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uk/library-and-it INFORMATION SERVICES


A charity and a company limited by guarantee. Registration number: 977818.

Registered office: 309 Regent Street, London W1B 2UW.

An essential element of your academic This guide sets out the Harvard
writing is to include references to the (Westminster) style for referencing with
theories, information, concepts and/or easy to follow examples of different
materials you have used. types of material you may need to cite
in your work.

Other styles in use at the

University (and not covered in
this guide) are:
Architecture Oxford
Computing and Engineering IEEE
Psychology BPS

2 1. WHAT IS A CITATION AND WHAT 5.8. Web pages and YouTube videos
IS A REFERENCE? 12 5.8.1. What if I cant find the
2. WHY SHOULD I INCLUDE author or date for a
3 3. WHAT IS PLAGIARISM? 5.9. Online images
4.1. Citing the author 13 5.11. Television programme on
4.2. Using direct quotes Box of Broadcasts
4.3. Citing more than one author 5.12. Lecture notes
4.4. Citing more than three authors 14 5.13. Discussion forums
4.5. Citing a chapter or section 5.14. Emails
5 4.6. Citing a work without an author 15 6. OTHER INFORMATION
4.7. Citing works by the same author
written in the same year
4.8 Citing secondary sources
6 4.9 Citing online sources
5.1. Printed books
5.1.1. Reference to a book with
one, two or three authors
5.1.2. Reference to a book with
more than three authors
8 5.1.3. Reference to a chapter
or section
5.2. Electronic books (e-books)
5.3. Print journals
9 5.4.Electronic journals (e-journals)
and newspapers
5.4.1. E-journal article using URL
5.4.2. E-journal article using Digital
Object Identifier
5.4.3. Online newspaper articles
10 5.5. Reports
5.6. Conference papers
11 5.7. Legal sources


An essential element of your academic Citations appear in the text of your You should include references in order to: Plagiarism is taking the words, ideas or
writing is to include citations and assignment (see example citations in work of other people and passing them
references. Your references should be blue), and references are listed at the end acknowledge that the work/idea belongs off as your own. In the UK, plagiarism
consistent and follow the same format. in a reference list or a bibliography (see to another person is considered a form of cheating. The
Various systems are in use for citing example references in green). A reference provide evidence of your own research University takes cases of plagiarism very
references, but most departments at the list includes, in alphabetical order, those illustrate a particular point seriously. If you are caught plagiarising
University use the Westminster Harvard works that you have cited in the text. A support an argument or theory you will face disciplinary procedures which
style. This booklet shows how to cite and bibliography lists, in alphabetical order, all allow others to locate the resources you could ultimately result in your expulsion
reference using the Westminster Harvard the works you have consulted during your have used from the University.
style, through examples. research but not necessarily cited. And most importantly to: In order not to risk plagiarising the work
avoid accusations of plagiarism of others, you must cite your sources and
Check your course or module handbook add them to your reference list.
to find out which referencing system you
should use. If you are unsure, ask your tutor
before handing in your assignment. Failure
to follow the specified referencing system
may lose you marks.

2 3

4.1 Citing the author 4.3 Citing works by more than one author 4.6 Citing a work without an author 4.8 Citing secondary sources
In the Harvard system, whenever you refer If your source has two authors you should If an organisation (e.g. Department of When citing a secondary source, include
to a source, its authors surname and the include both names in the text using and, Health, Arcadia Group Limited) is named as the surname of the author and year of
year of publication are inserted in the text not &, between the two authors names. the author of a work rather than a person, publication of that source in your text,
as in the following examples. you should cite the organisations name. followed by cited in and the surname of
Class activities need to be aligned with Always use the full name, e.g. always use the author and year of publication of the
Keeping good records of your research intended outcomes and should build on Department of Health, dont abbreviate to primary source you are actually reading.
sources will help you reference correctly relevant knowledge (Biggs and Tang, DoH. If there is no author at all, personal Only the source that you have read and
(Kirton, 2011). 2011). or corporate, despite having researched this, used, i.e. Kline et al. in the example below,
use the title of the source. should be listed in your references. Ideally,
If the authors surname is used to construct you should only cite secondary sources
your sentence, only the year is in brackets. 4.4 Citing works by more than three authors Australia, Canada, France, Germany, the if you are unable to locate and read the
If there are more than three authors you United Kingdom and the United States original source yourself.
Kirton (2011) recommends keeping good should include the first named authors together receive more than 50% of all
records of your research sources to help surname and then add et al. This is an foreign students worldwide (Organisation Sheff (1993) notes that Nintendo invested
you reference correctly. abbreviation of et alia which means and for Economic Co-operation and heavily in advertising (cited in Kline et al.,
others in Latin. Development, 2013). 2003, p118).

4.2 Using direct quotes Knowledge of what managers do is a

If you quote directly from a source you must prerequisite of studying management 4.7 C iting works by the same author written
use quotation marks and insert the authors accounting (Seal et al., 2015). in the same year
surname, year of publication and the page If you cite two or more works written in the
number of the quotation. Check with your same year by the same author, then you
department or school if they require single 4.5 C iting a chapter or section of a must differentiate between them in both the
or double quotation marks as this varies. book/publication text and your list of references by listing
When referring to a chapter or section them as a, b, c etc. (see 5.3).
Search engine optimization and marketing which is part of a larger work, you
communication are keys to finding and should cite the author of the chapter not Natural selection can cause rapid adaptive
keeping customers (Poloian, 2013, p217). the editor of the whole work. (See 5.1.3). changes in insect populations (Ayala,
1965a) and various laboratory experiments
The year and page number can be given The growth of sectors such as ecotourism have been conducted to assess this theory
at the end of the quote, as in the example show that there is a strong touristic desire to (Ayala, 1965b).
below. connect to the natural environment
(Cater, 2013, p119).
Poloian states that search engine
optimization and marketing communication
are keys to finding and keeping customers
(2013, p217).

4 5

4.9 Citing online sources 5. Writing a bibliography or list of references 5.1.1 Reference to a book with one, two or
When citing online sources, the authors The list of references appears on a separate three authors
name is followed by the publication date page at the end of your work and gives
in the text, as explained previously. If you the full details of every source that you Poloian, L.R. (2013). Retailing principles:
are quoting directly from a website it is have cited in your text in alphabetical global, multichannel, and managerial
impossible to cite exact page numbers. order according to the authors surname. viewpoints, 2nd ed. New York: Fairchild.
The following format and punctuation Sometimes this list of references is also
should be used. called the bibliography.
Sometimes a tutor requires the Biggs, J. and Tang, C. (2011). Teaching
Authors surname (if known), or name of bibliography to be more than just a list of for quality learning at university, 4th ed.
owning organisation (see 4.6), references, as outlined above. They may Maidenhead: Open University Press.
(Year). If known, or (no date). if year also want to see the full details of everything
not known. you have read during the research of your
assignment, regardless of whether or not 5.1.2 R eference to a book with more than
Citation from online source with an author: you cited the source in the text. three authors
Remember to check your course handbook/ Some schools/departments allow you to
Salinger plays on readers dependence guidelines so you are familiar with exactly use et al. in your list of references, others
on Holdens worldviewand unreliable what your school or department requires. require you to list all the authors of a work.
narrationoften, and perhaps most subtly All sources must be referenced in a Make sure you know which style is preferred
through language (Wright, 2013). consistent way. The examples given here by your subject area(s).
provide a guide to the format and This example uses et al. instead of listing
Citation from online source without an punctuation you should use. all the authors:
Seal, W.B. et al. (2015). Management
The Arcadia Group comprises nine high 5.1 Printed books Accounting, 5th ed. Maidenhead:
street brands, eight online stores and Printed books should be referenced using McGraw-Hill.
employs 45,000 people (Arcadia Group the following format and punctuation.
Limited, no date). This example lists all the authors.
Author/editors surname and initials.
(Year of publication). Seal, W.B., Garrison, R.H., Rohde, C.
Title of book, subtitles, edition. [Note: It and Noreen, E.W. (2015). Management
is generally only the 2nd edition onwards Accounting, 5th ed. Maidenhead:
which includes the edition statement. If the McGraw-Hill.
book is a first edition simply put Title of
book: subtitles.]
Place of publication:
Name of publisher.

6 7
5.1.3 R eference to a chapter or section 5.3 Print journals 5.4 E lectronic journals (e-journals) and 5.4.3 Online newspaper articles
contained in a larger work Articles from print journals should be newspaper articles Online newspapers should be referenced
Include chapter or section page numbers referenced using the following format and Electronic journals may have a Digital using the following format and punctuation.
at the end. punctuation. Object Identifier (DOI) and/or a URL. Either
can be used to say where the article is Authors surname, initials.
Cater, C. (2013). Nature bites back: Authors surname, initials. available from. (Year of publication).
impacts of the environment on tourism. (Year of publication). E-journals should be referenced using the Title of article: subtitle.
In: Holden, A. and Fennell, D. (eds.) Title of article. following format and punctuation. Name of newspaper,
The Routledge handbook of tourism and Title/name of journal, Day and month of publication.
the environment. London: Routledge, Volume number Authors surname, initials. Available from URL
119-129. (Part/issue number), (Year of print publication). [Accessed day month year].
Page numbers. Title of article: subtitle.
Name of journal,
5.2 Electronic books Dolgin, E. (2012). Rewriting evolution. Volume number Petridis, A. (2015). Rocking the casbah:
Electronic books should be referenced using Nature, 486 (7404), 460-462. (Part/issue number), the gig of a lifetime back on stage. The
the following format and punctuation: Page numbers. Guardian, 16 March. Available from
If the same author has two articles published Available from URL or DOI http://www.theguardian.com/music/2015/
Author/editors surname and initials. in the same year, distinguish as follows: [Accessed day month year] mar/16/no-lands-songs-sara-najafi-iran-
(Year of print publication). women-concert [Accessed 16 March 2015].
Title of book: subtitles, edition. [Note: It Ayala, F. J. (1965a). Evolution of fitness.
is generally only the 2nd edition onwards Science, 150 (3698), 903-905. 5.4.1 E-journal reference using URL
which includes the edition statement. If the
book is a first edition simply put Title of Ayala, F.J. (1965b). Relative fitness of Pintz, C. and Posey, L. (2013). Preparing
book: subtitles.] populations. Genetics, 51 (4), 527-544. students for graduate study: an eLearning
Place of publication: approach. Nurse Education Today, 33 (7),
Name of publisher. 734-738. Available from http://science
Available from URL direct.com/science/article/pii/S02606917
[Accessed day month year]. 12003930 [Accessed 13 January 2015].

Packard, A. (2013). Digital media law.

2nd ed. Chichester: Wiley Blackwell. 5.4.2 E
 -journal article reference using a
Available from http://www.dawsonera.com Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
[Accessed 12 February 2015].
Pintz, C. and Posey, L. (2013). Preparing
students for graduate study: an eLearning
approach. Nurse Education Today, 33 (7),
734-738. Available from http://dx.doi.org/
10.1016/j.nedt.2012.11.020 [Accessed
13 January 2015].

8 9
5.5 Reports 5.6 Conference papers 5.7 Legal sources 5.8 Web pages and YouTube videos
Reports should be referenced using the Conference papers should be referenced Legislation should be referenced using the Web pages and YouTube videos should be
following format and punctuation. using the following format and punctuation. following format and punctuation. referenced using the following format and
Author/editors surname, initials. Author of conference papers surname, Short title
(Date of publication). initials. Year of publication, Author or editors surname, initials.
Title of report: subtitles, edition. [Note: It (Date of publication). c. Chapter number. Or organisation
is generally only the 2nd edition onwards Title of paper. (Year of publication).
which includes the edition statement. If the In: Editors surname, initials., eds, The Housing Act 2004, c.34. Title.
report is a first edition simply put Title of Title of conference proceedings. Name of website.
report: subtitles.] Place of conference. Cases should be referenced using the Available from URL
Place of publication: Date of conference. following format and punctuation. [Accessed day month year].
Name of publisher. Place of publication:
Available from URL Publisher, Party names Goldacre, B. (2015). I did a Newsnight
[Accessed day month year]. Page numbers of paper. Year case was reported in square brackets thing about how politics needs better data.
[ ] where the date is essential to the Bad Science. Available from http://bad
Mowlam, A. et al. (2012). Active at 60: local Roast, C. (2012). Constraining and creating citation, or regular parenthesis ( ) if the science/2015/02/ [Accessed 12 March
local evaluation research: final report. London: solutions: reflections on the analysis of early date is merely an aid to identifying the 2015].
Department for Work and Pensions. Available design. In: Winckler, M. Forbrig, P. and source
from https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads Bernhaupt, R., eds. Human-centred software Volume number University of Westminster (2014). Welcome
/attachment _data/file/214572/rrep786.pdf engineering: 4th international conference, Abbreviation of the law report title to the library. YouTube. Available from http:
[Accessed 26 March 2015]. HCSE 2012. Toulouse, France. 29-31 Page number on which case report starts. //www.youtube.com/watch?v/=5eMcxV2e
October 2012. Heidelberg: Springer, KA8 [Accessed 12 March 2015].
130-145. Smith v Northamptonshire County Council
[2009] 4 All ER 557.

10 11
5.8.1 What if I cant find the author 5.10 DVDs 5.11 Television
 programme on Box 5.12 Lecture notes
or date for a webpage? DVDs should be referenced using the of Broadcasts Check with your tutor first to ensure they are
In cases where you are unable to identify an following format and punctuation. Television programmes that are viewed happy for you to reference their work.
actual person as the author of a publication, online via services such as Box of
particularly when using internet sources, you Title Broadcasts should be referenced using Authors surname, initials.
should use the name of the company (Year). the following format and punctuation. (Year).
or organisation shown most prominently Director Title.
on the source, e.g. BBC, Office for [DVD]. Episode title [lecture notes].
National Statistics. If you are unable to Place of distribution: (Year). Name of module.
identify the date use (no date). Distribution company. Main programme/series title Available from URL
[television programme] [Accessed day month year].
British Dyslexia Association (no date). Rear window (2010). Directed by Alfred Transmission channel,
Dyslexia and specific difficulties: Overview. Hitchcock [DVD]. United Kingom: Transmission date, Smith, J. (2013). Week 3: how to
British Dyslexia Association. Available from Universal Pictures. Transmission time. reference your work [lecture notes].
http://bdadyslexia.org.uk/dyslexic/dyslexia- Available from URL Research methods. Available from
and-specific-difficulties-overview. [Accessed [Accessed day month year]. https://learning.westminster.ac.uk/
12 March 2015]. [Accessed 29 July 2014].
Dedicated Followers of Fashion (2012).
Britain On Film, [television programme].
5.9 Online images BBC Four, 27 November 20:30. Available
Online images should be referenced using from http://bobnational.net/record/127226
the following format and punctuation. [Accessed 31 July 2014].

Artists surname, initials. Or organisation

Title or description of image.
Available from URL
[Accessed day month year].

Rothko, M. (1959). Red on maroon [image].

Available from http://www.tate.org.uk/
[Accessed 29 July 2014].

12 13

5.13 Discussion forums Online tools such as RefWorks, Endnote,

Discussion forums should be referenced Zotero and Mendeley are also available for
using the following format and punctuation. you to use. For further information, see the
Referencing Your Work webpage:
Authors surname, initials. westminster.ac.uk/referencing-your-work
(Year). For information on citing resources not
Title of post. mentioned here (e.g. patents) please see
Title of discussion thread British Standard BS 5605:1990.
[forum post]. Recommendations for citing and referencing
Name of module or forum. published material.
Available from URL BS 5605 is available online from British
[Accessed day month year]. Standards Online via Library Search.
If you are unsure, ask your tutor or contact
Khan, A. (2013). How to reference. your Academic Liaison Librarian for advice
General discussion [forum post]. Research westminster.ac.uk/academicliaison
methods. Available from https://learning.
westminster.ac.uk/ [Accessed 29 July 2014].
Updated July 2015

5.14 Emails
Emails should be referenced using the
following format and punctuation.

Senders surname, initials.

Sent to Name of recipient,
Day and month the email was sent.

Murphy, E. (2014). Referencing help guide.

[email]. Sent to Sara Goddard, 16 July.

14 15
westminster.ac.uk/library-and-it INFORMATION SERVICES

A charity and a company limited by guarantee. Registration number: 977818.

Registered office: 309 Regent Street, London W1B 2UW.