Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 36

H I S T O RY O F I N D I A N

A G R I C U LT U R E

As we know that there is three seasons can be seen


named as winter, summer and monsoon and Indian
agriculture is mostly based on rainfall in monsoon. During
the monsoons, the Indian Subcontinent is usually gifted with
bountiful rains, although not infrequently, this bountiful
monsoon can turn into a terror, causing uncontrollable
floods in parts of the country. Conversely, every few years,
the monsoon can be erratic and deficient, leading to drought
and the possibility of famine. Thus, all through history the
development of Indian agriculture has been inextricably
linked with effective water-management practices that have
either been taken up by the state, or by local village
communities.

Some rich and wealthy farmers or representatives of


the state were generally obliged to allocate a certain
percentage of the agricultural taxes on building and
managing water-storage, water-harvesting and/or water-
diverting structures which facilitates a second crop, and
provided water for drinking and other purposes in the long
dry season. Only a small percentage of Indian farmers have
enjoyed the luxury of natural irrigation, although there are
reports that in certain parts of the country, the soil used to
retain enough moisture well beyond the monsoon months.
However, it is equally true that the drying up of wells led to
mass migrations, and sudden depopulation of old towns and
villages.

1
By and large, taxes were imposed on villages
collectively not on individual farmers directly, and the
village elites whether Brahmins or others were obliged to
ensure that the burden of taxes did not destroy the complete
viability of agriculture. Taxes were also adjusted keeping in
mind whether the land was well irrigated or not.

The Indian Political Situation Post-1947 in


Agricultural Context

The Indian National Congress conducted a dual (and


somewhat contradictory) policy relative to Indian
agriculture. On the one hand, it attempted to ameliorate the
problems of the Indian countryside by investing in
irrigation, agro-research, agro-modernization and
mechanization, but on the other hand, it was only half-
hearted (at best) in implementing its own platform of land
reforms because it was reluctant to hurt the interests of the
feudal and mercantile intermediaries that oppressed most
peasants.

Where the struggle for 'land to the tiller' became very


intense, it was obliged to make concessions to the
impoverished peasants, and move against the parasitic
forces, but wherever the demands for land reform were not
backed up by strong and effective people's movements, it
chose to drag its feet.

2
It is only in the sixties, when India's Naxal movement
began to spread and acquire a certain degree of political
depth did the Indira Congress feel the threat and necessity
of clipping the wings of the Zamindars, taking away the
privy purses of the Maharajas, and assisting farmers more
actively. Even as the Naxal movement was harshly
repressed, banks were nationalized and were required to set
up more branches in rural areas so that loans for seeds and
farm equipment (and inputs such as fertilizers and
pesticides) could be purchased through loans at more
reasonable interest rates. The state also actively intervened
in the buying and selling of grain.

Although these measures did not help all sections of


the peasantry, it did allow a section of the country's farmers
to gradually liberate themselves from the clutches of the old
parasitic intermediaries, and move towards mechanized
farming. Over time, peasants struggles put further pressure
on the government leading to periodic waiving of loans, and
easing of credit norms so that even middle farmers could get
loans from government banks and rural credit unions.
Subsidies were also provided for electricity and water use,
as well as on the sale price of fertilizers and pesticides.

Thus, a combination of people's pressure and the


gradual expansion of industrial capitalism have brought
about significant changes in the Indian countryside. Whereas
a section of Indian farmers (at least in some states) have
become rich capitalist farmers, a large middle layer of
farmers has also developed which is able to survive (even
eke out a small surplus) in the good agricultural years (when

3
the monsoon and market conditions happen to be favorable).
These middle-income farmers also hire seasonal labor - and
this further distinguishes them from the poorest farmers who
can't even survive in the good years.

Thus today, there is a growing differentiation in the


Indian countryside, and this is not too different from what
has been seen in many other relatively mature capitalist
countries. However, the increasing sub-division of land, and
the rising costs of agricultural inputs is a constant source of
problems and tensions in the countryside.

4
B E R R I O R S I N A G R I C U LT U R A L
MARKETING
Agricultural marketing in India suffers from a number
of defects. Some defects are

1) The Indian farmers do not have proper facilities for


storing the produce in the village. The storage facilities in
the village at present are so bad that between 10 and 20
percent of the produce is eaten away by rates, white ants
etc. there is this much loss of agricultural produce-loss for
the farmers and for country as a whole. Moreover, they are
compelled to sell the produce immediately.

2) The average of Indian farmer being poor and


indebted and has no staying power. He requires money badly
and urgently to pay taxes, to clear his debts etc. he is forced
to sell his output to the produce, whether the price is good
or bad. If he can wait, he can decidedly get better price of
his produce.

3) Most roads are in poor condition and in rainy


season they are unusable. Naturally, farmers are forced to
sell their surplus produce in the village itself. Inadequate
and defective transport conditions constitute a serious defect
of agricultural marketing in India.

4) The farmers are completely in dark about the rating


prices in depression period. They accept whatever price is
quoted to them and have to believe whatever the traders tell
them.

5
5) The farmers are afraid of going to depression
period because of the prevailing conditions there. Proper
warehousing facilities do not exist. He is obliged to keep his
produce in the open exposed to sun and rain. The brokers
and merchants are often in league with each other and the
price settled is generally to the disadvantage of the
cultivators. The farmers lose much in the form of samples to
the brokers, use of falls weight and measures, unnecessary
deductions on the place. The farmers feel cheated in the
depression period and are generally reluctant to go there.

6) There are so many other defects, which are


responsible for the poor state of agriculturists in India.
There are
(1) High cost of transportation
(2) Lack of standardization and grading
facilities
(3) Lack of organization and unity in Indian
farmers
(4) Lack of information etc.

6
REMEDIES OF INDIAN
A G R I C U LT U R E

The subdivision of already small farms in an


agricultural model whose profitability is greatly linked to
economies of scale makes the survival of the small farmer
very difficult. Although the introduction of tractors and
other industrial implements, of chemical fertilizers and
pesticides, greatly increased the productivity of land and
labor, it has not come without considerable burdens for the
small farmer who is finding it very hard to compete with
large and medium farmers. In most industrial nations, the
introduction of such practices in the countryside has been
accompanied by a gradual reduction in the rural population
so that those who remain on the land can enjoy.

7
8
A B O U T C O M PA N Y

Company is having 20 acres of own research farm for


crop breeding and experimental work at Gadhka-360 020
dist. Rajkot (Gujarat) with full irrigation and fine
infrastructural facilities. Company had collected and
developed considerable germ palms of cotton by way of
selection from segregating material applying selection
pressure on earliness, drought tolerance, good quality
characters, reaction to major pests and diseases and other
desirable qualitative and quantitative traits.

Company undertakes seeds production program in


Gujarat only and in case of cottonseeds production it is
mainly in Sabarkantha districts of Gujarat. Before seeds
distribution the grow-out test of seeds is conducted on two
locations one at Gadhka on companies research farm and
the same is repaired at other available location.

Company is applying to test its hybrids with all India


co-ordinate research project on cotton and with agricultural
universities as and when got its approval from department
of science & technology, govt. of India, new Delhi.

Every year company submits its detail records of seeds


production and the distribution plan of seeds and also
furnish the information well in time as sold when desired by
concern department of agriculture of respective state. The
protocol of the company is to serve better for Indian
agriculture by way of producing the best quality seeds of the
hybrid for better yield and bumper harvest.

9
H I S T O RY & D E V E LO P M E N T

Dr. T.L. DHOLARIYA, an agriculture scientist has


established the company named SOLAR AGROTECH Pvt.
Ltd in 1994 and started marketing of Agro inputs and
established companys R & D center for breeding new
varieties/hybrids of field crops.

The company launched two cotton hybrids namely


GOLD STAR and BLUE STAR in 1997 for cultivation in
Gujarat by surveyed for 3 years. Having succeeded in these
two hybrids company lunched GOLDSTAR &
SHRIKANT cotton hybrids for cultivation in Maharastra
during 1998. Company also lunched popular cotton hybrid in
local market SARAJU in 1999.

Production of seeds of improved varieties of sesame


and pulses started in 2000. Company released firstly Bajri
seeds named BAJRI DBH 5656 in 2001. Castor hybrid
Sarthi-9 was bred and comes under trial during 2003 and
then commercialized in 2004.Company had made an
agreement with world biotech leader MONSANTO for
insect tolerant technology in cotton (Bt. Cotton). Presently
BT cotton breeding and trials are under progress and will be
commercialized during 2007-2008.

10
P R O J E C T AT G L A N C E

NAME ::- Solar Agro Tech Pvt. Ltd.


ADDRESS ::- UL-Royal Complex
Bhutkhana Chowk,
Dhebar road,
RAJKOT-360 002.
PHONE. NO. ::- 225656
FAX ::- (0821) 229877
E-MAIL ID ::- sarju10@sify.com

CHAIRMAN ::- Dr. T.L. Dholariya

BANKERS ::- Rajkot Peoples Co-Op. bank


AUDITORS ::- P. Ghanshyam & Company
CHAIRMAN & M.D. ::- Dr. T.L. Dholariya

BOARD OF DIRECTOR ::- Dr. T.L. Dholariya


Misses M.T. Dholariya
DATE OF INCORPORATION ::- 1994
DATE OF COMMENCEMENT ::- 4th April 1994-95

11
SIZE & FORM OF THE UNIT

There are 3 types of company on the basic of


investment.

Small Scale Unit :: -

The unit with investment in fixed assets and current


assets is between 1 to 10 corers is known as small-scale
unit.

Medium Scale Unit :: -

The unit with investment in fixed assets & current


assets is between 10 to 50 corers is known as large-scale
unit.

Large Scale Unit :: -

The unit whose investment in fixed assets & current


assets is more than 50 corers is known as large-scale unit.

Solar Agro Tech Pvt. Ltd. is small-scale unit


because it has in vested money less than Rs. 10 crores but
more than Rs. 1 crore.

12
O R G A N I S AT I O N S T R U C T U R E

Chairman

Board of Directors

M.D.

R&D Market Sales Personnel


Developmen divisio department
t n
I.C.
In charge Sales A/C.
& team executive Personne
Crops l
breeding
search of new
Field Sales HRD
variety
Assistant man

13
P R O D U C T S O F T H E C O M PA N Y

Agriculture is the basic industry. It satisfies the


demand for foodstuff on one side and necessary raw
materials for industrial production on the other. Agricultural
marketing faces different problems because the cultivator
has no assurance of the prices he could obtain in the market.
As Solar Agro Tech Pvt. Ltd. is producing Agricultural
products can be categorized into following types

1) Small Scale Production :: -

Commercialization of agriculture is still a new concept


to Indian agriculturists. Indian farmers own very small plots
of land and very often the production on the farm is just
sufficient to cover the family needs. On account of
smallholdings, the production also tends to be small.

2) Perishable Nature Of Products :: -

Unlike manufactures products the agricultural goods


are perishable in nature. This demands speedy marketing
activities, which are very often prevented by transport
facilities. The storing facilities in village are so primitive
and crude that they are not capable of preserving the goods
over a long period.

14
3) No Concerted Conscious Marketing
Activities :: -

Agriculturists in India have not yet fully appreciated


the value of a joint or combined action for the purpose of
bargaining on equal terms with the buyers of agricultural
goods. The cultivators concentrate on production only,
ignoring the marketing aspects.

4) Inelasticity of Demand :: -

Since most products are necessary, price change do not


bring about any great changes in demand. This creates
problems during the harvest season when the abundant
supply creates a glut in the market causing a fall in price. It
is because of this that the Food Corporation of India has
started procuring excess supply (marketable surplus) and
keeping a buffer stock.

5) Unorganized Nature of Markets :: -

The markets for agricultural product are generally


unorganized and are full of numerous middlemen. These
middlemen use their upper hand in the buying process. In
the opinion of the Central Agricultural Marketing
Department, wheat cultivator gets only Rs. 0.23 out of each
rupee paid by the consumer.

6) Malpractice in Market :: -

Because of the lack of standardization products are


marketed. The absence of accepted grades makes it possible

15
to indulge in malpractices. Prices are decided by
intermediaries and not by the producer.

16
NAME OF THE PRODUCTS

Names of products of the company are as under

1) Cotton 2) Wheat
3) Castor 4) Groundnut
5) Bajri 6) Jowar
7) Green gram 8) Vegetable

FUTURE PLAN

Companys future plan is to develop transgenic


varieties by way of genetic engineering and plant
biotechnology.

The most prime objective is to maintain strong


relationship with those farmers who are loyal to the
company for that company will try to fulfill all the
requirement of them.

17
18
INTRODUCTION

Agriculture is fundamentally different from


manufacture therefore the marketing of farm product is also
different. Marketing of agricultural produce therefore tends
to be a complex process. In view of the growth of distance
between farm producer and the consumer as well as the
small size and wide scatter of the producing units. There
exists an elaborate and complex marketing organization for
agricultural produce. Most of the problems in marketing of
agricultural produce spring from their production conditions
and nature of demand. The flow of the produce from the
farm to the market requires some preparation and
processing. They have to pass through many hands and many
operations. Great variations occur both in the out put and
quality of the produce from year to year and between
seasons. They are generally perishable and cannot be stored
for a considerable period of time. They lack standardization
and grading and price stability is simply impossible.

The conditions of Indian agriculture are still worse


and more complex. Difference between marketing of
agriculture product and manufactured product is as follow:

1) A manufacturer wants to wield an unfettered control over


the sales of his products to the middlemen. This is not so in
the case of the agricultural producer where intermediaries
like Village shopkeepers, brokers and Dalals have
entrenched themselves firmly in the marketing scene.
These middlemen have earned notoriety for many
malpractices including the use of incorrect weights.

19
2) Manufactured goods are mostly produced on a large scale
and are then broken up into smaller lots of each successive
stage in marketing. Whereas agricultural produce is
collected in small quantities which ultimately swell mighty
stream of marketing.

3) Manufactured goods can be easily controlled both


qualitatively and quantitatively and can also be fixed in
advance in all most inaccurate terms. Both these aspects are
beyond the control of an agriculturist and the entire
production is based on natural conditions such as climate,
rainfall, soil, etc.

4) Manufactured goods are subject to effective demand or


creational activities. Such activities are completely absent
in the case of agricultural marketing.

5) Manufacturers can identify themselves completely with


their products. There are many manufactured products that
are bought not only on the real quality of the product but
also on the basis of reputation of the producers. This is
totally impossible in the case of agricultural products.

20
G O V E R N M E N T & A G R I C U LT U R A L
MARKETING

It is fortunate that government of India is aware of the


problems of our farmers. Government has taken a number of
steps to improve the system of agricultural marketing in
India. Some important steps taken by the government of
India in this direction are as follows:

1) Standardization & Gradation :: -

In 1937, the government passed the Agricultural


Products (Marketing and Classification) Act. Under the Act,
an Institute was established which has taken over the work
of determining standards and classifying of goods.
Classified goods are marked AGMARK. For the
classification and for improvement of standard of old
product, there is a central laboratories at Nagpur and 21
other state laboratories.

2) Standardization of Measures :: -
In 1958, Indian Government adopted metric system of
measures. According to the system the weights and measures
were standardized. The system has been made compulsory
for all centers since 1st April 1962. With the enactment of
the system, many problems were relating to weights and
measures have been solved. To ensure uniformity in weights
and measures throughout the country, Standard of Weights
and Measures Act, 1985 was passed by the parliament.

21
3) Facility of Warehouses :: -

Central Warehousing Corporation and State


Warehousing Corporations have established a number of
warehouses in all the parts of the country. The Government
has also arranged for the training and research in
warehousing.

4) Publication of Marketing
Information :: -

Important information on marketing of agricultural


products and the rates of important agricultural products are
published in all the leading newspapers of the country and
also broadcasted over all India radio.

5) Development of Means of
Transportation ::-

The position of means of transportation has been


improved a lot. Many new roads have been constructed,
many more were improved and many new means of
transportation have been evolved.

6) Stability in Prices ::-

The government has taken necessary steps in


stabilizing price of agricultural products. The government

22
fixes the prices of agricultural products every year. It
follows that if prices fell below the fixed prices, the farmers
can sell the product to the government at declared prices.

7) Financial Facilities ::-

The government has provided finance facilities to


farmers through several agencies and institutions.

8) Marketing by Government ::-

Government has also come in the field of marketing of


agricultural in the country through State Trading
Corporation, Food Corporation of India and Mineral and
Metal Corporation etc.

23
ORGANISATION CHART

M.
D

Market Sales
Developmen divisio
t n

In charge Sales
& team executive

Field Sales
Assistant man

24
AGRICULTURAL MARKETS

Three types of agricultural markets are found in


practice.

1) Assembling Markets - They are also called


assembling market because the main function of such a
market is to assemble products from various individual
sources. They are mostly located within the area of
production and hence are sometimes referred to as village
markets or primary market. The produce from individual
farmers is collected and made into economical lots. In
primary market grading and packaging are undertaken. The
large number of intermediaries is found in this market such
as commission agents, assemblers, brokers etc.

The government controls the organization of co-


operatives and the introduction of regulated markets have
imposed some kind of controls over the methods and
practices followed in these markets.

2) District Markets - These markets often constitutes


intermediate step of concentration between local assembly
point and central terminal markets. These are essentially
wholesale markets and located in populated centers. Large
quantities are handled in these markets. These markets
perform three functions: concentration, equalization and
dispersion. These markets are economically important and
act as equalizers of demand and supply to maintain stability

25
in prices. It is in these markets that price making, final
grading, and packaging activities are undertaken.

3) Terminal Markets - These markets represent the


final stage in the concentration of the supply of the
commodity. Very often they are places from where
dispersion to industrial users or to ultimate consumer takes
place. Various marketing functions such as grading,
financing, warehousing etc. are undertaken at full length in
these markets.

26
SEGMENTATION OF COMPANY

Solar Agro Tech Pvt. Ltd. Market segmentation is a


district vise because solar company is selling seeds in few
sates. There fore solar company market segmentation is
district vise.

Companies have been keeping the distributor to a


district vise. Distributors are providing seeds to retailer and
after retailer are providing that seeds to farmers.

27
PRICING POLICY

Price is only element in marketing mix that creates


sales mix that creates sales revenue, the element of costs.
Price is the powerful marketing instrument. As a marketing
weapon, pricing is the big run. Pricing a product is one of
the most important and critical areas in marketing
management. A price policy is the standing answer of the
firm to recurring problem of pricing.

We have to consider two factors, which almost effect


to the cost of production. That factor effect to the price
directly or indirectly.

Internal Factor: -
This factor mostly effect to the price of production. In
that marketing, objectives like profit, marketing mix,
strategy, cost, organization consideration etc. are included.

External Factor: -
These are the factors, which effects to the price from
outside of the organization. It includes nature of market,
demand, competition, government policy, cost etc.

This company is following penetration pricing policy


i.e. the company has adopted a low price. The company has
adopted penetration pricing because of the following
reasons.

28
COST OF SEED =

GRADING LOSS + GRADING CHARGES +


+ PACKING CHARGES
+ HANDLING & TRANSPORTATION
+ PRODUCT MARKET DEVELOPMENT CHARGES
+ FIXED RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT COST
+ GROSS PROFIT @ 20%
+ RISK CHARGES OF UNSOLVED RETURN SEEDS
+ 10 % DISPOSABLE OR EXPIRY OF SEEDS
+ TRADE CHANNEL EXPENSES @ 15 %

This price technique is a MAXIMUM RETAIL PRICE


for the farmers.

29
PROMOTIONAL ACTIVITIES

1) Field Demonstration of company seeds in comparison with


popular varieties.

2) Field farmer meeting for providing Agronomical practices


of variety.

3) Farmers meeting cum training programmer during


nighttime for building the brand of seeds.

4) Providing information regarding plant protection through


mail & literature through field workers of the company.

5) Adverting through print-media, wall paintings & labels.

30
31
STA TEM ENT OBJECTIV E

For my research statement objective is to know how much the


farmers are loyal to this company. Therefore, I find out the reason from
the farmers, that why they are loyal to this company. As farmers said
that they are loyal because company provides them guidance,
qualitative product, equipments at subsidize rate etc.

The research on the topic called Customer loyalty Toward


Seeds Produced by Solar Agro Tech Pvt. Ltd. is done by using
random sample & under the head of simple random sampling.

Hypothesis
Ho = Farmers are disloyal or not loyal to the
company.
H1 = Farmers are loyal to the company.

32
SOURCES OF DATA
There are basically or main two types of sources of data
collection.
a) Primary Data
b) Secondary Data

P r i m a r y D a t a :: -

Primary data is original data. Primary data is most trusted data


because it can be collected by researcher him self. There are many
sources to collect primary data such as interview, survey etc. The
normal producer is to interview some people individually or in groups
to get on idea of how people feel about the topic in question and then
develop a formal research instrument.

S e c o n d a r y D a t a :: -

Secondary data is not original data. This kind of data is gathered


by others and that can be used in reference or in study. The sources to
gather this kind of data is published survey of market, journal by govt.,
media report etc. Researchers usually start their investigation by
examining secondary data to see whether their problem can be partly or
wholly solved without collecting costly primary data. Secondary data
provides a starting point for research and offer the advantages of low
cost and ready availability.

Mostly, I have used primary data for my research report for final
touch. I prepared questionnaire and fill it out by farmers. I have used
secondary data to get information about agriculture condition in India
for that I go through companys literature & website on the internet.

33
METHODOLOGY
P o p u l a t i o n :: -
This is not the entire population of given geographical area, but
the predefined set of potential respondents (element) in a geographical
area.

Population of my research is those farmers who are purchasing


the seeds of Solar Agro Tech Pvt. Ltd. for more than one year.

S a m p l e s i z e :: -
Large sample give more reliable result than small samples.
However, it is not necessary to sample the entire target population or
even a substantial portion to achieve reliable result. In my research I
take 50 samples from the population.

S a m p l e t e c h n i q u e s :: -
To obtain a representative sample of the population is most
important because it is represent the whole populations result. Sample
can get by two techniques i.e. probability and non probability.

P r o b a b i l i t y s a m p l i n g t e c h n i q u e s :: -

These are techniques where each sampling unit has a know


probability of being include in the sample. The probability of inclusion
need not be equal for every sampling unit. In some method, it is equal,
and in some other, it is unequal. But it should be a know probability, for
it to be classified as probability sampling method.

34
Simple random sampling
Stratified random sampling
Cluster sampling
Systematic sampling
Multi stage or combination sampling

N o n - P r o b a b i l i t y S a m p l i n g T e c h n i q u e s :: -

The non probability sampling is also known as non random


sampling. It does not give chance to each element of universal to get
selected as the sample. In this method the selection of the sample
involves human judgment rather than luck of chance.

The various types of non probability sampling,


Convenience sample
Judgment sample
Quota sample

In my research report I go with simple Random Sampling of


Sampling of probability sampling because every year many purchases
the seeds of this company and my pupation of research in them so at fix
time and for research for this company I found my sample and collect
them for research. From the population (who are purchasing produce of
this company), I have taken a sample of 50 farmers who are purchasing
the seeds of this company from only in Rajkot district.

35
36