Can you add any Brendan begins by saying th a t argum ents
m ore com m unication A are usually a result o f bad com m unication.
m istakes to th e list? can be solved th ro u g h good com m unication.
can usually be avoided.
n o t a llo w the o th e r person to D can be healthy.
speak
Brendan says you should repeat w h a t som eone has said to
be a rg u m entative and
A show th a t yo u 've been listening.
aggressive
m ake sure you heard correctly.
p u t your fo o t in it (say the
give you tim e to th in k w h a t to say next.
w ro n g th in g )
D avoid m isunderstanding.
in te rru p t th e speaker
Brendan advises using T messages in order to
n o t make eye contact
A be m ore direct.
ta lk dow n to som eone
avoid annoying the o th e r person.
n o t pay a tte n tio n
em phasise yo u r po in t.
ta lk to o fast
D encourage th e o th e r person to ta lk.
get to n g u e -tie d (n o t know
w h a t to say) He says a com m on m istake is
have negative body language A accepting all th e blame. n o t speaking clearly.
e.g. scratch, fidget, crack your n o t te llin g th e tru th . D n o t a d m ittin g being w ro n g .
knuckles
insist on yo u r ow n w ay S p e a k in g
ta lk to o loudly Criticising & respon din g
b) Read th e cartoons. W hich Use th e phrases in Ex. 1a and th e language in
m istakes are th e people in th e box b elo w to act o u t exchanges, as in th e exam ple.
each cartoon m aking?
Criticising Responding
Y o u 're always ... / Do you mind I'm really sorry. I'll try not to do it
H o w do not ... / Could you please stop again.
these thin gs m ake you feel: ...? (+ verb + -ing) Oh, I'm sorry, I d id n 't realise I was
annoyed, angry, confused, Please d o n ' t . . . . It's so annoying/ doing that.
em barrassed? Tell your partner. irritating/disrespectful, etc! Sorry, I d o n 't mean to do that.

I feel annoyed when someone interrupts A: You're always in terrupting me when I'm speaking!
me when I'm speaking. B: Oh, I'm sorry, I d id n 't realise I was doing that.
118
t
Read th e in tro d u ctio n o f th e Curricular: Science
te x t and th e headings. H o w do
you th in k these an im als/p lan ts
com m unicate?
Q Listen and find out.
Gorillas stick out their tongues to show anger, horses
2 Read and m atch th e sentences rub noses as a sign of affection and dogs stretch their
to th e correct anim al front legs out in front of them and lower their bodies
when they want to play. Wildlife may not literally
A (a n t), (b ee), (c u ttlefish ) or
speak, but communicate in some pretty
P (p la n t). amazing ways!
1 Physical co n tact passes on a Bees: May I have this dance?
message. ........ Bees make a series of dance-like
2 They dance to indicate where movem ents to com m unicate the quality
and location of food. If a food source is
others can find som ething to
near the hive, a circular dance is perform ed
eat. ........
A tail-w agging dance in a figure-of-eight
3 A change in colour helps m ovem ent indicates that it is more than 80 metres away.
them to protect them selves................
4 They a ttra ct th e ir enemy's
Plants: Silent communicators
enemy. ........ It m ight seem that all plants do is grow
leaves and look pretty, but many types
2 Fill in: warning, display, rub,
of trees and plants send out chem ical
signal, release, pile, nervous, pass
signals in order to com m unicate with
on. Use th e phrases to m ake other trees and plants and even with
sentences based on th e te x t. animals. For example, when invaded by
caterpillars, corn and cotton plants send
1 to noses
chem ical m essages that attract the caterpillars
2 to ...........................chemicals worst enemies, wasps. Various trees also send out warning signals
3 to ..................................alarm to other trees when attacked by fungi and insects.
4 a .......................... o f crum bs
5 t o ...........................th e news
Ants: M asters of organisation
6 .......................................signals
Imagine organising thousands of people without saying a word. Ants have up
7 ...................................... system
to 20 different chem icals in the many glands in their tiny
8 .............................. o f colours bodies. Depending on which chem ical they release,
they can signal alarm, invite friends to eat or even
I C T j^ F in d organise a m ilitary cam paign to attack an enemy
in fo rm a tio n a b o u t th e Also, if an ant finds a pile of crumbs, it rubs its
w ays o th e r w ild life antennae and front legs on its neighbour to pass on the good
com m unicates, e.g. w hales,\ news. Ants may be small but they certainly have plenty
elephants. Present your to say! r / :>
in fo rm a tio n to th e class - 'f

Check th e s e w o rd s Cuttlefish: S a y it with your skin!


This sea animal has the w o rlds best cam ouflage skills! Sacs of colour
affection, hive, tail-
under its skin which are controlled by its nervous system allow it to
w agging, invade,
change the colour, pattern, and even texture of its skin in .
caterpillar, wasp, fungi, i
gland, release chemicals, seconds when it has som ething to say. A zebra pattern on a fx::\ ' ' ; '
signal, alarm, m ilitary male cuttlefish, for example, warns other males to stay . *
campaign, enemy, pile away. Cuttlefish put on an amazing display of colours
o f crumbs, antennae, and even lights to attract their prey or hide
pass on, sac, nervous from predators. W hatever the
system, pattern, texture, message, the cuttlefish
prey, predator says it with quite a J Jr /
% Writing
An article describing a
person
1 Read the model, then match the
headings to the paragraphs (1-5).

physical appearance/clothes
comments & feelings
An article describing a person should
personality & j
consist of:
achievements/reason for
an introduction giving brief
admiration
general information about the
name/relationship
person, e.g. name/relationship to
to w riter & when/
us/how & when we met, etc;
where/how met
a main body of 2-3 paragraphs in
which we describe the person's ^ Laurie and I are cousins, but I first got to know her after we met at my
physical appearance & personality/ grandfather's 80th birthday. We have been good friends ever since.
hobbies/interests/activities/ Laurie is in her late twenties and attractive. She's tall and dark-
achievements, etc in separate skinned with short dark hair, a warm smile and dark brown eyes that
paragraphs. We start each sparkle when she laughs. She also has a great sense of style and always
looks well-dressed, whether it's in an evening dress or casual sportswear.
paragraph w ith a topic sentence
! Laurie has a great personality. She's a very popular, sociable person
summarising the paragraph;
who loves meeting new people and who everyone seems to like. She
a conclusion including our final lights up the room with her bubbly personality and always seems to get
comments & feelings about the everyone smiling and laughing. She also has a fantastic sense of humour.
person. She can see the funny side of any situation and is always making me
- We use present tenses to describe laugh. She tends to be rather bossy, though, and loves telling everyone
what to do!
someone we know well/see often
My cousin is an incredibly ambitious person. She has achieved her
(a relative, a good neighbour/friend)
goal of working for the United Nations and is a highly respected
and past tenses for someone who's development manager. She is very dedicated to her job and often works
no longer alive or who we don't see late. Despite this, she always has time for other people and never refuses
any more (our best friend from primary to help if there is a problem.
school, a relative who has passed away); Although we don't see each other often, Laurie is a very important
- When describing personality, we person to me. Her kindness and great sense of humour make her a very
special friend.
use a variety of character
adjectives and justify them with an
explanation or example. Matt is very 2 List the w ords/phrases below under the headings, then
sociable. He loves going out and add more from the article. Compare w ith a partner.
meeting new people. We use mild
often wears her hair in a ponytail in his mid-twenties
language to describe negative
is a bookworm in her early forties loves to have fun
qualities, e.g. tend to, seems to, is
of medium height no sense of style good-natured
rather, can sometimes be, etc. Amanda
beautiful almond-shaped eyes sensitive absent-minded
can sometimes be rather lazy.
always smartly dressed doesn't let difficulties get him down
- We link qualities with appropriate
loves being outdoors always does w hat he says he w ill
linkers: similar qualities (also, and,
often looks a bit scruffy looks younger than she is
both ... and, moreover, as well as,)
long blond hair pale-skinned has lots of tattoos
contrasting qualities (but, on the
wrinkles around her eyes shy good-looking
other hand, nevertheless, in spite of
keen on w ater sports
this, although, etc) Sarah is both
cheerful and considerate. However, she Physical Appearance Personality Hobbies/Interests
is sometimes very stubborn.
o f medium height loves to have fun is a bookworm

120
5 Choose th e correct w ords.
M aking descriptions interesting
1 He is in te llig e n t both/and kind-hearted, despite/
Link your sentences tog e th e r w ith a variety o f
but he can som etim es look rather scruffy.
structures to avoid w ritin g a boring description.
2 As w ell as/M oreover being hardw orking, Anna
He is a handsome man. He has tanned skin. He is a
is also very determ ined. Nevertheless/How ever,
handsome man with tanned skin.
she tends to be q u ite stubborn.
He has grey hair. It makes him look older. He has grey
3 He is an d /b o th tru s tw o rth y and honest.
hair which makes him look older.
She is fashionable. She always wears the latest trends. Your turn
She is a fashionable woman who always wears the g Read th e rubric. W ho could you describe?
latest trends. H ow m any paragraphs w ill you w rite and
She has long hair. She wears it in a ponytail. She wears w h a t w ill you include in each?
her long hair in a ponytail.
She has short fair hair. She looks sophisticated. Her short ^ You have ju st read the fo llo w in g on an
fair hair makes her look sophisticated. I in te rn a tio n a l student w ebsite:
J Describe someone you admire and win a trip to
I London for two! Describe what they are like and why
3 Link th e sentences to g e th e r using a v a rie ty
^ you admire them (120-180 words).
o f structures from th e ta b le above.

1 Hayley is short and a little plump. She has "J W rite your article. Follow th e plan. Use
piercing blue eyes. They sparkle when she smiles. w ords from th e Useful Language box.
2 Mike is w ell-built. He has curly blond hair. He
has a lot o f tattoos. He looks tough.
3 Sally is a beautiful lady. She has dyed red hair. name/relationship to you/how & when
She wears it in a bob. you met him/her
Paras 2-4: physical appearance, personality,
achievements
^ Fill in: pessimistic, reserved, supportive, cheerful,
Para 5: final comments & feelings
easy-going, disorganised, confident, considerate.

1 Jane tends to be a b i t ................................................


U seful la n g u a g e
She's always running late and losing things.
2 Mary is always so ............................................. She's Physical appearance: tiny/short/tall/of medium height
always ready to listen and help me. (height); thin/slim/skinny/of average build/well-built/
plump/overweight (build); oval/round/long/freckled
3 I've never met anyone as ........................................
skin/tanned skin/fair-skinned/dark-skinned/wrinkled
as Tanya. I don't think I've ever seen her
(face); dark brown/piercing blue/almond-shaped (eyes);
w ithout a smile on her face! straight/curly/wavy/dyed/light brown/blond/long/short
4 James can sometimes be quite .............................. cropped/spiky (hair); crooked/upturned/straight (nose);
He always points out how something could go shabby/smartly-dressed/scruffy/fashionable/casual/smart
wrong! clothes/great sense of style/badly-dressed/ elegantly-
5 Karl is a very ................................................. person. dressed (clothes)
Personality: I've never met anyone as ... (shy/hard
He always seems to be thinking about other
working/sociable, etc) as (Tom).; (Terry) is always so/l find
people's needs. (Terry) very/(Terry) is very/extremely ... (cheerful/ selfless/
6 Joe is a(n) .......................... guy. He always seems lazy/reliable, etc).; (Jane) is a very ... girl. She ....
to be relaxed and doesn't get annoyed easily. Achievements: He/She is a skilled/professional.... He/
7 Beatrice is a(n) .................................. person. She's She has won/achieved .... He/She has successfully ....
fairly quiet and keeps her feelings hidden. Expressing negative qualities: He/She can sometimes
be/tends to be/is sometimes rather/can be ... (at times).
8 Jennifer is quite ....................................... She seems
very sure o f herself and w hat she can achieve.
(!) Writing Bank: Descriptive of a person ) 1 2 1

Imagine you lived high on a mountain with no mobile phone or fixed line.
Whats the best way to tell your dad at the bottom of the mountain to bring
home some milk? By whistling, of course! Thats how some communities
around the world communicate - through a whistled language.

Linguists believe there are about 70 whistled m odern form s of com m unication, such as the
languages still in use today, although only 12 are fully telephone and the m obile phone, though, the use of
understood. Most are found in isolated areas with the whistled language slowly declined.
difficult terrain, such as m ountains or canyons, where Today, El Silbo is rarely used in everyday communication;
com m unication over distances is difficult. The obvious however, it is still used to announce com munity events
advantage of whistled speech is that it allows the among the farming communities. In order to protect the
speaker to com m unicate over larger distances (up to 5 language from dying out, the authorities in La Gomera
km) than ordinary speech. The whistler also has the have made El Silbo a part of the school curriculum. The
benefit of reaching a number of people at once. Although young people have embraced the idea of learning the
this is not practical for those wanting a private language and even see some advantages in it. Its less
conversation, it is a convenient and efficient way to expensive than a mobile phone and its fun, says nine-
spread news fast. year-old Andrea.
Most whistled languages are based on actual spoken The people of La Gomera are fiercely proud of their
languages and are not secret codes. They express the linguistic heritage. The same pride can be seen in
same information as the spoken language through the Kuskoy, Turkey - known as the bird village. About 1,000
tone, length and stress of the whistle. Speakers of residents in and around the village also use a whistled
whistled languages can even switch from whistles to language to communicate across the rocky valleys. They
speech in m id-sentence, like m any of the residents of have 29 whistles, one for each letter of the Turkish
the small island of La G om era in the Canary Islands. alphabet. The whistled language is a direct translation of
Several hundred years ago, the people of this Turkish words and has been passed down from
m ountainous island developed a whistled language generation to generation in this rural community. Locals
called El S ilbo; the nam e com es from the Spanish are determined not to let their bird language die out as
verb silbar which means to w histle, and it developed they face the onslaught of modern technology. Most
out of the islanders need to com m unicate over people here are farmers and still whistle across the valleys
inaccessible valleys and tow ering cliffs. Traditionally, to communicate with their neighbours, explains one of
when one person heard a whistle, they passed it on. the residents. The village even holds an annual festival for
Islanders becam e so skilled that messages were the best whistler. Its an event that brings out the entire
successfully spread from one end of the island to the com munity to celebrate their unique linguistic heritage.
other. El Silbo has played a vital role in the islands The message from Kuskoy is simple: despite all the
history. It was the main form of com m unication during advances that have been made in the field of
invasions, wars and im m igration. With the advent of communication, sometimes the old ways are still the best.

R e a d in g (T/F/NS sta te m e n ts)

a) Read the rubric and the title o f b) Do th e task. Com pare you r answ ers w ith you r
the text. W hat is the text about? p artner. Justify your answ ers.
Read to find out.
1 W histle d languages o fte n consist o f secret codes.
2 Silbar is th e Spanish w o rd fo r 'to w h is tle '.
Read the te xt again and choose 3 It is very d iffic u lt to learn El Silbo.
I w hich o f the statem ents (1-6) are i 4 El Silbo has been very useful in w a rtim e in th e past.
T (true), F (false) or A/S (not j 5 In the Canary Islands many school children learn El Silbo.
stated). i 6 The villa ge o f Kuskoy is named a fte r a local bird.
122
t
L isten in g Text com pletion

G Y ou w ill hear fo u r short 4 Read th e rubric, th en do th e task.


dialogues (A -D ). D efin e w h ere
these dialogues ta k e place. Use
Read th e te x t. Fill in th e gaps w ith th e proper
th e places (A-E) from th e list gram m atical fo rm o f th e capitalised w ords in bold.
only once. There is one extra
place in th e list.

A school D d e n tist's Coming of


beauty salon E gym
cafe
In Japan, S eijin no Hi, th e com in g-o f-age day, is a
1 2 3 4 h ighly a n tic ip a te d day in a young persons life . It is
ce le b ra te d every January by those w ho 1 ) ..................... TURN
20, th e legal age o f adu lthood in Japan. It is an
e la b o ra te c e le b ra tio n . Young wom en w e a r e xtra vagan t
tra d itio n a l kim onos 2 ) .................. fu riso d e w h ich can CALL
S p e a k in g (a talk) cast up to $10,000! These kim onos are so co m p lica te d
to p u t on th a t th e girls o fte n go to a special beauty
a) Read th e rubric. In pairs, salon, w h ich also does th e ir h a ir and m ake-up in
th in k o f w ords relate d to in tric a te d e ta il. A lthough th e young men can w e a r a
m a le -style kim ono ca lle d hakam a, m any choose a
th e topic. sm art suit nowadays. A t th e end o f th e cerem ony,
sm all g ifts are handed o u t to th e new ly-recognised
adu lts fo llo w e d by lo ts o f photos! Later, th e new adults
Give a 1.5-2 m inute talk about head o ff to pa rtie s th a t last la te in to th e night.
someone w h o inspires you. In A m erica, th e day on w h ich a young person receives
Remember to say: th e ir high school diplom a a t around th e age o f 18 is an
im p o rta n t c e le b ra tio n on th e w ay 3 ) .................. an BECOME
w h a t the person looks likes a d u lt. There is a graduation cerem ony a t w hich
w h a t kind o f persona lity the graduates w e a r specially-designed robes and a black
person has square-shaped cap ca lled a m o rta rb o a rd . The m ost
w h y you like them and w h y im p o rta n t m om ent is w hen th e graduate w alks across
th e stage, receives th e ir diplom a and shakes th e
th e y inspire you p rin c ip a ls hand. Later on, speeches 4 ) .................. by MAKE
school o ffic ia ls and previous graduates o f th e school,
b u t th e m ost im p o rta n t speech is by th e v a le d icto ria n -
b) Do the task. M ake sure you
a gradua te w ho has achieved gre a t academ ic success.
include all points in the The v a le d ic to ria n 5 ) .................... abo ut th e graduating TALK
rubric. classs fu tu re in o rd e r to in spire th e o th e r graduates.
A fte r th e cerem ony, graduates change o u t o f th e ir
robes in to fo rm a l dresses and suits and go to
gradua tion pa rtie s and dances.
W o rd fo rm ation W ritin g
Read th e te x t. Fill in ( a n a r t i c l e d e s c r ib in g
a p e rs o n )
th e gaps w ith th e
proper lexical form o f a) Read th e rubric and
th e capitalised w ords. un d erline th e key w ords,
th en an sw er th e
'Hear ye, hear ye!' bellows a man standing on the street questions.
corner. He's dressed in elaborate eighteenth century
clothes - a black, red and gold coat, knee-length trousers,
A m agazine w a n ts to
black buckled shoes and a three-cornered hat. He could
be an actor w ith a role in a 1) ...........................drama, but HISTORY publish a series o f articles
he is actually the 'tow n crier' in a British tow n! a b o u t in flu e n tia l people
In Medieval Britain, tow n criers were employed to make th ro u g h o u t history. W rite
public 2) ........................... in the streets, like a newspaper ANNOUNCE an article fo r th e m agazine
for those who could not read. They used to walk around describing a person you
the tow n centre and draw the public's attention using a adm ire from history.
hand bell, and, o f course, their loud voice! They would Include: who they were & what
publicise market days, local news, adverts and sometimes they were famous for, what
even the price of groceries. They would also sometimes they were like (appearance,
have to give 3 ) ........................... news such as tax POPULAR character, achievements, etc.),
increases, so they were protected by law in case anyone
why you admire them. (120-
reacted 4 ) .............................. ANGER
i 180 w ords)
Nowadays, town criers can still be heard in some towns.
Every year in the United Kingdom there is also an annual
town crying 5 ) .......................... , which includes categories COMPETE W hat exactly do you have to w rite?
such as 'loudest town crier' and 'best-dressed town crier'. W h a t tense(s) w ill you use?
Liverpool in northwest England has recently appointed a H ow m any paragraphs w ill you
town crier after 200 years w ithout one so it looks like the
w rite ?
tradition w ill live on for generations to come.
W ho could you w rite about?
Key w o rd tran sfo rm a tion s W h a t in fo rm a tio n could you
include in each paragraph?
C o m p lete th e gapped sentences so th a t th e y have a
sim ilar m eaning to th e o rig in al ones. Use tw o to five
w ords including th e w o rd given.A ccurate spelling and b) W rite you r article
gram m ar is required. fo llo w in g th e plan below .

1 O th e r scientists are interested in Dr H erzing's research.


EXPRESSED O the r scientists .......................................................... Plan
..................................................Dr H erzing's research
Para 1: brief information about
2 A lth o u g h ants d o n 't ta lk, th e y can com m unicate. the person you chose
DESPITE A nts can com m unicate ............................................ (name, when/where born/
................................................................................... ta lk died, what famous for, etc)
3 A m y had no idea Susan had been gossiping a b o u t her. Paras 2-4: what the person was like
KNOW L ittle ........................................................................... (appearance, personality,
.................... Susan had been gossiping ab o u t her achievements, etc)
4 Erica arranged fo r a fam ous cosm etic surgeon to fix her nose Para 5: why you admire this
HAD E ric a ...................................................... ......................... person
............................... by a fam ous cosm etic surgeon
5 I expect you w e re relieved to avoid th e o ffice ch a tterb ox.
BEEN You .................................................................................
relieved to avoid the o ffice cha tte rb o x
124

Language in Use l
Phrasal verb s/Prep osition s W o rd form ation
Choose th e correct particle. 4 F ill in th e c o rre c t w o rd d e riv e d
fro m th e w o rd in b ra c k e ts .
fill o u t/in : com plete (o fficia l docum ents)
Forming nouns from verbs
fill up: put as much in sth as possible
We can change verbs into nouns by adding
hold up: 1) delay 2) com m it a robbery using guns -y (recover-recovery), -ure (please-pleasure),
hold on: w a it -ication (simplify - simplification),
hold off: not start or do sth im m ediately -ency (tend-tendency) or -ing (grow-growing).
\ ______________________________________ ^
try on: put on clothing to see if it fits
try out: com pete for a place (on a team) 1 W e're t a k in g .......................... o f our
try sth out: use sth to see if it works/you like it new TV to m o rro w . (DELIVER)
2 B etty called th e d o c to r as a
1 We fille d in/u p w ith pe tro l before s ta rtin g th e long drive. m a tte r o f ............................ (URGE).
2 I hope the rain holds o n /o ff u n til a fte r the picnic! 3 His a tte m p t to clim b th e m ountain
3 Dan trie d th e ja cke t o n /o u t in the shop before he b o u g h t it. ended in ........... (FAIL).
4 Hold o ff/o n ! I'll be back in a m inute. 4 Dr Herzing is only a t th e ..............
5 The robbers held u p /o ff th e bank and g o t aw ay w ith 50,000. o f her experim ents w ith CHAT.
6 Emily's try in g o u t/o n fo r th e basketball team . (BEGIN)
5 Ann p u t her j o b ...............................
2 Choose th e correct p repo sition.
in th e post this m orning. (APPLY)
1 Jon called me last n ig h t o u t o f/fro m th e blue.
2 CHAT may have a huge im pact a t/o n o th e r research. C ollocation s
3 The o ffice bully le ft Jane to /in tears. 5 Fill in : cosmetic, plucked, chubby,
4 Rachel is ashamed fro m /of her mother's behaviour. stamp, bite, eye, conflict, tongue,
5 It can be hard to distinguish o ver/b etw een a lie and the tru th . go, muscle.
6 You could see she was a t/in agony.
1 ..............................................eyebrow s
W o rd s often confused 2 ................................................. surgery
3 Choose th e correct w o rd . 3 ...................................................cheeks
4 stick o u t y o u r ...................................
1 She d o e sn 't reg ret/d en y changing her appearance. 5 ...........................................yo u r nails
2 Sam ad m itted /ag ree d gossiping a b o u t Faye. 6 m a intain ...............................contact
3 Her appearance had radically adjusted/altered since the last 7 resolve a .............................................
tim e I saw her. 8 ........................................................pale
4 The A ll Blacks' supporters/view ers cheered and chanted 9 spasm
th ro u g h o u t th e m atch. 10 ............................................yo u r fe e t
5 It was a ra th e r clum sy/aw kw ard situ a tio n .

M ark th e sentences T (tru e ) or F (false). Correct th e false sentences. Read


th ro u g h M o d u le 6 and w rite a quiz o f your o w n .
A ccording to studies, in a 10-m in conversation people te ll a t least 5 lies
Dolphins speak a special language.
The Haka o rig in a te d in A ustralia.
Bees dance to indicate w here an enem y is.
M a in ta in in g steady eye co n tact suggests th e person is te llin g th e tru th .
m ok is a type o f Haka.
G orillas stick o u t th e ir tongue s w hen th e y 're feeling playfu l. ...... .
[W] R evision6 p. 1 3 2 )
~~ ...
6 The C a p ta in s
Daughter
y reflections upon the road were not of the pleasant although still
M kind. The loss at play was according to my shaking his head
circumstances, not inconsiderable. I was to acknowledge from time to time,
to myself, that my behaviour in the hotel at Simbirsk was and muttering now
very foolish. I also felt wrong and unjust in regard to and then hundred
Savelitch. All these reflections torm ented me. The old roubles - a trifle!
man sat and silent, sighing only from time to time. I I approached my
wanted absolutely to make it up with him, but did not how destination. A round me, as far as I could see, was nothing
to begin it. At last, I said to him: Well Savelitch, let but a dull wilderness, crossed by hills and gulfs. Everywhere
bygones be bygones, and let us make peace; I was wrong, I was deep snow. O ur kibitka drove along the small road, or
see it myself. I played stupid tricks yesterday, and insulted rather along the track made by the sledges of the peasants.
you today without reason. I promise you, however, to act At last the coachman began to look sideways and finally
henceforth more reasonably, and to take your advice. Do taking off his hat and turning to me, said,
not be angry any more, we will be friends. Master, shall we not return?
Ah, my dear Peter A ndreitch, he answered with a deep W hat for?
drawn sigh, I am angry against myself; it is I who have The weather begins to be threatening. The wind rises
committed a thorough blunder. How could I leave you visibly. Do you see how it drives the snow away?
alone in the hotel? Alas! If it is a m ans destiny to sin, he W hat then?
will do it. How came it into my head to visit my god But do you not see there? pointing with his whip to the
mother, the wife of the sexton? I am just situated as the east.
proverb says: I see nothing beside the white steppe and the clear
W ent his god-m other to see, heavens.
To the gibbet finally came he. Yonder, that small cloud.
I am a lost man! How shall I again show myself before my I now began to perceive on the horizon, a little white
m aster and mistress? cloud, which I had mistaken at first for a distant hill.
In order to console poor Savelitch, I made him the
promise not to dispose in future of a single kopek without
his acquiescence. By and by, he got a little consoled, reflection, inconsiderable, to rm e n t, sigh, sin, dispose,
m utter, peasant, w h ip

R e a d in g & Listen in g 4 M atch th e w ords/phrases in bold


in th e te x t w ith th e ir m eaning.
^ W h at do you know about Pushkin? Tell the class.
1 from n o w on
2 Read th e ad a p te d ex tra c t from th e novel The Captain's 2 see
D aughter. W h a t is happening in it? 3 u n fa ir
4 the past stays in
2 Read the te x t again and choose which o f the statem ents the past
(1-5) are T (true), F (false) or NS (not stated). 5 m istake
6 cheer up
1 Peter is enjoying his trip .
2 Peter blames him se lf fo r u p se ttin g Savelitch. ICT Find o ut abo ut A lexander
3 They had b o th been staying in th e hotel. Pushkin and his novel The
4 Peter agrees to get Savelitch's perm ission in the fu tu re . . Captain's Daughter. W rite a fe w
5 The cloud in th e distance is a snow storm . sentences. Present it to th e class.
126

<
Revision L
1 F ill in : predictable, demand, collapsed, grabbed, ^ C hoose th e c o rre c t ite m .
fainted, adm inister, remote, stable, survivors.
1 The m eeting was called b a c k /o ff due to the
1 33 men w ere trap ped und erg rou nd w hen a accident.
m in e ............................................... in Chile. 2 The tsunam i trave lled w ith /a t a great speed.
2 A nnie ............................................... w ith exhaustion 3 No one backed him d o w n /u p and he was very
a fte r w a lkin g all day in th e h o t sun. disappointed.
3 I slipped and ...........................................John's arm 4 He begged fo r /in m oney to su p p o rt his fam ily.
to stop m yself from fa llin g . 5 His pho tos are o n /in great dem and.
4 The Blue John Canyon is v e r y ................................. ; 5 x 2 = 10 m arks

no one lives nearby and it's d iffic u lt to get to. 5 M a tc h th e e xcha nges.
5 There w e re f i v e .................................................o f the
plane crash; it's am azing! 1 C an't w e w atch CSI? A It's nearly finished.
You alw ays k n o w w h a t's going to happen in 2 Do w e have to w atch I d o n 't like the
th a t soap opera; it's so ...........................................! this? sound o f that.
7 His pho to g ra p h s are in g r e a t .................................. There's a docum entary Sure, here you are.
all over th e w o rld . about whales on D Yes, isn't it aw ful?
8 The ground beneath us is n 't .................................. ; Channel 2 at 5. E OK, b ut then
it's m oving all th e tim e. Did you hear about w e 're sw itching
9 It was very d iffic u lt fo r him to .............................. the landslide? over to Channel 3.
firs t aid to him self. 9x2=;8marks Can you pass me the
TV guide? 5 x 4 = 2 0 m arks
2 P ut th e v e rb s in b ra c k e ts in to th e c o rre c t
p re s e n t o r p a s t te n s e fo rm s .
g C o m p le te th e se n te n ce s w ith th e c o rre c t
1 Am y ....................................................... (sleep) w hen w o rd d e riv e d fro m th e w o rd s in b o ld .
th e earthquake happened.
1 A ........................................storm form ed above the
2 They ................................................................ (tra v e l)
islands. (TROPIC)
to Iceland next w eek.
2 The earthquake was very ........................................
3 B illy .......................(go) clim bing every w eekend.
(POWER)
4 Hundreds o f p e o p le ....................................... (lose)
3 The city is m aking a slo w ........................................
th e ir lives as a result o f the earthquake so far.
(RECOVER)
5 S a m ...................................... (rea d) a t th e m om ent.
4 A ron helps .................................. athletes. (ABLED)
T h e y ................................................ (lo o k ) a t th e fire
5 He spent thre e days in .............................................
as it was quickly spreading.
tem p era tures before th e y fo u n d him . (FREEZE)
7 Brian was angry because he ...................................
5 x 2 = 1 0 m arks
(w a it) fo r Hannah fo r an hour.
8 By the tim e w e arrived a t th e beach, i t .............. ~J W rite a s to ry ca lle d 'A lu c k y escape'
........................................... (s ta rt) to po u r w ith rain. (120-180 w o rd s ). 2 0 m arks
8 x 2 = 16 m arks Total: 100 m arks
3 C hoose th e c o rre c t ite m .
/4
1 The a ll/w h o le w o rld joined in to help the victims. Check your Progress
2 B o th /N e ith e r Sandy nor Sam w e n t to Japan. talk and w rite about disasters
3 They had h a rd ly a n y /s e v e ra l m oney w ith them . talk and w rite about accidents and injuries
decide what to watch on TV
4 A large nu m b e r o f/A g re a t deal o f residents le ft
give bad news & react
th e ir houses.
w rite a story
5 There was very f e w / litt le to be done. talk about tsunamis
There is q u ite a n u m b e r/p le n ty m ore to come.
6 x 1 = 6 m arks
GOOD / VERY GOOD / / EXCELLENT / / /
127
Revision

I Fill in: hits, tem pting, address, aisle, designer, M atch th e exchanges.
banned, revenge, values, scratched, carried away. 1 I'd like to exchange A I'm a size 10.
th is camera. Could I see your
1 We should uphold tra d itio n a l f a m ily ...................
2 A ny good? receipt, please?
2 H olly o fte n gets ................................................... on
3 Do you need any The fittin g room s
shopping trip s and spends far to o m uch money.
help? are on th e le ft.
3 Jim to o k his new camera back to th e shop
4 W here can I try D I'm lo okin g fo r a
because th e lens w a s .................................................
these on? pair o f sunglasses.
4 M any teenagers ca n 't w e ar jeans to school
5 W h a t size are you? E Yes, th e y f it me
because th e ir school has ...............................them .
really w e ll.
5 Jane on ly w e a rs ............................................ clothes 5 x 4 = 2 0 m arks
especially Gucci, Versace and Calvin Klein. C o m p lete th e gaps w ith th e correct w ord
6 The smell o f freshly-baked c a k e s .......................... d erived from th e w ords in brackets.
you as you e n te r th e bakery.
7 The frozen foods are in ..................................... 10. 1 Can you .....................................this skirt? (SHORT)
8 There are .................................... displays o f sweets 2 W e s h o u ld ...................................................everyone
at th e checkout. to buy fresh local produce. (COURAGE)
9 Please .........................................him by name w hen 3 I like ................................................ lettuce. (CRISP)
he arrives. 4 They grow a .................................of fruit. (VARY)
10 He was so angry w ith John he decided to take 5 The situation may ....................................(WORSE)
5 x 2 = 1 0 m arks
C o m p lete th e sentences using th e w ords in
10 x 2 = 2 0 m arks
bold. Use tw o to five w ords.

Choose th e correct item . 1 This dress is more expensive than th at one.


AS That dress..................................................
1 I th in k Tom's new in ve n tio n w ill m ake/w ill be ................................................... this one
m aking him rich. 2 I've never seen such beautiful tulips.
2 That checkout has by fa r the longer/lo ngest MOST These a r e ............................................ .
queue. ......................................have ever seen
3 Two fo r th e price o f one seems to be/being a 3 They made her pay 200.
bargain. WAS She ...................................................200
4 This tim e n ext w eek, Dan w ill m o v e /w ill be 4 Could you carry the bags?
m oving in to his new fla t. M IN D Would ................................... the bags?
5 We can't w ait to go shopping.
5 These reduced-price biscuits a re n 't as ta s ty /
LOOKING W e .............................................................
tastier as th e brand-nam e ones.
...................................................shopping
6 This tim e n ext m onth w e w ill be tra v e llin g /w ill 5 x 4 = 2 0 m arks
have travelled to Spain. W rite an em ail o f co m plaint ab o u t a w atch
7 The h u n griest/hung rier I am w hen shopping, you b o u g h t online from a site called
th e m ore I spend. supergoods.com (120-180 w ords). 2 0 m a rk s
8 Gary do e sn 't m ind to pay/payin g m ore fo r
Total: 100 m arks
q u a lity goods.
/4
9 W e're going to buy/bu yin g a 3D TV durin g the Check your Progress
w in te r sale. ta lk and w rite a b o u t products o f th e fu tu re -------
10 Fram pton's sells th e b e s t/b e tte r sausages in ta lk a b o u t shops and shopping -------
to w n . N o thing else compares. buy clothes -------
10x1 = 10 m arks com plain a b o u t fa u lty products -------
w rite an em ail o f c o m p la in t -------
GOOD / VERY GOOD / / EXCELLENT / / /
128
*
Revision

Fill in: source, raise, hair-raising, conserve, reach, Complete th e sentences using the words in
inspiration, grabbed, faced, wandered, donate. bold. Use tw o to five words. D on't change the
w ord in bold.
1 His lecture was a tru e ................................... to us.
2 T h e ............................................. o f the river is in the 1 Recycling regularly is a good idea.
m ountains. SHOULD We ..................................... regularly.
3 Greenpeace aims to .......................................public 2 It's a p ity you d id n 't com e w ith us.
awareness o f ecological issues. WISH I ....................................................... us.
4 His speech ................................. people's a tte n tio n . 3 She can't travel abroad because she can't afford it.
5 Facing crocodiles was a ............................................. W OULD If she c o u ld ........................................
experience he w o n 't fo rg e t. ................................................ abroad.
6 Despite th e challenges he ......................................., 4 He failed his exams because he h a d n 't studied.
he co ntin ued his journey. HAVE If he had studied, .............................
7 He to o k a m onth to ....................... his destination. ........................................... his exams.
8 We should all h e lp .................................our forests. 5 He d o e sn 't ride a bike so he d id n 't jo in th e tour.
9 W e ............................... m oney to anim al charities. JOINED If he rode a bike, he .......................
10 He ........................................... around th e festival to ...............................................th e tour.
see w h a t was going on. 5x2=10 m arks
10x2=20 m arks

2 Choose th e correct w ords.


M atch th e exchanges.
1 Mark's the student w ho/w hose raised the money.
2 Sally m ustn't/didn't have to wash her car; her 1 Hello h o w can I help you?
dad did it for her. 2 Could you give me your credit card num ber?
3 You can 't/sh o u ld n 't use chem ical cleaners; 3 W hat's th e expiry date?
th e y 're bad fo r th e enviro nm ent. 4 I believe th a t cars should be banned.
4 The Am azon is a place th a t/w h e re jaguars live. 5 I'd like to make a d on ation o f 20 per m onth.
5 That's th e boy w h o /w h o se fa th e r is a professor.
5x2=10 m arks A It's May, 2014.
I'd like to m ake a d o n a tio n , please.
Put th e verbs in brackets in their correct form .
I to ta lly agree w ith you.
1 I w ish I ..........................................(be) m ore p a tie n t. D That's w o n d e rfu l!
2 If I ................................................. (be) you, I'd leave. E C ertainly. It's 8987 6574 6534 2314.
3 If you apply fo r this jo b , y o u .....................(get) it. 5x4=20 m arks

4 I w ish I ....................... (go) to the p a rty last nig h t.


5 W h a t ................................................................................ W rite an o pinion essay on th e topic 'A ll
(yo u /d o ) if you g o t lost in th e jungle? zoos should be b an ned' (120-180 w ords).
5x2=10 m arks
2 0 m arks
4 C o m plete th e sentence w ith th e correct Total: TOO m arks
w o rd derived from th e w ords in bold.

1 She looked at h e r ............................................in the


m irror. (REFLECT) Check vour Proaress
2 He lacks a b a s ic ......................................(EDUCATE)
ta lk and w rite a b o u t social problem s _
3 My tim e there w a s ........................special. (TRUE)
call to make a d o n a tio n _
4 The festival prom otes ................................................ ta lk a b o u t e n v iro n m e n ta l problem s _
o f speech. (FREE). w rite an o p in io n essay _
5 The possibilities are .......................................(END) G O O D / VERY G O O D / / E X C E L L E N T ///
5x2=10 m arks
129
sJ Revision
Fill in: conduct, gripping, countless, predictable, I Join th e sentences w ith th e correct
valued, w histling, debris, glared, sank, gathered. re fle x iv e /e m p h a tic pronouns.

1 The .......................................................from th e crash 1 L o re n .....................................................................thinks


was scattered all over th e desert. he once saw a cryptid.
2 They decided to .............................................. some 2 We photog rap hed ......................................................
experim ents on th e bones. on the banks o f Loch Ness.
3 M y h e a r t ............................................................ w hen 3 They really e n jo y e d .....................................................
Tom said he w o u ld leave. on the UFO tour.
4 A lo t o f p e o p le ....................................................... to 4 H e lp ..............................to snacks from th e frid g e !
w a tch th e m ysterious fireballs. 4 x 2 = 8 m arks
5 The novel w a s ........................................... ; fro m the j C o m p lete th e sentences w ith a, an, the or - .
beginning I knew w h a t was g oing to happen.
1 spacecraft is believed to have crashed in
6 His o p in io n is h ig h ly ..................................................
Nevada Desert.
7 The p lo t was s o ...........................................................
2 ............ coelacanth was th o u g h t to be .............
I c o u ld n 't p u t it dow n.
e xtin c t species.
8 Ann ................................................. a n g rily a t Susan.
3 Big Ben is i n ...........capital city o f .............. England.
9 M ike has been ................................................... th a t
4 Some say ........... Yeti lives on ............ M o u n t
tu n e to him se lf all day!
Everest.
10 There have b e e n ..........................................................
5 Residents o f Phoenix saw UFOs i n ............
sig htings o f B ig fo o t in N orth Am erica.
1997.
1 0 x 1 = 1 0 m arks
6 sound know n as the 'Taos Hum ' was firs t
heard i n 1990s. 6 x 2 = 1 2 m arks
R e w rite th e sentences in th e passive.
M a tc h th e exch a n g e s.
1 People can hear a strange noise in Taos.
W hen do th e guided A M y pleasure.
2 Scientists h a ve n 't fo u n d an e xp lana tion fo r the
tours start? It's really fast-
Hum.
Is this th e rig h t paced and
place to buy tickets? e xciting.
3 They say th a t Yetis live in th e m ountains. Two adults,
Thank you very
much. please.
4 M any people saw th e Naga fireballs last n ig h t. D They s ta rt every
W h a t did you th in k
o f th e plot? h a lf hour.
5 They believe th e lig h ts w ere UFOs. H ow m any ticke ts E Yes, it ce rta in ly is.
w o u ld you like? 5 x 4 = 2 0 m arks
5 x 4 = 2 0 m arks
W rite a re v ie w o f y o u r fa v o u r ite b o o k fo r a
m a g a z in e (120-180 w o rd s ). 2 0 m a rk s
C o m plete th e sentences w ith th e correct
Total: 100 m arks
question tag .
\
1 He's a w o rld fam ous UFO expert, .........................? Check your Progress
2 We g o t a p h o to g ra p h o f the m o n s te r,..............? ta lk and w rite a b o u t UFOs
ta lk and w rite a b o u t strange creatures
3 D o n 't go in to the w oods a lo n e ,............................?
book ticke ts fo r a guided to u r
4 Let's camp o u t to n ig h t, ......................................... ?
ta lk and w rite a b o u t m ysterious places
5 You're n o t frig h te n e d o f th e dark, ...................? ta lk a b o u t books yo u 've read
w rite a review o f a book
5 x 2 = 1 0 m arks
GOOD / VERY GOOD / / EXCELLENT / / /
130

Revision
1 Fill in: relief, dropped out, skilled, crash, burnt Put th e verbs in to th e correct tense and
out, awe, asset, focused, stumbled, fees. choose th e correct tim e phrase.

1 Steve realised university w a s n 't fo r him so he 1 Dan w ill trave l across Asia u n til/b y th e tim e he
..................................................... (run) o u t o f money.
2 Sandra is a real ............................to the company. 2 I'll go on holida y since/w hen I ..............................
3 The Shaolin m onks are h ig h ly ................................. (finish) my exams.
in Kung Fu. 3 By th e tim e/A s soon as t h e y .................................
4 You have to b e ............................................to g et a (arrive) at th e party, th e ir friends had le ft.
D o f E A w ard. 4 I'll call you a fte r/w h ile I .........................................
5 He to o k a ................................... course in English. (get) back fro m th e library.
6 We w a tche d in ...................................................as he 5 John w a n ts to take a gap year u n til/b e fo re he
perform ed his tricks. .........................................................(go) to university.
7 To Simon's ........................................., he passed his 5 x 2 = 1 0 m arks
d riving te s t w hen he to o k it fo r th e th ird tim e.
8 Jane had spent thre e m onths studying hard fo r
her exams and w a s ........................................
M atch th e exchanges.
9 The t u it io n .................................w ere to o high fo r
him to a ffo rd .
1 W hen w ill th e book Yes, can I see
10 He fo rg o t his notes so h e ........................................
be back in? your lib ra ry card,
th ro u g h his presentatio n. 10x2=20 m arks
2 I w o n d e r if you please?
R e w rite th e sentences in rep o rted speech. could help me. W hat's th e title
3 This book is due o f th e book and
1 "You m ust practise hard every day," my Kung
back fo u r days from th e author?
Fu teacher to ld me.
today. Ok, th a n k you
Can I take th is book very much.
2 "C an you show me th e w a y to th e library? "
o u t, please? It is due back in
Tom asked me.
I ca n 't seem to find fo u r days.
one o f th e books I W hat's the
3 "D o n 't be late fo r th e le ctu re ," said Liam. need. problem ?
5 x 4 = 2 0 m arks
4 "I'm d oing a B iochem istry degree at O xfo rd ,"
said Henry.

5 "W h a t tim e is it? " she asked. W rite a fo r-a n d -a g a in s t essay a b o u t going
to un iversity or college (120-180 w ords).
5 x 2 = 1 0 m arks
2 0 m arks
R e w rite th e sentences in th e reported Total: 100 m arks
speech. Use th e verbs in brackets.

1 "H and in your essays before Friday," he said,


(rem inded) Check your Proqress
2 "You broke th e p rin te r," Ann said to Steve, w rite and act o u t an in te rv ie w -------
ta lk and w rite a b o u t a y o u th o rg a n isa tio n -------
(accused)
ta lk a b o u t gap year experiences -------
3 "I d id n 't take your lib ra ry card," Sue said,
com pare p h o to g ra p h s -------
(denied) w rite a fo r-a n d -a g a in s t essay ____
4 "Let's go to th e th e a tre ," Ben said, (suggested)
GOOD / VERY GOOD / / EXCELLENT / / /
5 "I'm sorry I lied to y o u ," he said, (apologised)
5 x 4 = 2 0 m arks
131
Revision
Fill in: stamped, goatee, raised, 3 R e w rite th e sentences in th e causative.
packs, fidgeting, convince, delight,
cosmetic, exaggerates, signal. 1 M y new phone w ill be installed to m o rro w .

1 I alm ost d id n 't recognise you. 2 Someone w ill pierce Stacey's ears fo r her.
W hen did you g ro w a ....................
beard? 3 A plastic surgeon is fix in g Danny's nose.
2 T o n y .............................................. his
eyebrow s in disbelief. 4 The hairdresser has shaved John's head.
3 ..........................o f w olves s till roam
the countryside in some countries. 4 x 3 = 1 2 m arks
4 Some people take great ...............
in arguing w ith others. /I R e w rite th e sentences using th e w ords in brackets to
5 H a rr y ................................. problem s s ta rt th e n ew sentence.
and makes them seem worse.
1 People w ill like you if you like yourself. (ONLY IF)
6 He d id n 't ....................................... us
2 If he h a d n 't gone o u t every n ig h t, he m ig h t have passed his
th a t he was te llin g th e tru th .
exams. (HAD)
7 He was very nervous and kept
3 He's a good liar and everyone believes him . (SUCH)
.......................................... in his chair.
4 He had ju s t le ft w hen it sta rte d raining. (NO SOONER)
8 A n ts release chem icals t o ..............
5 She's so fa m ilia r w ith th e dolphins th a t she calls them by
a arm.
name. (SO)
9 >m ...................................his fe e t to 5 x 2 = 1 0 m arks
ep w arm .
10 ,e tu rn e d t o ........................ surgery 5 M atch th e exchanges.
to change th e shape o f her nose. Could you please stop
IT A Thank you very much.
1 0 x 2 = 2 0 m arks in te rru p tin g me? Yes, th a t should be fine.
I'm stuck in tra ffic . H ow a b o u t Friday
2 Choose th e correct w ords.
Could you m ake June the a fte rn o o n ?
1 Bees dance in order to /so th a t 5th? D I'm sorry. I'll try n o t to
pass on in fo rm a tio n . See you on th e 22nd. do it again.
2 He m ig h t/m u st have been te llin g W hen w o u ld you like to E I'm sorry to hear th a t.
the tru th , b u t I'm n o t sure. rearrange it for?
5 x 4 = 2 0 m arks
3 Darren knew Craig was lying due
0 A m agazine is asking fo r articles a b o u t a frien d or
to/as he avoided eye contact.
re la tiv e w h o has played an im p o rta n t role in you r life.
4 That c a n 't/m u stn 't have been
W rite an article fo r th e m agazine (120-180 w ords).
Sally you saw; she's on holiday.
2 0 m arks
5 Sienna acts so th a t/a s though
she's very im p o rta n t. Total: 100 m arks

6 There was so/such a lo t o f noise /4


in th e room th a t I c o u ld n 't w o rk. Check your Proqress
7 I fe lt upset yesterday because o f/ talk & write about difficult people ___
as a result th e arg u m e n t I had. talk about changes to your appearance ___
rearrange an appointment ___
8 The em ail ca n 't/m u s tn 't be from
talk and write about body language ___
Tom; he do e sn 't have a com puter. criticising & responding ___
9 Jo's crying. She m ust/could be write a description o f a person ___
upset.
9 x 2 = 1 8 m arks GOOD / VERY GOOD / / EXCELLENT / / /
132

Vocabulary Bank
N atural disasters Choose th e correct w o rd .
Label th e pictures.
1 The avalanche victim stayed live /alive by
volcanic e ru p tio n hurricane creating an air pocket near his nose and m outh.
earthquake avalanche lig h tn in g b o lt 2 The p h o to g ra p h e r g o t a p e rfect shot/shoo t o f
landslide d ro u g h t hailstorm th e volcanic e ru p tio n .
flo o d in g tro p ica l storm 3 A fte r th e flo o d w a rn in g , evacuating th e local
co m m u n ity became a m atter/case o f urgency.
4 Jon cau ght/grab bed his camera and to o k a
picture o f th e b re a th ta kin g sunrise.
5 It's im p o rta n t to tak e /m a k e precautions w hen
g oing ice-clim bing.
6 The flo o d w a ters kept raising/rising so w e
headed fo r h igher ground.

Fill in th e correct prepo sition: from , in, on,


under, to.

1 A fte r th e earthquake , food supplies w ere


.................... high dem and.
2 The news reporters w e r e ....................th e scene
w ith in m inutes.
3 The tra p p e d caver was su ffe rin g ....................
exhaustion and d e h ydra tion.
4 The homeless hurricane victim s spent th e firs t
fe w d a y s ......................te m p o ra ry shelters.
5 There was a freak storm and hundreds o f
people w ere s tra n d e d ......................th e island.
6 It c a m e ..................... my a tte n tio n th a t Joe was
s till shaking hours a fte r th e earthquake.
7 The w o m an was clinging .................... her
ro o fto p , w a itin g fo r th e rescue crew to arrive.
8 The to rn a d o destroyed eve ryth in g th a t lay
.................... its path.
9 The area re m a in s .................... th re a t o f flo o d in g .

W h a t is th e w o rs t n atu ral disaster you have


read about? W here and w hen did it
happen? W h a t happened? W rite a short
paragraph a b o u t it.

VB1
t
Vocabulary Bank
a) Fill in: lava, crater, ash, c) Fill in: destroy, tectonic plate, collapse,
block, gases, event, shelter, cause, evacuate, measure, rubble,
predict, erupt, shake in th e correct form .
explosion, destroy
in th e correct *
form .

On a clear Sunday m orning, on th e 18th May


1980, M o u n t St Helens 1 ) ..................... a fte r 123
years o f silence. The e ru p tio n was th e deadliest
volcanic 2 ) .................. in th e history o f th e U nited
States. A t exactly 8.32am, a(n) 3 ) ............................ G re at E ast Jap an E arth q u ak e of
so huge it was heard hundreds o f miles away, 2011, was the fifth m ost pow erful quake
occurred. Tons o f red h o t 4 ) ......................em erged on E arth in m ore than 100 years. It
fro m th e volcano's 5 ) ......................and raced dow n I ) ................................................ 9.0 on the
th e m ountainside. Every b u ild in g w ith in a 600 m R ichter Scale. T he quake triggered strong
radius 6) ......................................Over 1.5 m illio n tons tsunam i waves which 2 ) ...............................
o f poisonous 7 ) ............................ w ere released in to everything in th eir path, leaving piles of
th e atm osphere. 8) ..........................clouds darkened 3 ) ........................................ behind. H om es and
th e sky and 9 ) .................................. o u t th e sun. buildings 4 ) ........................... in an instant. O ver
G eologists and volcanologists did not fifteen thousand p eople w ere killed. Survivors,
10) ......................... th e disaster. stunned and 5 ) ................................ ,
6 ) ............................ the area hoping to find
7 ) ........................................ until the nightm are
b) Fill in: flatten, storm , threat, reaches, ended. G eologists stated that this disaster was
flooding, evacuated, releases, winds, destroy. 8 ) ....................................................... by one
9 ) ...................................... being pushed un d er
another.

M atch th e w ords, th en use th e phrases to


W hen a 1 ) ............................a t sea becom es a m ake sentences.
hurricane and 2 ) ............................................shore,
it poses a serious 3 ) ...........................................to 1 breaking A flo o d in g
p u b lic safety. O nce a hurricane 2 massive roar
4 ) .......................................... its full power, it w ill
3 deafening news
5 ) .......................................... everything in its path
Strong 6) .................................. and torrential 4 d o rm a n t D services
rainfall uproot trees, 7) .......................................... 5 em ergency E volcano
buildings, and cause serious 8) ........................
Com m unities m ust be 9 ) ....................... if 6 poisonous F shelter
fatalities are to be avoided. 7 te m p o ra ry G gases
8 flam in g H w inds
9 fa u lt I lava
10 v io le n t J line
H ealth/A ccidents/Injuries
Label th e item s w ith : tw ist, sprain, gash/wound, bang, faint, break, cut, bruise, dehydrated, graze,
concussion, dislocate, scratch, scald.

your knee

your eye your shoulder your arm

y o u r w ris t yo u r hand your head yo u r ankle

yo u r hand yo u r fin g e r

Have you ever had any o f th e accidents above? W h a t happened?


Vocabulary Bank
Fill in : reduce, apply, treat, injured, raise, crutches, wrapping, F ill in : struggle, save, notify,
ease, pain, go down. administer, rescue, survive, ache,
hurt, injure, cure, suffer, heal,
catch, operate, prescribe, treat
in th e c o rre c t fo rm .

His legs w e r e ......................................


from skiing all afternoon.
Nurses k n o w h o w to .....................
firs t-a id tre a tm e n t.
The first-tim e m arathon runner
was .......................................................
from exhaustion and dehydration.
The d o c t o r .........................................
painkillers to ease my back pain.
U n fo rtu n a te ly, some diseases
You've ju s t sprained your ankle and yo u 're experiencing a shoo ting
cannot be ...........................................
1) ...................................................up your leg. W h a t do you do? You can
A rm y p e rs o n n e l................................
2 ) ...............................your ankle using th e RICE M eth od.
th e survivors o f th e plane crash.
R is fo r rest. You need to rest th e injured ankle in order to reduce Emergency services ........................
th e pain and avoid fu rth e r injury. Your d o cto r may advise you to to cope w ith th e large num ber o f
use 3 ) ............................. so th a t you d o n 't place any w e ig h t on your casualties a fte r th e storm .
fo o t. The a u th o ritie s are concerned
I is for ice. You can 4 ) ............................an ice pack to the ankle fo r 15 th a t th e flo o d victim s m ig h t
m inutes w h ich w ill help 5 ) ....................th e pain and 6) ..................... .....................w a te r-b o rn e diseases.
th e sw e lling. Repeat th e procedure every 2 hours. Emergency aid has .........................
th e lives o f m illio ns o f people.
is fo r compression. 7 ) ........... yo u r ankle up w ith a bandage
10 O nly 15 o f th e 50 passengers
provides su p p o rt and helps th e sw e lling 8 ) ...............................
.................................th e plane crash.
E is for elevation. Put your fo o t up and le t som eone else w a it on 11 It was d iffic u lt t o .............................
you! If you 9 ) ................................. yo u r fo o t, it reduces bleeding all the victim s as there was a
and sw e lling by a llo w in g flu id to flo w aw ay fro m the shortage o f m edicine.
10) ................................... area. 12 W e ........................................................
th e a u th o ritie s as soon as w e
C hoose th e c o rre c t w o rd . realised th a t John was missing.
13 D a v id ...................................................
1 Harry broke his leg and was in a lo t o f pain/ache.
his back w h ile clim bing up a c liff
2 Disaster a tta c k e d /s tru c k w hen tw o o f th e clim bers in our
face.
group fell in to a gorge.
14 Doctors had t o ...................................
3 A fte r 3 weeks, th e rescue crew c a m e /fo rm e d to th e d iffic u lt
on Paul's knee.
decision to abandon th e search.
15 I banged my head on a branch
4 If Robert's surgery is successful, he w ill be able to h o ld /le a d a
and it r e a lly .......................................
norm al life.
16 M ary's scar i s ....................................
5 She only to o k a sm all s ip /s w a llo w o f w a te r as she d id n 't have
slowly.
m uch le ft.
6 We realised O liver was m is p la ce d /m issin g w hen he h a d n 't
retu rne d by n ig h tfa ll.
7 D is a b le d /U n a b le a thle tes p a rticip a te in th e Special O lym pics.
VB4
f
Weather
Choose th e correct w o rd .

5 m ist/rain

8 fo g g y /w in d y

*111 hailsto rm /blizzard

VB5
f
Vocabulary Bank
M atch th e w ords to m ake a) Com plete th e te x t. Use: temperatures, snowfall, chilly,
phrases. frostbite, showers, drop, freezing, forecast.

Hi, Im Tyler W ales and th is is your weekend w eather report.


1 w e a th e r A sky I ts quite 1 ) ......................................this m orning and for most of
2 lig h tn in g layer us it will be cloudy w ith a few 2 ) .................................... which
3 ozone hot will be heavier in the north of the country. O vernight,
4 blue D w inds 3 ) ......................................will probably 4 ) ...................................... to
5 clear E co nd ition s a t least m inus two. Tomorrows 5 ) ..................................is for
6 quite a bit of 6 ) ..................................w ith a high of zero and a
b o ilin g F m oon
low of m inus three. Conditions are perfect for skiing this
7 hurricane G b o lt
weekend, so if youre heading out to th e slopes tomorrow
8 strong H w a rn in g
rem em ber its 7 ) .................................... cold so w rap up to protect
yourself from 8)

F ill in : glow, freeze, hail, pour,


shine, snow in th e c o rre c t fo rm . b) Com plete th e te x t. Use: rain, windy, heatwave, scorching.

1 It was so cold th a t th e lake had


Good m orn ing, th is is Ken M cKenzie w ith yo u r M onday
................................o ve rn ig h t.
w e a th e r re p o rt. The 1 ) .......................................................th a t slow ed
2 The evening sun ..............................
everybody d o w n th is w eekend is here to stay. Today's
in th e sky.
te m p e ra tu re could clim b to a 2 ) ........................................... 40C by
3 W hen it ....................................... ,
early a fte rn o o n . U n fo rtu n a te ly, no 3 ) ...............................................is
th e children have snow ball fig h ts.
forecast fo r th e next five days. It w ill, how ever, become
4 It w a s ........................................ d ow n
4 ) .......................................... in th e no rth w h ich is bad news fo r the
w ith rain and w e had to find
fo re st fires th a t are raging across th is p a rt o f th e country.
shelter.
5 She p u t on her sunglasses
because th e sun w a s ........................
brig h tly. Choose th e correct w o rd .
6 It's w in d y and ...................................
and th e stre e t is covered in ice. 1 M y kids love playing in th e sn o w /snow fall.
2 During th e summer, th e hu m id ity/m ist in th e air is higher
th a n th e w in te r.
4 F ill in : bolt, gust, ray, thunder, 3 Every tim e it pours, o u r basem ent floods/rises.
flake, drop, strong, extreme, dark, 4 The forecast fo r th e next couple o f days is sunny, b u t
light. extrem ely w in d y/rain y.
1 a ...................................... o f sunshine 5 A hurricane/show er is a very p o w e rfu l and dangerous storm .
2 a ...................................... o f rain 6 The plane c o u ld n 't take o ff because o f th e blizzard/cold.
3 .......................... w e a th e r cond ition s 7 W e c o u ld n 't see the bridge because th e re was to o much
4 a ...................................... o f lig h tn in g fo g /w in d .
5 a ...................................... b o lt 8 On a dear/m u g g y night, you can see m any stars.
6 a ...................................... o f w in d
7 a s n o w ...................................... Collect in fo rm a tio n from th e In te rn e t th en w rite a short
8 ........................................ w inds w e a th e r forecast fo r to m o rro w . Read it to th e class.
9 ........................................ show er
10 ........................................ clouds

VB6
i
Vocabulary Bank
Shops & Services
M atch th e names o f th e shops (A-T) to th e pictures (1-20).
1
A shoe shop E je w eller's I confectio ner's M bookshop Q new sagent's
optician's F a n tiq u e shop J chem ist's N flo ris t's R pe tro l sta tio n
hardw are shop G superm arket baker's la u n d re tte S flea m arket
D clothes shop H butcher's L greengrocer's P hairdresser's T fishm onger's

In w hich o f th e shops in Ex. 1 can you b u y /d o th e fo llo w in g ?

Products-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
m incem eat bunch o f tu lip s a b irth d a y cake salmon a screw driver a box o f chocolates
a jacket a pair o f sunglasses a m ystery novel a gold bracelet cough syrup a pair o f stile tto s
a fashion m agazine g e t a haircut m o to r oil m ilk old records old silver candlestick
wash and dry clothes organic fru it

You can buy m incem eat a t a butcher's/superm arket.

W h a 1t shops are th ere in your neighb ourhood ? H o w o fte n do you visit them ? W h a t do you usually
buy?
h uv?

VB7
A t the superm arket
a) M atch th e products to th e su p erm arket sections.

DRINKS BAKERY PAPER PRODUCTS FRUIT & VEGETABLES CRISPS & SNACKS
HOME BAKING FROZEN FOOD TINNED GOODS DAIRY
HOUSEHOLD PRODUCTS PET FOOD MEAT & FISH
1

b) W rite tw o things you can buy in each c) How often do you go to the supermarket?
su p erm a rk et section. W h at do you usually buy?
VB8

gl j v V. gj jjg | J

Vocabulary Bank
a) Label th e pictures.

shopping tro lle y aisle checkout shelves sliding doors credit card
price tags receipts shopping list

b) Describe th e su p erm arket w h e re you go shopping.

Fill in: bargain, discount, credit, cash, pre-packaged, display, queue, coupon, money off, offered, changed the
packaging, waste, lower price, save, resources, shift, reduced, offer.

1 Every Tuesday, my local superm arket has a .......... 10 This shop's w in d o w .......................................................
.................................on freshly-baked goods. really encourage custom ers to go in.
2 I g o t th is .......................................... in th e new spaper 11 Every tim e I go to th e post o ffice , I end up
w h ich gives 5 o ff CDs a t Harper's music shop. w a itin g in a .................................... fo r over an hour.
3 I alw ays prefer paying in ............................................. 12 The local hairdresser's has a special ........................
w hen I go shopping. on haircuts every Tuesday.
4 We are using all o f th e Earth's natural ................... 1 3 Tom's b o s s ......................................him a p ro m o tio n .
........................................... and one day w e w ill regret 14 The ju m p e r I purchased a t h a lf price was a real
n o t being m ore careful.
5 I prefer cooking w ith fresh fo o d ra th e r t h a n ....... 15 Hackers w h o s te a l................................................... card
.....................................................................................food. details and o th e r personal in fo rm a tio n should be
6 D o n 't .......................................... m oney buying th in g s prosecuted.
you d o n 't need. 16 I asked fo r s o m e ........................................................ the
7 James is try in g to ......................................... m oney to com puter because it was dam aged.
buy a new car. 17 One w a y t o ....................................................... products
8 The shoe shop has d r a s tic a lly .................................... you ca n 't sell is to lo w e r th e ir price.
th e prices o f sum m er sandals. 18 You can usually buy books online fo r a much
9 M any com panies h a v e .................................................. ....................................................... th a n a t bookshops.
o f th e ir products to m ore recyclable m aterials.

VB9

Food & Drinks b) H o w do you like th e foods
in Ex. 2a cooked?
a) Label th e picture.

fats and oils nuts oil pasta p o u ltry


Fill in: feed, starve, soar,
m eat chocolate fru it fish grains rice
nutrients, shortages, produce,
vegetables bread
grow, consumer, raw, rotten,
unripe.

The fo o d w e eat provides the


....................................th a t o u r bodies
need to g ro w and stay healthy.
M ankind produces m ore than
enough food t o .................................
everyone on earth.
Never, e v e r ...........................yo u rse lf
in order to lose w e ig h t.
Eating fr e s h ........................................
is h e a lth ie r than eatin g processed
food.
M any farm ers spray th e ir crops
w ith fe rtiliz e r in order to help
t h e m ....................................
6 Bread p ric e s ........................................
whenever there is a w heat shortage.
7 I dislike cooked carrots, b u t I love
t h e m ....................................
8 The best w a y to te ll if an egg has
g o n e ...................................is to crack
it open and sm ell it.
....................................... avocados can
b) W rite tw o foods in each category,
take 4-5 days to ripen a t room
a) W rite in th e correct section: te m p era ture.
10 One in six countries in th e w o rld
eggs beef chicken p otatoes carrots pasta
faced f o o d ........................................in
broccoli fish rice beans peppers peas
2005 because o f drough ts.
sausages corn
11 We live in a ...........................society.

frie d

Staked

Soiled.

roa-st

^ riH e d

poacfied

sterm ed
Vocabulary Bank
Qqins
UK Currency
a) Study th e ta b le . Read th e prices.

3 .2 8 8 * 1 .3 5 1 0.0 2 * 2 .0 1 6.50

j fiu- n-dK N o te s . ' a te n n e r 1 p/a penny


NOTES tw o pounds
5 = five pounds/quid (a fiver)
COINS
10 = te n p o u n d s/q u id
1p = one/a penny
(a te nn er)
5p = five pence
20 = tw e n ty p o unds/qu id
10p = te n pence
50 = fifty p o u n d s/q u id
20p = tw e n ty pence
a fiv e r 50p = fifty pence
1 = one/a p o u n d /q u id
b) W h a t is th e currency in your country? 2 = tw o p o unds/qu id

M oney
Fill in: bonus, earnings, income, gross income, profits, rise, salary, wages, currency, debt, b ill, cost, expense,
bargains, installm ents, price, receipt, refunds, save, spend, waste, owes, pay, w ithdraw , borrow, lend, playing.

1 M any com panies are c u ttin g em ployees' .............. 15 O ur cousins m ade a lo t o f m o n e y .............................
due to th e econom ic crisis. the stock m arket.
2 W om en u s u a lly ............................. a lo t m ore m oney 16 The bookshop does n o t give ......................................
on clothes th a n men. on used books.
3 The .......................................................... o f oil has risen 17 Sam antha w o rke d p a rt-tim e to help ......................
sig n ific a n tly in recent years. fo r her university fees.
4 I am sure Sally w ill give me back th e m oney she 18 I d id n 't fin d a n y ...................................... in any o f the
......................................me. clothes shops I w e n t in to .
5 M ay I ....................................... yo u r car? 19 John w e n t to th e bank to ...........................................
6 Can y o u ........................................me yo u r black dress 800 from his savings account.
fo r my d in n e r p a rty to n ig h t? 20 His fa th e r spared n o ........................................w hen it
7 If I .......................................really hard, I w ill be able came to his education.
to buy a new PC in tw o m onths' tim e. 21 He earns a m o n th ly .....................................o f 2 0 0 0 .
8 The .....................................o f livin g has skyrocketed 22 The com pany's .............................................. dropped
over th e past 5 years. 10% in the firs t quarter.
9 My com pany did really w e ll this year so th e boss 23 M y m um th in ks it's a ................................................o f
is g iving everyone a C h ris tm a s .................................. her m oney to go to a hairdresser's to get her hair
10 It is store policy th a t you have to produce your dyed so she does it herself.
......................................in order to re tu rn a product. 24 U nem ploym ent figures co n tin u e t o .........................
11 People w ith a lo w .......................................do n o t pay 25 Superm arkets are slo w ly increasing th e ir prices in
taxes. order to increase t h e i r ..................................................
12 The d o lla r is th e u n it o f ..................................... in the 26 I w a n te d a high .................................................career
U nited States. so I chose to be a doctor.
13 M y sister g o t herself i n t o .................................... a fte r 27 The shop is le ttin g us pay fo r th e w ashing
m aking expensive purchases online. m achine by m o n th ly ......................................................
14 I'm n ot looking forw ard to my e le c tric .......................
this m onth, as I've had the heating on a lot.

VB11
W o rld problem s
Label th e pictures.

illite racy w a r crim e p o p u la tio n g ro w th


p o llu tio n hunger racism resource dep letio n
homelessness global w a rm ing poverty
disease w a te r scarcity ageing p o p ulation

j 12 j 13 J 14 i
Fill in: face, affect, suffer, drop out, volunteer, survive, trust, adopt, abuse, make, gain in th e correct form .

1 He is th in k in g o f ....................................... o f school 7 He m anaged t o ............................th e earthquake.


and g e ttin g a jo b to help his fam ily. 8 A lo t o f c o u n tr ie s ............................................. from
2 ........................................... is an im p o rta n t fa c to r in w a te r scarcity.
every relatio nship. 9 WWF h a s ..................... good progress p ro te ctin g
3 We w e n t to th e dog shelter and .......................... sea tu rtle s.
a 4 -m o n th old puppy. 1 0 Black people co n tin u e t o .........................................
4 C hildren w h o go th ro u g h physical or m ental racial discrim in a tio n in m any areas o f life.
........................................ are severely trau m atised. 11 C lim ate change is a lre a d y ........................................
5 Dr Harris h a s .................................. a re p u ta tio n as m arine life.
an a u th o rity on global w a rm ing .
6 A t w eekends, he .................................. a t a retired
person's hom e.

VB12

Vocabulary Bank
R aisin g aw aren ess F ill in : ingredients, atmosphere, logging, dense,
Fill in: raise, jo in , start, change, provide, gain, produce, destroyed, habitat, estimate,
grab, prom ote, fight, draw in th e correct form . deforestation, grow.

1 M y friends and I h a v e ................................................. 1 The ra inforest's canopy was s o ...............................,


a fu n d ra isin g cam paign to save th e Asian tiger. s u n lig h t c o u ld n 't pe n e tra te it.
2 The ch a rity asked th e ce lebrity if he w o u ld help 2 Tragically, th e w o rld 's rainforests are being

t h e m ....................................... th e cause. .............................. a t a staggering rate.


3 The poorest children in A frica have little hope 3 ....................................is th e perm anent de stru ctio n
o f .................................... any secondary education. o f forests and w oodlands.
4 The U nited N ations W orld Food Program m e was 4 Too much carbon dioxid e in th e earth's
set up t o .....................................hunger w o rld w id e . ............................................. w ill cause our p lanet to
5 That new spaper headline r e a lly .............................. heat up.
my a tte n tio n . 5 Perhaps th e greatest th re a t to b io d iv e rsity is
6 If you w a n t to do som ething a b o u t ocean .............................. loss.
p o llu tio n , w h y n o t ....................................................... 6 Fruits t h a t ........................................... in th e Am azon
an o rg a n isation th a t is try in g to sto p it? ra in fo re st include pineapples, oranges and
7 V o lunteerin g r e a lly ..........................................my life bananas.
fo r th e better. 7 The k e y ......................................in m any life-saving
8 M any parents in poo r countries ca n 't even drugs are derived fro m ra in fo re st plants.
a ffo rd t o ................................................ th e ir children 8 R a in fo re s ts ....................................a b o u t 20% o f the
w ith one decent meal a day. planet's oxygen.
9 O rganisers hope th e cam paign w i l l ........................ 9 S c ie n tis ts ........................................... th a t m ore than
awareness o f th e issue o f air p o llu tio n . h a lf o f all th e w o rld 's p la n t and anim al species
10 The purpose o f th e docu m en ta ry is t o .................. live in tro p ica l rainforests.
people's a tte n tio n to th e issue o f global 10 ................................... com panies are c u ttin g dow n
w a rm ing . some o f th e m ost endangered forests on th e
p lanet ju s t to make w o o d and paper products.

M atch th e w ords to m ake phrases.


C hoose th e c o rre c t w o rd .

1 An advertiser's aim is to in s ta n tly g ra b /h o ld


1 natural A challenges
th e a tte n tio n o f view ers.
2 public m om ents
2 They fa c e /m e e t a d iffic u lt challenge g e ttin g
3 w in d o w awareness th e bank loan approved.
4 endless D displays 3 The children w ere d e te rm in e d /fix e d to finish
5 tru e E wonder th e puzzle.
6 hair-raising F in sp ira tio n 4 We should re a c h /a rriv e our d e s tin a tio n in 15
m inutes.
5 A fte r running fo r over an hour, he c o lla p s e d /
d ro p p e d w ith exhaustion.
6 Tom fin a lly succe ed e d /m a n a g e d in rising to
m anagem ent level.
7 It's im p o rta n t to c o n s e rv e /p ro te c t w a te r
d u rin g tim es o f d ro u g h t.

VB13
I
Space
M atch th e pictures to d e fin itio n s.

1 a collectio n o f b illio n s o f stars, gas, and dust


bound to g e th e r by g ra vity
galaxy com et
th e star th a t is a t th e centre o f our solar system
th e celestial body w h ich o rb its th e Earth
a large, round-shaped celestial body th a t o rb its a
sun
a brigh t streak o f lig h t in the night sky caused when
a rock enters the Earth's atmosphere and burns
a sm all body th a t o rb its the Sun, is com posed o f
ice, and has a 'ta il'
a round-shaped celestial body th a t orbits the Sun,
b u t is n o t big enough to be a planet
oo

sm all pieces o f rock/m etal th a t o rb it the Sun


9 a ball o f gas, th a t generates its ow n lig h t and
heat, and is visible in th e n ig h t sky
planet H asteroids I d w a rf planet
1

Label planets in our solar system . Fill in: orbits, generate, colonise, releases,
overcome, rotates, farms, survive, exploring,
M ercury Venus Earth Mars Jupite r
take off.
Saturn Uranus N eptune
1 The Earth ................................... on its axis once
every 24 hours.
2 The E a rth ..................................th e Sun.
3 The space sh u ttle isscheduled t o ................
a t 11.30 GMT.
4 In my o p in io n , governm ents sh o u ld n 't be
spending m o n e y .....................................space w hen
there are people starving here on earth.
5 One day, th e hum an race m a y ..................
o th e r planets.
6 M any problem s m ust b e .............................
before space colonisation becomes a reality.
7 W hen a star explodes i t .................................
a huge am o u n t o f energy.
8 Rubbing your hands to g e th e r w i l l .........................
heat on your palms.
9 One day, it may be possible to p u t ........................ /
in space so astronauts can g ro w th e ir ow n food.
10 A stronauts c a n n o t........................................in space
w ith o u t w e aring special spacesuits.
Vocabulary Bank 4'
UFOs Choose th e correct w o rd fo r each sentence.
Fill in : unidentified flying object, fo re ig n e r alien stran ger o u tsid e r
saucer, alien, wreckage, debris,
1 W hen I firs t started a t my new school, it was hard to f it in
spacecraft, witness, encounter,
because I fe lt like a ( n ) ..............................................
space, autopsy, footprints,
2 He was a ( n ) ...........................and could n o t speak th e language.
footage, disclosure.
3 Susan had never m et th e man before. He was a com plete
1 Recently there have been reported ..............................................to her.
sightings o f ........................................ 4 Some people believe t h a t ......................................creatures have
spacecraft in Phoenix, Arizona. visited Earth m any tim es in th e past.
2 Several locals claim to have
( abd uctions kid napp ing seizure * hijacking
sp o tte d a n .........................................
hovering in th e n ig h t sky. 5 The ......................................o f th e plane by a gro u p o f te rro rists
3 The jo u rn a lists dem anded fu ll was broadcast w o rld w id e .
.........................................o f th e facts. 6 M any people believe a lie n .................................... have occurred.
4 David's a m b itio n was to become 7 Every new spaper covered th e ........................................................o f
an a stro n a u t and trave l in to th e w e a lth y businessm an's child.
o u te r ................................................... 8 The ........................................... o f land and p ro p e rty by th e rebels
5 Justin said th e object in th e sky le ft m any citizens homeless.
was fla t and round like a flyin g
( sig htings sites sig h ts in cid e n t )
6 The couple had a m ysterious 9 Leo can hardly rem em ber a n yth in g a b o u t t h e .............................
................... w ith an alien creature. 10 W e had a fabulous tim e in Rome and saw all t h e .......................
7 Hundreds o f people came to see 11 The Mars E xploration Program has id e n tifie d a num ber o f
th e site and t h e ............................... la n d in g ..............................................fo r fu tu re missions.
le ft in th e soil. 12 There w e re some u n c o n firm e d ........................................ o f flyin g
8 The crash le ft large pieces o f saucers in th e area.
...............................all over th e field.
9 Scientists exam ined th e strange Choose th e correct w o rd .
creature on th e ............................... 1 A pollo 1 7 was the eleventh spacecraft to land/park on the moon.
table. 2 The Earth revolves/rotates around its axis once every 2 4 hours.
10 John Sm ith was n o t th e on ly eye 3 The ra ft sank/dropped and th e survivors swam to th e shore.
.................................... to th e strange 4 The he lico p te r flo a ted /h o vered over the crash site, lo okin g
event. fo r survivors.
11 F irefighters rushed to th e scene 5 The local TV s ta tio n sent a jo u rn a lis t to m e n tio n /re p o rt on
o f th e crash to pull any survivors th e UFO sightings.
from t h e ............................................. 6 A b rig h t lig h t, w h ich was sh in ing/lighting th ro u g h the
12 The man claims to have video clouds, blinded us.
........................................ o f an alien. 7 The eagle soared/raised gra cefully in to th e sky.
13 The A p o llo 11 ................................... 8 The children cam ped/based o u t on th e m ountain side all
landed on th e m oon in 1969. n ig h t in the hope o f s p o ttin g a UFO.
9 She lay d ow n on th e grass and w a tch e d th e clouds flo a tin g /
sw im m ing across th e sky.
10 The police fo u n d th e man d ep artin g /w a n d erin g aim lessly
about.
11 The s a te llite b u rs t/s p lit in to flam es as it re-entered the
Earth's atm osphere. VB15


Strange Creatures 4 Choose the correct prepositions.

Match the words to form phrases. 1 Perry was fascinated in/by the discovery of a
giant squid.
1 legendary A fairy
2 Only half the scientists invited to the
2 abominable ape-men conference have responded to/in date.
3 leading beast 3 Henry Osborn was an expert on/in the field of
4 hairy D monster paleontology.
5 tiny E snake 4 Scientists are sceptical in/about the existence
6 of cryptids.
sea F cryptozoologist
7 5 The BBC has produced a great series of
lake G serpent
documentaries for/about dinosaurs.
8 giant H snowman
6 Sam is convinced of/in the existence of a beast
in the lake near his house.

Fill in: lifelong, convincing, virtually, highly, 7 The lack of convincing evidence raised doubts

countless. to/about the truth of the reports.


8 Loren Coleman has spent many years at/in
1 The saola, anantelope-like creature found in
search of legendary monsters.
Vietnam , w a s ................................................... unknown
9 This octopus lives at/in extreme depths.
to the outside world until 1992.
10 The scientific community does not believe at/in
2 Timothy has hada ............................................ passion
cryptozoology.
for hunting mysterious creatures.
11 There is a growing demand for/of scientists
3 Patricia spent ...................................... hours studying
skilled in computer technology.
the rare animal's behaviour.
4 There is n o .............................. evidence that cryptids Choose the correct word.
exist.
5 The yeti is a ..................................................... secretive 1 Did you hear that noise, or was it a figment/
creature that avoids human contact. sign of my imagination?
2 The issue has received serious attention/
Fill in: existence, living, eyewitness, extinct, concentration from scholars.
cryptids, legends, evidence, pastime, study, science. 3 A fter examining/weighing the evidence, the
researchers concluded that the account w as a
Cryptozoology, which literally means the hoax.
1 ) ......................................of hidden an im a ls, refers to the 4 They could not match the hair sign/sample to
search for anim als whose 2 ) .......................................hasnt
any known animal.
been proven. Cryptozoology includes looking for
5 I really value/estimate his opinion.
3) examples of anim als that are
6 The quagga, which w as half zebra and half
considered 4 ) .......................................... (e.g. dinosaurs), as
horse, was officially declared disappeared/
well as anim als whose existence lacks physical
extinct in 1883.
5) but which appear in myths and
7 Wild creatures inhabit areas far from humane/
legends (e.g. Bigfoot; the Loch Ness Monster). The
anim als that cryptozoologists study are referred to human settlements.
as 6 ) ......................................Cryptozoologists rely heavily 8 The much disputed/argued photograph was
on alleged 7 ) .................................... accounts and popular eventually proved to be authentic.
8) It goes without saying that
cryptozoology is not a recognised branch of zoology
or a discipline of 9 ) ...................................... It is, however,
a very fun 1 0 )...................................!
Vocabulary Bank
Prehistoric Creatures ^ Fill in: roam, clone, unleash, excavate, conduct,
F ill in : preserved, dorm ant, generally, distant, revive, evolve, hatch in th e correct form .
lost, optim istic, astonishing. 1 Scientists th in k p la n ts ....................................... from
green algae.
1 C om pletely in ta c t DNA can only be extracted
2 D in o s a u rs .................................... th e earth fo r over
fro m a c a r e fu lly ........................................specimen.
165 m illio n years.
2 The scientists rushed to publish th e ir .................
3 A rchaeologists are c u r re n tly ....................................
fin dings.
an Iron Age s e ttle m e n t in Wales.
3 It is ........................................................ accepted th a t
4 Scientists have s u c c e s s fu lly......................................
m odern hum ans evolved in Africa.
m any anim als, includ ing sheep and mice.
4 Scientists say th e fossil fo o t bone th e y fo u n d
5 I'm n o t in fa vo u r o f .......................e x tin c t
confirm s m a n 's ........................................... ancestor
species such as th e dodo.
could w a lk u p rig h t. 6 The students a r e .............................an expe rim e nt
5 P aleontologists a r e ........................................... th e y in th e lab rig h t now.
w ill fin d dinosaur fossils in th e area. 7 The decision to proceed w ith research in to
6 Some people believe th a t a .................................... hum an c lo n in g ......................... a w ave o f p rotest.
w o rld lies buried deep beneath th e A tla n tic 8 Sea tu rtle eggs u s u a lly .......................... a t nig h t.
ocean.
7 The scientists hope to reactivate th e .................. Read th e te x t and fill in th e gaps w ith th e
gene. w ords in th e list.

event e x tin c t p rim itiv e m ystery


M a tc h th e w o rd s to m ake phrases. evolved reign th e o ry existence

Dinosaurs are one of the most successful groups of


1 prehistoric A map animals ever to have lived. Their 1 ) ................
2 organic experim ents lasted from the late Triassic period (about 230 million
genetic relative years ago) until the end of the
3
Cretaceous period (about 65
4 ] d ista n t D w o rld million years ago). The first
5 blood E m aterial evidence suggesting the
6 conduct F vessels 2) o f dinosaurs
was the discovery o f their ancient
footprints in rocks in the 1 9th century.
Later, their fossilised skeletons were
C hoose th e c o rre c t w o rd . found in locations all around the world.
Dinosaurs 3 ) .................................... from
The w o o lly m am m oth, e x tin c t fo r over 5000 more 4) ........................ reptiles known as
years, could be b ro u g h t/c a rrie d back to life archosaurs. The smallest dinosaurs were no
larger than a chicken, but the largest
thanks to a breakthrough in cloning technology.
reached lengths o f 150 feet.
The analysis was done by tra in e d biologists, Dinosaurs suddenly became
using a d v a n c e d /fo rw a rd techniques. ............................. about 65 million years
Scientists are ru n n in g /w a lk in g tests on the ago, along with many other species. The most
sample. widely-accepted 6) ........................js that a large meteor
Researchers believe th e answ er to these hit the earth causing a mass extinction
questions may s it/lie in our DNA. 7) ............................. Bu* some scientists believe climate
change was to blame. The truth might
This new lin e /ro w o f research w ill h o p e fu lly always remain a 8) ....................
lead to m any breakthroughs.
Vocabulary Bank
Martial Arts Skills
Label th e pictures: land, bend, punch, kick, balance, break, lie, stand, throw, walk, do, fight.

4 ................................. on nails g e n tly 6 kung fu

7 ............................... 8 ................................. body


yo u rse lf in th e air on tips o f swords

bricks 11 th e splits 12 ................................. on one leg

VB18
Vocabular
Fill in: crouch, attack, gasp, Read th e d efinitions then com plete th e sentences using
struggle, crawl, build, defend, the verbs in the correct form .
achieve in th e correct form .

1 I ................................. in am azem ent s ta g g e r /staega/ (v): to w a lk ste p /step/ (v): to bring your
as the Kung Fu master broke bricks unsteadily, alm ost fa llin g fo o t d ow n on som ething
on his head. over
2 T h e y .................................th e ir goal
o f b u ild in g up th e ir stam ina and pace /peis/ (v): to w a lk up and
stren gth . stroll /strsul/ (v): to w a lk in do w n , especially because
3 T e rry ................................... dow n to a slow, relaxed w ay you are nervous
avoid being kicked in the face by
his op p o n e n t.
4 The obstacle course involved d ra g /draeg/ (v): to m ove w ith
hop /hop/ (v): to ju m p
........................................... th ro u g h a d iffic u lty , especially because
(fo rw a rd s or upw ards)
m uddy tu n n e l on your hands and you are ill, tire d , or unhappy
on one fo o t
knees.
5 In these classes you w ill learn
im p o rta n t tactics fo r ..................... slip /slip / (v): to lose your m arch /m a :tj/ (v): to w a lk q u ic k ly '
yo u rse lf against attackers. balance and slide or fall w ith firm regular steps
6 W e ............................... to com plete
th e rigorous tra in in g program m e.
7 They lift w e ig h ts regularly to sprint /sprint/ (v): to run very c ra w l /kro:l/ (v): to m ove along
.....................................th e ir muscles. quickly fo r a short distance or, your hands and knees
8 Susan was .........................................
w h ile w a lkin g hom e, b u t she was
able to g e t aw ay unharm ed. 1 They ..................................................along th e beach, enjoying the
a fte rn o o n sun.
2 I saw Frank ..............................................dow n th e stree t try in g to
Choose th e correct p repo sition.
catch th e bus.
1 The vie w from th e m ou n ta in to p 3 As w e w ere practising th e techniques, I ........................................
w ill take yo u r breath a w a y /o ff. on my partner's fo o t.
2 The students looked on at/in horror 4 I .......................................................m yself to th e gym even th o u g h
as th e man lay on a bed o f nails. I was fe eling sick.
3 In/To my d isa p p o in tm e n t, I was 5 The students had t o .................................................th ro u g h barrels
unable to m aster th e techniques on all fours as p a rt o f the exercise.
rig h t away. 6 A fte r being punched in the stom ach, h e .......................................
4 M a rita l arts focus on/in personal backwards.
discipline. 7 Terry ........................................ on the ice and sprained his ankle.
5 To/In my relief, I w a s n 't expected 8 Kylie ...........................................up and d ow n th e co rrid o r as she
to get th e moves rig h t on th e firs t w a ite d fo r th e results o f th e co m p e titio n .
day. 9 A fte r spraining his ankle, he had t o ................................................
6 The Shaolin m onks tra in over/ around on one leg fo r a w eek.
under harsh conditions. 10 They ............................................... around the co u rtyard all day as
p a rt o f th e ir tra in in g .

VB19
i
Vocabulary Bank
Education M a tc h th e phrases.
Fill in: take, enrol, attend, sit, fail, research,
graduate, master, retake, cheat, qualify in th e 1 crash A resources
correct form . 2 year
private
1 The students w e r e ......................................... a to p ic 3 w e bsite
. gap
fo r th e ir h isto ry proje ct on th e In te rn e t. 4 D lesson
video
2 M ore and m ore people are ........................ online F fees
5 teaching
courses to save tim e tra v e llin g to college. F lectures
6 boarding
3 It to o k Jane fo u r years t o ........................................ G course
7 tu itio n H school
th e language.
8 educational
4 S tudents w h o w ish t o ..................................in the
course m ust do so by th e end o f th e w eek.
5 The stu d e n t w h o .................................... on th e te st
^ M a tc h th e a cro n ym s to th e ir f u ll fo rm s .
was suspended.
6 R a c h e l..................................... her M aths exam, b u t
passed her o th e r exams. 1 MBA A D octor o f Philosophy
7 She is c o n s id e rin g ................................ some o f the 2 BA M aster o f A rts
courses she g o t lo w grades in. 3 MA M aster o f Science
8 I was oblige d to .............................. sem inars three 4 D Bachelor o f A rts
BSr
UJv.
tim es a w eek. E Bachelor o f Science
5 MSc
9 His d e g re e .......................................him fo r the job. F M aster o f Business
6 PhD
10 Do you have t o ..................................... an exam fo r A d m in is tra tio n
y o u r dram a class or is it a practical test?
11 F ra n cis........................from law school last m onth.
F ill in : degree course, marks, tests, qualification,
Fill in: tutor, teacher, instructor, graduate, scholarship, certificate, curriculum , career, term,
postgraduate, trainer, librarian, coach, professor, course.
examiner.
She w o n a ...................................to study M edicine
1 I passed th e d riving te st on my firs t a tte m p t, at university.
thanks to my fa n ta stic d rivin g .............................. Tracy is d oing a short ........................................... in
2 Exam papers are assessed by an e xte rn a l Journalism fo r tw o m onths.
M aths and English are an essential p a rt o f the
3 The children w e re hom e-schooled by a private s c h o o l........................................
She was accepted o n to a ........................................
4 James is a ....................................s tu d e n t studying in A cco unting .
fo r a M asters degree in Civil Engineering. Vince w o u ld like to pursue a ..................................
5 O ur school hired a professional fo o tb a ll ........... in m arke ting.
to tra in th e team . The s p r in g ....................................... ends in May.
6 Fiona is a ............................... o f Leeds University. A p plicants fo r th e jo b should have a teaching
7 M y H istory .............................................always gives
in trig u in g lectures. J o h n 's ................................................ have im proved
8 The ......................................... helped me to fin d a this term .
reference book fo r my English project. A fte r a tw o -y e a r course in Business Studies, he
9 My fa v o u rite ............................................. a t prim ary was aw arded a n a tio n a l........................................
school was Mrs Patterson. 10 Some schools have e n t r y ..........................................
10 He had a personal to help him get fit. w h ich are used to select students fo r adm ission.
VB20
A ppearance & Character
Label th e p ic tu re s w ith : spiky hair, sideburns, dark-skinned, fla t nose, wrinkles, moustache, beard, curly
hair, chubby cheeks, fu ll lips, freckles, bun, ponytail, grey hair, fringe.

F ill in : moody, sad, angry, organised, grum py, mean, rude, aggressive, fun-loving, embarrassed.

1 M a ry 's .......................................... w ith John because 6 Daniel lo o k e d .......................................................... and


he to o k her car w ith o u t asking. w o rrie d as I to ld him I'd lost my job.
2 W hen anyone criticises him , he becomes 7 It was v e r y .................................................. o f M ax to
..........................................and loses his tem per. speak like th a t to his best friend.
3 Tanya was a ............................. teenager 8 She can b e ............................................. at tim es and
w h o spent a lo t o f tim e alone. picks on her youn ger brother.
4 W hen I h a ve n 't had enough sleep I feel 9 Harry f e l t .........................................a b o u t singing in
............................................... and unsociable in the fro n t o f th e w h o le class.
m orning. 10 Katy is a ............................................... girl w h o loves
5 The students w ere v e r y ............................................. g oing to parties.
and finished th e ir proje ct on tim e.

VB21

M a tc h th e o p p o s ite s . Fill in: trustw orthy, am bitious, generous, modest,
friendly, confident, selfish, shy, stubborn,
1 puny A dark reliable, independent, cheerful.
2 slim th in
1 A n d re w is a n .......................................... m a n - h e is
3 w rin kle d m uscular
de term ined to become a fam ous businessman.
4 plum p D s tra ig h t
2 He's s o ........................................... ! He do e sn 't care
5 E o v e rw e ig h t
curly ab o u t anyone's feelings except his ow n.
F sm ooth 3 M ark is v e r y ................................................- he never
6 pale
tells anyone he is a self-m ade m illio naire.
4 I to ld Frank th a t th e plan w o u ld n 't w o rk , but
Q F ill in : graceful, plain, ugly, elegant, handsome,
he's so ................................................. th a t he ju s t
sm art, attractive, scruffy.
w o u ld n 't listen.
1 She m oved in a(n) ................................................ 5 Esther is th e m o s t........................................... person
m anner, ju s t like a dancer. I know . She w o u ld never le t me dow n.
2 M y parents th in k I lo o k .............................................. 6 John is a ................................................ person. He
in these to rn jeans, b u t I like them . never betrays a confidence.
3 Alice looked ................................................ in her 7 M y m other's v e r y ............................................; she's
long silk evening gow n. always buying little g ifts fo r her friends.
4 Charles was a ta ll, ................................................ 8 Leo was t o o ........................................ to ask M andy
man w ith dark hair and a beard. o u t on a date.
5 He w a s n 't g o o d -lo o kin g , but he w a s n 't 9 As children g ro w up, th e y become m ore
..................................................either. ...............................................and less re lia n t on th e ir
6 Susan was a ta ll, slim a n d ......................................... parents.
w om an in her m id -th irtie s. 10 She was a ............................................... g irl - always
7 Jean, w h o had been ................................................ sm iling and singing.
as a child, was n o w a b e a u tifu l slender w om an. 11 The children at my new school are
8 Jack looks v e r y ................................................ in his ....................................... and m ade me feel w elcom e
black suit, d o e sn 't he? im m ediately.
12 He w a s ................................................o f his musical
C om plete th e ta b le w ith th e w o rd s in th e list.
a b ilitie s and knew th a t he'd w in th e ta le n t
o f average h e ig h t ta n n e d to d d le r contest.
obese in his/her 20s fa t short
o ve rw e ig h t dark-skinned baby freckled A n sw er th e questions.
w e ll-b u ilt average b uild ta ll lig h t
slim th in e ld e rly/o ld skinny 1 W h a t do(es) yo u /yo u r best frie n d look like?
olive-skinned m iddle-aged teenager
rosy in his/her late 30s in his/her early 60s

2 W h a t are yo u r b e st/w o rst character traits?


o f average height,
Height
obese,
Boild
3 W h a t character tra its annoy you?
toddler, f
Age
Completion tanned'
cabu

B ody L a n gu age b) C o m p le te th e se n te n ce s to say w h ic h


fe e lin g each g e s tu re sh o w s.
a) Fill in : scratch, bite, raise, frown, shrug, wink,
cross, wrinkle, p ull out, drum , purse, open. nervous uncertain confused
annoyed fru s tra te d surprised