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a) Proposal

i. Power Station Design

ii. Power station operation

a. Dam: Raises the water level of the river to create falling water. Also controls the
flow of water. The reservoir that is formed is, in effect, stored energy

b. Turbine: The force of falling water pushing against the turbine's blades causes
the turbine to spin. A water turbine is much like a windmill, except the energy is
provided by falling water instead of wind. The turbine converts the kinetic energy
of falling water into mechanical energy

c. Generator: Connected to the turbine by shafts and possibly gears so when the
turbine spins it causes the generator to spin also. Converts the mechanical energy
from the turbine into electric energy. Generators in hydropower plants work just
like the generators in other types of power plants

d. Transmission lines: Conduct electricity from the hydropower plant to homes and

iii. Advantages and disadvantages


a. Once a dam is built, electricity can be produced at a constant rate

b. If electricity is not needed, the sluice gate can be shut, stopping electricity
generation. The water can be saved for use another time when electricity
demand is high
c. Dams are designed to last many decades and so can contribute to the
generation of electricity for many years / decades
d. When in use, electricity produced by dam systems does not produce
greenhouse gases. They do not pollute the atmosphere


a. Dams are extremely expensive to build and must be built to a very high
b. The high cost of dam construction means that they must operate for many
decades to become profitable
c. The flooding of large areas of land means that the natural environment is
d. Building a large dam alters the natural water table level

iv. Design criteria

v. Recommendations and any other necessary info
a. Project designers should apply environmental and social criteria to various project
alternatives early in the planning process, to ensure selection of the most
appropriate alternative for development
b. Hydropower projects should benefit local communities throughout the project life
c. Renewal and upgrading of existing power plants, and adding hydropower
facilities to existing dams should be promoted.