Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 14

28/03/2017 Gerge

Voices:AWorldForumforMusicTherapy,Vol17,No1(2017)

Research

UsingAestheticResponseAPoetic
InquirytoExpandKnowing,PartII:
TheoreticalPerspectivesonArts
basedResearch
AnnaGerge1 (anna@insidan.se) MargaretaWrja1 2 3
IngeNygaardPedersen1
[1]DoctoralProgrammeinMusicTherapy,DepartmentofCommunicationand
Psychology,FacultyofHumanities,AalborgUniversity,Denmark [2]Departmentof
ClinicalCancerEpidemiology,KarolinskaInstitute,Sweden [3]ExpressiveArtsInstitute
Stockholm,Sweden

Abstract
Apartfrombeinginspiredfrombothaninterpretiveanda
constructivisttradition,researchmethodsbasedinaestheticscan
thrivefromaclearrationaleconcerningitsperceptualbuilding
blocksinboththeintersubjectiveandintrapsychologicaldomains.
Thisarticleaimstoaddressthecomplexityofsharingimplicit
processesandtacitknowledgeintheartsbasedinquiry.Layersof
thisinquiryisreflectedalongwiththeoreticalperspectivesofsuch
undertakings.Thearticlealsooffersatheoreticalrationaleforwhyto
addandacknowledgeimportantperceptualandaffectivebuilding
blocksinartsbasedresearch(ABR).Throughtheoriesfrom
expressiveartstherapy,heuristicinquiry,attachmenttheoryand
contemporaryaffectiveneurosciencesomethoughtsonthe
embodiedfeltsenseasaperceptualhubisshared.Basedin
contemporaryattachmenttheoryandpsychotherapyresearch,a
rationaleisgivenforwhyengaginginABRcanoffercliniciansand
researchersadeepenedunderstandingofthestudiedphenomena.
Ourundertakingsarepresentedinpart1ofthesetwoarticles.From
thisembodiedperspective,thedescribedartsbasedinquirycanbe
consideredasaprivilegedwaytonuanceandenlarge
understandinginboththeintersubjectiveandintrapsychological
domain,whichcouldbeparticularlyhelpfultoABRresearcherswho
areinformedbyapsychodynamicperspective.
Keywords:Artsbasedresearch,Artsbasedinquiry,Embodiedfeltsense,
Implicitprocessing,Perceptualandaffectivebuildingblocks

TheoreticalConstructsUnderpinningthe
Rx6Method

https://normt.uib.no/index.php/voices/rt/printerFriendly/913/755 1/14
28/03/2017 Gerge

Contemporaryaffectiveneuroscienceandattachmentresearch
(Cozolino,2002/2010Schore,2012,2014a,2014bSiegel,
1999)giveimportantinsightinunderstandingwhatmightbethe
bearingagentsofimageformation(Horowitz,1983,2012,2014).
Thevalueoftheaestheticresponse,asasourceofknowledge,
cannotbeunderestimated.AmmanitiandGallese(2014)noted,
Beforeandbelowmindreadingisintercorporealityasthemain
sourceofknowledgewedirectlygatheraboutothers(p.16).They
alsoseethisembodimentasaprerequisiteforsharingand
understandingsymbolicrepresentations.Ouractivatedmirror
neuronsimpactourabilitytoempathizewithunconsciousstatesof
others.Intercorporeity,ratherthanthesymbolicrepresentation,
thereforeisplacedatthecoreofemotionalresonance.
Intercorporeitymeanstheexperienceofbeingembodiedanditis
neveraprivateaffair,butisalwaysmediatedbyourcontinual
interactionswithotherhumanandnonhumanbodies(Weiss,1999,
p.5).
Csordas(2008)andAllegranti(2013)pointedoutthatourexistence
inrelationtoothersourintersubjectivityissomethingtangible
andbodily.Intersubjectivityisnotonlydeclarativeorexplicitbutan
analogicalmapoftheotherwithinus,andneedstobereadon
implicitlevelsfrominsideourselves(LyonsRuthetal.,1998).
Gerge(2016)exemplifiedthisinheranalysesofcliniciansdrawings
ofaworryingorreassuringclinicalmeeting.Theartsbasedinquiry
offerseachandeveryoneofuspossibilitiestoread,byexperiencing
thosemapsandworkwiththeembodiedaestheticresponse
(Panhoferetal.,2011),thusallowingadeepenedsharingovertime
andspace.

TheAestheticResponse
Thefunctionofanaestheticresponse(Robbins,1971,1987)is,
accordingtoConrad(2010),tostabilizethebrainssemirandomly
generatedneuralcircuits.Theneuronalcircuitsareselectively
steadiediftheysucceedinmakingsenseoutofrawsensoryinput.
Underthebrainsdevelopmentalprocess,theaestheticresponseof
humansservesthefunctionofcalmingthecircuitsornetworksthat
successfullymediateperceptionandinterpretation.Thesewill
becomemoreagile,intheprocessofmakingsomethingspecial.
AccordingtoConrad(2010),thisistriggeredbystructuresinartand
nature,whichprovokethesensemaking,adeliberatehumanaction.
Whendiscussingthetheoreticalunderpinningsofhowselfidentityis
revisedthroughportraitureinpalliativecare,Carr(2014)stated:
Therelationshipbetweenthecontainerandthecontainedisan
intersubjectiveone,andthiscombinedexperiencebecomesinthe
portraitaconcrete,sensoryandsymbolicform(Langer,1953),offering
auniquewaytohold,containandsafeguardthisattunedexperience.
(pp.5758)

Carrs(2014)clinicalstandpointisbasedinthetraditionfocusedon
theartwithinarttherapy(Allen,1992,2001Malchiodi,1999
McNiff,1986),thusatherapeuticendeavourcloselyconnectedwith
ABR.
Theartisticexpressionsconstituteintherapyanexpandedfield,in
https://normt.uib.no/index.php/voices/rt/printerFriendly/913/755 2/14
28/03/2017 Gerge

Theartisticexpressionsconstituteintherapyanexpandedfield,in
whichnewstructuringoftheinnerworldispossible.Thisleadsto,that
conflictloadedmaterial,i.e.overwhelmingaffectandnegatively
chargedimages,canbeexternalized,perceivedandprocessed.
(Gerge,2010,p.69)

Thisendeavourcanbeasvaluableinresearchasinclinicalwork.
Theaestheticsensibilityneededinartsbasedinquiry(Viega,
2016a)canbeconsideredespeciallywellsuitedforprofessionals
trainedinthecreativeartstherapies,forexamplessee(Gerge,
2016Gerge,Wrja,&Pedersen,2017).
InPhenomenologyofPerceptionMerleauPonty(1963)described
thebody'sencounterwiththephenomenon,asitisthroughthebody
weunderstandtheworld(Bullington,1999).Damasio(1995,1999)
statedthatathoughtalwaysisadescriptionofanembodiedstate.
Byusingourtheoryofmind(Frith&Frith,1999)andourembodied
empathy(Rothschild,2000)wecanimagineourselvesastheother
andauthenticallymeettheotheranimportantprerequisitefor
changeinducingmeetingsinpsychotherapy(Gerge,2011,2015)
andresearch(Gerge,2016).Thiscapacityrestsonanembodied
feltsenseexperience(Gendlin1964,1978),whichisthecoreof
theaestheticresponse,empathy,imageformation,andatitsend
point,anacknowledgedperception.Wethinksuchastandpointis
valuablealsoinresearch.

TheExperienceoftheFeltSense
Gendlin(1978)developedMerleauPonty's(1963,1973)ideasto
showhowinteractionsaremorefundamentalthanperception.The
bodilyexperiencewasessentialtotheworkofMerleauPonty,who
referredtotheinternaltotalawarenessasbodyschema(1963,p.
113114)seedefinitionattheendofthearticle.Thisembodiedfelt
senseissupposedtogroundourconsciousawareness,inlinewith
Damasios(1995,1999)notionathoughtisanongoing
descriptionofastateinthebody.Ineverydaylanguage,welack
wordstonamethesecrucialprocesses,howeverinthetherapeutic
practiceofFocusing(Gendlin,1978),itisdescribedasan
embodiedtacitknowledge.Thisisaspecialkindofinternalbodily
awareness,abodysensefocusedonmeaningmaking,whichoffers
apotentialresearchtoolforcollectinganddescribingdatafromnon
verbalsources.Whatisdescribedcanfurtheronbeanalysed.

AttachmentTheoryandContemporary
NeuroscienceinABR
Thecapacityofbeingtogetherismediatedoverourmirrorneurons
(Rizzolatti,Fadiga,Fogassi,&Gallese,1999).Ourbrainsarein
Galleseswordswecentric(Gallese,2009).Ourcapacityto
resonateanecessaryprerequisiteforreasoningcanbeusedas
avehiclefordeepeningourunderstandingofthetopicsofinterest
wewanttostudy.Theseprocesseswillalwaysbepartlypreverbal.
Recently,McCaffrey&Edwards(2015)discussedABRasnon
narrative,asmanyprocessesandproductsinartscreation
https://normt.uib.no/index.php/voices/rt/printerFriendly/913/755 3/14
28/03/2017 Gerge

transcendliteralmeanings(p.516).Wefullyagreewiththeir
reflection,thoughwethinkthattheconceptnonnarrativehastobe
problematized,asnarrate,apartfromreferringtospeechand
writingcanbetotellbymeansofimages.Ourconscious
awarenessresidesinlargerordersofaffectiveandcognitive
narratives,whicharebasedinexperientialimplicitbodilyprocesses
referredtoastheneuronalarchitecturewhichsupports
consciousnessbyDamasio(1999,p.15).In1992,DanielStern
introducedtheterm"protonarrativeenvelope(pp.291295).This
envelopehestated,containsexperiencesorganizedwithinthe
structureofanarrativeandarebuiltfromthechildsexperiencesof
happenedorimaginedevents,astheseareunfolding.However,it
referstoastorywithoutwordsorsymbols,aplotvisibleonlythrough
theperceptual,affective,andmotoricstrategiestowhichitgives
rise.Stern(1995)stressedhowearlyexperiencesofmotherchild
interactionshaveabeginning,amiddle,andanendandalineof
dramatictensiontheyaretinynarratives'protonarrative
envelopes'(Stern,2002,p.6).In2004,Sternchangedtheconcept
protonarrativeenvelopetolivedstory(Stern,2004,p.xiii).This
conceptisrelatedtoanemotionalnarrativethatisfeltratherthan
toldasacognitivelyconstructedstoryforbothinfantsandadults
(Stern,2004)andisaprerequisiteforamomentofmeeting,(see
furtherdefinitionsattheendofthearticle).Theconceptlivedstory
andourcontemporaryneuroaffectiveunderstandingofhuman
recognitionprocesses(Gallese,2009HassCohen&Findlay,
2015),makestatementssuchastheartsbasedinquiryis
nonverbalornonnarrativehighlyquestionable.Ontheotherhand,
theypointtopossiblewaysinwhichmusic,experiencedon
preverballevelscangiveusimagesandevokestories(Stern,2000,
2004,2010).Fromthisperspectivearts/artifactscanbeseenas
frozenmomentsintime,evenifthepersonwhohasproducedthe
artifactisnotpresent.
Asshowninthemethoddescriptionofpart1,(Gergeetal.,2017),
wewanttohighlighttheshorttimeframeofahalfofaminute,tobe
usedwhenbecomingtouchedandinitiatinganaestheticresponse
(eventhoughconductinganartworkorperformancemighttake
somewhatormuchlongertime).Anextendedmomentofmeeting
willnotbelongerthan30secondsaccordingtoStern(2004).We
proposethatthislimitedtimeframeisanessentialbuildingblockof
thefeltsenseexperience.Itisaprerequisitefortheaesthetic
response,evenattimeswhenthefinalartsbasedinquiryinvolves
composingamusicalsymphonyorcreatingamuralpainting(taking
monthstoprepare).
Wehypothesizethatthesimilarprocessesasinattachment
modulationareactivealsowhenwerelatetoanartifact,for
examplesseepart1(Gergeetal.,2017),wherepoeticresponses
wereachieved.Inpoetictranscription(Faulkner,2009Furman,
2006Leavy,2015)theinquiryisderivedfromagroundedtheory
perspective,whereselectedwordsandphrasesfromtheinformants
becomebuildingblocksofthepoemsconducted.Inpoetic
transcription,accordingtoFaulkner(2009),notesofwritten
statementsoftheinformantsaredirectlycited,andthenputintoa
structurechosenbytheresearcher.Inourwork,poeticstatements
https://normt.uib.no/index.php/voices/rt/printerFriendly/913/755 4/14
28/03/2017 Gerge

werecreatedasaestheticresponsesinlinewiththeprimary
significationofthewordpoetry(poiesis)meaningtocreate.When
workingwiththeaestheticresponseinanartsbasedinquiry,we
consideritpossiblethattheimplicitinformation,theprotonarrative
intheartpiece,canbelistenedtoinasimilarwayaswhenoneis
presentwithanotherhumanbeing.Inthisway,ABRhasthe
potentialtoresembletheregulatoryprocessesoftheearlydyad
wheretheconceptmomentofmeeting(MoM)iscrucial(Sander,
2002Stern,2004).Thesetimeframedimportantbuildingblocksof
earlydevelopmentandattachmentcontinuestobeactiveinhuman
perceptionallthroughourlives.Asadultswealsoformlivedstories
inourongoingendeavourtounderstandtheworldandourselves.
OrganisationofmeaningisimplicitasLyonsRuth(1999)stated.
Shehighlightedthatwedonotrequirereflectivethoughtor
verbalizationtobeknown(p.578).
Theprocessofbeingknown,orfeelingfelt,iswelldescribedin
attachmentresearch(Schore,1994,2003a,2003b,2003c,2003d
Sander,2002Stern,2004).Weconsiderthesecommunicative
aspectsofattachmentresearchalsorelevantintheexperiential
beingwithinrelatingtoanartpieceinart/creativeartstherapyor
ABR.Theprocessesthatbuildtheexperienceofbeingknownare
scientificallyvalidatedinrecentneuroaffectiveresearchon
mirroring(Ammaniti&Gallese,2014Gallese,2009)andinter
subjectivity(Siegel,2010).

Sander(2002)highlightedthecommunicativeaspectsofaffectsand
affectregulation.InlinewithSchore(1994),hedescribedaffectsas
observablestatesandthushighlycommunicative.Suchperspective
isemphasizedincontemporarysocialpsychologicalresearch
(Wetherell,2015).DanielStern(1985)developedSilvanT.
Tomkinsaffecttheory(1962,1963)andaddedtheconceptvitality
affects,wherethemusicalityanddynamicqualityofbeingtogether
(andbeingwithemotionsandaffects)andrelateonpreverballevels
asbuildingblocksofperceptionwerehighlighted(Ammaniti&
Ferrari,2013Stern,1985,1994,2000).Buildingonnonlinear
systemstheory,Sander(2002)andStern(1985,2010)developed
ourunderstandingonhowhumanbeingscanfittogether.By
accuratepreparatoryattunement(recognitionprocesses)special
momentsofsharedexperience(MoM)cangeneratestrongfeelings
ofconnectionbetweenpeople.Theseprocessesarewelldescribed
inpsychotherapyresearch(Hughes,2007),includingmusictherapy
(Blom,2014Coomans,2016)andarttherapy(HassCohen&
Findlay,2015).Also,whenmovingintoarelationshipwithan
artifact,wecanopenuptoatransformativemeeting.Byusingthe
timeframeofanextendedMoMinprofoundmeetingswithother
humanbeingsand/ortheirartifacts,weconsiderthatacertainrigor
canbebroughtintothemultilayeredthemesofimplicitprocessing,
whichwillbeactivatedeverytimeourattachmentsystemis
activated(Trevarthen&Aiken,2001).Thisprocessingwillalsobe
activatedeverytimeweallowourselvestobetouched,whichisan
essentialpartoftheartsbasedinquiry.
Researchonattachmentpointstotheroleofshared
interconnectivitydescribedby(Gallese&Ferri,2014Bowlby,

https://normt.uib.no/index.php/voices/rt/printerFriendly/913/755 5/14
28/03/2017 Gerge

1968Gaensbauer,2016Schore,2003d,2009Siegel,1999)as
aprerequisitefordevelopment,empathy,andmentalization(Fonagy
&Luyten,2015).Kenny(1989,2006)describedanintuitivelevelof
togethernessthatencompassestherapistandclientinclinicalwork.
Kennys(2006)metatheoryonwhatmighthappenintheencounter
betweenclientandtherapistishighlyrelevantforABR.She
highlightedtheneedforanexistentialphenomenologyimmersion,
tacitknowing,andintentionalverificationofthefeltsense
experience(Douglass&Moustakas,1985)tomakesenseofwhat
oneexperiences.Thisneatlyfitsintocontemporaryattachment
research(Gallese2009Narvaezetal.,2013).Kenny(2006,
2015)labelledtheprocessofmakingsenseasanactofcreativity,
empathy,andlettingoneselfbetouchedbytheother/theothers
expression,andwhatmightbecalledexistentialbeauty.Shealso
statedPerhapsmywordswillneverbeabletodescribethe
beautyofthesemoment(Kenny,2006,p.192),thusaddressing
theimplicitnatureoftogetherness.ThisisinlinewithSterns
reflectiononecannotgettothelivedexperienceandstaythere
whiletalkingaboutit(2004,p.xiii).Butofcourseweoughttotry,
andwearegeneticallyhardwiredtomakesenseof,andshare
implicitinformation,bothforoursurvivalasindividualsandas
species.

ArtasMakingSpecialandImplicit
Processing
Dissanayake(1988,2000,2003)arguedthatartservesasthekey
socialroleofmakingspecialwhenexperiencingphenomenaand
thuscanhelpusbothinvestandresearchcertainphenomenawith
specialsignificance.InJungianpsychologythisprocessisdescribed
ascrystallization(Henderson,1964).Knill,Barba,andFuchs
(1995)spokeofcrystallizationasthebasichumanneedto
crystallizepsychicmaterialthatis,tomovetowardoptimalclarity
andprecisionoffeelingandthought(p.30).Thisisakeyfunctionof
artmakingandartexperiencingandcanbeconsideredanimportant
principlewhenmakingsenseofinformationintheaestheticdomain.
Inthiswaytheartisticprocesshasgreatsimilaritieswiththe
pragmaticandeclecticapproachtoqualitativeresearch(Gordon,
1999Leavy,2015).
AccordingtoFaulkner(2005),citedinLeavy(2015),Thepoetic
criteriarelatedtoqualitativeandartisticcriteriaareartistic
concentration,embodiedexperience,discovery/surprise,conditional,
narrativetruth,andtransformation(p.97).Inlinewiththis,Leavy
(2015,citingRichardson,1997andPelias,2011)putforward
whatwemightspeakofcrystallizationinsteadoftriangulation.She
continued,poetryisbothastyleofrepresentationaswellasa
vehiclethroughwhichtheresearchcommunitycanengageinlarger
questionsaboutthenatureofsocialresearch,truthandknowledge
(p.97).Inthiswaytheartsbasedresearchorinquirycanhelpus
grasptheessenceofthestudiedphenomenaandexperiences.It
canaddresonancetoreason.TheABRpotentialexperienceof
resonanceandtouchingessencesupposedlyaddstothe
experienceofdeepenedsharing.Thisencompassesalsotolower
https://normt.uib.no/index.php/voices/rt/printerFriendly/913/755 6/14
28/03/2017 Gerge

theguard,tomakeoneselfvulnerable,andopentoapotential
experienceofawe(Gerge,2016).

ConcludingWords
Ouraiminthispaperwastodescribeavitalprocedureincludinga
timeframeinlinewithcontemporarytheoryofthephenomenonof
themomentofmeeting(MoM)(Sander,2002Stern,2004).The
useofthemethodanditssixstepsrelate,resonate,respond,
reflect,react,andresultswasexemplifiedinUsingAesthetic
Response,aPoeticInquirytoExpandKnowing.PartI:TheRx6
Method(Gergeetal.,2017).TheRx6methodisgroundedona
theoreticalframeworkofintersubjectivityandimplicitprocessing,in
linewithrelationalpsychodynamics.EngaginginABRcanoffer
cliniciansandresearchersofallorientationsadeepened,expanded,
andembodiedunderstandingofthestudiedphenomena.Thiscan
beconsideredaprerequisiteforheightenedempathy.Weconsider
theABRapproachespeciallyimportantwhenworkingwiththe
indwellingproceduresofimplicitprocessing,eg.,whenusingtacit
knowledge(Polanyi,1958),inresearchandpsychotherapy.
WehopethattheMoMcanbeconsideredaperceptualtooltomake
senseofwhatweencounterintheexperienceofbeingwithanother
humanbeing,and/orwithher/hisartifacts,orwhenbeinginanI
Thourelation(Buber,1962/1993).TheMoMtheoryhelpedus
conceptualizetheperceptualbuildingblocksofcomingcloseto
anotherhumanbeing.Thisunderstandingisnecessaryin
attachmentwork(Schore,19942003a,2003b,2003c
Trevarthen,1993),whichiswelldocumentedandimplementedin
psychotherapywithpsychodynamicorientation(Schore,2003d
Terr,2003),musictherapy(Blom,2014Coomans,2016),andart
therapy(Carr,2014).Thoughweproposethatthisapproachcanbe
ofvalueforcliniciansandresearchersofotherorientationsaswell.
ThetheoryofMoM,(Sander,2002Stern,2004)andconsciously
workingwithintermodaltransfercanbuildloopsofABRoveran
extendedtime(days,weeksandmonths)(Gerge,2016).Weregard
theMoMasagroundingbasicbeatapulseofperceptiona
buildingblockoftheflowofhumanexperienceinprocesseswhere
themediumisthemessage(LyonsRuth,1999)asinexperiential
psychotherapy(Gerge,2015)orABR(Gerge,2016Gergeetal.,
2017).AlthoughLedgerandMcCaffrey(2015)arguedthatitistoo
earlytocreatedefinitionsasthesemightlimitthepossibilitiesfor
innovationsthatABRmightbringtomusictherapy(p.453),we
considerthestructure,includingthetimeframesuggestedhere,as
animportantreflectivetool,bothasamethod,andfor
methodologiessteepedinaesthetics(Viega,2016b,p.5).In
puttingfocusonperception,asdescribedinattachmentresearch
(Sander,2002,Stern,2004Narvaezetal.,2013),contemporary
affectiveneuroscience(Ammaniti&Gallese,2014)andclinical
work,(HassCohen&Carr,2008Hughes,2007),wecanbeginto
structureABR.Fromasolidhuboftheoreticalframeworks(with
spokesinalldirections),variousmodalitiesandartdisciplinescan
radiate.Fromsuchahub,seenasanorientinglensfor
understandingaphenomenon(Creswell,2009ShannonBaker,
https://normt.uib.no/index.php/voices/rt/printerFriendly/913/755 7/14
28/03/2017 Gerge

2015),avarietyofsoundresearchandinnovativeapplicationsmight
rise.Inthiswayancientrootsofcreativitycanmeetandbe
nourishedfromheuristicresearchperspectives(Moustakas,1990,
1994),expressiveartstherapy(Estrella,2005Levine&Levine,
1998,2005Richardson,2016)andattachmenttheory,including
thetheoriesofthelivedstory(Stern,2004),andthetheoryofMoM
(Sander,2002Stern,2004).Thiswillfurtherenrichqualitative
research,thediscursivepractice(Wetherell,2015),and
psychotherapyresearchincludingtheartsbasedtherapies.
Toconclude,firstweproposethatclinicians,conductingclinical
research,scholarsinpsychologyandhealthcareresearch,including
rehabilitationmedicine,considerusingABRasameanstoexpand
theirunderstanding.Second,theseprocesseswilldeepentheir
compassionforandunderstandingoftheirresearchparticipantsand
theirprocessesofchange.WithChenail(2008)weansweredthe
questionconcerningABRButisitresearch?withafirmYES.

GlossaryofTerms
Bodyschema:MerleauPonty(1963,p.113114)referredtothe
internaltotalawarenessasbodyschema.Thisembodiedawareness
isconceptualisedasanongoingbodilyinteractionthatopensusto
asenseoftheworldbeyondwhatweconventionallycallperception.
Thebodysensecanencompassperceptionsandemotionsbutalso
memoriesofpastsituationsandoptionsofwhattodonext.
Presentmomentornowmoment:DanielStern(2004)defined
thepresentmomentasalivedstorywithabeginningandanend,
intentionalcharacters,togetherwithatemporalcontouralongwhich
theexperienceformsduringitsunfolding(p.219).Thepresent
momentisdefinedaslivedthroughasitunfoldsandisnotdistanced
bylanguageorabstractexplanationfromthoseexperiencingit.The
nowmomentconsistsofanemerginginterpersonalprocessthatis
unpredictablehencesloppy,consistingofthepresentmomentin
lifeaslived,whichSterngeneralizesfromattachmentresearchto
psychotherapy.TheconceptiselaboratedfromTheInterpersonal
WorldoftheInfant(Stern,1985).
Momentofmeeting:Thenowmomentisoftenfollowedbya
momentofmeeting(Stern,2004).Whenthisoccurs,newwaysof
beingwiththeotherunfoldsthroughtheofferedtimeframed
togetherness,wherewecanreadinthebehavioroftheothera
reflectionoftheirownexperience(p.220221).Thisleadstothe
possibilityofeventsbecomingintersubjectivelyconscious,and
furtheronverbalizedandnarratedexperiences.

References
Allegranti,B.(2013).Thepoliticsofbecomingbodies:Sex,genderand
intersubjectivityinmotion.TheArtsinPsychotherapy,40,394403,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aip.2013.05.017.
Allen,P.B.(1992).Artistinresidence:Analternativetoclinificationfor
arttherapists.ArtTherapy,9(1),2229,
https://doi.org/10.1080/07421656.1992.10758933.
https://normt.uib.no/index.php/voices/rt/printerFriendly/913/755 8/14
28/03/2017 Gerge

https://doi.org/10.1080/07421656.1992.10758933.
Allen,P.(2001).Theopenstudioprocessasawaytopracticeart
therapy.InJ.Rubin(Ed.),Approachestoarttherapy:Theoryand
technique.(2nded.).NewYork&London:BrunnerRoutledge.
Ammaniti,M.,&Ferrari,P.(2013).VitalityaffectsinDanielSterns
thinkingApsychologicalandneurobiologicalperspective.Infant
MentalHealthJournal,34,367375,
https://doi.org/10.1002/imhj.21405.
Ammaniti,M.,&Gallese,V.(2014).Thebirthofintersubjectivity:
Psychodynamics,neurobiology,andtheself.NewYork:WW
Norton&Co.
Blom,K.M.(2014).Experiencesoftranscendenceandtheprocessof
surrenderinguidedimageryandmusic(GIM):Developmentofnew
understandingthroughtheoriesofintersubjectivityandchangein
psychotherapy.(Unpublisheddoctoraldissertation).Aalborg
Unitersity,Aalborg,Denmark.Reterivedfrom
http://vbn.aau.dk/da/persons/katarinamaartenson
blom(498eb6de91be4a53a81477d88d35f0a6).html
Bowlby,J.(1968).Attachment:Attachmentandlossvolumeone.New
York,NY:BasicBooks.
Buber,M.(1962/1993).Dialogensvsen:traktatomdetdialogiska
livet(Sllstrm,P.,Trans.).Ludvika,Sweden:Dualis.
Bullington,J.(1999).Themysteriouslifeofthebody:Anewlookat
psychosomatics.Stockholm:Almqvist&WiksellInternational.
Carr,S.M.D.(2014).Revisioningselfidentity:Theroleofportraits,
neuroscienceandthearttherapist'sthirdhand.International
JournalofArtTherapy,19(2),5470.
Chenail,R.J.(2008).Butisitresearch?:AReviewofPatriciaLeavys
methodmeetsart:Artsbasedresearchpractice.TheWeekly
QualitativeReport,1(2),712.
Coomans,A.(2016).Momentsofresonanceinmusicalimprovisation
withpersonswithseveredementia:Aninterpretative
phenomenologicalstudy.Aalborg,Denmark:AalborgUniversity.
http://vbn.aau.dk/da/persons/ankecoomans(f330f53b145a
4117bf3bd95f509aaaef).html.
Conrad,D.(2010).Afunctionalmodeloftheaestheticresponse.
ContemporaryAesthetics,8.,
http://www.contempaesthetics.org/newvolume/pages/article.php?
articleID=581.
Cozolino,L.(2002/2010).Theneuroscienceofpsychotherapy.
Buildingandrebuildingthehumanbrain.NewYork,NY:Norton.
Creswell,J.W.(2009).Researchdesign:Qualitative,quantitativeand
mixedmethodsapproaches(3rded.).ThousandOaks,CA:Sage.
Csordas,T.J.(2008).Intersubjectivityandintercorporeality.Subjectivity,
22(1),110121,https://doi.org/10.1057/sub.2008.5.
Damasio,A.(1995).Descarteserror:Emotion,reason,andthe
humanbrain.NewYork,NY:PenguinBooks.
Damasio,A.(1999).TheFeelingofwhathappens:Bodyandemotion
inthemakingofconsiousness.NewYork,NY:Harcourt.
Dissanayake,E.(1988).Whatisartfor?Seattle,WA:Universityof
WashingtonPress.
Dissanayake,E.(2000).Artandintimacy.Seattle,WA:Universityof
WashingtonPress.
Dissanayake,E.(2003).Thecoreofart:Makingspecial.Canadian
JournaloftheAssociationforCurriculumStudies,1(2),1338.
https://normt.uib.no/index.php/voices/rt/printerFriendly/913/755 9/14
28/03/2017 Gerge

JournaloftheAssociationforCurriculumStudies,1(2),1338.
Douglass,B.,&Moustakas,C.(1985).Heuristicinquiry:Theinternal
searchtoknow.JournalofHumanisticPsychology,25(3),3955,
https://doi.org/10.1177/0022167885253004.
Estrella,K.(2005).Expressivetherapy:Anintegratedartsapproach.In
C.A.Malchiodi(Ed.),Expressivetherapies(pp.183209).New
York:GuilfordPress.
Faulkner,S.L.(2005).Method:Sixpoems.QualitativeInquiry,11(6),
941949,https://doi.org/10.1177/1077800405276813.
Faulkner,S.L.(2009).Poetryasmethod:Reportingresearchthrough
verse.WalnutCreek,CA:LeftCoastPress.
Fonagy,P.,&Luyten,P.(2015).Amultilevelperspectiveonthe
developmentofborderlinepersonalitydisorder.InD.Cicchetti(Ed.),.
InD.Cicchetti(Ed.),Developmentalpsychopathology.Vol3:
Maladaptationandpsychopathology(3rded.,pp.726792).New
York,NY:JohnWiley&Sons.
Frith,C.D.,&Frith,U.(1999).Interactingmindsabiologicalbasis.
Science,286(5445),16921695,
https://doi.org/10.1126/science.286.5445.1692.
Furman,R.(2006).PoeticFormsandStructuresinQualitativeHealth
Research.Qualitativehealthresearch,16(4),560566,
https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732306286819.
Gaensbauer,T.J.(2016).Momentsofmeeting:TherelevanceofLou
SandersandDanSternsconceptualframeworkforunderstanding
thedevelopmentofpathologicalsocialrelatedness.InfantMental
HealthJournal,37(2),172188,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/imhj.21555.
Gallese,V.(2009).Mirrorneurons,embodiedsimulation,andtheneural
basisofsocialidentification.PsychoanalyticDialogues,19(5),519
536,http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10481880903231910.
Gallese,V.,&Ferri,F.(2014).Psychopathologyandthebodilyself:The
caseofschizophrenia.47(6),357364,
https://doi.org/10.1159/000365638.
Gendlin,E.T.(1964).Atheoryofpersonalitychange.InP.Worchel&D.
Byrne(Eds.),Personalitychange(pp.100148).NewYork:John
WileyandSons.
Gendlin,E.(1978).Focusing.NY:EverestHouse.
Gerge,A.(2010).Chapters113.InA.Gerge(Ed.),Kreativt
gestaltandepsykoterapi.(pp.16116).Stockholm,Sweden:
Insidan.Creativepsychotherapy.
Gerge,A.(Ed.).(2011).Medempatinbevarad:varfrhandledningr
ndvndig.(Withempathypreserved:whysupervisionis
necessary).Stockholm:Insidan.
Gerge,A.(Ed.).(2015).Psykoterapisomhjlper:metoderfrvrden
(Psychotherapythathelps:methodsofcaring).Stockholm:Insidan.
Gerge,A.(2016).Answeringfromthecenter:Artsbasedresearchfor
knowingmore.Manuscriptsubmittedforpublication.
Gerge,A.,Wrja,M.,&Pedersen,I.N.(2017).Usingaestheticresponse
Apoeticinquirytoexpandknowing,partI:TheRx6Method.
Voices:AWorldForumforMusicTherapy,17(1),
http://dx.doi.org/10.15845/voices.v17i1.890.
Gordon,W.(1999).GoodthinkingAguidetoqualitativeresearch.
London,England:NTCPublications.
HassCohen,N.,&Carr,R.(2008).Arttherapyandclinical
neuroscience.England:JessicaKingsley.
https://normt.uib.no/index.php/voices/rt/printerFriendly/913/755 10/14
28/03/2017
Arttherapyandclinical
HassCohen,N.,&Carr,R.(2008).Gerge
neuroscience.England:JessicaKingsley.
HassCohen,N.,&Finlay,J.C.(2015).Arttherapyandthe
neuroscienceofrelationships,creativity,&resilience.NewYork,
NY:Norton.
Henderson,J.(1964).Ancientmythsandmodernman.InC.G.Jung
(Ed.),Manandhissymbols.NewYork,NY:BantamBooks.
Horowitz,M.(1983).Imageformationandpsychotherapy.NewYork,
NY:JasonAronson.
Horowitz,M.(2012).Uncoveringtheunconscious:Acourseinself
transformation.CreateSpace.
Horowitz,M.(2014).Identityandthenewpsychoanalyticexplorations
ofselforganization.USA:Horowitz.
Hughes,P.(2007).Attachmentfocusedfamilytherapy.NewYork,NY:
Norton.
Kenny,C.(1989).Thefieldofplay:Aguideforthetheoryandpractice
ofmusictherapy.Atascadero,CA:RidgeviewPublishingCo.
Kenny,C.(2006).Musicandlifeinthefieldofplay:Ananthology.
Gilsum,NH:BarcelonaPublishers.
Kenny,C.(2015).Performingtheory:Playinginthemusictherapy
discourse.JournalofMusicTherapy,52,457486,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jmt/thv019.
Knill,P.,Barba,H.,&Fuchs,M.(1995).Minstrelsofthesoul.Toronto:
Palmerston.
Leavy,P.(2015).Methodmeetsart:Artsbasedresearchpractice(2nd
ed.).NewYork,NY:GuilfordPress.
Ledger,A.,&McCaffrey,T.(2015).Performative,artsbased,orarts
informed?Reflectionsonthedevelopmentofartsbasedresearchin
musictherapy.JournalofMusicTherapy,52(4),441456,
https://doi.org/10.1093/jmt/thv013.
Levine,E.,&Levine,S.K.(Eds.).(1998).Foundationsofexpressive
artstherapy:Theoreticalandclinicalperspectives.London,
England:JessicaKingsleyPublishers.
Levine,K.,&Levine,E.(2005).Principlesandpracticeofexpressive
artstherapy.Towardsatherapeuticaesthetics.London,England:
JessicaKingsleyPublishers.
LyonsRuth,K.(1999).Thetwopersonunconscious:Intersubjective
dialogue,enactiverelationalrepresentation,andtheemergenceof
newformsofrelationalorganization.PsychoanalyticInquiry,19,
576617,https://doi.org/10.1080/07351699909534267.
LyonsRuth,K.,BruschweilerStern,N.,Harrison,A.M.,Morgan,A.C.,
Nahum,J.P.,Sander,L.,Stern,D.N.,&Tronick,E.Z.(1998).,
Implicitrelationalknowing:Itsroleindevelopmentand
psychoanalytictreatment.InfantMentalHealthJournal,19,282
289,http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097
0355(199823)19:3<282::AIDIMHJ3>3.0.CO2O.
Malchiodi,C.(1999).Medicalarttherapywithadults.London,England:
JessicaKingsleyPublishers.
McCaffrey,T.,&Edwards,J.(2015).Meetingartwithart:Artsbased
methodsenhanceresearcherreflexivityinresearchwithmental
healthserviceusers.JournalofMusicTherapy,52,515532,
https://doi.org/10.1093/jmt/thv016.
McNiff,S.(1986).Freedomofresearchandartisticinquiry.Artsin
Psychotherapy,13,279284,https://doi.org/10.1016/0197
4556%2886%29900286.
MerleauPonty,M.(1963).Thephenomenologyofperception.
https://normt.uib.no/index.php/voices/rt/printerFriendly/913/755 11/14
28/03/2017 Gerge

MerleauPonty,M.(1963).Thephenomenologyofperception.
Abingdon,England:Routledge.Originalworkpublished1945.
MerleauPonty,M.(1973).Consciousnessandtheacquisitionof
language(Silverman,H.J.,Trans.).Evanston,IL:Northwestern
UniversityPress.Originalworkpublished1949.
Moustakas,C.(1990).Heuristicresearch:Design,methodology,and
applications.ThousandOaks,CA:Sage.
https://doi.org/10.4135/9781412995641.
Moustakas,C.(1994).Phenomenologicalresearchmethods.Oaks,
CA:Sage.https://doi.org/10.4135/9781412995658.
Narvaez,D.,Panksepp,J.,Schore,A.N.,&Gleason,T.R.(Eds.).(2013).
Evolution,earlyexperienceandhumandevelopment:From
researchtopracticeandpolicy.Oxford,England:OxfordUniversity
Press.
Panhofer,H.,Payne,H.,Meekums,B.,&Parke,T.(2011).Dancing,
movingandwritinginclinicalsupervision?Employingembodied
practicesinpsychotherapysupervision.TheArtsinPsychotherapy,
38(1),916,http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aip.2010.10.001.
Polanyi,M.(1958/1998).Personalknowledge.Towardsapostcritical
philosophy.London,England:Routledge.
Richardson,C.(2016).Expressiveartstherapyortraumatizedchildren
andadolescents:Afourphasemodel.NewYork,NY:Routledge.
Rizzolatti,G.,Fadiga,L.,Fogassi,L.,&Gallese,V.(1999).Resonance
behaviorsandmirrorneurons.ArchivesofItalianbiology,137(23),
85100.
Robbins,A.(1971/1974).Theuseofimagerybythearttherapistin
creativedialogue,.ArtsinPsychotherapy,2,8085.
Robbins,A.(1987).Theartistastherapist.NewYork,NY:Human
Sciences.
Rothschild,B.(2000).Thebodyremembers:Thepsychophysiologyof
traumaandtraumatreatment.NewYork,NY:W.W.Norton.
Sander,L.W.(2002).Thinkingdifferently:Principlesofprocessinliving
systemsandthespecicityofbeingknown.Psychoanalytic
Dialogues,12,1142,
https://doi.org/10.1080/10481881209348652.
Schore,A.N.(1994).Affectregulationandtheoriginoftheself:The
neurobiologyofemotionaldevelopment.Mahwah,NJ:Erlbaum.
Schore,A.N.(2003a).Affectregulationandtheoriginoftheself.
Mahwah,NJ:Earlbaum.
Schore,A.N.(2003b).Affectdysregulationanddisordersoftheself.
NewYork,NY:Norton.
Schore,A.N.(2003c).Affectregulationandtherepairoftheself.New
York:Norton.
Schore,A.N.(2003d).TheseventhannualJohnBowlbymemoriallecture
mindsinthemaking:attachment,theselforganizingbrain,and
developmentallyorientedpsychoanalyticpsychotherapy.InJ.
Corrigall&H.Wilkinson(Eds.),Revolutionaryconnections
psychotherapyandneuroscience.NewYork:Karnac.
Schore,A.N.(2009).Attachmenttraumaandthedevelopingrightbrain:
Originsofpathologicaldissociation.InP.F.Dell&J.A.ONeil(Eds.),
DissociationandthedissociativeDisorders:DSM5andBeyond.
NewYork,NY:Routledge.
Schore,A.N.(2012).Thescienceoftheartofpsychotherapy.York,
NY:Norton.
Schore,A.(2014a).Neurobiologicallyinformedtraumatherapywith 12/14
https://normt.uib.no/index.php/voices/rt/printerFriendly/913/755
28/03/2017 Gerge

Schore,A.(2014a).Neurobiologicallyinformedtraumatherapywith
childrenandadolescents.NewYork:Norton.
Schore,A.(2014b).Therightbrainisdominantinpsychotherapy.
Psychotherapy,51,388397,http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0037083.
ShannonBaker,P.(2015).Makingparadigmsmeaningfulinmixed
methodsresearch.JournalofMixedMethodsResearch,10,116,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1558689815575861.
Siegel,D.(1999).Thedevelopingmind:Towardaneurobiologyof
interpersonalexperience.NewYork,NY:Guilford.
Siegel,D.(2010).Mindsight:Thenewscienceofpersonal
transformation.NewYork,NY:Norton.
Stern,D.N.(1985).Theinterpersonalworldoftheinfant:Aviewfrom
psychoanalysisanddevelopmentalpsychology.NewYork,NY:
BasicBooks.
Stern,D.N.(1992).Theprenarrativeenvelope:Analternativeviewof
unconsciousphantasyininfancy.BulletineoftheAnnaFreud
Centre,15,291318.
Stern,D.N.(1994).Onewaytodevelopaclinicallyrelevantbaby.Infant
MentalHealthJournal,15,925,https://doi.org/10.1002/1097
0355%28199421%2915:1%3C9::AID
IMHJ2280150103%3E3.0.CO2V.
Stern,D.N.(1995).Themotherhoodconstellation.NewYork,NY:
BasicBooks.
Stern,D.(2000).Ettlitetbarnsdagbok(Diaryofababy).Sweden:Natur
ochKultur.
Stern,D.(2002).Thefirstrelationship:Infantandmother.Cambridge,
MA:HarvardUniversityPress.
Stern,D.(2004).Thepresentmomentinpsychotherapyandeveryday
life.NewYork,NY:BasicBooks.
Stern,D.(2010).Formsofvitality:Exploringdynamicexperiencein
psychology,thearts,psychotherapy,anddevelopment.Oxford,
England:OxfordUniversityPress.
Terr,L.C.(2003).Wildchild:Howthreeprinciplesofhealingorganized
12yearsofpsychotherapy.JournalofAmericanAcademyofChild
&AdolescentPsychiatry,42,14011409,
https://doi.org/10.1097/0000458320031200000006.
Tomkins,S.(1962).AffectImageryConsciousness:VolumeI:The
PositiveAffects.NewYork,NY:SpringerPublishingCompany.
Tomkins,S.(1963).AffectImageryConsciousness:VolumeII:The
NegativeAffects.NewYork,NY:SpringerPublishingCompany.
Trevarthen,C.(1993).Brain,scienceandthehumanspirit.InJ.B.
Ashbrook(Ed.),Brain,cultureandthehumanspirit(pp.129181).
Lanham,MD:UniversityPressofAmerica.
Trevarthen,C.,&Aitken,K.J.(2001).Infantintersubjectivity:Research,
theory,andclinicalapplications.JournalofChildPsychologyand
Psychiatry,42,348,https://doi.org/10.1111/14697610.00701.
Viega,M.(2016a).Aestheticsenseandsensibility:Artsbasedresearch
andmusictherapy.MusicTherapyPerspectives,34(1),13,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mtp/miw010.
Viega,M.(2016b).Scienceasart:Axiologyasacentralcomponentin
methodologyandevaluationofartsbasedresearch(ABR).Music
TherapyPerspectives,34,413,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mtp/miv043.
Weiss,G.(1999).Bodyimages:Embodimentasintercorporeality.
https://normt.uib.no/index.php/voices/rt/printerFriendly/913/755 13/14
28/03/2017 Gerge

Weiss,G.(1999).Bodyimages:Embodimentasintercorporeality.
NewYork:Routledge.
Wetherell,M.(2015).TrendsintheTurntoAffect:ASocialPsychological
Critique.Body&Society,21(2),139166,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1357034X14539020.
Copyright:2017TheAuthor(s)

https://normt.uib.no/index.php/voices/rt/printerFriendly/913/755 14/14

Оценить