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UNIVERSIDAD TECNOLGICA DE ALTAMIRA

Organismo Pblico Descentralizado de la Administracin Pblica


Estatal

Materia:
ENSAYOS NO DESTRUCTIVOS

PROFESOR: Ing. Francisco Estrada

Presenta:

Rodrguez Ramos Jos Manuel

Martnez del ngel Enemesio

Cruz del Angel Karen Guadalupe

Fecha: 10 de Septiembre del 2017

Altamira, Tamaulipas.
INDEX

1. INTRODUCTION. ............................................................................................. 3
2. TERMS AND DIFINITIONS. ............................................................................. 3
3. THEORICAL FOUNDATION............................................................................. 5
4. PROCEDURE. .................................................................................................. 6
5. TEST APPLICATION. ....................................................................................... 8
6. NORMATIVE REFERENCES. ........................................................................ 10
7. ACCEPTANCE/REJECTION CRITERIA. ....................................................... 10
8. REQUEREMENTS, SAFETY AND ENVIROMENTAL FACTORS .................. 17
9. EQUIPMENT ACCESSORIES. ....................................................................... 23
10. ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF VISUAL INSPECTION.................. 30
10.-CONCLUSION ................................................................................................ 30
1. INTRODUCTION.

Nondestructive tests typically are done by applying a probing medium (such as


acoustic or electromagnetic energy) to a material. After contact with the test
material, certain properties of the probing medium are changed and can be used to
determine changes in the characteristics of the test material. Density differences in
a radiograph or location and peak of an oscilloscope trace are examples of means
used to indicate probing media changes. In a practical sense, most nondestructive
tests ultimately involve visual tests- a properly exposed radiograph is useful only
when the radiographic interpreter has the vision acuity required to interpret the
image.
Likewise, the accumulation of magnetic particles over a crack indicates to the
inspector an otherwise invisible discontinuity.

For the purposes visual and optical tests are those that use probing energy from
the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Changes in the light's properties after contact with the test object may be detected
by human or machine vision. Detection may be enhanced or made possible by
mirrors, magnifiers, borescopes or other vision enhancing accessories.

2. TERMS AND DIFINITIONS.

Accommodation - The process by which the eye changes focus from far to near
objects.

Achromatic - Lacking any amount of a chromatic primary.

Acuity - See Vision acuity.


Adaptation - The process by which the retina becomes accustomed to more or less
light than it was exposed to during an immediately preceding periodoIt results in a
change of the sensitivity of the eye to light.

Adhesive bonding - A materials joinng process in which an adhesive, placed


between the faying surfaces (adherends), solidifies to produce an adhesive bond.

Aliasing - Visible as jagged effects on the vertical edges of the image and occurs in
a static

image when the sean or sample rate is too low for the frequency being digitized.

Ambient light - Light in the environment, as opposed to illumination, provided by a


visual or

optical testing system. Angstrom unit () - Unit of length, equal to 0.1 nm.

Are strikes - Localized bum damage to an object from the are caused by breaking
an energized electric circuito AIso called are bums.

Arc welding - See Electric are welding.

Aspect ratio - The ratio of the width of the raster to its height.

As-welded - The condition of the welded metal, welded joints, and weldments after
welding but prior to any subsequent thermal, mechanical, or chemical treatments.

Endoscope - Device for viewing the interior of objects. The term endoscope is
usually used for medical instruments that are equivalent to borescopes.

Evaluation - A review, following interpretation of the indications noted, to determine


whether they meet specified acceptance criteria.

False indication - An indication that is not produced by a discontinuity.

Filler metal - Metal added in making a brazed, soldered, or welded joint.

FilIet weld - Weld at the comer of two metal pieces.

Flicker - When the frame repetition rate is not high enough to provide an image that
is perceived as continuous by a human observer.

Fluorescence - Luminescence produced by a material that is excited by light,


electricity, or

radiation. The luminescence ceases as soon as the source of excitation is


removed.
3. THEORICAL FOUNDATION.

The recognition of the visual testing technique and the development of formal
procedures for educating and qualifying visual inspectors were important
milestones in the history of visual inspection. Because visual testing can be
performed without any intervening apparatus, it was certainly one of the first forms
of nondestructive testing. In its early industrial applications, visual tests were used
simply to verify compliance to a drawing or specification. This was basically a
dimensional check. The soundness of the object was determined by liquid
penetrant, magnetic particle, radiography or ultrasonic testing.
Following World War II, few inspection standards included visual testing. By the
early 1960s, visual tests were an accepted addition to the American Welding
Society's code hooks. In NAV SHIPS 250-1500-1, the US Navy included visual
tests with its specifications for other nondestructive testing techniques for welds.

By 1965, there were standards for testing, and criteria for certifying the inspector
had been established in five test methods: liquid penetrant, magnetic particle, eddy
current, radiographic and ultrasonic testing. These five were cited in ASNT
Recommended Practice No. SNT-TC-1A, introduced in the late 1960s. The broad
use of visual testing hindered its addition to this group as a specific method- there
were too many different applications on too many test objects to permit the use of
specific acceptance criteria. It also was reasoned that visual testing would occur as
a natural result of applying any
other nondestructive test method.

Expanded Need for Visual Certification

In the early 1970s, the need for certified visual inspectors began to increase.
Nuclear power construction was at a peak, visual certification was becoming
mandatory and nondestructive testing was being required. In 1976, the American
Society for Nondestructive Testing began considering the need for certified visual
inspectors. ASNT had become a leading force in nondestructive testing and
American industry had accepted its ASNT Recommended Practice No. SNT-TC-IA
as a guide for certifying other NDT inspectors. In the spring of 1976, ASNT began
surveying industry about their inspection needs and their position on visual testing.
Because of the many and varied responses to the survey, a society task force was
established to analyze the survey data. In 1977, the task force recommended that
visual inspectors be certified and that visual testing be made a supplement to
ASNT Recommended Practice No. SNT-TC-IA (1975). At this time, the American
Welding Society implemented a program that, following the US Navy, was the first
to certify inspectors whose sole function was visual weld testing.

During 1978, ASNT subcommittees were formed for the eastern and western
halves of the United States. These groups verified the need for both visual
standards and trained, qualified and certified inspectors. In 1980, a Visual Methods
Committee was formed in ASNT's Technical Council and the early meetings
defined the scope and purpose of visual testing (dimensional testing was
excluded). In 1984, the Visual Personnel Qualification Committee was formed in
ASNT's Education and Qualification Council. In 1986, a training
outline and a recommended reference list was finalized and the Board of Directors
approved incorporation of visual testing into ASNT Recommended Practice No. SN
T-TC -1 A.

4. PROCEDURE.

T-921 Written Procedure Requirements

T-921.1 Requirements. Visual examinations shall be performed in accordance with


a written procedure, which shall, as a minimum, contain the requirements listed in
Table T-921. The written procedure shall establish a single value, or range of
values, for each requirement.
T-921.2 Procedure Qualication.

When procedure qualication is specied, a change of a requirement in Table T-


921 identied as an essential variable shall require requalication of the written
procedure by demonstration.

A change of a requirement identied as a nonessential variable does not require


requalication of the written procedure. All changes of essential or nonessential
variables from those specied within the written procedure shall require revision of,
or an addendum to, the written procedure.

T-921.3 Demonstration.

The procedure shall contain or reference a report of what was used to demonstrate
that the examination procedure was adequate. In general, a ne line 1/in. (0.8 mm)
or less in width, an articial imperfection or a simulated condition, located on the
surface or a similar surface to that to be examined, may be considered as a
method for procedure demonstration.

The condition or articial imperfection should be in the least discernable location on


the area surface to be examined to validate the procedure.
(ASME SEC V ARTICLE 9 T-921)

5. TEST APPLICATION.

Visual examinations and other nondestructive test methods cover the spectrum of
examining materials from raw product form to the end of their useful lives. Initially,
when raw material is produced, a visual examination is conducted to locate
inherent discontinuities.

As the material is further transformed through the manufacturing process, a


product results.

At this stage, the visual examination method is used to find discontinuities that are
produced during the primary processing steps. When the product is further
developed into its final shape and appearance, the secondary processes that give
the product its final form can also introduce new discontinuities.

Finally, the product is placed into service and is subject to stresses, corrosion, and
erosion while performing its intended function. The process concludes when the
material has reached the end of its useful life and is removed from the source. At
every stage, the visual examination method is applied using various techniques to
ascertain the physical condition of the material that became the component,
system, or structure serving the needs for which it was intended. After material is
produced, visual examination is used to assure that a product will meet the
specification requirements prior to processing into a product form for use in its
intended service. The technology associated with visual testing (VT) and remote
visual testing (RVT) includes a spectrum of applications, including various products
and industries such as:

Tanks and vessels

Buildings

Fossil-fuel power plants

Nuclear power plants

Turbines and generators


Refinery plants

Aerospace Tanks and vessels usually contain fluids, gases, or steam.

Fluids may be as corrosive as acid or as passive as water, either of which can


cause corrosion. Tank contents are not always stored at high pressure.
Conversely, vessels usually contain substances under substantial pressure. This
pressure, coupled with the corrosive effects of fluids and thermal or mechanical
stresses, may result in cracking, distortion, or stress corrosion of the vessel
material. Buildings also serve as a source for a myriad of RVT applications. These
applications include location of clogged piping; examination of heating and cooling
(HVAC) heat exchangers; and looking for cracking, pitting, blockages, and
mechanical damage to the components. Structural damage that may be present in
the support systems, beams, flooring, or shells, such as cracking, corrosion,
erosion, or warpage can also be detected. Fossil-fuel power plants have piping,
tubing, tanks, vessels, and structures that are exposed to corrosive and erosive
environments as well as to other stresses. These components may require RVT.

Turbines and generators, existing at both fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants, are
vulnerable to damage due to high temperatures, pressures, wear, vibration, and
impingement of steam, water, or particles. Accessing the small openings and
crevices to reach damaged turbine blades becomes a very tedious job and a
serious challenge, but the effort of per forming remote inspections through limited
access ports reduces the need and cost of downtime and disassembly of major
components. VT and RVT technologies and techniques are used in nuclear power
plants as well.

Water used for shielding and cooling is exposed to both ionizing radiation and
radioactive surface contamination. The use of water as a coolant and radiation
shield in a nuclear environment places additional requirements on RVT evaluation.
The equipment must not only be waterproof, but also tolerant of radioactive
environments. Due to process requirements in refineries, the containment of
pressure and temperature is a necessity of paramount importance, as is the
containment of hazardous materials. These same materials can be a source of
corrosion to piping, tanks, vessels, and structures, all of which are in constant need
of monitoring.

Primary Processing Discontinuities The visual technique most often used to


detect primary processing discontinuities is the direct visual technique. Measuring
devices, auxiliary light sources, visual aids (e.g., magnifiers and mirrors), along
with the recording media of photographs and sketches, are the most common
techniques used for this application.

Metal Joining Processes Metal joining processes include a number of welding


and allied processes. Each major process must be considered for unique as well
as common discontinuities. Metalworking industries generally use soldering,
brazing, and a broad variety of welding processes. A generic definition of the basic
welding process is a materials joining process that produces coalescence of
materials by heating them to suitable temperatures, with or without the use of filler
metal.

Service-Induced DiscontinuitiesApplications And Techniques Service-induced


discontinuities are the results of material deterioration during use. Wear, erosion,
corrosion, and loss of integrity through fatigue all may lead to the failure of a
component while performing its intended function. Wastage or general material
loss can occur when the size of a component has been reduced such that the
cross-sectional area is no longer able to support the designed load. Mechanical
fatigue due to cyclic loading and thermal fatigue due to temperature fluctuations
frequently lead to excessive stresses, cracking, and loss of integrity. Stress
combined with a corrosive environment frequently results in stress corrosion
cracking.

6. NORMATIVE REFERENCES.
Lighting Handbook, 8th edition, Reference & Application, illuminating Engineering
Society of North America: New York, 1993.
Inspection and Gaging, 6th edition,
Recommended Practice No. SNT-TC-IA, 1996 edition
ANSI ASNT CP-189-1995: Standard for Qualification and Certification of
Nondestructive Testing Personnel
ASNT Central Certification Program (ACCP)

7. ACCEPTANCE/REJECTION CRITERIA.

Due to the wide variety of accept/reject criteria among the different codes and
specifications, it is impractical to list the differences and similarities this document
The inspector should be aware of the applicable governing document prior to
performing the examination so that the appropriate criteria may be employed in
determining acceptability.

Acceptance criteria for welds will be as designated by the applicable code or


specification and will usually include the following discontinuities:
1. Cracks
2. Incomplete penetration
3. Crater pits and cracks
4. Arc strikes
5. Undercut (dimension will be specified)
6. Surface porosity (usually defined by a maximum single size or some formula of
aggregate amount in a total length of weld)
7. Slag (surface)
8. Spatter
9. Burn-through or melt-through
10. Overlap and rollover
11. Lack of fill
12. Excessive reinforcement

Examples of codes acceptance criterias of codes.

ASME B31.3 PROCESS PIPING

341.3.2 Acceptance Criteria. Acceptance criteria shall be as stated in the


engineering design and shall at least meet the applicable requirements stated
below, in para. 344.6.2 for ultrasonic examination of welds, and elsewhere in the
Code. (a) Table 341.3.2 states acceptance criteria (limits on imperfections) for
welds. SeeFig.341.3.2 for typical weld imperfections.

344.2 Visual Examination


344.2.1 Definition. Visual examination is observation of the portion of components,
joints, and other piping elements that are or can be exposed to view before, during,
or after manufacture, fabrication, assembly, erection, examination, or testing. This
examination includes verification of Code and engineering design requirements for
materials, components, dimensions, joint preparation, alignment, welding, bonding,
brazing, bolting,
threading, or other joining method, supports, assembly, and erection.
344.2.2 Method. Visual examination shall be performed in accordance with the
BPV Code, Section V, Article 9. Records of individual visual examinations are not
required, except for those of in-process examination as specified in para. 344.7.
(ASME B31.3 PROCESS PIPING)

API 650 Welded Tanks for Oil Storage

8.5 Visual Examination

8.5.1 The Manufacturer shall determine and certify that each visual examiner
meets the following requirements.
a) Has vision (with correction, if necessary) to be able to read a Jaeger Type 2
standard chart at a distance of not less than 300 mm (12 in.) and is capable of
passing a color contrast test. Examiners shall be checked annually to ensure that
they meet this requirement; and
b) Is competent in the technique of the visual examination, including performing the
examination and interpreting and evaluating the results; however, where the
examination method consists of more than one operation, the examiner performing
only a portion of the test need only be qualified for the portion that the examiner
performs.

8.5.2 A weld shall be acceptable by visual examination if the inspection shows the
following.
a) There are no crater cracks, other surface cracks or arc strikes in or adjacent to
the welded joints.
b) Maximum permissible undercut is 0.4 mm ( 1/64 in.) in depth for vertical butt
joints, vertically oriented permanent attachments, attachment welds for nozzles,
manholes, flush-type openings, and the inside shell-to-bottom welds.
For horizontal butt joints, horizontally oriented permanent attachments, and
annular-ring butt joints, the maximum permissible undercut is 0.8 mm (1/32 in.) in
depth.
c) The frequency of surface porosity in the weld does not exceed one cluster (one
or more pores) in any 100 mm (4 in.) of length, and the diameter of each cluster
does not exceed 2.5 mm (3/32 in.).
d) The reinforcement of the welds on all butt joints on each side of the plate shall
not exceed the following thicknesses:

The reinforcement need not be removed except to the extent that it exceeds the
maximum acceptable thickness or unless its removal is required by 8.1.3.4 for
radiographic examination.

8.5.3 A weld that fails to meet the criteria given in 8.5.1 shall be reworked before
hydrostatic testing as follows:
a) Any defects shall be removed by mechanical means or thermal gouging
processes. Arc strikes discovered in or adjacent to welded joints shall be repaired
by grinding and rewelding as required. Arc strikes repaired by welding shall be
ground flush with the plate.
b) Rewelding is required if the resulting thickness is less than the minimum
required for design or hydrostatic test conditions. All defects in areas thicker than
the minimum shall be feathered to at least a 4:1 taper.
c) The repair weld shall be visually examined for defects.
NOTE 1 Vertical spot radiograph in accordance with 8.1.2.2, Item a: one in the first
3 m (10 ft) and one in each 30 m (100 ft) thereafter, 25 % of which shall be at
intersections.

NOTE 2 Horizontal spot radiograph in accordance with 8.1.2.3: one in the first 3 m
(10 ft) and one in each 60 m (200 ft) thereafter.

NOTE 3 Vertical spot radiograph in each vertical seam in the lowest course (see
8.1.2.2, Item b). Spot radiographs that satisfy the requirements of Note 1 for the
lowest course may be used to satisfy this requirement.

NOTE 4 Spot radiographs of all intersections over 10 mm (3/8 in.) (see 8.1.2.2,
Item b).

NOTE 5 Spot radiograph of bottom of each vertical seam in lowest shell course
over 10 mm ( 3/8 in.) (see 8.1.2.2, Item b).

NOTE 6 Complete radiograph of each vertical seam over 25 mm (1 in.). The


complete radiograph may include the spot radiographs of the intersections if the
film has a minimum width of 100 mm (4 in.) (see 8.1.2.2, Item c).

(API 650 Welded Tanks for Oil Storage)

8. REQUEREMENTS, SAFETY AND ENVIROMENTAL


FACTORS
This information is presented solely for educational purposes and should not be
consulted in place of current safety regulations. Note that units of measure have
been converted to this book's format and are not those commonly used in all
industries. Human vision can be disrupted or destroyed by improper use of any
light source. Consult the most recent safety documents and the manufacturer's
literature before working near any artificial light or radiation source.

Developments in optical testing technology have created a need for better


understanding of the potential health hazards caused by high intensity 'light
sources or by artificial light sources of any intensity in the work area. The human
eye operates optimally in an environment illuminated directly or indirectly by
sunlight, with characteristic spectral distribution and range of intensities that are
very different from those of most artificial sources. The eye can handle only a
limited range of night vision tasks.
Over time, there has accumulated evidence that photochemical changes occur in
eyes under the influence of normal daylight illumination- short term and long term
visual impairment and exacerbation of retinal disease have been observed and it is
important to understand why this occurs. Periodic fluctuations of visible and
ultraviolet radiation occur with the regular diurnal light-dark cycles and with the
lengthening and shortening of the cycle as a result of seasonal changes. These
fluctuations are known to affect all biological systems critically.

The majority of such light-dark effects is based on circadian cycles and controlled
by the pineal system, which can be affected directly by the transmission of light to
the pineal gland or indirectly by effects on the optic nerve pathway. Also of concern
are the results of work that has been done demonstrating that light affects
immunological reactions in vitro and in vivo by influencing the antigenicity of
molecules, antibody function and the reactivity
of lymphocytes.

Given the variety of visual tasks and illumination that confronts the visual inspector,
it is important to consider whether failures in performance might be a result of
excessive exposure to light or other radiation or even a result of insufficient light
sources. A myth exists that 20/20 fovea vision, in the absence of color blindness, is
all that is necessary for optimal vision. In fact, this is not so, there may be visual
field loss in and beyond the fovea centralis for many reasons; the inspector may
have poor stereoscopic vision; visual ability may be impaired by glare or reflection;
or actual vision may be affected by medical
or psychological conditions.

Laser Hazards

Loss of vision resulting from retinal burns following observation of the sun has
been described throughout history. Now there is a common technological
equivalent to this problem with laser light sources. In addition to the development
of lasers, further improvement in other high radiance light sources (a result of
smaller, more efficient reflectors and more compact, brighter sources) has
presented the potential for chorioretinal injury. It is thought that chorioretinal burns
from artificial sources in industrial situations have been very much less frequent
than similar burns from the sun.

Because of the publicity of the health hazard caused by exposure to laser


radiation, awareness of such hazards is probably much greater than the general
awareness of the hazard from high intensity extended visible sources which may
be as great or greater. Generally, lasers are used in specialized environments by
technicians familiar with the hazards and trained to avoid exposure by the use of
protective eyewear and clothing.
Laser standards of manufacture and use have been well developed and probably
have contributed more than anything else to a heightened awareness of safe laser
operation.

Laser standards of manufacture and use have been well developed and probably
have contributed more than anything else to a heightened awareness of safe laser
operation.
Laser hazard controls are common sense procedures designed to (1) restrict
personnel from entering the beam path and (2) limit the primary and reflected
beams from occupied areas. Should an individual be exposed to excessive laser
light, the probability of damage to the retina is high because of the high energy
pulse capabilities of some lasers.

However, the probability of visual impairment is relatively low because of the small
area of damage on the retina. Once the initial flash blindness and pain have
subsided, the resulting scotomas (damaged unresponsive areas) can sometimes
be ignored by the accident victim.

High Luminance Visible Light Sources

The normal reaction to a high luminance light source is to blink and to direct the
eyes away from the source. The probability of overexposure to non-coherent light
sources is higher than the probability of exposure to lasers, yet extended (high
luminance) sources are used in a more casual and possibly more hazardous way.
In the nondestructive testing industry, extended sources are used as general
illumination and in many specialized applications.
Unfortunately, there are comparatively few guidelines for the safe use of extended
sources of visible light.

Infrared Hazards

Infrared radiation comprises that invisible radiation beyond the red end of the
visible spectrum up to about 1 mm wavelength. Infrared is absorbed by many
substances and its principal biological effect is known as hyperthermia, heating
that can be lethal to cells. Usually, the response to intense infrared radiation is pain
and the natural reaction is to move away from the source so that burns do not
develop.

Ultraviolet Hazards
Before development of the laser, the principal hazard in the use of intense light
sources was the potential eye and skin injury from ultraviolet radiation. Ultraviolet
radiation is invisible radiation beyond the violet end of the visible spectrum with
wavelengths down to about 185 nm. It is strongly absorbed by the cornea and the
lens of the eye. Ultraviolet radiation at wavelengths shorter than 185 nm is
absorbed by air, is often called vacuum ultraviolet and is rarely of concern to the
visual inspector. Many useful high intensity arc
sources and some lasers may emit associated, potentially hazardous, levels of
ultraviolet radiation. With appropriate precautions, such sources can serve very
useful visual testing functions.
Studies have clarified the spectral radiant exposure doses and relative spectral
effectiveness of ultraviolet radiation required to elicit an adverse biological
response. These responses include kerato-conjunctivitis (known as welder's flash),
possible generation of cataracts and erythema or reddening of the skin. Longer
wavelength ultraviolet radiation can lead to fluorescence of the eye's lens and
ocular media, eyestrain and headache. These conditions lead, in turn, to low task
performance resulting from the fatigue associated with increased effort. Chronic
exposure to ultraviolet radiation accelerates skin aging and possibly increases the
risk of developing certain forms of skin cancer.

It should also be mentioned that some individuals are hypersensitive to ultraviolet


radiation and may develop a reaction following, what would be for the average
healthy human, suberythemal exposures. However, it is extremely unusual for
these symptoms of exceptional photosensitivity to be elicited solely by the limited
emission spectrum of an industrial light source.
An inspector is typically aware of such sensitivity because of earlier exposures to
sunlight. In industry, the visual inspector may encounter many sources of visible
and invisible radiation: incandescent lamps, compact arc sources (solar
simulators), quartz halogen lamps, metal vapor (sodium and mercury) and metal
halide discharge lamps, fluorescent lamps and flash lamps among others. Because
of the high ultraviolet attenuation afforded by many visually transparent materials,
an empirical approach is sometimes taken for the problem of light sources
associated with ultraviolet: the source is enclosed and provided with ultraviolet
absorbing glass or plastic lenses.

If injurious effects continue to develop, the thickness of the protective lens is


increased. The photochemical effects of ultraviolet radiation on the skin and eye
are still not completely understood. Records of ultraviolet radiation's relative
spectral effectiveness for eliciting a particular biological effect (referred to by
photohiologists as action spectra) are generally available.

Visual Safety Recommendations

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has


proposed two threshold limit values (TLVs) for noncoherent visible light, one
covering damage to the retina by a thermal mechanism and one covering retinal
damage by a photochemical mechanism. Threshold limit values for visible light,
established by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists,
are intended only to prevent excessive occupational exposure and are limited to
exposure durations of 8 h or less. They are not
intended to cover photosensitive individual.

Eye Protection Filters

Because continuous visible light sources elicit a normal aversion or pain response
that can protect the eye and skin from injury, visual comfort has often been used as
an approximate hazard index and eye protection and other hazard controls have
been provided on this basis. Eye protection filters for various workers were
developed empirically but now are standardized as shades and specified for
particular applications. Other protective techniques include use of high ambient
light levels and specialized filters to further attenuate intense spectral lines. Laser
eye protection is designed to have an adequate optical density at the laser
wavelengths along with the greatest visual transmission at all other wavelengths.
Always bear in mind that hazard criteria must not be considered to represent fine
lines between safe and hazardous exposure conditions. To be properly applied,
interpretation of hazard criteria must he based on practical knowledge of potential
exposure conditions and the user, whether a professional inspector or a general
consumer. Accuracy of hazard criteria is limited by biological uncertainties
including diet, genetic photosensitivity and the large safety factors required to be
built into the recommendations.

9. EQUIPMENT ACCESSORIES.

To visually inspect and evaluate welds, adequate illumination and good eyesight
provide the basic requirements. In addition, a basic set of optical aids and
measuring tools, specifically designed for weld inspection can assist the inspector.
Listed below are some commonly used tools or methods with VT of welds

Optical Aids

Optical aids used in visual inspection include the following.

Lightingthe inspection surface illumination is of extreme importance. Adequate


illumination levels should be established in order to ensure and effective visual
inspection. Standards such as ASME Section V Article 9 specify lighting levels of
100 foot-candles (1000 lux) at the examination surface. This is not always easy to
achieve so inspectors have to be keenly aware of the potential need to measure
lighting conditions with light meters.

Mirrorsvaluable to the inspector allowing them to look inside piping, threaded


and bored holes, inside castings and around corners if necessary.
Magnifiershelpful in bringing out small details and defects.

Borescopes and Fiberscopeswidely used for examining tubes, a deep hole, long
bores, and pipe bends, having internal surfaces not accessible to direct viewing.

Mechanical Aids

Mechanical aids used in visual inspection include the following.

Steel ruleravailable in a wide selection of sizes and graduations to suit the needs
of the inspector (considered a non-precision measuring instrument).

Vernier scalea precision instrument, capable of measuring in decimal units to a


precision factor of 0.0001 in. The Vernier system is used on various precision
measuring instruments, such as the caliper, micrometer, height and depth gauges,
gear tooth, and protractors.

Combination square setconsisting of a blade and a set of three heads: Square,


Center, and Protractor. Used universally in mechanical work for assembly and
layout examination.

Thickness gaugecommonly called a Feeler gauge is used to measure the


clearance between objects.

Levelstools designed to prove if a plane or surface is truly horizontal or vertical.

Weld Examination Devices

Typical inspection tools for weld inspection include the following.

Inspectors kit (see Figure 1)contains some of the basic tools needed to perform
an adequate visual examination of a weld during all stages of welding. It includes
everything from a lighted magnifier to a Vernier caliper.

Bridge cam gauge (see Figure 2)can be used to determine the weld preparation
angle prior to welding. This tool can also be used to measure excess weld metal
(reinforcement), depth of undercut or pitting, fillet weld throat size or weld leg
length and misalignment (high-low).
Fillet weld gaugeoffers a quick and precise means of measuring the more
commonly used fillet weld sizes. The types of fillet weld gauges include.

Adjustable fillet weld gauge (see Figure 3)measures weld sizes for fit-ups with 45
degree members and welds with unequal weld leg lengths.

Skew-T fillet weld gauge (see Figure 4)measures the angle of the vertical
member.

The weld fillet gauge (see Figure 5)a quick go/no-go gauge used to measure the
fillet weld leg length. Gauges normally come in sets with weld leg sizes from 1/8 in.
(3 mm) to 1 in. (25.4 mm). Figure 6 shows a weld fillet gauge being used to
determine if the crown has acceptable concavity or convexity.

Weld size gauge (see Figure 7)measures the size of fillet welds, the actual throat
size of convex and concave fillet welds, the reinforcement of butt welds and root
openings.

Hi-lo welding gauge (see Figure 8)measures internal misalignment after fit-up,
pipe wall thickness after alignment, length between scribe lines, root opening, 37 1/2
degree bevel, fillet weld leg size and reinforcement on butt welds. The hi-lo gauge
provides the ability to ensure proper alignment of the pieces to be welded. It also
measures internal mismatch, weld crown height and root weld spacing.

Digital pyrometer or temperature sensitive crayonsmeasures preheat and


interpass temperatures.
Figure 1Inspectors Kit

Figure 2Bridge Cam Gauge


Figure 3Adjustable Fillet Weld Gauge

Figure 4SkewT Fillet Weld Gauge


Figure 5Weld Fillet Gauge

Figure 6Weld Fillet Gauge


Figure 7Weld Size Gauge

Figure 8Hi-Lo Gauge


10. ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF VISUAL
INSPECTION.

Advantages of Visual Inspection

Inspection performed rapidly and at low cost


Ability to inspect complex sizes and shapes of any material
Minimum part preparation required

Limitations of Visual Inspection

Surface too be inspected must somehow be accessible to inspector or


visual aids
Surface finish, roughness and cleanliness can interfere with inspection
Only surface defects are detectable

10.-CONCLUSION

Generally, the main limitation to visual testing is access. The image of the object
must be delivered to the eye. That image is always of the surface of an object.
Visual testing is capable of examining the surface of an object unless the material
is translucent. Remote visual testing advances are being driven today, as in recent
years, by consumer demand and improvements in video technology. The challenge
remains to understand fully what the inspector is examining and how the image
is delivered to the eye. As designers make the image-gathering package smaller
and smaller, the limitations of access will be further reduced. Applications in the
field of medicine have been influencing the industrial field for years. Military
applications including drones and robotic devices should continue to bring
innovations to the technology of remote visual testing.

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