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Academic Journal of Feng Shui 1st Symposium Oceania

University of Technology Sydney, Australia, 13 & 14 May 2017 Brunner 2017


Jodi Brunner
Feng Shui Research Centre

This article examines the arguments for and against those who would enter into the debate for
the changing of Feng Shui for the Southern Hemisphere. It examines how the proponents in
favour of changing Feng Shui for the Southern Hemisphere present their arguments. Then,
referencing again the Form School and the Compass School, this article refers back to those
arguments to demonstrate that, there is in fact no need to change Feng Shui for the Southern
In addition, this article examines a chart based on the Fei Xing (Flying Stars) School of Feng
Shui and how changing Feng Shui for the Southern Hemisphere would affect the chart. Then,
using both the amended and the original charts, the article will draw a comparison and discuss
the resulting implications of the changes, using actual case studies to discuss the two variants.
In conclusion, the main tool used in Feng Shui is the compass, and it can be shown that the use
of the compass does not change between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Therefore
the reader will be left with no doubt that Feng Shui is indeed to be used the same way in the
Southern Hemisphere as it is in the Northern Hemisphere.

Feng Shui, built environment, Southern Hemisphere, Four Celestial Animals, compass,
Luoshu, Fei Xing, Flying Stars, magnetism.

Feng Shui topics often come in 'waves' and yet over the past twenty-two years of my practice,
consistent enquiries have persisted on the use of Feng Shui in the Southern Hemisphere
(hereafter SH). Such enquiries are from people living in Australia, South Africa and South
America, with such questions as:
Should Feng Shui be represented differently in the SH?
Should the Later Heaven Ba Gua be changed, considering that the Li trigram
representing fire falls in the south whereas this is the cold side in the SH?
Should the Ba Gua be reversed to flow anti-clockwise?
People have turned to me for answers over the years, with the aim of being 'deconfused' about
the issue.

Academic Journal of Feng Shui 1st Symposium Oceania
University of Technology Sydney, Australia, 13 & 14 May 2017 Brunner 2017

Those who change Feng Shui for the SH, include (von Essen, 1999), who believes the Form
School should be altered, changing the positions of the Four Celestial Animals and rearranging
the numbers in the Luoshu. (Sherrill & Chu, 1976), (Green, 1999) and (Tiquia, 2012) who make
permanent alterations to the Chinese calendar, thereby altering the use of the Compass School.
Feng Shui Masters opposed to the change include Skinner (1990), Yu (1999), and Graham
(2017 pers. comm., 28 February), from Capetown, South Africa.


The Hetu is a fundamental diagram in Chinese metaphysics (Figure 1), it explains the birth of
the Five Elements (Wu Xing). Hetu shows the birth of qi, the life force energy, in all its
manifestations. This abstract concept uses diagrams and numbers to represent qi. Hetu is the
foundation of our studies and the Luoshu, which contains the Five Elements, is the application
(Yu, 2008 pers. comm., 2 December). My years of study and application have shown that the
Five Elements are also abstract, intangible, and are not intended to be manifest in physical

Figure 1: Hetu
In his translation of the Qing Nan Jing, Master Joseph Yu explains the mechanism of qi,
"Abstraction copes with qi, while qi is controlled by form" (Yu, 2000). Qi is an intangible
energy that is manipulated by both the abstract (i.e. the influence of time, the Formulas) and
the tangible (qi is controlled by Form, the objects earth), but qi is not, of itself, a tangible form;
it is an 'energy'.
In changing Feng Shui for the SH, the proponents call upon tangible manifestations (i.e. the
direction of the sun and wind, the weather), to justify the change (Green, 1999; Tiquia, 2012).
However the basis of Feng Shui theory is derived from such ancient diagrams as the Hetu which
is intangible, not tangible.


The Hou Tian Bagua is an arrangement of the eight trigrams of the Yijing which correlates to
the Luoshu numbers. The trigrams represent the attributes of the Five Elements. The Li trigram,
representing the qi of fire is in the south and kan trigram, representing water is in the north
(Figure 2).
In the NH the sun is in the south (fire) and the cold (water) is in the north. For this reason, SH
proponents believe that the Bagua and Luoshu should be reversed (von Essen, 1999), changing
fire to the north and water to the south (east and west remain the same, Figure 3-Figure 4).

Academic Journal of Feng Shui 1st Symposium Oceania
University of Technology Sydney, Australia, 13 & 14 May 2017 Brunner 2017

Figure 2: Hou Tian Ba Gua & Luoshu Numbers

4 9 2
E 3 5 7 W
8 1 6
Figure 3: Luoshu

8 1 6
E 3 5 7 W
4 9 2
Figure 4 Luoshu Flipped for the SH
Bagua and Luoshu also represent intangible qi coming from the eight directions, not the
physical energy (ie light, wind or weather). If the latter were the case then Bagua and Luoshu
would need to be modified for each location on earth (Yu, 2001).


The ancients drew inspiration from heavenly bodies and divided heaven into quadrants of seven
constellations (Yu, 2001). These quadrants were named the Four Celestial Animals (Figure 5):
Dragon (Qing Long), Tiger (Bai Hu), Phoenix (Feng Huang) and Turtle (Xuan Wu).
In accordance with the principles of yin (descending/earth) and yang (rising/heaven), the
ancients believed what is in heaven, should be reflected on earth; applying the Four Celestial
Animals to the four sides of a site. The tortoise represents a yin /protective hill at the back; the
phoenix is yang/open space, a smaller hill, at the front (Figure 6); with dragon and tiger on
either side (Note the Four Animals on earth are a reflection of those in heaven). In order to
align the Four Celestial Animals with the Bagua, the Black Tortoise (water) is in the north,
Red Phoenix (fire) in the south, Green Dragon (wood) in the east and White Tiger (metal) in
the west.

Academic Journal of Feng Shui 1st Symposium Oceania
University of Technology Sydney, Australia, 13 & 14 May 2017 Brunner 2017

Figure 5: Four Celestial Animals in Heaven (International Dunhuang Project, n.d.)

Figure 6: Four Celestial Animals on Earth

Proponents of the SH change believe the phoenix and tortoise should be reversed because the
phoenix representing the sun/yang should be in the north and the tortoise representing the cold
winds/yin should be in the south (Green, 1999; von Essen, 1999).
However, weather patterns do not support this assumption. There may be cold winds blowing
from the north in central China, for instance, but no cold winds blow in sub-tropical southern
China in winter. In December, "China falls into freezing winter all over the country except the
South and some places in the Southwest where conditions might be warm and sunny." (Van
Hinsbergh, 2017)
There are six climatic zones in Australia (Wells, 2013) and wind patterns and directions change
significantly from one area to another. Cold winds do not always blow directly from the south,
they also blow from the south west. (Australian Government Bureau of Meteorology, 2017).

Academic Journal of Feng Shui 1st Symposium Oceania
University of Technology Sydney, Australia, 13 & 14 May 2017 Brunner 2017

The theory of Four Celestial Animals originated in central China where cold winds come from
the north and sun is in the south. In southern China there are no cold winds blowing from the
north and yet the Four Celestial Animals are not changed in southern China to reflect these
changing weather patterns. (McIntosh, 2004, p. 23)
Alignment with the Bagua is simply a way of expressing how the Four Celestial Animals are
in cohesion with other Feng Shui theories. In practical use, these four place-markers identify
the landforms surrounding a property (e.g. 'there is a hill on the dragon side' - right hand side
when facing a property). In accordance with yin/yang principles the phoenix and tortoise
identify the facing/yang and sitting/yin sides of any property, regardless of orientation. When
examining a site, it is not the compass orientation, the sun, wind or the seasons that dictate their
positions. Every site has tortoise at the back and phoenix at the front, whether it is in China or


The Chinese Solar Calendar is divided into 24 Solar Fortnights, each has a seasonal term
associated with it, such as 'Spring Begins', 'Insects Awakening' and so on. Each fortnight is
labeled according to the weather/season in central China. These terms indicate the waxing and
waning of qi throughout the year, "The names of the 24 seasonal points are just for convenience
for people in central China to remember and understand" (Yu, 2017 pers. comm., 21 February).
They do not denote the seasons but rather, seasonal qi. Terms like 'lesser snow' and 'greater
snow' are not applicable in southern China, let alone the SH.
Proponent of the SH calendrical change, Rey Tiquia, acknowledges that these 24 sub seasonal
phases originated in central China's Yellow River Basin and, "reflect specific local
characteristics of the climate and season there." (Tiquia, 2012, p. 9)
In China the sundial (rigui, Figure 7) was once used to measure local solar time. Its importance
was so great that it still, "...stands in front of the Hall of Supreme Harmony as a symbol that
the Emperor was the source of the standards of time." (Shea, 2007) Time was announced by
way of bell and drum tones every two hours, and the calendar issued annually. The control of
time as a means of exerting power and influence is still evident in China today. The country,
approximately 600 miles wider east-west than USA, has only one time zone, compared to USA
which has six. This was a political decision in 1949, marking Beijing Time as GMT+8. People
manipulate time and the calendar for their own purposes.

Figure 7: Sundial in the Forbidden City, Beijing

Academic Journal of Feng Shui 1st Symposium Oceania
University of Technology Sydney, Australia, 13 & 14 May 2017 Brunner 2017

One such change is the amendment of the Chinese calendar for the SH:
"...the point of reference for calculations in the SH must be a point diametrically
opposed to the point used in the Northern Hemisphere. One of the first things this
does is to offset the astrological year by six months from that of the Northern
Hemisphere, i.e. from what we call Summer Solstice to Summer Solstice in the
Northern Hemisphere to what we call Winter Solstice to Winter Solstice in the SH,
roughly June 22 to June 21. e.g. 1929 astrologically is from June 22, 1929 to June
21 1930 approximately in the SH. Similarly, 1978 is from June 22, 1978 to June
21, 1979 approximately" (Sherrill & Chu, 1976, p. 441).
Expanding on the work of Sherrill and Chu, Roger Green (1999) also changed the calendar for
the SH. According to Green, his calculations indicated that the wood rat (jiazi) began on 4th
February 1984 in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) and 7th August 1989 in the SH:
"...If we take half, represented by the 6 month difference in the northern and
southern hemispheres, and combine this with a 5 year difference between the cycle
of heaven represented by the cycle of 10, our calculations can be effectively
adjusted to the southern hemisphere..." (Green, 1999).
Both proponents of the SH calendrical change are quite different in their approaches and
results. More recently, Rey Tiquia (2012), suggested another change to the calendar, based in
part upon a diagram obtained from the work of Chen Ding-San (1880-1960), a classicist
Chinese medicine practitioner (Figure 8). Ding-Sans calendar starts at Yin (Tiger), the
beginning of spring in the NH and rotates clockwise. Using this diagram as a reference, Tiquia
applied this to the SH, marking the starting point of the year diametrically opposite by selecting
Shen (Monkey, August) as the beginning of spring in the SH. In 2016, according to Rey Tiquia,
the Lunar New Year of the Rooster began on the 4th of July and the Solar New Year of the
Rooster began on the 7th of August. (Tiquia, 2016)

Figure 8: Chen Ding-Sans diagram (Tiquia, 2012)

Examining other proposed changes by Rey Tiquia, Paivi Vilkki, an FSRC Master from Finland,
"The other change was to number the lunar months accordingly. Is this important?
Moon does not have seasons. It has phases. These phases happen in exactly the
same solar sign at the same time of the year in both hemispheres. Seasons have
nothing to do with this. This is the astronomical aspect of how sun, moon, and earth
are positioned in regard to each other. If you do ZWDS (Zi Wei Dou Shou), which
is based on lunar months, and you start doing them according to Tiquia's calendar,
I am sure you get it all wrong." Vilkki (2017 pers. comm., 27 February)

Academic Journal of Feng Shui 1st Symposium Oceania
University of Technology Sydney, Australia, 13 & 14 May 2017 Brunner 2017

Tiquia (2012, p. 13), after detailed research, notes he is working on an iPhone APP which
adjusts for latitude, and changes the calendar accordingly in order to "...translate the traditional
Chinese sexagenary time system...into the different time zones of the world." This
acknowledges that any change to the calendar would need to be specific for any location on
earth, not just two calendars for the NH and the SH, but 180 perhaps...?
Time is manipulated from country to country (e.g. some countries have daylight savings, or,
China has one time zone whereas USA has six), so it would also need to be adjusted for true
local solar time at each location.
The Chinese solar calendar runs on a 60-year cycle of stem and branch combination. The first
month of the year begins at the, "the transit of the Sun at 15 degrees Aquarius. It is usually on
the 4th February at a certain hour." Yu (1999 pers. comm., 3 November). This is when the
change of qi is most noticeable, at the Yin month. Yu (2001 pers. comm., 4 June). To change
the calendar for the SH based on the weather (i.e. 24 seasonal points), is to deny that the
calendar is based on the position of the sun and the waxing and waning of qi.
SH proponents who change the calendar do not agree on a starting point. Green and Tiquia
both take the start as approximately the 7th of August, albeit they are several years apart. Sherril
and Chu used the solstices to determine the start of the year. There is no coherence to their


Turning to the Yijing, Roger Green notes that,
"The 64 hexagrams that make up the readings and energy notation of the I Ching
are arranged on the lo pan compass to express this order. To readjust this sequence
to the southern hemisphere, the hexagrams are placed in a reverse order, starting
from the winter solstice- the most yin hexagram- on the 22 June for the southern
hemisphere - and placed in the direction- can you guess how? (due South for the
water/winter solstice; due north for the summer solstice; from these beginnings the
sequence continues to complete the 64 possibilities of change" (Green, 1999).
Harmen Mesker, Yijing expert from The Netherlands, agrees with Green, but believes an
adjustment of the calendar is unnecessary, "According to legend, the Chinese calendar began
with a conjunction of the five planets, the sun and the moon. Such alignment is not bound to a
place on the Earth, and this suggests that the Chinese calendar is valid for the whole Earth."
Mesker believes that an adjustment for the southern hemisphere is unnecessary, and the
calculations for a life hexagram remain the same. The interpretation of the outcome only, may
require SH modification because the texts of the Heluo Lishu book continually refers to the
month of birth and the corresponding season. Accordingly this has to be adapted to the southern
hemisphere. Mesker (2017 pers. comm., 26 February).
The weather/season at the location of birth for an astrology reading must be taken into
consideration regardless of hemispheres. The temperature of the date of birth changes with
latitude. December in the SH is summer/fire, the NH is winter/water, at the equator it can be
dry or humid, it is mostly hot, but it can also snow.

Academic Journal of Feng Shui 1st Symposium Oceania
University of Technology Sydney, Australia, 13 & 14 May 2017 Brunner 2017


Australia has a rich heritage of Chinese settlement. As such, the White Hills cemetery, an
important example of original Chinese graves (Figure 9), can be used as a case study to examine
whether the early settlers considered Yin Feng Shui differently for the SH.

Figure 9: White Hills Cemetery, Bendigo, Victoria (Wright, 2017)

Darren Wright, Manager of the Bendigo Joss House Temple, confirms through cemetery
records and a detailed map, that footstones in both White Hills and Bendigo cemetery in Quarry
Hill are located at and read from the southerly/downhill side of the grave; and that the head
points northerly/uphill. The graves actually face roughly 129 southeast (Figure 10).

Figure 10: White Hills Cemetery

Song He Yuan Cemetery (Figure 11) in Springvale, Victoria, completed in 2007 was designed
by Master Zheng as, "A dedicated Feng Shui designed Asian cemetery" (Southern Metropolitan
Cemeteries Trust, 2017). The cemetery fans out from the eastern hill.

Figure 11: Song He Yuan Cemetery

Academic Journal of Feng Shui 1st Symposium Oceania
University of Technology Sydney, Australia, 13 & 14 May 2017 Brunner 2017

Yin Feng Shui also requires proximity to mountains. In China, it can be observed that gravesites
on the mountains do not adhere to a north-south orientation necessarily, but sit nestled into the
mountainside overlooking the valley below. A strong mountain behind is ideal. Despite the
different orientations, White Hills cemetery with hill to the north; Song He Yuan to the east,
both chose mountains at the back.

Figure 12: Gravesite in China

Regardless of the orientation of Chinese gravesites, the location with a mountain at the back is
more important than any regard to the SH proponent's suggestion of mountain in the south.
This complies with Feng Shui Form School requirements and does not insist upon a mountain
to the south and lower land to the north, as those SH proponents would espouse.


Earth's magnetism is important in the discussion of the north/south issue because whether the
Feng Shui practitioner is located in the NH or SH, all those who practice Compass School Feng
Shui use a Luo Pan, or ordinary compass, to measure the orientation of a site. Historical
evidence shows use of the compass in China over 2200 years ago when it was used, "primarily
for geomancy" (Silverman, 1998). From this knowledge, the Compass School of Feng Shui
developed. Therefore earth's magnetism plays an integral role in Feng Shui calculations.

Figure 13: Luo Pan

In 1936 Dr. Albert Roy Davis discovered the effects of magnetism on worms left accidentally
next to a horseshoe magnet overnight. The worms next to the south pole of the magnet had
grown larger and eaten their way through the waxed box; the other two boxes of worms showed
no change at all (Davis & Rawls, 1974, p. 25). This chance discovery of the separate pole
effects led Davis and Rawls (1974) to a breakthrough that the south and north poles of a magnet
affect matter differently and that in terms of yin and yang, the south pole is yang.

Academic Journal of Feng Shui 1st Symposium Oceania
University of Technology Sydney, Australia, 13 & 14 May 2017 Brunner 2017

Figure 14: Earth's Magnetic Field (Davis & Rawls, 1974, p. ix)
The earth behaves like a giant magnet with north and south polarities. (NASA, 2011). The
direction of flow of the magnetic field that surrounds the earth is from the south pole to the
north pole. (Davis & Rawls, 1974, p. 23)
In the Hou Tian Ba Gua the Li trigram represents fire and the south. SH proponents state this
as a reason to change Feng Shui for the SH. However, as south is the source of earth's
magnetism, it is yang/fire/active; the properties of the element fire is to radiate outwards in all
directions. So Li in the south as the origin of earth's magnetic field is logical according to the
Bagua. The north pole receives the magnetism; to receive is yin.
Further to a discussion on magnetism, the southern, main entry gate (Wu Men) of the Forbidden
City is called the Meridian Gate, and the north-south axis along which the complex sits is called
the Meridian Line' (Figure 15). The term 'meridian' implies an imaginary line joining the earth's
poles; and that the north-south alignment of the Forbidden City is in accordance with earth's
magnetic field. According to Professor Jeffrey Riegel from the University of Sydney, the
Forbidden City was aligned along a central axis, known as the 'axis of the world' (Jarus, 2013).

Figure 15: Meridian Line of Forbidden City

Examining the Feng Shui of the Forbidden City provides evidence that the ancients considered
this alignment to be in accordance with the earth's magnetic field, which in ancient times held
great mysticism. As the emperor was the 'son of heaven' it stands to reason that he would align
himself with this energy, especially if it is the 'axis of the world.'

Academic Journal of Feng Shui 1st Symposium Oceania
University of Technology Sydney, Australia, 13 & 14 May 2017 Brunner 2017

When a Feng Shui practitioner uses a compass to ascertain the orientation of a site, there is no
need to adjust the compass for the NH or SH. When crossing the equator the compass needle
does not reverse 180 degrees to face the opposite direction. "The main instrument of Feng Shui,
the compass, still points in the same direction no matter what hemisphere you are in." (Skinner,


Over the years I have posed a question to Feng Shui students of SH teachers, "If you change
Feng Shui for the SH, what were you taught to do at the equator? What of places like Quito,
Ecuador, 0 19 south, or Telaga, Sumatra on 0? Which model of Feng Shui would you use?
To change Feng Shui for the SH, if not right at the equator, at what latitude do you make this
change? Perhaps at the Tropic of Capricorn?" No student could ever answer.
Feng Shui Master Vincent Koh from Singapore (latitude just over 1 north) regularly travels
south of the equator for consultations. Asked whether he changed Feng Shui for the SH, he
looked puzzled and replied, "Why would I do that?" Koh (2005 pers. comm., 18 Nov)

Earth's rotation causes air and water currents to swirl in opposite directions in either
hemisphere; in the NH, air moving up from the south is deflected eastward, while air moving
down from the north is deflected westward; because of this, proponents say Feng Shui should
be changed for the SH (Tiquia, 2012, p. 11). According to Roger Green the fact that wind
moves in the opposite direction in the SH and that water rotates in the opposite direction down
the plughole is justification for changing Feng Shui for the SH (Green, 1999).
Wind (Feng) and water (Shui) are so-named because they are important considerations in the
study of Feng Shui. However, according to lengthy discussions with various experts on The, there is still debate as to whether water rotates down the drain differently in the
NH and SH, "The coriolis effect is simply not strong enough to effect small systems." "While
the Coriolis Effect exists, it only works for large bodies of air or water, such as continent-sized
weather systems." (Doyle, n.d.) Water does not necessarily rotate down the drain as a result of
the Coriolis Force because other, more localised factors influence its movement, such as the
shape and dimensions of the vessel in which it is contained.
Even if this were true, Feng Shui is not concerned with which way water flows down the drain
or in which direction large weather patterns rotate. Feng Shui is however, concerned with wind.
Wind is a way in which qi is brought to a site. It is natural that wind direction bears
consideration; and wind direction varies from place to place, not just one hemisphere to

Commonsense dictates that occupants of a home can receive benefits of the sun to keep their
home warm in winter and for the enjoyment of back yard entertainment. SH advocates suggest
that the front of a house should ideally face north, the direction of the sun in Australia. (Green,
1999; von Essen, 1999).

Academic Journal of Feng Shui 1st Symposium Oceania
University of Technology Sydney, Australia, 13 & 14 May 2017 Brunner 2017

To benefit from the passive solar effect, a house in the SH can locate windows, living areas
and gardens in the north, to, "Reorient as much of the living space as possible to the north side
of the house". (McGee, et al., 2013). This does not imply that houses should face north.
When facing north in the SH, a house should be designed to either sit at the back of the block
and have the yard/entertaining area at the front; or, have a south-facing back yard and
entertainment areas. This would put the back yard in perpetual shade. This may be suitable for
houses in the northern Australia in order to avoid excessive heat, but in southern Australia,
facing south, with a back yard in the north for privacy and entertaining, is still the preferred
orientation for a house.

Feng Shui is theoretical until shown effective through practical application. I invited Hermann
Von Essen to discuss a Flying Stars Feng Shui chart and compare results using his Modified
SH chart. I suggested a Period 7, Wu Zi chart (built 1984-2004, sitting south, facing north). Mr
Von Essen declined, so I can only speculate how he draws a chart.
I chose this chart because it is a common Period 7 chart, my retail business had this chart for
fifteen years and when Feng Shui changed from Period 7 to Period 8 (2004-2023), buildings
with this chart underwent dramatic changes.
A building adopts the qi of the period of construction/renovation. For a Period 7 house, the star
7 is placed in the centre (the 'time star') and 'flies' around the chart. The compass orientation
determines how the other stars 'fly'. In order to complete this chart, the sitting star in the south
and facing star in the north are brought to the centre. The star to the left is the 'mountain star'
(yin), and the star to the right is the 'water star' (yang) (Figure 16).
1 4 6 8 8 6 9 5 7 7 2 3
6 2 4 1 3 8
E 9 5 2 3 4 1 W E 5 9 3 2 1 4 W
5 7 9 5 7 9
5 9 7 7 3 2 4 1 8 6 6 8
1 3 8 6 2 4

Figure 16: Original (left) & Modified (right) Flying Stars Charts
Feng Shui states, 'Mountain takes care of the people, while water takes care of wealth.' In any
20-year period the location of the ruling mountain and water stars needs to be examined.
Focusing on the wealth aspect, in the Original chart, water star 7 is in the north. During Period
7 it is, 'good for money' because the yang star is in a yang area (i.e. the front); ideally it should
also be the location of the entry, which is the 'mouth of qi'. In the Modified chart the water star
7 is in the south (it is reversed). It is, 'bad for money,' because the yang star is at the yin/back
of the building.

Academic Journal of Feng Shui 1st Symposium Oceania
University of Technology Sydney, Australia, 13 & 14 May 2017 Brunner 2017

Referencing my business and those of my clients with this chart, business was most profitable
between 1984 and 2004 (Period 7). In the Modified chart, the ruling water star is in the south;
it is out of place in a yin area. If this Modified chart was correct, then my clients and I would
not have experienced easy wealth in Period 7.
February 4th 2004 marked the change to Period 8; in the Original chart the ruling water star 8
is located in the south; this became the strongest wealth area. Ten doors away from my shop
was a Buddhist vegetarian restaurant, whose owners became good friends (Client #540). On
the south side of their building there was no entry for customers and no window or door for the
qi to enter. Period 8 saw a noticeable downturn in their business.
My shop (Figure 17) had a second entry door in the south, leading to the Queen Victoria
Market. After we changed to Period 8, I placed a large selection of incense in the south; as this
was the strong wealth area, thereafter incense became our second-most top selling item,
generating up to 33% of revenue.
For the vegetarian restaurant I recommended moving their cash register to the south and adding
a large fish tank (i.e. 'water activates wealth'). The change supported their business and they
received more customers; but the customers still entered the north door, and the most beneficial
qi in the south had no entry point. In March 2017 I contacted the client to discuss their
impressions of the Feng Shui changes in 2004, "Business was definitely noticeably slower in
period 8." (2017 pers. comm., 14 March) Despite the downturn in Feng Shui, the business
continued to trade until early 2016. This can be explained by the fact that the kitchen where the
food was cooked was in the south and also by the quality and reputation of the restaurant.

Figure 17: My Shop & Vegetarian Restaurant

In researching the effects of the change from Period 7 to Period 8 for north facing properties I
also called on client #492 (whom I had seen in 2003). In 2003 they were living comfortably
and financially successful in a north facing Period 7 home (Original chart). In 2005 they
decided to move from this home because they had started a family and the property had a small
backyard; they wanted a bigger house and some land. The husband was successful in business
but in 2004 after changing to Period 8, he struggled in his business. For a young family there
were always financial issues, but there was. "A noticeable downturn in 2004." (2017 pers.
comm., 21 May) In 2005 they contacted me to inspect new land for them to build; a west facing

Academic Journal of Feng Shui 1st Symposium Oceania
University of Technology Sydney, Australia, 13 & 14 May 2017 Brunner 2017

property with the ruling water star 8 at the facing side. After moving to the better Feng Shui
house they noticed a vast improvement from their previous home with a definite turnaround in
their income and financial stability (even with a larger mortgage). They are still living there
Comparing the Original chart with the Modified SH Chart, the stars in the north and south are
totally opposite. The Modified chart indicates financial difficulty in Period 7 and prosperity in
Period 8. If the Modified chart were correct, my clients would not have been prosperous in
Period 7; and would have seen an dramatic improvement, rather than a downturn in business
in Period 8. Using the Original chart, the conclusive results show that the charts match with the
circumstances of the clients to confirm, there is no need to modify the Flying Stars Feng Shui
chart for the SH.

Feng Shui knowledge comes from an ancient system which marks qi as the focal point. In
Chinese metaphysics all objects 'contain' qi; but qi is not an object of itself, it is the 'life force
energy.' The various formulae used in Feng Shui, the Hetu, Bagua, Luoshu, Yijing, Flying Stars
and a myriad of others, are used to 'calculate' the existence and quality of qi in our environment.
In this article I have discussed these various topics to demonstrate that when discussing qi and
its manifestations, we are talking about an intangible, omnipresent energy and its
manifestations. This energy changes from place to place, it does not do a radical flip at the
equator, for the SH. Sunlight, heat, the seasons and temperature affect qi. Mountains and water
also affect qi.
In keeping with the theme of the conference Canopy (heaven/time/intangible) and Chariot
(earth/space/tangible), Form (space) and Formula (time) go hand in hand. They should not be
separated into two independent 'schools.' There is no doubt that all Feng Shui practitioners must
learn the Form School, but without use of a compass, a Feng Shui method is incomplete. Feng
Shui formulae rely on the use of a compass. After calculating these Feng Shui formulae, the
results show how a building affects the lives of the inhabitants.
The Luo Pan is a means of tapping into the earth's magnetic field and in doing so, perform
Feng Shui calculations. Magnetism, like qi can be measured, but it cannot be seen or grasped.
According to Davis & Rawls, "Magnetism is...a natural energy...generated by the nature of
things, basically the atom itself...The energies provided affect all living systems on the face of
the Earth." (Davis & Rawls, 1974, p. 127). Perhaps an understanding of magnetism is also how
we must approach the understanding of qi.
The compass is the main tool of trade in Feng Shui, and considering that earth's magnetic field
encompasses the entire globe and does not change according to hemisphere (south is still south,
north is still north in both hemispheres), then there is no need to change Feng Shui for the SH.

I am not an academic, nor a scholar per se, I am a student of Chinese metaphysics since my
first studies 1995-1998 with Kevin Masman, Australian Institute of Feng Shui & Geomancy. I
thank Kevin for his exhaustive research and course materials.

Academic Journal of Feng Shui 1st Symposium Oceania
University of Technology Sydney, Australia, 13 & 14 May 2017 Brunner 2017

Kevin introduced me to Joseph Yu, who studied Mathematics and Physics at the University of
Hong Kong. As a student Master Yu abhorred all kinds of superstition and vowed to destroy
such absurd beliefs. He frequented libraries, trying to find fault with Astrology and Feng Shui
from ancient books. The deeper he went into the subject, the more excited he became with the
rich legacy of ancient Chinese culture.
On his first visit to Melbourne in 1998, Master Yu taught his original Feng Shui course. I was
a living in the countryside and invested in the last two days of Master Yu's class. On the first
day, Master Yu recited the words I'll never forget, "Odd numbers fly forward in the first
mountain." To me it was a revelation! It was the key to understanding the mechanism of how
the stars fly. Having realised the importance of Master Yu's teachings, in hindsight I should
have attended all four days. I made up for it by dedicating the next 19 years to studying and
teaching Master Yu's courses.
I first wrote this paper in the late 90s when Feng Shui in the SH was a hotly debated topic.
Several years ago I submitted the paper to the Scientific Feng Shui Conference at the City
University of Hong Kong in Hong Kong, which I attended. My paper was rejected because it
was not 'academic' enough; so I wish to acknowledge the role played by my friend and assistant
Caroline Murphy, who has patiently coaxed, cajoled and advised me on how to write this paper
in accordance with academic standards. Caroline recently published her archaeology thesis,
Potluck: A Comparative Study of Ceramics from the Chinese Brick Kiln, Bendigo.
Thanks to Harmen Mesker for sending me relevant pages from Sherril and Chu's book, to Paivi
Vilkki for detailed information about the solar calendar, to Darren Wright, Manager of the
Bendigo Joss House Temple and Celestina Sagazio, Historian and Manager of Cultural
Heritage, Southern Metropolitan Cemeteries Trust, to the affable Rey Tiquia for sending me
links to his articles and to Andrew Graham for his feedback about Feng Shui in South Africa.
Thanks to Bruce McClure from for Aquarius info, to my clients for sharing their
case studies and to Hermann Von Essen and Roger Green for enabling me to do research on
this topic!...and of course to the Academic Journal of Feng Shui for publishing this article.

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Corresponding Author:

Jodi Brunner
Feng Shui Research Centre