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This article is about the city in Devon. For the Mas- tended toward a service-based economy since the 1990s.
sachusetts town, see Plymouth, Massachusetts. For the It has the largest operational naval base in Western Eu-
car brand, see Plymouth (automobile). For other uses, rope HMNB Devonport and is home to Plymouth Uni-
see Plymouth (disambiguation). versity.

Plymouth (/plm/) is a city on the south coast of

Devon, England, about 37 miles (60 km) south-west 1 History
of Exeter and 190 miles (310 km) west-south-west of
London. It lies between the mouths of the rivers Plym to Main article: History of Plymouth
the east and Tamar to the west, where they join Plymouth See also: Timeline of Plymouth
Sound to form the boundary with Cornwall.
Plymouths early history extends to the Bronze Age, when
a rst settlement emerged at Mount Batten. This set-
tlement continued as a trading post for the Roman Em- 1.1 Early history
pire, until it was surpassed by the more prosperous village
of Sutton founded in the ninth century, now called Ply- Upper Palaeolithic deposits, including bones of Homo
mouth. In 1620, the Pilgrim Fathers departed Plymouth sapiens, have been found in local caves,[4] and artefacts
for the New World and established Plymouth Colony dating from the Bronze Age to the Middle Iron Age
the second English settlement in what is now the United have been found at Mount Batten, showing that it was
States of America. During the English Civil War, the one of the main trading ports of the country at that
town was held by the Parliamentarians and was besieged time.[5] An unidentied settlement named TAMARI OS-
between 1642 and 1646. TIA (mouth/estuaries of the Tamar) is listed in Ptolemys
Geographia and is presumed to be located in the area of
Throughout the Industrial Revolution, Plymouth grew as
the modern city.[6]
a commercial shipping port, handling imports and pas-
sengers from the Americas, and exporting local minerals The settlement of Plympton, further up the River Plym
(tin, copper, lime, china clay and arsenic). The neigh- than the current Plymouth, was also an early trading port.
bouring town of Devonport became a strategic Royal As the river silted up in the early 11th century, mariners
Naval shipbuilding and dockyard town. In 1914 three and merchants were forced to settle downriver at the cur-
neighbouring independent towns, viz., the county bor- rent day Barbican near the river mouth. At the time this
ough of Plymouth, the county borough of Devonport, village was called Sutton, meaning south town in Old En-
and the urban district of East Stonehouse were merged glish. The name Plym Mouth, meaning mouth of the
to form a single County Borough. The combined town River Plym was rst mentioned in a Pipe Roll of 1211.
took the name of Plymouth which, in 1928, achieved city The name Plymouth rst ocially replaced Sutton in a
status. The citys naval importance later led to its being charter of King Henry VI in 1440. See Plympton for
targeted by the German military and partially destroyed the derivation of the name Plym.
by bombing during World War II, an act known as the
Plymouth Blitz. After the war the city centre was com-
pletely rebuilt and subsequent expansion led to the in- 1.2 Early defence and Renaissance
corporation of Plympton and Plymstock along with other
outlying suburbs in 1967. During the Hundred Years War a French attack (1340)
burned a manor house and took some prisoners, but failed
The city is home to 264,200 (mid-2016 est.) people,
to get into the town.[10] In 1403 the town was burned by
making it the 30th-most populous built-up area in the
Breton raiders.[11] On 12 November 1439, the English
United Kingdom and the second-largest city in the South
Parliament made Plymouth the rst town incorporated.
West, after Bristol. It is governed locally by Plymouth
In the late fteenth century, Plymouth Castle, a castle
City Council and is represented nationally by three MPs.
quadrate, was constructed close to the area now known
Plymouths economy remains strongly inuenced by ship-
as The Barbican; it included four round towers, one at
building and seafaring including ferry links to Brittany
each corner, as featured on the city coat of arms.[12]
(Rosco and St Malo) and Spain (Santander), but has
The castle served to protect Sutton Pool, which is where


States of America.[19]
During the English Civil War Plymouth sided with the
Parliamentarians and was besieged for almost four years
by the Royalists.[20] The last major attack by the Roy-
alists was by Sir Richard Grenville leading thousands of
soldiers towards Plymouth, but they were defeated by the
Plymothians at Freedom Fields Park.[20][21] The civil war
ended as a Parliamentary win, but monarchy was restored
by King Charles II in 1660, who imprisoned many of the
Parliamentary heroes on Drakes Island.[20] Construction
of the Royal Citadel began in 1665, after the Restora-
tion; it was armed with cannon facing both out to sea and
into the town, rumoured to be a reminder to residents not
to oppose the Crown.[22] Mount Batten tower also dates
Prysten House, Finewell Street, 1498, is the oldest surviving from around this time.[23]
house in Plymouth, and built from local Plymouth Limestone and
Dartmoor granite
1.3 Plymouth Dock, naval power and Foul-
the eet was based in Plymouth prior to the establishment ston
of Plymouth Dockyard. In 1512 an Act of Parliament
was passed for further fortifying Plymouth. A series of
fortications were built, including defensive walls at the
entrance to Sutton Pool (across which a chain would be
extended in time of danger).[13] Defences on St Nicholas
Island also date from this time, and a string of six artillery
blockhouses were built, including one on Fishers Nose at
the south-eastern corner of the Hoe.[14] This location was
further strengthened by the building of a fort (later known
as Drakes Fort) in 1596; it was the site of the Citadel,
established in the 1660s (see below).[15]

John Foulston's Town Hall, Column and Library in Devonport

Siege of Plymouth, 1643

During the 16th century, locally produced wool was the

major export commodity.[16] Plymouth was the home
port for successful maritime traders, among them Sir
John Hawkins, who led Englands rst foray into the Black-eyed Sue and Sweet Poll of Plymouth mourning their
Atlantic slave trade,[17] as well as Sir Francis Drake, lovers, who are soon to be transported to Botany Bay, 1792
Mayor of Plymouth in 1581 and 1593.[18] According
to legend, Drake insisted on completing his game of Throughout the 17th century Plymouth had gradually lost
bowls on the Hoe before engaging the Spanish Armada in its pre-eminence as a trading port. By the mid-17th cen-
1588.[18] In 1620 the Pilgrim Fathers set sail for the New tury, commodities manufactured elsewhere in England
World from Plymouth, establishing Plymouth Colony cost too much to transport to Plymouth, and the city had
the second English colony in what is now the United no means of processing sugar or tobacco imports, major
1.4 Plan for Plymouth 1943 3

Some of the most signicant imports to Plymouth from
the Americas and Europe during the latter half of the 19th
century included maize, wheat, barley, sugar cane, guano,
sodium nitrate and phosphate.[31] Aside from the dock-
yard in the town of Devonport, industries in Plymouth
such as the gasworks, the railways and tramways, and a
number of small chemical works had begun to develop in
the 19th century, continuing into the 20th century.[32]

1.4 Plan for Plymouth 1943

Unloading mail by hand from the Sir Francis Drake at Millbay During the First World War, Plymouth was the port of
Docks, March 1926 entry for many troops from around the Empire. It was de-
veloped as a facility for the manufacture of munitions.[33]
Although major units of the Royal Navy moved to the
products from the colonies. It played a part in the Atlantic safety of Scapa Flow, Devonport was an important base
slave trade during the early 18th century, although it was for escort vessels and repairs. Flying boats operated from
relatively small.[16] Mount Batten.[33]
In the nearby parish of Stoke Damerel the rst dock-
yard, HMNB Devonport, opened in 1690 on the east-
ern bank of the River Tamar. Further docks were built
here in 1727, 1762 and 1793.[1] The settlement that de-
veloped here was called Dock or Plymouth Dock at
the time,[24] and a new town, separate from Plymouth,
grew up. In 1712 there were 318 men employed and by
1733 the population had grown to 3,000 people.[7]
Before the latter half of the 18th century, grain, timber
and then coal were Plymouths main imports.[25] During
this time the real source of wealth was from the neigh-
bouring town of Plymouth Dock (renamed in 1824 to De-
vonport) and the major employer in the entire region was
the dockyard.[7] The Three Towns conurbation of Ply-
mouth, Stonehouse and Devonport enjoyed some pros- Royal William Victualling Yard, Stonehouse by Sir John Ren-
perity during the late 18th and early 19th century and nie,182533.
were enriched by a series of neo-classical urban devel-
opments designed by London architect John Foulston.[26]
During the Second World War, Devonport was the head-
Foulston was important for both Devonport and Ply- quarters of Western Approaches Command until 1941,
mouth and was responsible for several grand public build-
and Sunderland ying boats were operated by the Royal
ings, many now destroyed,[27] including the Athenaeum, Australian Air Force. It was an important embarkation
the Theatre Royal and Royal Hotel, and much of Union
point for US troops for D-Day.[34] The city was heavily
Street.[26] bombed by the Luftwae, in a series of 59 raids known
Local chemist William Cookworthy established his short- as the Plymouth Blitz.[32] Although the dockyards were
lived Plymouth Porcelain venture in 1768 to exploit the the principal targets, much of the city centre and over
deposits of china clay that he had discovered in Corn- 3,700 houses were completely destroyed and more than
wall. He was acquainted with engineer John Smeaton, 1,000 civilians lost their lives. This was largely due to
the builder of the third Eddystone Lighthouse.[28] Plymouths status as a major port.[35] Charles Church was
The 1-mile-long (2 km) Breakwater in Plymouth Sound hit by incendiary bombs and partially destroyed in 1941
was designed by John Rennie in order to protect the eet during the Blitz, but has not been demolished. It has
moving in and out of Devonport; work started in 1812. been designated as an ocial permanent monument to
Numerous technical diculties and repeated storm dam- the bombing of Plymouth during World War II.[36]
age meant that it was not completed until 1841, twenty The redevelopment of the city was planned by Sir Patrick
years after Rennies death.[29] In the 1860s, a ring of Abercrombie in his 1943 Plan for Plymouth whilst si-
Palmerston forts was constructed around the outskirts of multaneously working on the reconstruction plan for
Devonport, to protect the dockyard from attack from any London.[37] Between 1951 and 1957 over 1000 homes

were completed every year, mostly using innovative pre- The 1971 Local Government White Paper proposed abol-
fabricated systems of just three main types/[38] ishing county boroughs, which would have left Plymouth,
By 1964 over 20,000 new homes had been built, trans- a town of 250,000 people, being administered from a
forming the dense overcrowded and unsanitary slums council based at the smaller Exeter, on the other side
of the pre-war city into a low density, dispersed of the county. This led to Plymouth lobbying for the
suburbia.[38][39] Most of the city centre shops had been creation of a Tamarside county, to include [45]
destroyed and those that remained were cleared to enable Torpoint, Saltash, and the rural hinterland. The cam-
a zoned reconstruction according to his plan. [38][39]
In paign was not successful, and Plymouth ceased to be a
county borough on 1 April 1974 with responsibility for
1962 the modernist high rise of the Civic Centre was con-
structed, an architecturally signicant example of mid- education, social services, highways and libraries trans-
ferred to Devon County Council. All powers returned
twentieth century civic slab-and-tower set piece. The
Plymouth City Council allowed it to fall into disrepair but when the city become a unitary authority on 1 April 1998
under recommendations of the Banham Commission.[46]
it was grade II listed in 2010 by English Heritage to pre-
vent its demolition.[38][40] In the Parliament of the United Kingdom, Plymouth
Post-war, Devonport Dockyard was kept busy retting is represented by the three constituencies of Plymouth
aircraft carriers such as the Ark Royal and, later, nuclear Moor View, Plymouth Sutton and Devonport and South
submarines. New light industrial factories were con- West Devon and within the European Parliament as South
structed in the newly zoned industrial sector, attracting West England. In the 2015 general election all three
rapid growth of the urban population. The army had sub- constituencies returned Conservative MPs, who were
stantially left the city by 1971, after barracks were pulled Oliver Colvile (for Sutton and Devonport), Gary Streeter
down in the 1960s. [39]
But the city remains home to the (for South West Devon) and Johnny Mercer for Moor
42 Commando of the Royal Marines. [39] View.

2.2 City Council

2 Government

2.1 Local government history

The rst record of the existence of a settlement at Ply-

mouth was in the Domesday Book in 1086 as Sud-
tone, Saxon for south farm, located at the present-day
Barbican.[1] From Saxon times, it was in the hundred of
Roborough.[41] In 1254 it gained status as a town and in
1439, became the rst town in England to be granted a
Charter by Parliament.[1] Between 1439 and 1934, Ply-
mouth had a Mayor.[42] In 1914 the county boroughs of
Plymouth and Devonport, and the urban district of East
Stonehouse merged to form a single county borough of
Plymouth.[7] Collectively they were referred to as "The
Three Towns".[43]
Civic Centre, 195461, symbolic of the Post War 'Heroic Mod-
In 1919 Nancy Astor was elected the rst ever female ernism' of the Welfare State; nationally listed in 2009 to prevent
member of parliament to take oce in the British Houses its demolition by Plymouth City Councillors
of Parliament for the constituency of Plymouth Sutton.
Taking over oce from her husband Waldorf Astor, Main article: Plymouth City Council
Lady Astor was a vibrantly active campaigner for her res-
ident constituents. Plymouth was granted city status on The City of Plymouth is divided into 20 wards, 17 of
18 October 1928.[44] The citys rst Lord Mayor was ap- which elect three councillors and the other three elect-
pointed in 1935 and its boundaries further expanded in ing two councillors, making up a total council of 57.[48]
1967 to include the town of Plympton and the parish of Each year a third of the council is up for election for
Plymstock.[7] three consecutive years there are no elections on the
In 1945, Plymouth-born Michael Foot was elected following fourth year, which is when County Coun-
Labour MP for the war-torn constituency of Plymouth cil elections take place.[48] The total electorate for Ply-
Devonport and after serving as Secretary of State for Ed- mouth was 188,924 in April 2015.[49] The local elec-
ucation and responsible for the 1974 Health and Safety tion of 7 May 2015 resulted in a political composition
at Work Act, went on to become one of the most distin- of 28 Labour councillors, 26 Conservative and 3 UKIP
guished leaders of the Labour party. resulting in a Labour administration.[50] Plymouth City
3.1 Urban Form 5

Council is formally twinned with: Brest, France (1963),

Gdynia, Poland (1976), Novorossiysk, Russia (1990) San
Sebastin, Spain (1990) and Plymouth, United States
Plymouth was granted the dignity of Lord Mayor by King
George V in 1935. The position is elected each year by a
group of six councillors.[52] It is traditional that the posi-
tion of the Lord Mayor alternates between the Conserva-
tive Party and the Labour Party annually and that the Lord
Mayor chooses the Deputy Lord Mayor.[52] Conservative
councillor Dr John Mahony is the incumbent for 2015

Northeastward view of Plymouth Sound from Mount Edgcumbe

Country Park in Cornwall, with Drakes Island (centre) and, be-
hind it from left to right, the Royal Citadel, the fuel tanks of
Cattedown, and Mount Batten; in the background, the hills of

Unitary Authority of Plymouth is 79.83 square kilome-

tres (30.82 sq mi).[3] The topography rises from sea level
The Great Hall in the Guildhall to a height, at Roborough, of about 509 feet (155 m)
above Ordnance Datum (AOD).[58]
The Lord Mayors ocial residence is 3 Elliot Terrace, Geologically, Plymouth has a mixture of limestone, De-
located on the Hoe.[53] Once a home of Waldorf and vonian slate, granite and Middle Devonian limestone.[59]
Nancy Astor, it was given by Lady Astor to the City of Plymouth Sound, Shores and Clis is a Site of Special
Plymouth as an ocial residence for future Lord Mayors Scientic Interest, because of its geology.[60] The bulk of
and is also used today for civic hospitality, as lodgings for the city is built upon Upper Devonian slates and shales
visiting dignitaries and High Court judges and it is also and the headlands at the entrance to Plymouth Sound are
available to hire for private events.[53] The Civic Centre formed of Lower Devonian slates, which can withstand
municipal oce building in Armada Way became a listed the power of the sea.[59]
building in June 2007 because of its quality and period
features, but has become the centre of a controversy as A band of Middle Devonian limestone runs west to east
the council planned for its demolition estimating that it from Cremyll to Plymstock including the Hoe.[59] Lo-
could cost 40m to refurbish it, resulting in possible jobcal limestone may be seen in numerous buildings, walls
losses.[54] and pavements throughout Plymouth.[59] To the north
and north east of the city is the granite mass of Dart-
moor; the granite was mined and exported via Plymouth.
Rocks brought down the Tamar from Dartmoor include
3 Geography ores containing tin, copper, tungsten, lead and other
minerals.[59] There is evidence that the middle Devo-
See also: List of places in Plymouth nian limestone belt at the south edge of Plymouth and
Plymouth lies between the River Plym to the east and the in Plymstock was quarried at West Hoe, Cattedown and
River Tamar to the west; both rivers ow into the natural Radford.[61]
harbour of Plymouth Sound.[55] Since 1967, the unitary
authority of Plymouth has included the, once indepen-
dent, towns of Plympton and Plymstock which lie along 3.1 Urban Form
the east of the River Plym.[7] The River Tamar forms the
county boundary between Devon and Cornwall and its es- On 27 April 1944 Sir Patrick Abercrombies Plan for Ply-
tuary forms the Hamoaze on which is sited Devonport mouth to rebuild the bomb-damaged city was published; it
Dockyard.[55] called for demolition of the few remaining pre-War build-
The River Plym, which ows o Dartmoor to the north- ings in the city centre to make way for their replacement
east, forms a smaller estuary to the east of the city called with wide, parallel, modern boulevards aligned eastwest
Cattewater. Plymouth Sound is protected from the sea linked by a northsouth avenue (Armada Way) linking
by the Plymouth Breakwater, in use since 1814.[56] In the railway station with the vista of Plymouth Hoe.[37]
the Sound is Drakes Island which is seen from Plymouth A peripheral road system connecting the historic Bar-
Hoe, a at public area on top of limestone clis.[57] The bican on the east and Union Street to the west deter-

maxima over 19 C (66 F).[65]

South West England has a favoured location when the
Azores High pressure area extends north-eastwards to-
wards the UK, particularly in summer. Coastal areas have
average annual sunshine totals over 1,600 hours.[66]
Rainfall tends to be associated with Atlantic depressions
or with convection. The Atlantic depressions are more
vigorous in autumn and winter and most of the rain which
falls in those seasons in the south-west is from this source.
Average annual rainfall is around 980 millimetres (39 in).
November to March have the highest mean wind speeds,
with June to August having the lightest winds. The pre-
Armada Way looking north dominant wind direction is from the south-west.[66]
Typically, the warmest day of the year (19712000) will
mines the principal form of the city centre, even following achieve a temperature of 26.6 C (80 F),[68] although in
pedestrianisation of the shopping centre in the late 1980s, June 1976 the temperature reached 31.6 C (89 F),[69]
and continues to inform the present 'Vision for Ply- the site record. On average, 4.25 days[70] of the year will
mouth' developed by a team led by Barcelona-based ar- report a maximum temperature of 25.1 C (77 F) or
chitect David MacKay in 2003 which calls for revivica- above. During the winter half of the year, the coldest
tion of the city centre with mixed-use and residential.[62] night will typically fall to 4.1 C (25 F)[71] although in
In suburban areas, post-War prefabs had already begun January 1979 the temperature fell to 8.8 C (16 F).[72]
to appear by 1946, and over 1,000 permanent council Typically, 18.6 nights[73] of the year will register an air
houses were built each year from 195157 according to frost.
the Modernist zoned low-density garden city model ad-
vocated by Abercrombie.[39] By 1964 over 20,000 new
homes had been built, more than 13,500 of them perma- 4 Education
nent council homes and 853 built by the Admiralty.[39]
Plymouth is home to 28 parks with an average size of
45,638 square metres (491,240 sq ft).[63] Its largest park See also: List of schools in Plymouth
is Central Park,[64] with other sizeable green spaces in- The University of Plymouth enrolls 23,155 total students
cluding Victoria Park, Freedom Fields Park, Alexandra
Park, Devonport Park and the Hoe.[63]

3.2 Climate

Along with the rest of South West England, Plymouth

has a temperate oceanic climate (Kppen Cfb) which is
generally wetter and milder than the rest of England. This
means a wide range of exotic plants can be grown. The
annual mean temperature is approximately 11 C (52 F).
Due to the modifying eect of the sea the seasonal range
is less than in most other parts of the UK.[66] As a result
of this summer highs are lower than points further north
in the UK; however, the coldest month of February has
mean minimum temperatures as mild as between 3 and
4 C (37 and 39 F). Snow is rare, not usually equating
to more than a few akes, but there have been exclusions,
namely the European winter storms of 2009-10 which, in
early January, covered Plymouth in at least 1 inch (2.5
cm) of snow; more on higher ground. Another period of
notable snow occurred from 1719 December 2010 when
up to 8 inches (20 cm) of snow fell through the period
though only 2 inches (5.1 cm) would lie at any one time
due to melt. Over the 19611990 period, annual snowfall
accumulation averaged less than 7 cm (3 in) per year.[67] The Roland Levinsky Building Faculty of Arts of the University
July and August are the warmest months with mean daily of Plymouth

as of 2015/16 (30th largest in the UK out of 166).[75] It care protects, taking advantage of the chemicals they con-
also employs 3,000 sta with an annual income of around tain that adapt to protect themselves from the sun.[85]
160 million.[76] It was founded in 1992 from Polytech-
nic South West (formerly Plymouth Polytechnic) follow-
ing the Further and Higher Education Act 1992.[77] It has
a wide range of courses including those in marine focused
5 Demography
business, marine engineering, marine biology and Earth,
ocean and environmental sciences, surf science, shipping From the 2011 Census, the Oce for National Statistics
and logistics.[78] The university formed a joint venture published that Plymouths unitary authority area popula-
with the fellow Devonian University of Exeter in 2000, tion was 256,384;[86] 15,664 more people than that of
establishing the Peninsula College of Medicine and Den- the last census from 2001, which indicated that Plymouth
tistry. The college is ranked 8th out of 30 universities in had a population of 240,720.[87] The Plymouth urban
the UK in 2011 for medicine.[79] Its dental school was es- area had a population of 260,203 in 2011 (the urban
tablished in 2006, which also provides free dental care in sprawl which extends outside the authoritys boundaries).
an attempt to improve access to dental care in the South The citys average household size was 2.3 persons.[88][89]
West. At the time of the 2011 UK census, the ethnic compo-
sition of Plymouths population was 96.2% White (of
The University of St Mark & St John (known as Marjon
92.9% was White British), with the largest minority eth-
or Marjons) specialises in teacher training, and oers
nic group being Chinese at 0.5%.[86] The white Irish eth-
training across the country and abroad.[80]
nic group saw the largest decline in its share of the pop-
The city is also home to two large colleges. The ulation since the 2001 Census (24%), while the Other
City College Plymouth provides courses from the most Asian and Black African had the largest increases (360%
basic to Foundation degrees for approximately 26,000 and 351% respectively).[86][90] This excludes the two new
students.[81] Plymouth College of Art oers a selection ethnic groups added to the 2011 census of Gypsy or Irish
of courses including media. It was started 153 years ago Traveller and Arab. The population rose rapidly during
and is now one of only four independent colleges of art the second half of the 19th century, but declined by over
and design in the UK.[82] 1.6% from 1931 to 1951.
Plymouth also has 71 state primary phase schools, 13 Plymouths gross value added (a measure of the size
state secondary schools, eight special schools and three of its economy) was 5,169 million GBP in 2013 mak-
selective state grammar schools, Devonport High School ing up 25% of Devon's GVA.[91] Its GVA per per-
for Girls, Devonport High School for Boys and Plymouth son was 19,943 and compared to the national aver-
High School for Girls.[83] There is also an independent age of 23,755, was 3,812 lower.[91] Plymouths unem-
school Plymouth College. ployment rate was 7.0% in 2014 which was 2.0 points
The city was also home to the Royal Naval Engineering higher than the South West average and 0.8 points higher
College; opened in 1880 in Keyham, it trained engineer- than the average
for Great Britain (England, Wales and
ing students for ve years before they completed the re- Scotland).
maining two years of the course at Greenwich. The col- A 2014 prole by the National Health Service showed
lege closed in 1910, but in 1940 a new college opened Plymouth had higher than average levels of poverty and
at Manadon. This was renamed Dockyard Technical Col- deprivation (26.2% of population among the poorest
lege in 1959 before nally closing in 1994; training was 20.4% nationally). Life expectancy, at 78.3 years for men
transferred to the University of Southampton.[84] and 82.1 for women, was the lowest of any region in the
Plymouth is home to the Marine Biological Association South West of England.
of the United Kingdom (MBA) which conducts research
in all areas of the marine sciences. The Plymouth Marine
Laboratory is an oshoot of the MBA. Together with the 6 Economy
National Marine Aquarium, the Sir Alister Hardy Foun-
dation for Ocean Sciences, Plymouth Universitys Marine
Because of its coastal location, the economy of Ply-
Institute and the Diving Diseases Research Centre, these
mouth has traditionally been maritime,[95] in particular
marine-related organisations form the Plymouth Marine
the defence sector with over 12,000 people employed
Sciences Partnership. The Plymouth Marine Laboratory,
and approximately 7,500 in the armed forces.[96] The
which focuses on global issues of climate change and
Plymouth Gin Distillery has been producing Plymouth
sustainability. It monitors the eects of ocean acidity on
Gin since 1793, which was exported around the world
corals and shellsh and reports the results to the UK gov-
by the Royal Navy.[97] During the 1930s, it was the most
ernment. It also cultivates algae that could be used to
widely distributed gin and has a controlled term of ori-
make biofuels or in the treatment of waste water by using
gin.[97] Since the 1980s, employment in the defence sec-
technology such as photo-bioreactors. It works alongside
tor has decreased substantially and the public sector is
the Boots Group to investigate the use of algae in skin
now prominent particularly in administration, health, ed-

Interior of the Drake Circus Shopping Centre in 2006

HMNB Devonport the largest operational naval base in Western
Europe.[94] when David Mackay said it was already ten years out of
date.[104] In contrast, the Theatre Royal's production and
education centre, TR2, which was built on wasteland at
ucation, medicine and engineering.[96] Cattedown, was a runner-up for the RIBA Stirling Prize
Devonport Dockyard is the UKs only naval base that re- for Architecture in 2003.[105]
ts nuclear submarines and the Navy estimates that the There is a project involving the future relocation of Ply-
Dockyard generates about 10% of Plymouths income.[94] mouth City Councils headquarters, the civic centre, to
Plymouth has the largest cluster of marine and maritime the current location of the Bretonside bus station; it would
businesses in the south west with 270 rms operating involve both the bus station and civic centre being demol-
within the sector.[98] Other substantial employers include ished and a rebuilt together at the location with the land
the university with almost 3,000 sta,[76] the national re- from the civic centre being sold o.[106] Other sugges-
tail chain The Range at their Estover headquarters, as well tions include the demolition of the Plymouth Pavilions
as the Plymouth Science Park employing 500 people in entertainment arena to create a canal boulevard linking
50 companies.[96] Millbay to the city centre. Millbay is being regenerated
Plymouth has a post-war shopping area in the city cen- with mixed residential, retail and oce space alongside
tre with substantial pedestrianisation.[39] At the west end the ferry port.[107]
of the zone inside a grade II listed building is the Pan-
nier Market that was completed in 1959 pannier mean-
ing basket from French, so it translates as basket 7 Transport
market.[99] In terms of retail oorspace, Plymouth is
ranked in the top ve in the South West,[100] and 29th
nationally.[101] Plymouth was one of the rst ten British
cities to trial the new Business Improvement District
initiative.[102] The Tinside Pool is situated at the foot of
the Hoe and became a grade II listed building in 1998 be-
fore being restored to its 1930s look for 3.4 million.[103]

6.1 Plymouth 2020

Since 2003, Plymouth Council has been undertaking a

project of urban redevelopment called the Vision for
Plymouth launched by the architect David Mackay and
backed by both Plymouth City Council and the Ply-
mouth Chamber of Commerce (PCC).[62] Its projects
range from shopping centres, a cruise terminal, a boule-
vard and to increase the population to 300,000 and build The Royal Albert Bridge, 1859 (closest), and Tamar Bridge,
33,000 dwellings.[62] 1961 (behind), connect Cornwall with Plymouth[55]
In 2004 the old Drake Circus shopping centre and Charles
Cross car park were demolished and replaced by the latest See also: Railways in Plymouth
Drake Circus Shopping Centre, which opened in October
2006.[104] It received negative feedback before opening The A38 dual-carriageway runs from east to west across

the north of the city. Within the city it is designated as managed by Great Western Railway and also sees trains
'The Parkway' and represents the boundary between the on the CrossCountry network.[123] Smaller stations are
urban parts of the city and the generally more recent sub- served by local trains on the Tamar Valley Line and
urban areas. Heading east, it connects Plymouth to the Cornish Main Line.[124] First Great Western have come
M5 motorway about 40 miles (65 km) away near Exeter; under re recently, due to widespread rail service cuts
and heading west it connects Cornwall and Devon via across the south-west, which aect Plymouth greatly.[125]
the Tamar Bridge.[108] Regular bus services are provided Three MPs from the three main political parties in the
by Plymouth Citybus, Stagecoach South West and Target region have lobbied that the train services are vital to its
Travel.[109] There are three Park and ride services located economy.[126]
at Milehouse, Coypool (Plympton) and George Junction There is a proposal to reopen the Exeter to Plymouth rail-
(Plymouth City Airport), which are operated by Stage-
way of the LSWR which would connect Cornwall and
coach South West.[110] Plymouth to the rest of the UK railway system on an all
weather basis. There are proposals to reopen the line
from Tavistock to Bere Alston for a through service to
Plymouth.[127] On the night of 4 February 2014, amid
high winds and extremely rough seas, part of the sea wall
at Dawlish was breached washing away around 40 me-
tres (130 ft) of the wall and the ballast under the railway
immediately behind. The line was closed. Network Rail
began repair work[128] and the line reopened on 4 April
2014.[129] In the wake of widespread disruption caused by
damage to the mainline track at Dawlish by coastal storms
in February 2014, Network Rail are considering reopen-
ing the Tavistock to Okehampton and Exeter section of
the line as an alternative to the coastal route.[130]
Plymouth is at the southern end of the 99-mile (159 km)
MV Pont-Aven: Brittany Ferries service to Rosco, France and long Devon Coast to Coast Cycle Route (National Cycle
Santander, Spain in Millbay Docks Route 27). The route runs mostly trac free on o-road
sections between Ilfracombe and Plymouth. The route
A regular international ferry service provided by Brittany uses former railway lines, though there are some stretches
Ferries operates from Millbay taking cars and foot on public roads.[131]
passengers directly to France (Rosco) and Spain
(Santander) on the three ferries, MV Armorique, MV Bre-
tagne and MV Pont-Aven.[111] The Cremyll Ferry is a pas-
senger ferry between Stonehouse and the Cornish hamlet 8 Religion
of Cremyll, which is believed to have operated continu-
ously since 1204.[112] There is also a pedestrian ferry from
Plymouth has about 150 churches and its Roman Catholic
the Mayower Steps to Mount Batten,[113] and an alter- cathedral (1858) is in Stonehouse.[132][133] The citys old-
native to using the Tamar Bridge via the Torpoint Ferry
est church is Plymouth Minster, also known as St An-
(vehicle and pedestrian) across the River Tamar.[114] drews Church, (Anglican) located at the top of Royal
The citys airport was Plymouth City Airport about 4 Paradeit is the largest parish church in Devon and has
miles (6 km) north of the city centre.[115] The airport was been a site of gathering since AD 800.[132] The city also
home to the local airline Air Southwest,[116] which oper- includes ve Baptist churches, over twenty Methodist
ated ights across the United Kingdom and Ireland.[117] chapels, and thirteen Roman Catholic churches.[134] In
In June 2003, a report by the South West RDA was pub- 1831 the rst Brethren assembly in England, a movement
lished looking at the future of aviation in the south-west of conservative non-denominational Evangelical Chris-
and the possible closure of airports.[118] It concluded that tians, was established in the city, so that Brethren are of-
the best option for the south-west was to close Plymouth ten called Plymouth Brethren, although the movement did
City Airport and expand Exeter International Airport and not begin locally.[135]
Newquay Cornwall Airport, although it did conclude that Plymouth has the rst known reference to Jews in the
this was not the best option for Plymouth.[119] In April South West from Sir Francis Drake's voyages in 1577
2011, it was announced that the airport would close,[120] to 1580, as his log mentioned Moses the Jew a
which it did on 23 December. FlyPlymouth has put for- man from Plymouth.[132] The Plymouth Synagogue is
ward plans to reopen the city airport by 2018, which a Listed Grade II* building, built in 1762 and is the
would provide daily services to various destinations in- oldest Ashkenazi Synagogue in the English speaking
cluding London.[121] world.[136] There are also places of worship for Islam,
Plymouth railway station, which opened in 1877,[122] is Bah', Buddhism, Unitarianism, Chinese beliefs and

The New Palace Theatre in 2008

The Catholic cathedral

Humanism.[137] most amount of simultaneous reworks was surpassed, by

Roy Lowry of the University of Plymouth, over Plymouth
58.1% of the population described themselves in the Sound.[144] Since 1992 the Music of the Night has been
2011 census return as being at least nominally Christian performed in the Royal Citadel by the 29 Commando
and 0.8% as Muslim with all other religions represented Regiment and local performers to raise money for local
by less than 0.5% each. The portion of people without a and military charities.[145]
religion is 32.9%; above the national average of 24.7%.
7.1% did not state their religious belief.[138] Since the The citys main theatres are the Theatre Royal (1,315
2001 Census, the number of Christians and Jews has de- capacity),[146] its Drum Theatre (200 capacity),[147] and
creased (16% and 7% respectively), while all other its production and creative learning centre, The TR2.[148]
religions have increased and non-religious people have al- The Plymouth Pavilions has multiple uses for the city
most doubled in number.[139] staging music concerts, basketball matches and stand-up
comedy.[149] There are also three cinemas: Reel Cinema
at Derrys Cross, Plymouth Arts Centre at Looe Street
and a Vue cinema at the Barbican Leisure Park.[150] The
9 Culture Plymouth City Museum and Art Gallery is operated by
Plymouth City Council allowing free admission it has
Main article: Culture of Plymouth six galleries.[151] The Plymouth Athenaeum, which in-
Built in 1815, Union Street was at the heart of Ply- cludes a local interest library, is a society dedicated to
mouths historical culture.[140] It became known as the the promotion of learning in the elds of science, technol-
servicemens playground, as it was where sailors from the ogy, literature and art. From 1961 to 2009 it also housed
Royal Navy would seek entertainment of all kinds.[140] a theatre.[152]
During the 1930s, there were 30 pubs and it attracted Plymouth is the regional television centre of BBC South
such performers as Charlie Chaplin to the New Palace West.[153] A team of journalists are headquartered at Ply-
Theatre.[140] It is now the late-night hub of Plymouths mouth for the ITV West Country regional station, after a
entertainment strip,[141] but has a reputation for trouble merger with ITV West forced ITV Westcountry to close
at closing hours.[142] on 16 February 2009.[154] The main local newspapers
Outdoor events and festivals are held including the serving Plymouth are The Herald and Western Morning
annual British Firework Championships in August, News with Radio Plymouth, BBC Radio Devon, Heart
which attracts tens of thousands of people across the South West, and Pirate FM being the local radio stations
waterfront.[143] In August 2006 the world record for the with the most listeners.[155]

10 Sport

Main article: Sport in Plymouth

Plymouth is home to Plymouth Argyle F.C., who play in

The Devonport Leat on Dartmoor looking up stream

11 Public services
Since 1973 Plymouth has been supplied water by South
West Water. Prior to the 1973 take over it was supplied
Home Park
by Plymouth County Borough Corporation.[161] Before
the 19th century two leats were built in order to provide
drinking water for the town. They carried water from
Dartmoor to Plymouth. A watercourse, known as Ply-
the third tier of English football league known as Football
mouth or Drakes Leat, was opened on 24 April 1591 to
League One. The teams home ground is called Home
tap the River Meavy.[162] The Devonport Leat was con-
Park and is located in Central Park.[156] It links itself
structed to carry fresh drinking water to the expanding
with the group of English non-conformists that left Ply-
town of Devonport and its ever-growing dockyard. It was
mouth for the New World in 1620: its nickname is The
fed by three Dartmoor rivers: The West Dart, Cowsic
Pilgrims.[157] The city also has four Non-League football
and Blackabrook. It seems to have been carrying wa-
clubs; Plymouth Parkway F.C. who play at Bolitho Park,
ter since 1797, but it was ocially completed in 1801.
Elburton Villa F.C. who play at Haye Road, Vospers Oak
It was originally designed to carry water to Devonport
Villa F.C. who play at Weston Mill and Plymstock United
town, but has since been shortened and now carries water
F.C. who play at Deans Cross. All four clubs play in the
to Burrator Reservoir, which feeds most of the water sup-
South West Peninsula League.
ply of Plymouth.[163] Burrator Reservoir is located about
Other sports clubs include Plymouth Albion R.F.C. and 5 miles (8 km) north of the city and was constructed in
the Plymouth Raiders basketball club. Plymouth Al- 1898 and expanded in 1928.[164]
bion Rugby Football Club is a rugby union club that was
founded in 1875 and are currently competing in the third
tier of Professional English Rugby. They play at the
Brickelds.[158] Plymouth Raiders play in the British Bas-
ketball League the top tier of British basketball. They
play at the Plymouth Pavilions entertainment arena and
were founded in 1983.[159] Plymouth cricket club was
formed in 1843, the current 1st XI play in the Devon
Premier League. Plymouth Devils are a speedway team
in the British National League,. Plymouth was home to
an American football club, the Plymouth Admirals un-
til 2010. Plymouth is also home to Plymouth Marjons
Hockey Club, with their 1st XI playing in the National
League last season.
Plymouth is an important centre for watersports, espe-
cially scuba diving and sailing. The Port of Plymouth The Plymouth Combined Crown and County Courts
Regatta is one of the oldest regattas in the world, and has
been held regularly since 1823. In September 2011, Ply- Plymouth City Council is responsible for waste manage-
mouth hosted the Americas Cup World Series for nine ment throughout the city and South West Water is re-
days.[160] sponsible for sewerage.[165][166] Plymouths electricity is

supplied from the National Grid and distributed to Ply-

mouth via Western Power Distribution.[167] On the out-
skirts of Plympton a combined cycle gas-powered sta-
tion, the Langage Power Station, which started to produce
electricity for Plymouth at the end of 2009.[168]
Her Majestys Courts Service provide a Magistrates
Court and a Combined Crown and County Court in the
city.[169][170] The Plymouth Borough Police, formed in
1836, eventually became part of Devon and Cornwall
Constabulary.[171] There are police stations at Charles
Cross and Crownhill (the Divisional HQ) and smaller sta-
tions at Plympton and Plymstock.[172] The city has one of
the Devon and Cornwall Area Crown Prosecution Service
Divisional oces.[173] Plymouth has ve re stations lo- Elliot Terrace, Plymouth Hoe
cated in Camels Head, Crownhill, Greenbank, Plympton
and Plymstock which is part of Devon and Somerset Fire
and Rescue Service.[174] The Royal National Lifeboat In- port from naval attacks, suppress Plymothian Parliamen-
stitution have an Atlantic 85 class lifeboat and Severn tary leanings and to train the armed forces. Guided tours
class lifeboat stationed at Millbay Docks.[175] are available in the summer months.[22] Further west is
Smeatons Tower, which was built in 1759 as a lighthouse
Plymouth is served by Plymouth Hospitals NHS Trust on rocks 14 miles (23 km) o shore, but dismantled and
and the citys NHS hospital is Derriford Hospital 4 miles the top two thirds rebuilt on the Hoe in 1877.[179] It is
(6 km) north of the city centre. The Royal Eye Inrmary open to the public and has views over the Plymouth Sound
is located at Derriford Hospital.[176] South Western Am- and the city from the lantern room.[180] Plymouth has 20
bulance Service NHS Foundation Trust operates in Ply- war memorials of which nine are on The Hoe including:
mouth and the rest of the south west; its headquarters are Plymouth Naval Memorial, to remember those killed in
in Exeter.[177] World Wars I and II, and the Armada Memorial, to com-
The mid-19th century burial ground at Ford Park Ceme- memorate the defeat of the Spanish Armada.[181]
tery was reopened in 2007 by a successful trust and the The early port settlement of Plymouth, called Sutton,
City council operate two large early 20th century ceme- approximates to the area now referred to as the Barbican
teries at Weston Mill and Eord both with crematoria and and has 100 listed buildings and the largest concentra-
chapels. There is also a privately owned cemetery on the tion of cobbled streets in Britain.[182] The Pilgrim Fathers
outskirts of the city, Drake Memorial Park which does left for the New World in 1620 near the commemora-
not allow headstones to mark graves, but a brass plaque tive Mayower Steps in Sutton Pool.[183] Also on Sutton
set into the ground.[178] Pool is the National Marine Aquarium which displays 400
marine species and includes Britains deepest aquarium
12 Landmarks and tourist attrac- One mile (two kilometres) upstream on the opposite side
tions of the River Plym is the Saltram estate, which has a
Jacobean and Georgian mansion.[185]
On the northern outskirts of the city, Crownhill Fort is
a well restored example of a "Palmerstons Folly". It
is owned by the Landmark Trust and is open to the
To the west of the city is Devonport, one of Plymouths
historic quarters. As part of Devonports millennium re-
generation project, the Devonport Heritage Trail has been
introduced, complete with over 70 waymarkers outlining
the route.[187]
Plymouth is often used as a base by visitors to
Dartmoor, the Tamar Valley and the beaches of south-
east Cornwall.[188] Kingsand, Cawsand and Whitsand Bay
Grade I listed Town Hall, Column and Library in Devonport are popular.[189]
The Roland Levinsky building, the landmark building of
After the English Civil War the Royal Citadel was built the University of Plymouth, is located in the citys central
in 1666 on the east end of Plymouth Hoe, to defend the quarter. Designed by leading architect Henning Larsen,

the building was opened in 2008 and houses the Univer-

sitys Arts faculty. It has been consistently considered one
of the UKs most beautiful university buildings.[190]

Images of landmarks Saltram House remodelled

by the architect Robert Adam

13 Notable people
Smeatons Tower Main article: List of people from Plymouth
People from Plymouth are known as Plymothians or less

Plymouth Sound and


National Armada memorial


Naval War Memorial Sir Francis Drake

formally as Janners.[191] Its meaning is described as a per-

son from Devon, deriving from Cousin Jan (the Devon
form of John), but more particularly in naval circles any-
one from the Plymouth area.[192]
The Elizabethan navigator, Sir Francis Drake was born
The Parade, Barbican in the nearby town of Tavistock and was the mayor of
Plymouth.[193] He was the rst Englishman to circum-
navigate the world and was known by the Spanish as El
Draco meaning The Dragon after he raided many of
their ships.[194] He died of dysentery in 1596 o the coast
of Puerto Rico.[195] In 2002 a mission to recover his body
and bring it to Plymouth was allowed by the Ministry of
Defence.[196] His cousin and contemporary John Hawkins
was a Plymouth man. Painter Sir Joshua Reynolds,
founder and rst president of the Royal Academy was
The Mayower Steps Memorial born and educated in nearby Plympton, now part of Ply-
mouth. William Cookworthy born in Kingsbridge set up

his successful porcelain business in the city and was a trieved 20 July 2008.
close friend of John Smeaton designer of the Eddystone
[2] The Lord Mayor. Plymouth City Council. Retrieved 2
Lighthouse. On 26 January 1786, Benjamin Robert Hay-
December 2015.
don, an English painter who specialised in grand histor-
ical pictures, was born here. The naturalist Dr William [3] Standard Area Measurements (2016) for Administrative
Elford Leach FRS, who did much to pave the way in Areas in the United Kingdom. Oce for National Statis-
Britain for Charles Darwin, was born at Hoe Gate in tics. 1 February 2017. Retrieved 9 February 2017.
[4] Andrew T. Chamberlain; Keith W. Ray; Charlotte Hen-
Antarctic explorers Robert Falcon Scott and Frank Bick- derson; Richard Welton Fisher (1994). A Catalogue of
erton both lived in the city.[197][198] Artists include Beryl Quaternary Fossil-bearing Cave Sites in the Plymouth Area.
Cook whose paintings depict the culture of Plymouth[199] Plymouth City Archaeology. ISBN 1-85522-345-7.
and Robert Lenkiewicz, whose paintings investigated [5] Cunlie, Barry (2004). Britain and the Continent:
themes of vagrancy, sexual behaviour and suicide, lived in Networks of Interaction. In Malcolm Todd. A Compan-
the city from the 1960s until his death in 2002.[200] Illus- ion to Roman Britain. Blackwell Publishing. p. 3. ISBN
trator and creator of childrens series Mr Benn and King 0-631-21823-8. Retrieved 23 June 2008.
Rollo, David McKee, was born and brought up in South
Devon and trained at Plymouth College of Art. Jazz mu- [6] Denis Larionov & Alexander Zhulin. Read the ebook
Geographia classica, or, The application of antient geog-
sician John Surman, born in nearby Tavistock, has close
raphy to the classics by Samuel Butler. Ebooksread.com.
connections to the area, evidenced by his 2012 album
Retrieved 17 September 2012.
Saltash Bells. The avant garde prepared guitarist Keith
Rowe was born in the city before establishing the jazz [7] The early history of Plymouth. Plymouth City Council.
free improvisation band AMM in London in 1965 and Retrieved 19 July 2008.
MIMEO in 1997. The musician and lm director Cosmo
[8] Gill, Crispin (1979). Plymouth, A New History. Newton
Jarvis has lived in several towns in South Devon and has Abbot: David and Charles. ISBN 978-0-7153-7617-1.
lmed videos in and around Plymouth.[201] In addition, (Quoted in Moseley, Brian (2 January 2011). Plymouth
actors Sir Donald Sinden and Judi Trott. George Pass- a History. The Encyclopaedia of Plymouth History.
more of Turner Prize winning duo Gilbert and George Plymouth Data. Archived from the original on 24 October
was born in the city, as was Labour politician Michael 2013. Retrieved 13 February 2015.)
Foot whose family reside at nearby Trematon Castle.[202]
[9] Moseley, Brian (24 June 2013). Place Names. The
Notable athletes include swimmer Sharron Davies,[203] Encyclopaedia of Plymouth History. Plymouth Data.
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baller Trevor Francis.[206] Other past residents include trieved 13 February 2015.
composer journalist and newspaper editor William Henry
[10] Sumption, Jonathan (1999). Sluys and Tournai: The War
Wills, Ron Goodwin,[207] and journalist Angela Rip-
[208] of the Alberts. The Hundred Years War: Trial by Battle.
pon and comedian Dawn French. Canadian politician University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 347. ISBN 0-8122-
and legal scholar Chris Axworthy hails from Plymouth. 1655-5. Retrieved 29 June 2008.
America based actor Donald Moat, whose roles include
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18.2 Images 21

Mywikimediaaccount, InternetArchiveBot, JJMC89 bot, Thepoopshooter, GreenC bot, Ralbegen, ALOYSIUS59, Thomasknight69, Ben-
der the Bot, Asd2090, Red Robyn and Anonymous: 817

18.2 Images
File:1590_or_later_Marcus_Gheeraerts,_Sir_Francis_Drake_Buckland_Abbey,_Devon.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.
org/wikipedia/commons/2/20/1590_or_later_Marcus_Gheeraerts%2C_Sir_Francis_Drake_Buckland_Abbey%2C_Devon.jpg License:
Public domain Contributors: Web Gallery of Art: <a href='http://www.wga.hu/art/g/gheeraer/f_drake.jpg' data-x-rel='nofollow'><img
alt='Inkscape.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6f/Inkscape.svg/20px-Inkscape.svg.png' width='20'
height='20' srcset='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6f/Inkscape.svg/30px-Inkscape.svg.png 1.5x, https://
upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6f/Inkscape.svg/40px-Inkscape.svg.png 2x' data-le-width='60' data-le-height='60'
/></a> Image <a href='http://www.wga.hu/html/g/gheeraer/f_drake.html' data-x-rel='nofollow'><img alt='Information icon.svg'
src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/35/Information_icon.svg/20px-Information_icon.svg.png' width='20'
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1.5x, https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/35/Information_icon.svg/40px-Information_icon.svg.png 2x' data-le-
width='620' data-le-height='620' /></a> Info about artwork Original artist: Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger
File:Ambox_current_red.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/98/Ambox_current_red.svg License: CC0
Contributors: self-made, inspired by Gnome globe current event.svg, using Information icon3.svg and Earth clip art.svg Original artist:
Vipersnake151, penubag, Tkgd2007 (clock)
File:Armada_Way,_Plymouth_-_geograph.org.uk_-_83458.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/96/
Armada_Way%2C_Plymouth_-_geograph.org.uk_-_83458.jpg License: CC BY-SA 2.0 Contributors: From geograph.org.uk Original
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CorporationOfPlymouth_Devon.png License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work, using castle element from File:Torre herldica.svg
by User:Erlenmeyer Original artist: Lobsterthermidor (<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:Lobsterthermidor' title='User
talk:Lobsterthermidor'>talk</a>) 22:53, 23 September 2017 (UTC)
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